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Indian Vernacular Architecture VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE INDIAN CONTEXT Indian vernacular architecture is the informal, functional architecture of structures,

, often in rural areas of India, built of local materials and designed to meet the needs of the local people. These structures reflects the rich diversity of India's climate, locally available building materials, and the intricate variations in local social customs and craftsmanship. It has been estimated that worldwide close to 90% of all building is vernacular, meaning that it is for daily use for ordinary, local people and built by local craftsmen The vernacular can be simply defined asof, relating to, or characteristic of a period, place, or group; especially : of, relating to, or being the common building style of a period or place Though this definition is better applied to Western culture, more so in the context of North America, where the vernacular often denotes pioneer construction and architecture. The vernacular, in India, denotes low cost, traditional village and small town settlements, where construction is carried out without the help of architects and Professionals, where building activity is regulated by a long tradition that stretches back for many centuries, in many cases. Vernacular settlements in India often take on the shape and form That is dictated by the climate they are in, or the socio-cultural norms that they are designed to preserve and protect. For example, village settlements in Uttaranchal are often characterized by houses of stone, timber and mud mortar on slopes, with thick stone walls of coursed rubble masonry designed to ward off cold, with a shelter for animals below the main house (the heat given off by animals heats the house above further). In Kerala, village houses are slope-roofed with Mangalore tiles and thatch to draw off and channel rain. In Assam, the same houses are often built on stilts, the better to counter the often damp ground. In Punjab, whitewash on the outside walls helps to cool down the summer heat. In each case we see that vernacular architecture in Indias diverse regions has evolved a unique way of responding to the climate and the environment that is sustainable, It also shows an intelligent approach to the problems of climate, and is a delicate balance of social and cultural factors through spatial vocabulary such as walls, courtyards, floors and semi-private and private spaces. Climate, of course, is a predominant factor in determining the forms of vernacular architecture in India. Climate in India varies from the scorching sun in the Gangetic plains to the tropical conditions of the south, from the cold dry climates in Spit and Leh to the perennially damp conditions in the northeast of the country. This variation in climate spawns a diversity of forms for vernacular architecture. Apart from climate, geography too is a determining factor. Geography, once again, can vary from the hilly terrain of the Himalayas and Kashmir, to the flats of the Deccan and the south, from the damp ground of Assam and Bengal to the dry earth of Punjab. The third factor is the availability of material and the types of material available. In Goa and Karnataka, an abundance of red laterite stone makes this the medium of choice for vernacular construction, and in north India a clayey soil makes sunburnt bricks and mud mortar a commonly used medium. Bamboo construction can be found in the northeast, and roofs tiled with the so-called mangalore tiles in the south. Similarly, a plethora of sandstone made medieval Jaipur into the famous Pink City, and a similar stone was used to face Mughal buildings in the 17th century. The Indian vernacular is a true representation of the people and their Culture and Indias diverse heritage. Indian vernacular architecture has evolved organically over time through the skilful craftsmanship of the local people. Despite the diversity, Indian Vernacular architecture can be broadly divided into three categories. KACHCHA PUKKA SEMI-PUKKA

KACHCHA A kachcha is a building made of natural materials such a mud, grass, bamboo, thatch or sticks and is therefore a short-lived structure. Since it is not made for endurance it requires constant maintenance and replacement. The practical limitations of the building materials available dictate the specific form which can have a simple beauty. The advantage of a kachcha is that construction materials are cheap and easily available and relatively little labor is required.

PUKKA A pukka structure is made from materials resistant to wear, such as forms of stone or brick, clay tiles, metal or other durable materials, sometimes using mortar to bind, that does not need to be constantly maintained or replaced. However, such structures are expensive to construct as the materials are costly and more labor is required. A pukka may be elaborately decorated in contrast to a kachcha. SEMI-PUKKA A combination of the kachcha and pukka style, the semipukka, has evolved as villagers have acquired the resources to add elements constructed of the durable materials characteristic of a pukka. Vernacular Architecture always evolves organically as the needs and resources of people change. Vernacular Architecture of North India Havelis of Gujarat & Rajasthan Houseboats (Dhungas), Kashmir Architecture of Deserts in Gujarat Vernacular Architecture of South India Palaces & Theatres in Kerala Chettinad houses and palaces in Tamil Nadu Bangla & Bungalow, Bengal Traditional Goan House Secular Architecture Citadels, palaces, towers, gateways of medieval towns of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer DESERTS OF GUJARAT & RAJASTHAN Geographical location: The Thar desert of Rajasthan and the Kutch regions of Gujarat. Climate: Arid region, Scorching heat and erratic rainfall. The harsh conditions of the desert and sparse population have resulted in small rural settlements and a few towns. Geological: Occasional rock outcrops, plains of dry clay, characterized by sand dunes. Vegetation: With no vegetation or moisture to hold the soil, even moderate winds gain momentum as they travel, turning into sand blasts. Wherever the sand blasts are obstructed by obstacles, they deposit the entire sand content, resulting in raised platform of the dwellings. Due to this nature, the houses are open in the centre and are closed in the periphery. Culture: Spatial distribution based on different castes and community groups which are dominant factor in the zoning of the settlement pattern and in the evolution of built form. Deserts of Kutch Gujarat

Bhungas are single cylindrical structures put close to each other to form a house. Each bhunga is equivalent to a room in a house. Bhunga houses in kutch Deserts of Kutch Gujarat Material: Mud and Grass

Deserts of Kutch Gujarat VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF GUJARAT Bhungas - constructed mud or stone. Walls are thick that makes the surface less penetrative for the heat. Bhungas have small openings. Roofs thatch Roof overhang is quite low and casts shadows on the walls and protects the walls from the direct sunrays. The circular shape reflects the heat making it more comfortable during the hot season. In vernacular architecture of Rajasthan, the conception of space begins with a single cell shelter. This is irrespective of the form and the material which may vary from one context to another.

Settlement Pattern: The settlement pattern can be categorized into three divisions: Dhani Small independent clusters of dwellings occupied by closely related people. It is often a single family sharing certain spaces, and at the same time, separate enclosures for their grown up sons. Such a cluster is called Dhani. Village A group of clusters with each having a few or several dwellings constitutes a village. A village has more than one family and often more than one community type. There is a certain amount of dependence between different communities. Town Caste groupings still dominate the towns. Spatial complexity and large size of caste groupings. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF RAJASTHAN Space: The idea of space is linked into a single cell space. This could be circular or rectangular, but it always has an independent existence. In Rajasthan, the single cell space is called Jhompa and in Kutch of Gujarat it is called the Bhunga. The process of village making has been an incremental process where a number of Dhanis come together. Each house is a little Dhani. The houses have evolved as a process of multiplication of single cell spaces both round and rectangular. In the spatial organization there is a clear identification of the individual dwelling unit. Since the houses were not built at one time, it was a common practice to leave space between them resulting in the formation of courtyards. The common materials used are mud blocks and at places wooden sticks plastered with mud. Stone slabs are also used in certain places. HAVELIS OF GUJARAT & RAJASTHAN Haveli denotes a private residence of Gujarat & Rajasthan. The Persian origin of this word means "an enclosed place. From 1830s Haveli became an important building in Rajasthani regions of Shekhawati and Marwar. Havelis are Colourful, magnificent and are the symbol of rich culture and heritage.. Almost every little village has a haveli, the size and workmanship varying according to the status of the owner. Havelis of Rajasthan incorporate Hindu, Mughal and Rajput styles with exquisite carvings on walls, elegant facades and elaborate balconies.

These havelis are intricately carved and frescoes are important feature. The havelis in Rajasthan are widely seen in the areas of Jaisalmer, Sekhawat region, Marwar and other districts where the traders used to dwell. HAVELIS OF GUJARAT Havelis Bohra Houses Gujarat A typical Bohra house is distinguished by its facade decor, the treatment of the openings and rich materials of construction.

HAVELIS OF RAJASTHAN The main features of these havelis were chhajjas (sunshades), jharokhas (balcony windows) and jalis (screen windows). They were usually built around a courtyard with darwazas done in beautiful architectural elements. The motifs on the walls varied from everyday scenes and subjects inspired by the west. An amazing feature of these havelis was the intricately carved wooden doors. The havelis of Shekhawati consist of 2 courtyards - an outer one and an inner one. The outer courtyard is for men. The inner courtyard (aangan) is exclusively for women. A large Haveli with two or three storeys can have three to four courtyards. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KASHMIR Location: Northern most state of the Indian Sub-continent. Topography: West mountainous deserts of the karakoram North Ladakh and Zariskar ranges of the high Himalayas South - Green fertile core bisected by River Jhelum River Jhelum has an abundant supply of fresh water. It was the traditional passage for cultural exchange and sustains an incredible variety of Flora. History: Mughals, the Dagra Kings and the colonial British have contributed to the architectural mosaic of Kashmir. Building Materials: Deodar A high altitude pine most commonly used soft timber having high tensile ratio available in lengths measuring 80. Kail, Kayur, Budul lower altitude pines. Walnut used for lattice work and furniture Mud used in raw form sundried bricks. Commercial kiln bricks are used as insulating material. House boats of Kashmir are called Dhungas. Living on a lake is one of the cheapest housing solutions in India. Dhungas provides closeness to nature and is comfortable and pleasant even when the lake ices up in the winter. The houseboats in Kashmir are usually stationary. The Dhunga boats are moored near the Shore of Dal Lake, floating on a sea of green weeds. Building materials;

These houseboats are made of wood, and usually have intricately carved wood paneling. The houseboats are of different sizes, some having up to three bedrooms apart from a living room and kitchen. The houseboats are provided with a balcony in the front, a lounge, dining room, pantry and 3 or more bedrooms with attached bathrooms. Virtually every houseboat in Srinagar has been provided with a municipal water connection. A portion of the roof can be propped open to enhance the circulation of air. The rooms are normally ornamented with paintings and religious inscriptions. Most of the cooking in these houses is performed on the shore. Sliding shutters opens for air and views. Adhesive vinyl partially covers the walls. COLONIAL INFLUENCES OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA Colonial influences in India Indian Bangla / Bunglow Colonial houses of Goa Colonial houses in Pondicherry. BANGLA / BUNGALOW Bangla an Indian term to describe a hut originated from Bengal, India 17th century Bengali or Bangla is an Indo- Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent BANGLA OR BUNGALOW is an westernized version of the Indian hut developed and designed to suit the requirements of the Europeans when they settled in India.

Diff b t B l dB l INDIAN BANGLA / BUNGLOW Difference between Bangla and Bunglow Bangla: Native Bangla is a single storey structure built of wood, bamboo and thatch. Bungla / Bungalo / Bunglow: Westernized Bunglow, has one or two storey, made of sun-dried bricks and thatched / tiled. Origin of Bangla: Originated from Bengal, by natives single storey poor man will have a hut for different purposes. Rich family will have one to ten huts for different activities like sleeping / living / storing / cattle. Materials and Construction: Made of mud, raised plinth up to 3 to 4. A couple roof with thatch

According to Buchanan, the hut called Chauyari is adopted by the Europeans in their cottage, when they used a thatched roof. Square building four sides with pyramidal roof Rectangular buildings hipped roof. Europeans made improvements to these structures Surrounded it with a gallery / verandah to exclude heat. Introduced windows Divided into convenient apartments Suspended cloth from ceilings to free them from insects that occupy the thatch. Centre square with one or two apartments thatched roof extending over sides forming a veranda around the building. The verandas were subsequently enclosed by erecting mat or brick walls converting into rooms. Bungalows are generally raised in one or two feet plinth one storey plan, one large room in the centre for eating and rooms at corners for sleeping, covered by thatch roof, the space between the corner rooms are verandahs or porticoes to sit during the evenings. Characteristics of Anglo- Indian Bunglow: Central Square as seen in Bungla. Thatch roof extending all around the sides Verandah introduced to cut down the heat Sometimes the corner of the verandahs converted into rooms Atthemidof19th century, clear storey was provided in the roof covering of living rooms and verandahs. Inplan either square / rectangle Suspended cloths are provided from the ceilings to free them from insects that occupy the thatch.

HINDU HOUSE Rectangular in plan single storey central courtyard with tulsi madam Central entrance has a verandah the room arranged around a central pillared court yard Salient features of a Goan house: Thetraditional pre-Portuguese homes were inwardlooking with small windows; this reflected the secluded role of women. The houses opened into courtyards, and rarely opened onto streets.

The Catholic houses were more outward-looking and ornamental, with balcao (covered porches mostly double columns with projected balconies at the first floor) and verandas facing the street. The large balcao had built-in seating, open to the street, where men and women could sit together and chat. Thesebalcao are bordered by ornamental columns that sometimes continued along. The houses of rich landlords had high plinths with grand staircases leading to the front door flanked by columns or pilasters. Anarchway opening at the entrance and rectangular / square windows with ornamental frames. Mouldings at parapet level and roof level of the faade. Entrance steps with undulating parapet. Symmetry and regularity of elements like plinths, horizontal mouldings and pilasters Railings were the most intricate embellishment in a Goan house. USE OF COLOUR Dramatic and startling colourinitially achieved with vegetable and natural dyesplays an important role in Goan architecture. Colour was decorative and used purely to create a sensation INTERIORS Painting on walls walls up to the dado height finished with glazed tiles Floral pattern below the cornice Wallpaper effect with floral motifs or foliate designs achieved with stencils. CORNICES Country tiles used as a corbel are a feature peculiar to Goa. The effect achieved is aesthetically pleasing, giving the roof projection a solid, moulded appearance. Unit 2 ALTERNATIVE THEORIES OF HOUSE FORM A BRIEF LOOK ON FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE FORM OF A DWELLING SUCH AS: CLIMATE MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGY SITE DEFENSE ECONOMICS RELIGION CLIMATE: THE BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION OF HOUSE TYPES HAVE NOT CONCENTRATED ON THE PRINCIPAL FACTORS OF CREATION OF FORM. THUS, IT IS NECESSARY TO TAKE DEEPER LOOK INTO THE PRINCIPAL FACTORS SUCH AS CLIMATE, MATERIALS, TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMY, AND RELIGION. CLIMATE AS AN DETERMINING FACTOR: CLIMATE WIDELY AFFECTS THE BUILT FORM SUCH THAT, THE FORM OF THE BUILDING IS BASED ON THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE PLACE. SHELTER IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR OF SURVIVAL FOR MAN SINCE PRIMITIVE AGE. HENCE, THIS NECESSITY, HAS GIVEN RISE TO THE EVOLUTION VARIOUS FORMS OF DWELLING UNITS SO AS TO PROTECT HIMSELF AGAINST CLIMATIC AND WHETHER CONDITIONS. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON BUILT FORM:

AS EXTREME EXAMPLES, IT IS SEEN THAT: THE DWEELING UNITS OF ONA TRIBES, WHERE IT IS JUST A WINDBREAK ALTHOUGH THE PRIMITIVE ARCHITECTURE WAS MORE DEVELOPED. CONTRARILY, AROUND THE REGIONS OF THE SOUTHERN SEAS, WHERE VERY ELOBARATE DWELLINGS ARE BUILT THOUGH IT IS NOT NECESSARY. THUS, ALL PRIMITIVE BUILDINGS DO NOT TAKE THEIR FORMS BASED ON THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ALONE. EG: ESKIMOS OF ARCTIC.

WIND BREAKS OF ONA TRIBES DWELLING UNITS ALONG THE SOUTHERN SEAS

IN CERTAIN REGIONS, DWELLINGS RESPOND TO ECONOMIC ACTIVITY RATHER THAN CLIMATE. THE SCALE AND ARRANGEMENT OF SPACES ARE THE TWO IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN DECIDING THE FORM. THUS, PRIMITVE FORMS RESPONDED TO THE LOCAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS VERY WELL.

2.MATERIALS, CONSTRUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY: WOOD AND STONE ARE THE 2 MATERIALS DEFINING THE ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF BUILDINGS SINCE PRIMITIVE TIME.

FORMS HAVE DERIVED GRADUALLY STEP BY STEP, FROM CAVES TO A WIND BREAK, THEN TO CIRCULAR HUTS, AND THEN FINALLY THE RECTANGULAR HUTS WHICH GAVE RISE TO VAROIUS FORMS. IT IS TO BE NOTED THAT SYMBOLISM IS OF MORE IMPORTANCE THAN UTILITY. AT TIMES, EVEN SOCIAL VALUES HAVE THEIR IMPACT.

MATERIALS DO NOT DIRECTLY INFLUENCE THE FORM. THE FUNCTION ALSO PLAYS A ROLE IN DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE , CONSEQUENTLY THE FORM. EG: JAPANESE HOUSES: THE ROOF STRUCTURE

EG: MUD HOUSES-CAN TAKE CIRCULAR AS WELL AS RECTANGULAR FORMS

3.SITE THE SITE CONDITIONS IS EQUALLY IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF HOUSE FORM.

THE SETTLEMENT PATTERN OF THE REGION, TOPOLOGY (HILLY TERRAIN OR PLAIN LAND ETC.) & THE CULTURE OF THE PLACE CONTRIBUTE TO THE SITE DETERMINANTS. SITE MAKES SOME THINGS IMPOSSIBLE. IDENTICAL SITE CONDITIONS CAN RESULT IN VARIED HOUSE FORMS. 4.DEFENSE DEFENSE- ONE OF THE FACTORS WHICH COULD HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO CLUSTER SETTLEMENT PATTERNS. DEFENSE PARTLY INFLUENCES THE FORM OF A HOUSE, BUT THE FORM DOES NOT SOLELY DEPEND ON THE FACTOR OF DEFENSE ALONE. DEFENSIVE STRUCTURES SUCH AS FENCES, PALISADES, STOCKADES PARTIALLY AFFECT THE OVER-ALL FORM OF THE HOUSE. DEFENSE IS NOT THE ONLY FACTOR AFFECTING THE FORM. 5.ECONOMY THE ECONOMIC STATUS CONTRIBUTES TO THE SETTLEMENT PATTERN AS WELL AS THE BUILDING FORM. PEOPLE OF THE SAME ECONOMY GROUP TEND TO SHARE SIMILAR SOCIOLOGICAL VIEWS AND THOUGHTS; HENCE, THEY GROUP AMONG THEMSELVES, THUS FIND COMFORT IN FORMING A SETTLEMENT TOGETHER. THE FORM OF THE HOUSE DOES NOT REFLECT THE ECONOMY EXPLICITELY THOUGH. ECONOMY AFFECTS THE HOUSE FORM FOR EVEN NOMADS..! 6.RELIGION RELIGION, INFLUENZES THE FORM SYMBOLICALLY MORE THAN FUNCTIONALLY. AS THE SACRED AND OTHER UTILITARIAN SPACES ARE WELL DEFINED FROM EACH OTHER, THE ORIENTATION AND ORGANISATION OF THE SPACES WITH RESPECT TO ONE ANOTHER MAY RESULT IN THE DERIVATIN OF A FORM. ACCORDING TO DEFFONTAINES , RELIGION AFFECTS THE GENERAL PLANNING ASPECTS OF BUILDING FORM. BUT IT CANNOT BE CONCLUDED SUCH THAT ONE FACTOR ALONE CONTRIBUTES TO THE BUILT FORM .

EG: CHINESE VILLAGE CONSTRUCTION,MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGY AS MODIFYING FACTORS TO DECIDE ON THE FINAL FORM OF THE SHELTER, ALL KINDS OF SOCIO & ECONOMIC FACTORS HAV TO BE CONSIDERED. IT IS TO BE DECIDED WHETHER THE SETTLEMENT IS TO BE INDUVIDUAL OR COMMNUAL. THE ENCLOSED SPACE NEEDS TO BE WELL PROTECTED AND THUS, CHOICE OF MATERIALS PLAYS A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE IN DETERMINIG THE FORM. PRACTICALLY, THEY DO NOT DETERMINE FORM; THEY ARE JUST THE MODIFYING FACTORS OF FORM. THE PRINCIPLE PROBLEM IN THE FIELD OF CONSTRUCTION IS SPANNING OF SPACE.

INFLUENCE OF MATERIALS ON THE FORM OF THE BUILDING FEW FACTORS WHICH ARE OF CONCERN IN DETERMINING THE MATERIAL ARE: PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION BASIS OF CHOICE OF MATERIAL PORTABILITY PREFABRICATION LATERAL FORCES WEATHERING GRAVITY THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION INVOLVES LABOUR AND IT SOMETIMES DEPENDS ON THE SOCIAL ASPECTS, AS IN THE CASE OF PRIMITVE SETTLEMENTS. PRIMITIVE MAN HAS ALWAYS CHOSEN THE MATERIAL WHICH WAS LOCALLY AVAILABLE. SOMETIMES, RELIGIOUS ASPECTS CAN ALSO DETERMINE THE SELECTION OF MATERIALS. THE MEANS OF THRANSPORT ALSO IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION WHILE SELECTING A MATERIAL. FOR, WHILE USING A BULKY MATERIAL, THE MEANS OF TRANSPORTING IT SHOULD BE PLANNED. SINCE TODAYS TECHNOLLOGY WAS ABSENT IN THE PRIMITIVE DAYS, MAN CONSIDERED PORTABILITY AS A MAJOR FACTOR. THE WHETHER FORCES PREVAILING AT A PLACE, SHOULD BE STUDIED. FACTORS SUCH AS WIND FORCES WOULD AFFECT THE STABILITY OF THE STRUCTURE; HENCE AN APPROPRIATE MATERIAL SHOULD BE USED FOR CONSTRUCTION.

CONSTRUCTION OF YURT STRUCTURES IN ACCORDANCE TO THE PREVAILING WIND FORCES IN ORDER TO OVERCOME GRAVITATIONAL FORCES, THE STRUCTURE SHOULD COMPRISE OF TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS: 1. HORIZONTAL SPANNING ELEMENT 2. VERTICAL SUPPOURTING ELEMENT THE SPANNNING ELEMENT SHOULD GENERALLY POSSES TENSILE STRENGTH TO WITHSTAND ALL LOADS WHICH ARE IMPOSED OVER IT. THE GENERAL IDEA IS THAT CIRCULAR STRUCTURES TRANSFER LOADS MUCH BETTER THAN RECTANGULAR FORMS.

NATURE AND DEFINITION OF THE FIELD Architectural theory and history have traditionally been concerned with the STUDY OF MONUMENTS. The physical environment of man, especially BUILT ENVIRONMENT is not controlled by the designer. This environment is a result of VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE, it has been largely been ignored by architectural history and theory. In archeology, the interest shifted a while ago from temples, palaces and tombs to whole cities as an EXPRESSION OF CULTURE and WAY OF LIFE. The neglect of bulk of built environment, has given rise to 2 standards- one for IMPORTANT buildings and the other for UNIMPORTANT buildings. What then do we mean by folk architecture and by the terms primitive and vernacular as they apply to building forms ? we may say monuments- buildings of grand design tradition- built to impress either populace or peer group. folk tradition- direct and unself-conscious translation of physical form of a culture, its needs and values. FOLK TRADITION- primitive - vernacular architecture PRIMITIVE BUILDINGS- refers largely to certain technological as well as economical levels of development, but also includes aspects of social organizations. Neither VERNACULAR nor anonymous is a very satisfactory term for identifying this type of architecture. VERNACULAR- pre-industrial vernacular - modern vernacular Primitive building- any member of the group is capable of building his own house, he understands his needs and requirements perfectly. Any problem that arises will affect him personally and dealt with. Certain FORMS are taken for granted and strongly resist change, since societies likes these tend to be very tradition oriented. This explains the relation between form and culture to which they are embedded. The VERNACULAR DESIGN PROCESS is one of models and adjustments or variations, and there is more individual variability and differentiation than in primitive buildings. It is individual specimens that are modified, not the type. Primitive buildings Very few building types Few individual variations Built by ALL Pre-industrial vernacular Greater yet limited building types More individual variation Built by TRADESMEN High- style & Modern Many specialized building types Original creation Designed by SPECIALISTS.

CLIMATE AS A MODIFYING FACTOR Climatic determinism fails to account for the range and diversity of house forms, climate is, nevertheless, an important aspect of the form-generating forces, and has major effects on the forms man may wish to create for himself. The impact of the climatic factor will depend on its severity and forcefulness, hence the degree of freedom it allows. Primitive man often builds more wisely than we do, and follows principles of design which we ignore at great cost. THE CLIMATIC SCALE The need for shelter varies with the severity of the forces to be overcome, and the CLIMATIC SCALE is a useful concept for determining the need. This scale, if drawn, would range from need for no shelter at all, on climatic grounds alone, to areas with a maximum need for shelter. The solutions in each case will provide the maximum amount of protection in terms of the given technological resources and the socially defined needs. The more SEVERE the climatic constraints, the more will the form be LIMITED and FIXED, and less variation will be possible from what one could term pure climatic functionalism; hence, less choice will be possible. NONMATERIAL SOLUTIONS In addition to climatic solutions which are best analyzed in terms of orientation, structure, plan form, and materials, there are other approaches. One of these, while still involving the use of materials, can be viewed in terms of changing the dwelling at different times of the year on climatic grounds, as opposed to changes of a non-climatic, or Anti-climatic, character. METHOD OF STUDY There are several methods of approaching the study of the INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE on house form. One could look at the various climatic types- hot arid, hot humid, continental, temperate, arctic-and discuss the SOLUTIONS typical of each in terms of requirements, forms, and materials. Alternatively, the positions of various house types along the climatic scale could be discussed, or, finally, one could consider how the several climatic variables: which in combination result in the various climatic types are handled. Climate, as it affects human comfort, is the result of air temperature, humidity, radiationincluding light-air movement, and precipitation. In climatic terms, therefore, a building needs to respond- to heat, cold, ground and sky radiation, wind, and other stresses, and the various parts of the building may be considered environmental control devices.

Climatic Variables and Responses to Them The following variables will be considered: Temperature- heat-dry and humid; cold. Humiditylow, high. Winddesirable or undesirable, and hence whether it should be encouraged or discouraged. Raincomes mostly under construction, but involves climate by the need to keep out rain while retaining ventilation, especially in hot, humid areas. Radiation and light- desirable or undesirable, and hence whether it should be encouraged or discouraged. While these could be arranged along the climatic scale according to severity, they will be examined for the responses they generate in terms of form, materials, and devices. FIG. 4.3. Cutaway view of Matmata dwelling, Sahara. (Adapted from a number of sources, primarily Haan in Architects Yearbook 11 and New Frontiers in Architecture.)

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE HOUSING Temperature: The double roof has four consequence: 1. Thatch SHEDS water and protects the mud in the rainy season 2. The thatch SHADES the mud roof from the direct sun, reducing heat build-up and hence the heating up of the house. 3. The airspace provides additional INSULATION during the hot days, while the heat capacity of the mud keeps down the day temperatures. 4. The mud CONSERVES the heat for cold nights, and the thatch helps it conserve that heat for a longer portion of the night by reducing heat loss to the cold sky.

Wind: Wind is also related to temperature and, in fact, wind speed, humidity, and temperature all enter into the concept of effective temperature which is used to measure comfort. The need for comfort leads either to encouraging or discouraging wind. When it is COLD, or very dry, wind generally becomes undesirable; when it is HOT and humid, wind is essential.

Rain: the effect of rain depends on the climate of that place In ARID AREAS, catching rain and protecting it from evaporation may be important, as in some Caribbean islands, where cisterns under the houses are used. In HOT, HUMID AREAS, wide eaves or verandahs allowing windows to be left open for ventilation while it rains, become the principal climatic form-modifying element. Some tribes in Natal, SOUTH AFRICA, actually use rain to help control the weather response of the house. They build houses of a light frame which is sheathed in woven mats. Radiation and Light: Radiation and light are Generally undesirable in hot areas, and various devices are used to avoid them. In cold areas, particularly in the winter, light and radiation are desirable, and although large openings may create problems of cold and heat loss. The Eskimo use a window of ice or skin directly facing whatever winter sun there is, while during

The long summer day they use dark tents to exclude the light. In hot, dry areas, as we have seen, direct radiation of the sun is avoided in various ways.

Vernacular Architecture of kerala The term Vernacular Architecture stands for the art of constructing buildings and shelters which is spontaneous, environment-oriented, community-based; it acknowledges no architect or treaty and reflects the technology and culture of the indigenous society and environment. Vernacular architecture is the opposite of high traditional architecture which belongs to the grand tradition (e.g. palace, fortress, villa, etc.) and requires special skills and expertise which an architect must have knowledge of and for which he enjoys a special position KERALA Kerala is a state of India in the southernmost tip of the subcontinent which shares environmental characteristics with Malaya and the Pacific archipelago, such as a wet tropical climate with an average temperature of 25C-28C. Kerala is popularly called Malabar which means land between Mountain. Units of culture that depend on rivers were developed and constituted the agricultural community. Paddy cultivation was largely undertaken alongside the riverbanks by the expanding Brahman settlements in Kerala. Necessary labor was taken from inferior castes. In the old days, a Brahmin family could occupy land as much as 6000 acres, where they can set up their sole courtyard house (Nalukettu) It is difficult to find where a village or town begins and ends because houses are spread out. Temple architecture of Kerala Kerala temple form as distinct from the Dravidian mode. Analysis with respect to the location in settlement The role of religion in daily life and practices The concept of the neighborhood temple The idea of prime deity Temple complex as a place of socio-cultural interaction A meaningful trinity of religion, society and culture in daily life. Physical attributes of the temple ancient concepts of building sciences, understanding the physicality of the temple complex as well as the building itself through analysis of form, plan organization, sections and elevations, details, rituals and their associated meanings, study of the temple terminology in Indian terms and in the Malayali language, art and architecture of temple construction through ancient texts, building of temple structures, site selection to conservation, prescribed methods and use of thumb rules, Secular architecture based on different communities, courtyard house types, relationship to ancient rules. Wooden architecture of Kerala The background of classical architecture Temples in wood with a minimum use of laterite stone for plinths and selected walls,

region locally rich in timber, courtyard as a substantial central space of symbolic nature which acts more as an organizing element rather than a social space, sophisticated construction and articulation techniques similar to those of the classical and religious architecture of the region, use of wood in making of the entire form. Construction and details Strong religious-cultural bias in plan organization, roof design dictating the form, roofs follow strict rules of the typology with an intricate vocabulary of wooden parts, Formulae and calculations for the roof structure, the order of the roof: The multi-piece beams, roof overhang, cross ties and through ties, the dormers, the doors and the partitions etc., dominant presence of the rafters and free columns, wooden slats at the periphery create a somber atmosphere, a number of typological variations in secular architecture as well as religious where the essence of form remains the same. Rule guided by Malayali (people of Kerala) In selecting the exact spot for a dwelling The garden in which the house is to be placed must be intersected into equal portions by lines running due north and south and due east and west. Four divisions of the plot are thus formed. The padinyatta-pura (padinjatini/ western hall) is to be placed in the northeast division of the plot, coinciding with the inner corner or southwest angle of the division. Here, most of the popular representations of domestic architecture such as the nalukettu can be found. Geometrical arrangements for settlement were used in rural greeneries and near a major river. The Sree Padmanabhapuram palace, the Sree Valabha temples, the Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple, the Pandalam palace, and the Tripunitura royal compound show typical geometrical and dense compositions. Waynad and Attapadi are places in the hilly area of North Kerala dotted with unique folk settlements, mostly belonging to the Irrulla tribe (adivasi). The structures of the settlement are typically arrays of single nuclear family houses, standing in rows that go to the general direction of a river or sea. Behind the houses are hills or higher land. Between the settlements near the riverbank and the hilly areas are their cultivated fields or working plains where villagers take their cows to graze or where fishermen prepare their boat and fishing equipment . The valiyaveedu (Community hall) is an important institutional building that hosted the communal assembly. Like most houses in Southeast Asia, the spatial and functional aspects of domestic activity and spaces are housed in the different halls or spaces, not rooms. In the tribal compounds, the fireplace or cooking and washing areas are in separate halls or corners. The compound exhibits the purpose of the different functional halls and exterior living. The same pattern is also seen in the middle-class ekasala veedu, where the kitchen would be always placed separately but at times connected to other parts of the house by porticos .

A house in Kerala is generally called Veedu. The Veedu gives shelter to joint-family kinfolk or tharavad. The joint family system (tharavad--kinship system) consequently promotes the tradition of living in a huge shelter or mansion (veedu--object of house) The house of Pariah is called cheri, while the agrestic slaveCheraman--lives in a chala. The blacksmith, the goldsmith, the carpenter, the weaver and the toddy drawer inhabit a house called kudi; temple servants reside in a variyam or pisharam or pumatham. The ordinary Nayars stay in a Vidu/ Veedu or bhavanam, while the Nayars authority dwell in an idam. The Raja lives in a kovilakam or kottaram. The indigeneous Brahman (Nambutiri) resides in an illam, while his fellow of higher rank calls his house a mana or manakkal. There are five types of traditional domestic architecture or Veedu in Kerala, namely: (1) the wretched humble house, unknown by any building treatise of Kerala, belongs to ordinary folks and tribal people/ adivasis (cheri, chala, kudi, variyam or pisharam or pumatham); (2) the Ekasala, an I-shaped single rectangular hall house, belongs to farmers or middle-class nonfarmers; (3) the Nalukettu, a courtyard house, belongs to landlords; (4) the great mansion Ettuketu and Patinjarukettu (double ettukettu) or much bigger structures, belong to very rich landlords; (5) commoner houses are simple ordinary houses scattered abundantly in the cities and villages. They still show applications of traditional construction and vocabulary in an eclectic, popular and free manner. The Single Hall House The generally house structure in Kerala is that of the single hall house. Only later will this single hall be partitioned to have interior divisions. Wretched huts and hamlets are mostly individual small huts consisting of only one hall divided into inner and living spaces by means of temporary structural dividers. The one single hall house is also still found among the dwellings of the higher classes such as the Amma Veedu in the royal compound of East Fort, Trivandrum.

Single hall huts can still be found in interior villages, seashore villages and even in the vernacular houses in the city. The houses are usually small and are erected on ground level, sometimes on a raised platform. The materials are locally available: bamboo reeds, wooden poles, mud and local grass or leaves. The walls may be made of wattle (bamboo splints woven together and covered with a mud plaster) and are sometimes decorated with red or white mud stripes. The door is protected by a sliding screen made of plaited bamboo. The roof is made of wooden poles, bamboo and reed, and is thatched with grass. Rounded or pyramidal-shaped roofing is also constructed occasionally EKASALA/ STRUCTURE OF THE FARMERS HOUSE as farming is the major means of livelihood in kerala, the grain store has become an important structure to maintain. grain store designs vary from a small box (pattayam), to a house grain storeroom (ara) and a house for grain storage with a treasury building (pattayapura/ pathayapura). The agriculturist or ekasala house has a typical single hall partitioned into three arrayed rooms, enriched or fronted by a gallery/veranda. The middle room is thus regarded the most important part which is utilized as ara. Ara is a 4-5 feet platform. The two other rooms flanking ara are called Kalavara. The structure of three-room-arrays and the kalavara-ara-kalavara prevails in villages and cities. The rooms are multifunctional and could be used as bedroom, storage or treasury. Beneath the Ara, there is a semi basement storage room called nilavara. The Ara has two doors. One faces the interior and is for daily use while the other side faces the exterior or rare gallery / passageway to get the paddy in. In any house arrangement, the ara-kalavara would be put in either the western quarter (padinjatini) or the southern quarter (thekkini). The door of Ara opens to the east while that of nilavara (semi-basement storage) opens to the west. The typical structure of an ara is that it is flanked by two kalavara and there is a nilavara beneath; this is becoming the typical basic package of a peasants house. In the morphology of the nalukettu, the ekasala is positioned in one quarter of the fourfold hall, usually in the western quarter or padinjatini or the southern quarter or thekkini. In cases of ettukettu and patinjarukettu, the salas would be extended towards the north or the east, where the ekasala with the ara would still be put in either the west or the south.

1. Three Types of Ekasala. (upper- left) The Ekasala of North Kerala. Mostly they are shingle hipped roof houses (upper-right) The Ekasala of South Kerala. Mostly they are shingle bent roof

houses (bottom) The Kuttikettu or Ekasala with courtyard extension Source: Author NALUKETTU AND NADUMUTTAM The houses of Brahmins, landlords and the royalty are usually courtyard mansions called nalukettu (nalu-four; kettu-hall-Malayalam; Catusala-Sanskrit). The courtyard house has been a fashionable and well-known typical house in India. It is called Haveli in North India, Wada in Maharasthra, Rajbari in West Bengal, Deori in Hyderabad, Cathurmukham in Tamil Nadu, and Nalukettu in Kerala (Rhandanawa 1999; Anand 2004). The Nalukettu has been a popular representation of Keralas traditional domestic architecture. The Nalukettu can be multiplied to make a double nalukettu with two courtyards (ettukettu), and a fourfold nalukettu with four courtyards (patinyarukettu) following the needs of spatial extension. The plan or spatial boundaries for certain designs follow patterns that are prescribed in Vastu. The north and the east are given foremost importance, therefore a family temple and any religious relics are put here. The ladies room is usually put in the north facing south. The entrance can be alternatively in the south or west corner. Kottayam and the Christian Syrian houses in the districts of Thazhatangadi Theruvu of Kottayam, South Kerala where the courtyard appears as a technical consequence of creating an annex building linked by two parallel rooms or passageways, the void in between buildings.

2 Three Typical Expression of Nalukettu Central Kerala (above), North Kerala (left-bottom), South Kerala (right-bottom)

3: Typical Layout of the Nalukettu and Courtyard

4: Typological difference of courtyard mansion of (upper left) South Kerala nalukettu; (upper middle) North Kerala nalukettu, (upper right) Muslim Veedu and (bottom) Christian Syrian Kuttekettu The diagram shows that the nalukettu of North and Central Kerala are relatively wide while that of South Kerala and the Muslim mansion are small but has open layout spaces around the courtyard with a few rooms. The Kuttikettu has one sala with extension in the form of a courtyard . ROOF CONSTRUCTION Roofs in Kerala houses reflect the outstanding features of shingle and bent roof construction. It reflects the logic of tropical sloping as seen in the shingle, hip, saddle roof and the span of eaves of the roof slopes. The mukhapu (-Malayalam) and bent roof design may not find comparisons in India itself but would be typically abundant in Southeast Asia, notably Malaysia, Minangkabau, Batak, Java, Thailand, and even Vietnam. The Kerala roof is likely to belong to old traditions. A replica of rafter construction has been found in the Kanchipuram and Tanjavur South Indian temples which date back to the 12th century. Keralas roof structures have three dimensional space frames. The basic structural elements consist of pairs of kazhukol (rafters) resting on an uttaram (wall plate). Another interesting feature is a trapezoidal construction work that looks like the main arch structure in the wooden truss system of Gothic architecture, called Viskhamba. The main horizontal structural support, the Uttaram, will be divided into two layers: The first layer rests upon the lower uttaram (varotaram) which is on the wall, and the next layer is on the trapezoidal construction viskhamba. This second or the upper layer of the uttaram is called arudhotaram. Upon arudhotaram and the varotaram, kazhukols sit. It is believed that pranah (living energy) is residing in the uppermost wall plate (uttaram). A courtyard house is called nalukettu where there is continuous connectivity among the four quarters of the salas.

5: Types of Commoner Houses These are views and plans of commoner houses abundantly found in villages and urban areas, which are still in use, adaptive to modern living culture but still demonstrate traditional vocabulary or even rules

Three Types of Chala All Chalas show typical spatial configurations of living and inner space. (left) Chala in Chengganur, South Kerala; (middle) Chala in Waynad and (left) Chala in Trivandrum

7: Comparison of Roof design of Kerala with vernacular house of Majapahit Vernacular houses during Majapahit according to temple relief at Sukuh Temple (10th-11th century) and artistic impression taken from Negarakertagama inscription

ECLECTIC EXPRESSION Geographical locations also signify difference in expression or style. North Kerala creates more massive appearances in latterite construction. It uses hipped roofs, massive and solid laterite construction and wooden carvings and openings. Portuguese arches for windows and doors are used as well as Classical columns for porticoes and verandas. The Muslim compounds usually show particular ornaments for opening frame designs. Both South Kerala and Central Kerala architectural designs similarly showed intriguing, eclectic styles taken from the mutual exchanges with China, Burma, and also Southeast Asia. A four hundred year old nalukettu is still an enclosed house without a window, just like in Southeast Asia. The Role of Builder (Thatchan/ Taccan/ Taksaka) In Kerala, the architect is called thatchan or taccan or builder who follows certain norms, passed from generation to generation through scholarly or hereditary means, which therefore have a traditional base . Theoretically, Indian builders are hierarchically put in four ranks according to their skill and rank -Sthapati (architect), Taksaka (builder), Vardakki (supervisor), Sutragrahi (labour) where taccan theoretically is comparable to taksaka. But apparently, Keralas taccan is an all-round artist who is not familiar with such hierarchy. Even the higher rank of taccan was not considered as Sthapati or master architect, but just Perumtaccan or master taccan, or master builder. It was only later when Brahmanism gained status especially in temple design that some of the responsibility of the thatchan was given to a Brahmin, such as conducting poojas (prayers) before construction. A thathcan did not make only a house, but anything that needs carpentry including boats. The taccan can be a very unique, ambiguous and plural personality. Traditionally, a taccan belongs to a Sudra caste, the Ashari. Amazingly, they are temporarily considered Brahmins when involved in construction work. They would be requested to be clean, vegetarian and conduct poojas (prayers). They may be temporarily released from untouchability and allowed to enter the house of nobility or a Brahmin to work out his plan. There are two major skills of construction practiced in Kerala, namely, laterite masonry and wood carpentry, yet only wood carpentry appeared in shastram or science. Practically, the laterite mason or Kalaseri was considered subordinate to the thatchan or carpenters. Perhaps laterite construction and monolithic building are not deeply indigenous traditions, but brought in by the Portuguese or by the people beyond the northern borders of Kerala

Conclusions and Recommendations Basically, environmental determination molds the shelter designs tradition. The wet tropical environments of both Kerala and Southeast Asia create typical architecture with the following characteristics: Use of shingle roofs and protruding eaves as response to tropical rain, wind and other natural elements Use of grilled windows and porous walls as response to tropical sun glare Significance of the rectangular I-shaped building mass Open lay-out living spaces The following are observations generated by the study of Kerala houses: There is an appreciation and knowledge of the architectural importance of the multi-cultural aspects of the traditional-vernacular architecture of India whose gestures are like those in Southeast Asia. They are still currently part of the living traditions. The analysis of Keralas tribal architecture showed how the tribal living culture in Kerala reflected similarities with the traditional-vernacular traditions in Indonesia. These include the non-hierarchical communal governance and acknowledgement of valiyaveedu, linear settlements, exterior living, and single hall multifunction house. This culture still survives in tribal villages in the high ranges of the Attapady. Globalization in the 13th-16th centuries had once spread through the web of Asia. Kerala and Southeast Asia has been in contact or bound since ancient times. Generally within this historical scheme, Southeast Asia is often described as Indianized states But the eclecticism that was obvious in Keralas architecture suggests how Kerala also inherited some vocabulary of architectural forms from Southeast Asia. Bent and shingle roof designs, raised platform of the ara were well illustrated in the depiction of houses in the Borobudur temple and East Javas temples of the 8th-12th centuries. The coming of the European colonizers in the 16th century brought colonialism to Asia, and consequently, on the one hand enhanced the architectural tradition with diffusion of European architectural vocabulary into the native tradition, and on the other hand reinforced the cultural mutual exchanges of both South Asian and Southeast Asian culture through trading and political relations. The architectural designs of the period suggest an intermingling of cultures that happened ingenuously . Multi-layer historical narrations should be able to explain eclectic modes of development that brought about the spread and transformation of the style. The pre-European and Colonial traditional architecture of Kerala can be cited as a good example of a multi-cultural design morphology. Cochin is probably one among the very few traditional trading ports in Asia that sustain the living artifacts that survived. In conclusion, Kerala architecture is not simply Indian architecture. Kerala architecture in general has shown cross boundary and multi-cultural architectural styles and gestures. Globalization in many ways has always been altering the map of local visual experience while exhibiting typical acculturation which could lead to the evolution of a homogeneous new style or an eclectic style. KERALA THEATRES AND PALACES KOOTHAMBALAM Koothambalam is a theater hall for staging Koothu and Koodiyattam, the ancient dramatic art forms of Kerala. Koothambalams are constructed according to Ntyasstra of Bharata Muni. It is considered as sacred as the temple sanctum itself.

It is constructed within the premises of a Temple and usually the structure is about 16m long and 12m broad with a 4m square platform supported by pillars in the center. A square platform with a separate pyramidal roof supported by pillars in the center called natyamandapam is constructed as s separate structure within the large hall of Koothampalam.

Made of granite, rosewood and teak wood, Koothambalams represent a unique element in the cultural heritage of Kerala. The floor of the hall is divided in to two equal halves and one part is for performance (including stage, instruments, green room etc.) and other half for seating audience. During show, the stage is decorated with fruit-bearing plaintains, bunches of coconuts and festooned with the fronds of the coconut palm. The 'para' filled with rice is placed on the stage. The 'Nilavilakku' is used for lighting the stage. The stage will have the Mizhavu, a percussion instrument accompanying Koothu, placed within a railed enclosure, with a high seat for the drummer. This has a plinth area of 500 M2. This is having tiled roof on wooden structures supported by steel structures fixed on RCC ornamental Columns. The whole building is covered by trellis works designed and made up of with original teak wood brackets and rafters and had 4 number of doors made up of ornamental designs strictly in accordance with the principle for construction of Koothambalam. Inside the same, a traditional stage of size 7x7M at the centre is provided with separate roof.

PADMANABHA PURAM PALACE Padmanabhapuram Palace is located in at Padmanabhapuram Fort, close to the town of Thuckalay in Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, in India. It is about 20 km from Nagercoil, and about 50 kilometers from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The palace complex is inside an old granite fortress around four kilometers long. The palace is located at the foot of the Veli Hills, which form a part of the Western Ghats. The river Valli flows nearby. The palace was constructed around 1601 CE by Iravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal who ruled Travancore between 1592 CE and 1609 CE In the late 18th century, precisely in 1795 CE the capital of Travancore was shifted from here to Thiruvananthapuram, and the place lost its former glory.

However, the palace complex continues to be one of the best examples of traditional Kerala architecture, and some portions of the sprawling complex are also the hallmark of traditional Kerala style architecture. The Padmanabhapuram Palace complex consists of several structures: Mantrasala; literal meaning, King's Council Chamber Thai Kottaram; literal meaning, Mother's Palace (It didn't mean the mother's palace, but the first building or the mother of the buildings over there) believed to have been constructed before AD 1550 Nataksala; literal meaning, the Hall of Performance, or of Performing Arts A four-storeyed building at the centre of the Palace complex Thekee Kottaram; literal meaning, the Southern Palace MANTRASALA (Council chamber) Kings Council chamber is the most beautiful part of the entire palace complex. It has windows, with coloured mica, which keep the heat and the dust away, and the interior of the council chamber remains cool and dark. Delicate and beautiful lattice work can be seen all over the council chamber. The floor is also beautifully done, with a fine and perfect finish. The floor is dark and is made of a mixture of varied substances, including burnt coconut shells, egg white and so on. The remarkable aspect is that this particular floor finish and texture could not be duplicated in any other construction. THAI KOTTARAM (Mother's palace) Mothers palace, designed in traditional Kerala style, is the oldest construction in the entire palace complex and is believed to be constructed around mid-16th century. True to the traditional Kerala style, there is an inner courtyard, called 'nalukettu'. In the inner courtyard, sloping roofs from all four sided taper down. Four pillars on four corners support the roof. On the south-west corner of the mothers palace, there is a relatively small room, called the chamber of solitude or 'ekantha mandapam'. The chamber of solitude has very beautiful and intricate wood carvings of every description all around. Of particular interest is a pillar of single jackfruitw ood, with very detailed and beautiful floral designs. FOUR-STOREYED CENTRAL BUILDING (uppirikka maliga) The four-storied building is located at the centre of the palace complex. The ground floor houses the royal treasury. The first floor houses the King's bedrooms. The ornamental bedstead is made of 64 types of herbal and medicinal woods, and was a gift from the Dutch merchants. Most of the rooms here and in other parts of the palace complex have built-in recesses in walls for storing weapons like swords and daggers. The second floor houses the King's resting and study rooms. The top floor (called upparikka malika) served as the worship chamber of the royal household. Its walls are covered with exquisite 18th century murals, depicting scenes from the puranas, and also few scenes from the social life of the Travancore of that time. This top floor was supposed to be Sree Padmanabha Swamy's room. This building was constructed during the reign of King Marthandavarma. He was also designated as Padmanabha Dasa and used to rule the Travancore kingdom as a servant of Sree Padmanabha Swamy. THEKEE KOTTARAM (Southern palace) The southern palace is as old as the Thai kottaram (Mother's palace), which would make it about 400 year old. Now, it serves as a heritage museum, exhibiting antique household articles and curios. Collections of items give an insight into the social and cultural ethos of that period. NATAKASALA (Hall of performance) This is a relatively new building, constructed at the behest of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal, who reigned in Travancore from 1829 to 1846.

He was a great connoisseur of arts, especially music and dance. He himself composed music and has left a rich legacy to classical carnatic music. The Nataksala or the hall of performance has solid granite pillars and gleaming black floor. There is a wooden enclosure, with peepholes, where the women of the royal household used to sit and watch the performance.

Other interesting features The Padamnabhapuram Palace complex has several other interesting features: The clock tower in the palace complex has a 300 year old clock, which still keeps time. A big hall now bare, which can accommodate around 1000 guests, and where ceremonial feasts were held, on auspicious occasions. A secret passage, now blocked, through which the king, his immediate family members, and their entourage could escape to another palace, located several kilometers away in the event of any emergency. Name of this palace is Charottu kottaram. A flight of steps leads to a bathing pond, which has lost its freshness due to neglect and years of disuse. The Palace complex also has a section of curios and several interesting objects: An entire room filled with old Chinese jars, all gifts by Chinese merchants. A variety of weapons (which were actually used in warfare), including swords and daggers. Brass lamps, wood and stone sculpture, a variety of furniture and large mirrors made of polished metal. A gallery of paintings depicting incidents from the history of Travancore. A wooden cot made of up to 64 wooden pieces of a variety of medicinal tree trunks VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE BENGAL HOUSES INTRODUCTION THE BUNGALOW AS THE EXAMPLE OF ADAPTIVE CLIMATIC RESPONSE... As Britains political influence in India grew and spread in the middle of the 18th century, they faced with the challenge of building comfortable and affordable dwellings in a climate very different from their own, the British settlers took many of their cues from traditional local architecture. The building form that resulted, commonly known as the bungalow, Built from natural local materials. ORIGIN As British power in India continued to grow, settlers began to emerge from the relative safety of the factory and military camp to settle the interior of the country. This expansion created a need for a new building pattern. The military camp provided Designed for security and intended is only for temporary housing, they also made few concessions to environmental comfort in the harsh Indian climate. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS: The British settlers encountered a climate very different from their own. While the English climate is temperate, that of Bengal is tropical. The plains that make up most of the southern region are hot and humid all year except for the short winter season. VERNACULAR INFLUENCES: The architectural and climatic adaptations that the British had developed for their own temperate climate were not applicable in this new environment. The traditional English country house or cottage model was inappropriate in a number of ways. An English house was generally built as a tightly closed box to minimize drafts wherever possible. This was sensible in a cold climate, but not appropriate in a hot, humid climate where a bit of breeze is quite valuable in enhancing the cooling effect of evaporation. DEVELOPMENT:

As the British settlers moved out of the factories and military camps to settle the interior of the country, they sought a form of affordable and reasonably comfortable dwelling that could be built with the abundant local labour. The factory model was no longer appropriate, and because the settlers were dependent on local labour outside of the cities, much of the form was adopted from the local vernacular tradition. The traditional Bengali dwelling provided a model for the British bungalow designs which developed, which are generally referred to as bangla (or banggolo). THE BANGLAS... The bangla was a thatched hut, generally built with a distinctively curved roof. WALLS generally made of mud. FRAMES constructed entirely of bamboo, though wood posts and beams were occasionally used in the houses of the very wealthy. ROOF thatched roof generally extended beyond the walls to provide additional shelter from the rains and one side of the roof was often extended four or five feet beyond the wall and supported by a row of bamboo poles to create a small veranda, sometimes used as a shops. OPENINGS the door was the only opening. In the wealthy houses, it might be covered by a wooden door. Windows, when present, were shaded in the same way. FLOORS Floors were made of mud and were generally raised a foot or two above the ground to provide some protection from flooding. THE HUTS... In Bengal, hut consists of a pent roof constructed of two sloping sides which meet in a ridge forming the segment of a circle so that it has a resemblance to a boat when overturned, this kind of hut, is called by the native Banggolo. The size of the huts varied little, between 4x3m and 4x5m. There appear to have been three main variations in the shape of the thatched roof among the native huts, leading to divide them into 3 different types of structures. 1. The most common was the distinctively curved roof. 2. In some dwellings, the roof had a simpler shape, with four sloped faces joining at the apex to form a pyramid. Where the sides were not of even length, the longer sides of the roof would join to form a ridge line. 3. The third form was similar to the second, but the roof was divided into two sections with a clerestory between for light and ventilation. This last form represents a clear advantage in a hot humid climate, where breeze is at a premium and indirect daylighting is ideal.

Pyramidal roofs with clerestory In Vishnapur, West Bengal. FORM AND CLIMATIC RESPONSE..

Early form of Englishmans Bungalow The traditional Bengali hut, and the climatic adaptations that it embodied, provided the model for the British bungalow, the main housing form in the expansion of the British settlements. The main characteristics of the European bungalow in India were the pitched thatched roof, the veranda, the raised base platform, and the free-standing single-storey structure. The British also seem to have adopted the custom of keeping multiple small buildings rather than one large one. The Europeans seem to have adopted almost universally the simple or elongated pyramidal roof, sometimes with clerestory. The ventilation effects of the clerestory may have been impaired somewhat by the white cloth which was generally hung to make what Roberdeau calls an artificial ceiling. Bengali mud floor was used, raised on a mud-brick platform to prevent flooding in the monsoon season. The British settlers expanded the traditional veranda to encircle the house, often semienclosing it with permeable mat or brick walls to increase privacy and shade while preserving breezes.

The corners of the veranda were often partitioned off as separate rooms for bathing or sleeping, thus providing for British notions of privacy while preserving air flow around and through each room. Each room opens onto a veranda on at least two sides to take advantage of the cooled air and to allow access to any available breeze. LIMITATIONS.. Despite the advantages of climatically-appropriate dwellings, British settlers continued to struggle to adapt to the tropical climate of Bengal. The British also forced upon themselves the disadvantage of inappropriate dress. Formal European dress was required of military and civil servants on most public occasions. During hot periods, servants would splash the tatties with water to cool the breezes that passed through them and into the house.

Servants were also utilized to operate punkahs, heavy cloths hung from the ceiling and attached to a rope, which a servant pulled to wave the cloth and create a breeze. One cultural importation was well-applied in the Indian context. During the hot summer months, when even the punkah was insufficient to maintain an acceptable comfort level, the British settlers in Bengal simply left the heat of the plains and took refuge in the relative cool of the hills to the north. Many settlers maintained a second home in the hills and the change of climate was thought to be so beneficial to health.

CONCLUSION... The case of the British settlers in India seems to present an interesting contradiction: in spite of the climatic adaptations adopted from the local vernacular architectural tradition, a welldesigned building was able to make up only some of the difference between European expectations of thermal comfort and the realities of the Bengali climate. While it may not have been their ideal, the European-style bungalow did provide its tenants with a climatically-appropriate housing model so effective and affordable that it soon became a standard, reproduced throughout India and eventually imported in a modified form to Britain and America. EXPRESSING AN ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY BOHRA HOUSES OF GUJARAT WHO ARE BOHRAS? The traditional Bhoras are people who are primarily involved in trade activitys, conducting business with Burma, the Zanzibar Islands and the Arab world. They first settled in the port town of Khambat in Gujarat and spread to other towns in Gujarat such as Surat, Kapadvanj, Dohad, Godhra, Vadodra, Siddhpur, Dholka, Patan, etc. SETLLEMENT OF BHORAS The Bohras grew in number due to their widened trade activity's & they began to form in each settlement their own distinct neighborhood called a Bohravad. Today Bohras number more than a million and have settled both in India and abroad.

BOHRAS TRADE PEOPLE CALL THEM BHORAS TO CLEARLY DIFFERNTIATE THEM FROM MUSLIMS & HINDUS

TWO GRIDIRON LAYOUT

AS THEY GREW IN NUMBER FORMED BHORAVADS

ONE, AN ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTIC OF THE TRADITIONAL CITY PATTERN OF THIS REGION

TWO DIFFERENT CATEGORIES

SETTLEMENT PATTERN Like the neighborhoods of other communities, buildings for the various religious and cultural activities of the Bohra community also occur within the domain of the Bohravad. These buildings include a mosque, the assembly hall for religious discourse, the local priest's house, a travellers' lodge and a community hall for ceremonial occasions, especially the commensal dinners.

DEVELOPMENT PATTERN

ORGANIC DEVELOPM ENT & GRIDIRON PATTERN

THESE DEVELOPMENTS STILL MAINTAIN A CLOSED-SYSTEM OF STREETS, SUBSTREETS AND SMALL OPEN SPACES ACCESSIBLE ONLY THROUGH A GATE LINKING TO THE CITY STREETS AND THE OVERALL URBAN FABRIC.

THE BOHRAVADS WHICH EXISTS ARE MORE THAN 100 YEARS OLD AND THEY ALSO HAVE EVOLVED ORGANICALLY WITHIN THE CONFMES OF THE AVAILABLE LAND IN THE FORTIFIED CITY THESE ARE LAID OUT IN GRIDIRON PATTERN AND ARE NOT CONSTRAINED BY THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE LAND.

ARCHITECTURAL PATTERN There are three kinds of architectural forms in which the identity of the Bohras is Manifested RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS: The religious places include a mosque, a hall, a priest's house, a tomb and a cemetery. These distinctly reflect the Bohra identity by the way of strong geometrical forms are woven with the local designs making the whole faade very ornamental and decorative. It is strongly reflected in their mosque and tomb. COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: In commercial areas, the architectural forms more or less symbolize the common regional characteristics of the trading communities of Gujarat with rows of shops on the ground floor on either side of the street. Identify a Bohra shop from any other shop except for the physical appearance of a Bohra, who stands out because of his dress, or the signboard.

ARCHITECTURAL PATTERN THE BOHRA HOUSES REFLECT THREE INTERESTING FEATURES: The vertical and horizontal hierarchy of its spaces, going from the most public to the most private enclosures. The enclosed spaces within the house also reflect their efforts to maintain a distinct identity from other religious groups and a sense of seclusion and privacy from outsiders. many of their houses are built above their shops or in separate Bohravads, this provides a degree of security against outsiders. At the same time, these houses do not open directly on the front street, and thereby preclude the possibility of quick access into the houses. It is for this reason that the close relatives are entertained in the first floor ordo (family room). TRADITIONAL BHORA HOUSES TYPICAL EXTERNAL FAADE THAT DIFFERENTIATES IT FROM OTHER BUILDINGS DECORATED OPENINGS, MATERIALS USED

DIFFERENTIATING IT INTO PRIVATE & SEMI -PRIVATE & PUBLIC SPACES, MORE OR LESS SIMILAR TO THAT OF A HINDU HOUSE WHICH CONFORMS TO THE GENERAL PATTERN OF A MEDIEVAL ROW HOUSE. GROUND LEVEL ONE ENTERS THE HOUSE THROUGH A PORTICO RAISED ABOUT 75cm ABOVE THE STREET LEVEL. THE MAIN DOOR, ONE STEPS INTO AN ANTEROOM, KNOWN AS DEHLI SEPARATED BY A LIGHT SCREEN FROM THE INNER COURT TO ENSURE PRIVACY INSIDE THE HOUSE. THIS SPACE USUALLY HOUSES A STAIR WHICH DIRECTLY LEADS TO THE UPPER FLOORS. HERE VISITORS ARE DIRECTLY LED UP TO THE FORMAL SITTING ROOM ON THE FIRST FLOOR. THE COURT, OPEN TO THE SKY, HOUSES ALL THE SERVICES ON ITS SIDE WALLS. THE SPACE IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE COURT IS FULLY OPEN ON THE COURTSIDE AND REFERRED TO AS BAHARNI PARSAL (EXTERNAL PORTICO). FOLLOWED BY A ROOM KNOWN AS ANDARNI PARSAL (INTERNAL PORTICO) THE LAST ROOM OF THE HOUSE, THE ORDO (FAMILY ROOM) THE UPPER FLOORS ARE NORMALLY ORGANISED AS INDEPENDENT ROOMS ON EITHER SIDES OF THE COURT AROUND WHICH THE SERVICES ARE LOCATED. IN THE CASE OF A HOUSE WITH MORE THAN ONE UPPER FLOOR, THE STAIR IS ALSO LOCATED IN THE AREA AROUND THE COURT. THIS SPACE IS KNOWN AS RAVAS.

USE OF SPACES The street side porticos which are extensively used by the other community people for sitting & play area for children are contrary when it comes to the Bhoras as they use it very rarely The buffer space between the inner & external domain is used as a visual screen from the street into the house also serves as meeting point for the men folks & casual visitors The area behind this visual barrier happens to be the family domain into which only the members of the family are allowed At this buffer spaces exists a staircase which connects to the upper floor guest room The open sky court ventilates the whole space beside lighting it Kitchen is located around the court all other dinning activities also happens here Bethak a large wooden platform with storage underneath and a soft cushion on the top - is the dominant piece of furniture in this space Andarni parsal, being covered, extends the use in monsoon large room at the back on first floor is generally used as a formal living area and guests are entertained here The windows mostly have double shutters, one of wood and the other of stained glass. The room in the front is used as a multi-purpose space and sometimes has a covered balcony.

CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS Each bay is about 5 meters wide bordered on the longer sides by walls shared by the adjoining units The construction up to plinth is in stone which protects the house from the damp rising from the ground and also provides a base for the faade Super structure -frame structures in wood with brick masonry infill walls floors are supported on wooden beams Upper floors are constructed by resting closely, smaller sections of wooden members on the beams spanning the bay walls, which support either a stone or bamboo mat surface on which the bed mortar is laid The roofing is of galvanized iron sheets DECOR the decor is that which sets them apart from other house types Elaborate carpets and rugs are a common feature of Bohra houses being a quite successful trading community, could afford such elaborate dcor Bohras should adopt a style and the elements of decor which were used by the British in the design of their buildings study of the decorative motifs, especially in false ceilings and window panes, reveals that these are not strictly geometric patterns but also contain representational motifs such as the floral patterns a great variety was observed from among the various European styles in the treatment of components such as doors, windows, columns, and balustrades. Arched openings such as the flat, the semicircular, the segmental, and the pointed Columns are found to vary from simple regional designs to variations of the Greek classical order. when executed in a more regional style, the fayades are generally picturesque and show an approach to total design which is not found in other houses of the same period. SOME PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS Bohra houses have naturally evolved in the context of the region and its traditional habitat pattern Being Hindu converts, this evolution appears to have been a slow process This process of evolution has been more additive in nature, particularly in the basic plan of the house and the arrangement of the groups The changes occurred in the decor and elements of interior spaces and furniture which acquired sophistication in design and detailing All rooms occur along a single axis of movement, leaving only the last room free of the general movement This indicates' the low priority given to degree of privacy within the family unlike the colonial house It appears that the strong colonial influence is only manifested in the decor of the interiors and the furniture for identity purpose only to express their contact with the external world which dealt in business and economic status FACADES It is in facades that the Bohra houses, built early this century, differ from the Hindu houses ex: siddhpur Fanciful forms of Renaissance and Baroque styles are freely used to decorate the sculpturesque elements, particularly columns, pilasters and entablatures. Surprisingly, the facades do not display any Islamic characteristics except for a sense of privacy that pervades The house fronts are profusely ornamented and even when relatively plain, they have a sculpturesque quality and exhibit, to a greater or lesser degree, an irrational and unsanctified use of the classical elements. The decorations extend over the entire facade, differing from house to house in form as well as colour

the interrelation of key elements such as floor heights, plinths, and the roof line; other smaller elements are used to harmonies and bind the entire facade. The colour renderings are in pastel shades with light green, light yellow and pink as favorites. The materials used are a combination of stone, wood and plaster. The wood and iron grillwork is used for the door and windows, their shutters consisting of smaller parts and operating separately and helping to retain privacy In conclusion, it can be said that over the centuries, Bohras have definitely evolved a house characteristic which is largely distinct from that of other houses in the region. No radical changes took place in the Bohra's social values and religious beliefs. This being reflected in their habitat Bohra settlements and houses are a unique phenomenon and demonstrate a balance between harmony and variety, and between something private and public. It provides us with an instructive lesson in urban design. Jaipur, Evolution of an Indian City Jaipur lies at a distance of about 200 miles from Delhi, 150 miles from Agra and 84 miles from Ajmer. Capital city of Rajasthan is located amidst the Aravali hill ranges at an altitude of about 430 m above sea level. Latitude 26 55 Longitude 75 50

Map Showing Jaipur in Eastern Part of Rajasthan The eastern Rajasthan, lying to the east and south east of the Aravalli divide includes the modern administrative districts of Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Banswara, Dungarpur, Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar, Bhilwara, Ajmer, Jaipur, Tonk, Dausa, Dholpur, Karauli, Bharatpur and Alwar. The current district of Jaipur lies in Eastern Rajasthan, in the Banas River basin and forms a part of Eastern Plain of Rajasthan. The region is drained by a number of seasonal rivers of which Banganga, Dhundh and Bandi are prominent. From the 10th century onwards, the district referred to as Dhoondhar, formed one of the four distinguishable politico-cultural regions of Eastern Rajasthan, in addition to Mewat, Hadauti and Mewar. Dhoondhar region was roughly comprised of current districts of Jaipur, Dausa and Tonk, with Jaipur and Amber further constituting Dhoondhar subzone within the larger tract of Dhoondhar region. In Aryan epics, Dhoondhar region (called Matsya Desh/ Mina Wati) was the shortest trade route between north India and rich port cities of Gujarat and Malabar. The region was held by Badgujars, Rajputs and Minas till the 11th century. From the 11th century onwards, however, the Dhoondhar region was increasingly under the power of Kachchwaha dynasty of Rajputs. The three main capitals of the Dhoondhar Region under the Kachchwahas Dausa, Amber and Jaipur. The Kachchwaha Rajputs trace their descent through the solar dynasty to Kush, one of the two sons of Lord Rama.. According to local tradition and popular bardic chronicles, Dulha/Dhola Rai (whose reign is accepted as being from 1006-1036 AD by most historians) one of the rulers of this clan, laid the foundation of Dhoondhar kingdom in 967 AD and made Dausa his capital. Kakil Dev (1036-1038) who succeeded his father Dulha Rai in 1036 AD, seized Amber from Meenas, laid the foundations of the Amber Fort and built the temple of Ambikeshwar Mahadev one of Ambers earliest extant monuments. The capital of Dhoondar was shifted from Dausa to Amber between 1179 and 1216 AD.

By the 17th century, the Kachchwaha Rajput clan became known for political clout and importance in the Mughal administration. Raja Man Singh (1590-1614) and Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1622-1667) contributed to the financial and cultural wealth of Dhoondhar through political alliance with Mughals. Sawai Jai Singh II (1700 1743) who outlived five Mughal emperors and tried to prop up the Mughal Empire from 1707 (Aurangzebs death) to sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah (1739) established the city of Jaipur and strengthened the boundaries of Dhoondhar.

The Kachchwaha Rajputs trace their descent through the solar dynasty to Kush, one of the two sons of Lord Rama.. According to local tradition and popular bardic chronicles, Dulha/Dhola Rai (whose reign is accepted as being from 1006-1036 AD by most historians) one of the rulers of this clan, laid the foundation of Dhoondhar kingdom in 967 AD and made Dausa his capital. Kakil Dev (1036-1038) who succeeded his father Dulha Rai in 1036 AD, seized Amber from Meenas, laid the foundations of the Amber Fort and built the temple of Ambikeshwar Mahadev one of Ambers earliest extant monuments. The capital of Dhoondar was shifted from Dausa to Amber between 1179 and 1216 AD. By the 17th century, the Kachchwaha Rajput clan became known for political clout and importance in the Mughal administration. Raja Man Singh (1590-1614) and Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1622-1667) contributed to the financial and cultural wealth of Dhoondhar through political alliance with Mughals. Sawai Jai Singh II (1700 1743) who outlived five Mughal emperors and tried to prop up the Mughal Empire from 1707 (Aurangzebs death) to sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah (1739) established the city of Jaipur and strengthened the boundaries of Dhoondhar.

CITY AND ITS EVOLUTION

Site selection Reasons for Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh to change his capital from Amber to Jaipur:

Military Reasons Defence was an important consideration. A site at the South of Amber ensured greater distance from Delhi and also prevented the expansion of the city in that direction. It was clear that the out skirting hill ranges (Nahargarh hills) shaped as a horseshoe would allow the new city to expand only in the South. So this flat site with a basin like shape was chosen. It was an open plain bounded on the northwest and east by hills. Earlier rajput capitals were established in the hills, and so moving capital to the plains was an ex of Sawan Jai Singh's boldness. Geographical Reasons The rocky terrain of Amber restricted expansion. Jaipur had the potentialities of developing into a city with adequate drinking water due to the presence of a perennial stream nearby and good drainage system. Its rugged hills also ensured a constant supply of building material, which might be required in the times to come

Two significant facts responsible for the origin of the city and its subsequent layout: 1. The need of a new capital for 18th century Dhoondhar as the earlier one of Amber built on a hill was getting congested. 2. Sawai Raja Jai Singhs vision of the new capital as a strong political statement at par with Mughal cities and as a thriving trade and commerce hub for the region.

The site with the natural east west ridge and the surrounding forts as defense feature

The site selected for establishing the new capital of Jaipur was a valley located south of Amber and the plains beyond, a terrain that was the bed of a dried lake. There used to be dense forest cover to the north and the east of the city.

The physical constraints that informed the building of Jaipur city included the hills on the north that housed the fort of Jaigarh and the Amber palace beyond, and the hills on the east, which contained the sacred spot of Galtaji. To facilitate water supply to the new city, the Darbhavati river in the north was dammed to create the Jai Sagar and Man Sagar (that later housed the Jal Mahal) lakes. Later the Jhotwara River in the north west was diverted through the Amani Shah Nallah and a number of canals were channelised through Brahmapuri and Jai Niwas to supply water to the city. PLANNING OF THE CITY

The generic plan of a medieval Rajasthani hill town- as in Dausa and Amber (TOP) The hill town of Dausa with an organic layout guided by the topography (BELOW)

Amber Town with the Fort on top of the hill and the walled town down the slopes

The medieval towns of Rajasthan were of military, agrarian, mercantile or religious nature. The presence of a deity marked the reference point for the rulers abode and the rest of the city. The name of the town was usually associated with the political or religious centre (with the Ambikeshwar temple in the case of Amber and with Sawai Jai Singh in the case of Jaipur). Unlike Dausa and Amber, the two previous capital cities of the Dhoondhar region established on hill-top, whose planning was guided by topographical structure of the areas, Jaipur city was revolutionary both in terms of its grid-iron pattern planning and its location at the base of the hills. There was also a significant economic shift from an agricultural base in Dausa and Amber to trading in the capital of Jaipur.

The layout of the city of Jaipur wonderfully links the concept of a Shastric city with the practicalities of the chosen site. First, the straight line of the ridge suggested itself as the route for one of the main east-west thorough fares and building a road along its crest makes best possible use of the topography for the purpose of drainage. What followed then was to regularize the Amber-Sanganer road as a north-south route at right angles to it. The point of intersection would be one of the citys main cross-roads (chaupar) Although the location of the axes was determined, their extents were yet to be defined. The southern boundary of the city had to lie within the line of the Agra-Ajmer road. So by extending the NS road as far as possible southwards gives the first fixed dimension, the length of a side of a square and so establishes the size of the unit or module of the city. A hunting lodge known as Jai Niwas. It was the kings wish that this establishment come within the city. A road cutting the plain from N to S linking Amber,the capital to Sanganer, the principal trading town. This road had to be preserved and controlled and therefore had to fall within the citys boundaries A second road ran E to W between the Mughal cities of Agra and Ajmer and placing the new city on this already established communication line would help secure its economic success. However since this was an imperial road that could not be encroached on, thus the city had to be contained to the north of this line. Also, a natural ridge runs across the plain, N of the road and parallel to it, in a roughly EW alignment (with a slight deviation of15 deg. from the cardinal axes). The area to its S is flat while that to its N slopes down gently. In Shastric terms, this is an ideal arrangement as declivity towards the north-east Is considered the best site. In practical terms, the ridge too had to be accommodated.

The intersection of the axes to define the Badi Chaupar (City Square).

Division in to eight portions, ends of the roads marked by Gates in the City Wall CONCEPTUAL PRASTARA PLAN

It is a model of town planning- the first planned city in India. It is based on Hindu systems of town planning and followed the principles prescribed in the Shilpa-shastra, an ancient Indian treatise on architecture .according to this shastra the site should be divided into grids or mandalas rangung from 2x 2 to 10 x 10. Planned according to the Prastara type of layout, which gives prominence to the cardinal directions. Thus plan of jaipur is a grid of 3x3 with gridlines being the citys main streets.

The central axis of the town was laid from East to West between the gates of the Sun(Suraj pol) and the moon(Chandpol) This was crossed by two roads at right angles dividing the town into nine almost square, almost equally sized blocks, which were further sub divided by lanes and alleys all at right angles.

But by building the western boundary of the city right up to the hills southern apex, it provided a continuous line of defense. The mandala could not be complete in the NW due to the presence of the hills. On the other hand in the SE an extra square has been added that plugged the gap between the city and the eastern hills.

The town has around it a masonry wall, 25ft. high & 9ft. thick, with eight gates.

The gates are:


Chandpole Gate, Ghat Gate, Ajmeri Gate, Sanganeri Gate, Surajpole Gate, Gangapole Gate, Zorawar Singh Gate, and New Gate.

The palace building covered two blocks, the town six and the remaining ninth block was not usable on account of steep hills. So this North-West ward was transferred to the SouthEast corner of the city, making the shape of the plan as a whole asymmetrical rather than square. The citys division into nine wards was also in conformity with the Hindu caste system, which necessitated the segregation of people belonging to different communities and ranks. Even the lanes were named after the occupations of inhabitants such as Maniharon ka Rasta, Thatheron ka Rasta & many others. Following the directions of the Hindu Shilpa shastra, width of the main streets & other lanes were fixed. Thus the main streets of the city were 111ft. wide, secondary streets 55 ft. wide & the smaller ones 27ft. wide. South of the main road were four almost equal rectangles. The rectangle opposite the palace has been broken up into two equal and smaller rectangles by the Chaura Rasta.Thus altogether there are now five rectangles on the south of the main road called Chowkris. On the North of the main road from West to East are the Purani Basti, the Palace and Ramchandraji. The principal bazaar leads from the western gate in the city wall, The Chandpole, passing in front of the Tripolia Gate, to the eastern city gate, the Surajpole.

To the NW of this lay the Jai Niwas. Given that its royal association meant that it had to be within the palace compound, the site of the palace was established. Indeed, given the wish to locate the palace centrally, the position of the brahmasthana was also established. A wall surrounds the palace buildings. The serving class occupied the peripheral areas. Another constraint was the position of the lake, which formed a part of the pleasure garden around which the city was built. This lake lay close to the hillside. In the original design it fell outside the main block of the city; but due to Jai Singhs wish to include the old garden in the city, the lake was made the tank of palace garden.

PICTURE IN BRIEF

URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY

WHY PINK?

Jaipur is known as the Pink City, a rather idealized description of the terra-cotta-colored lime plaster that coats the old part of the city's walls, buildings, and temples.

The reasons for painting the town pink are unknown, but various theories have been tossed about, from using pink to cut down glare, to Jai Singh II's apparent devotion to Lord Shiva (whose favorite color is reputedly terra cotta). Others believe Singh wanted to imitate the color of the sandstone used in the forts and palaces of his Mughal emperor-friends. The most popular reason (spread no doubt by "Britishers" during the Raj era) is that pink is the traditional color of hospitality, and the city was freshly painted and paved with pink gravel to warmly welcome Edward VII for his visit here in 1876. URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY

ROAD NETWORK

Jaipurs road network follows a definite hierarchy. The major east-west and north-south road ,form the sector boundaries and are called Rajmarg as they lead to the city gates. These measure 33m. wide. Next there is a network of 16.5m wide which runs north-south in each sector linking the internal areas of the sectors to the major activity spine. An orthogonal grid of 8.25mx4.00m roads in the prastara-chessboard pattern further divide sectors into Mohallas. PUBLIC SPACES Public spaces can be divided into Chaupars Bazaars Mohallas Streets Temples CONCEPTUAL PLAN - CHAUPAR CHAUPAR Its a square that occurs at the intersection of east west roads with three north south roads. Each chaupar is around 100m x 100m. Were used for public gathering on festive occasions. The distance between two chaupars is about 700m which is ideal for pedestrian movement. It has controlled faade treatment enveloping it.

Section through Ram Ganj Bazaar BAZAARS - Originally only four bazaars were planned for the city. These were later named as Johri bazaar, Sireh Deori Bazaar, Kishan pole Bazaar & Gangori Bazaar On the main streets strict control was exercised on the street faade, along which were located shops and arcades- one storey high, but beyond the frontage the buildings could be of any height or any shape, some built with flat roofs & others with traditional chattris.

URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY STREETSCAPES AND CHOWKS

View (above) of a main bazaar street - the width of the main roads was kept 39 1/4 gaz - 108 feet, secondary roads are half this size - 54 feet, the tertiary roads are 27 feet and the inner mohalla streets are 13 feet wide.

View of a chaupar today The main markets, havelis and temples on the main streets in Jaipur were constructed by the state in the 18th century, thus ensuring that a uniform street facade is maintained. The widths of roads were predetermined. According to a popular belief, the city was painted pink to celebrate the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1876, during the reign of Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II, lending the city the name of Pink City. Junctions of the main axial streets formed the two square civic open spaces called chaupars (Badi chaupar and Chhoti chaupar). The width of the square chaupars was three times that of the main street. Historically, the chaupars were outlets for intense social use with water structures connected by underground aqueducts, supplying numerous sources of drinking water at street level. Presently, the centre of each chaupar has square enclosures with ornamental fountains. The streets and chowks (central open squares in a town) of the internal chowkries (sectors) with numerous clusters or mohallas were not predetermined; hence show a mix of grid iron and organic pattern, with the basic unit of built form being the rectangular haveli.

URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY BAZAARS 1. Original markets in the city include Kishanpole bazaar, Gangauri bazaar, Johari bazaar, Sireh Deorhi bazaar, along the main north-south and east-west axes that intersect at Chhoti and Badi Chaupars. 2. Typical architectural features of the bazaar streets are - use of chhajjas (sunshades) resulting in strong horizontal lines, projecting vertical blocks on brackets, a modular system of arches filled with delicate latticed screens to cut direct sun and glare of reflected sun in the street.

Bazaar streets have temples above shops with wide staircase starting from pavement to the temple level. Space above shops at first floor level originally functioned as galleries for watching royal processions, religious festivals and public celebrations

Uniform planned shop fronts on bazaar streets with upper floors in interesting juxtaposition.

Defined street faade at a chaupar with sunshades and latticed colonnades at upper floors and shop fronts on the ground floor.

Chettinad Heritage: UNESCO Programme - Indian Heritage Passport Uses heritage-based tourism as a vehicle for local development Expands the cultural value of heritage sites and Extends tourism to lesser known sites

Identification and promotion of Chettinad built heritage such as urban landscape, architecture and water management. The Revive Chettinad Heritage Campaign was initiated by UNESCO in 2007 in close consultation with the Government of Tamil Nadu and with technical support from a Tamil Nadu-based French NGO, ArcHe-S, Anna University, Chennai, and French Ecole de Chaillot. Generous financial and technical contribution of the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs and the French Regional Council of Centre made the intensive survey work possible, while the production of the publication was supported by La Maison des Indes, a French travel agency specialized in India.

The Chettinad means country of the Chettiars who belong to a lineage of wealthy traders and financiers. They made their fortunes by extending their business to the whole of Southeast Asia, particularly during the 19th century, when they were at the peak of their economic power between 1850 and 1940 . The world financial depression: Their recent history is closely linked to the sweeping geopolitical changes that took place in the middle of the 20th century in this vast region. These changes made the Region and its very unique heritage forgotten for the last decades. Chettinad Cultural Identity The unique History of the Chettiar community Chettinad Cultural Identity An outstanding Urban Planning The 73 villages and the two towns of the region have been planned following the same urban grid pattern. This urban organization is the reflect of the traditional rules of the space Chettinad Cultural Identity An outstanding Urban Planning Main Street on South/North axis East/West Street Cross Street South/North - East/West The main streets are oriented South/ North, second streets are oriented East/West; Large rectangular plots with a particular proportion of 1 by 4 such as 30 meters length by 120 meters long. Chettinad Cultural Identity Water Management : Ooranis & Erys As Chettinad is located in a semi-arid plain, the Chettiars have elaborated a sophisticated water management system with a huge network for collecting the rain water: The Oorani is a Tamil word for surface water storage tank located in the villages and towns. The Erys are traditional surface water storage lakes necessary for sustainable in agriculture. Chettinad Cultural Identity The Unique Chettiar Palatial Homes Many of houses have evolved over nearly two centuries and became veritable palaces. They were built for housing a large number of guests at the occasion of important functions such as weddings. They are also the centre of the familys ancestors celebrations.

The Indian Heritage Passport Programme Uses heritage-based tourism as a vehicle for local development Identification and promotion of intangible heritage such as: Traditional skills for buildings and architecture Crafts including wood carving, metal work and textiles Festivals Performing arts Cuisine Chettinad Cultural Identity Living Heritage : Village traditions Chettinad is comprised of a large number of communities, other than the Chettiars, who have strong living heritage which participate to the cultural diversity of the region. Chettinad Cultural Identity Living Heritage : Village traditions Mariamman Festival in Karaikudi These festivals are the occasion to gather the different communities of the villages. UMAID BHAWAN PALACE AT JODHPUR IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA The Umaid Bhawan Palace hotel subtly blends Rajput and Victorian architecture. Umaid Bhawan Palace is a palace located atJodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Umaid Bhawan Palace exudes an aura distinctly its own. Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India was originally called Chittar Palace during construction, due to its location on Chittar Hill, the highest point in Jodhpur. Ground for the foundations of the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India was broken on 18 November 1929 by Maharaja Umed Singh, it was unfinished until 1944. Umaid Bhawan was one of the last royal constructions (and India's last Palace), built to provide work and drought relief for the poor. Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur, when it was built, was the world's largest private residence,

with 347 rooms. The Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India is dramatically illuminated at night causing some controversy in a city that continues to endure daily multi-hour power cuts. The Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India now is a five star deluxe palace hotel. The museum of the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur is highly recommended for its display of weapons, an array of stuffed leopards, a huge banner presented by Queen Victoria and an incredible collection of clocks. History and Architecture of Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India Jodhpur, once the capital of the former princely state of Marwar, is now the second largest city of Rajasthan. Flanked on its western side by the Mehrangarh Fort, and on the eastern side by the stately sandstone Palace of Umaid Bhawan; the monuments temples and gardens of Jodhpur depict a multi-faceted grandeur. The foundation stone of HV Lanchester's (a renowned Edwardian architect) Umaid Bhawan was laid on 18 November 1929 by the Maharaja himself on rocky Chittar Hill south-east of the city. Five thousand men and women worked on Chittar Hill for fifteen years; the supervising architect, Goldstraw, receiving a thousand rupees a month while unskilled workers took home fifty paise a day. The contractor was Indian, as were the engineers. A pink-tinged, cream coloured stone was used which came from quarries ten miles away and the marble came from Makrana. A special train brought up the massive blocks of stone after skilled workers below had chiselled them into shape, for each piece had its assigned place in the drawings. The building does not use mortar or cement to bind stones together; all of its pieces are carved stones joined together by a system of carved interlocking positive and negative pieces. Some blocks proved too heavy for the cranes to position with precision so they were places first on even larger blocks of ice and positioned with mortar. The entire project cost Maharaja Umaid Singh Rupees 94,51,565.

The Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur, when it was built, was the world's largest private residence, with 347 rooms. The building's prominent central dome is 110 feet high. The palace grounds cover 26 acres (105,000 m), out of which constructed area is 3.5 acres (14,000 m) and 15 acres (61,000 m) are devoted to lawns. The Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India has the most expensive hotel at Jodhpur and is one of the largest private houses in India. The interiors were designed by Maples of London in the Art Deco style that was then the height of fashion in Europe and America. But the ship carrying them to Bombay in 1942 was sunk by the Germans. Frantic efforts were then made in Jodhpur to manufacture the interiors in the style required. Fortunately Umaid Singh discovered in Stefan Norblin, a well known Polish artist who had fled war-torn Europe, an amateur interior designer well-acquainted with Art Deco. Norblin's murals superbly complement his decoration. Both the paintings and the decorations are well preserved and the palace remains a unique museum of the style. The last of India's great palaces, Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India is one of the largest in the world. Set in twenty-six acres, of which fifteen are gardens, its central cupola a hundred and five feet Durbar Hall for public audience, a banquet hall, an auditorium, a ballroom, a library, an indoor swimming pool, a billiards room, four tennis courts, two unique marble squash courts, a marble pavilion, a nursery

and garages for twenty motor cars, Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India is unabashedly magnificent. Magnificence of Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India exudes an aura distinctly its own. The Palace hotel subtly blends Rajput and Victorian architecture. Lush lawns and courtyards, picturesque ceilings, marble corridors, treasure troves, hunting trophies of yesteryears and exquisite royal heirlooms complete the regal picture. Since olden days, the Maharaos of Kotah (as Kota was formerly called) had always lived in the medieval Fort inside the city. Wanting a modern palace for his personal use, Maharaja Umed Singh II settled for nothing but the best. There was more to the impressive building apart from a peculiar clock tower Separate zenana (ladies') wing, Durbar Hall (investiture room), Edwardian Drawing Room, Library, Billiards Room, the Banquet Hall and even a cinema hall. Every visiting dignitary, including Queen Mary, who visited Kotah State in 1905, has been entertained at the Umed Bhawan. In 1930, the Palace was enlarged to provide accommodation for Maharaj Kumar Bhim Singh and his bride. George Devon, the designer, took great care to ensure that the new wing blended well with the old. This part of Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India remains a private residence while the rest is operational as a Welcome Heritage hotel Occidental in its symmetrical planning and an integration of many Indian architectural styles, the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India is deeply embedded in Rajput tradition. Befitting the residence of Rajput ruler, it occupies the highest point in the city; only its uninhabited ancestor Mehrangarh looms above. As the home of the Suryavanshi or solar descended Rathores, Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India greets the rising sun. And like medieval Rajput palaces, it is divided into the Mardana, the male section, and the Zenana, the ladies section, both with separate entrances, the latter with an enclosed garden and a private passage to the swimming pool. Like their predecessors the ladies may watch ceremonies, durbars and parties unobserved; the public rooms of the palace have galleries on the first floor where gauze screens were draped for the zenana Someone once said," Umaid Bhawan home to big cats and small dogs. The tigers and leopards, many of them shot in southern Marwar, are everywhere to seen. A Courtyard very much in the Rajput palace tradition but covered and on the upper floor of Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India. The Palace houses a fine collection of shikar trophies and the fountain is made of Baccarat crystal. The cascading water strikes a different and compatible, musical note at each fall.

The Trophy Bar in Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India has Elephant feet stools with tiger skin cushions, gazelles from Africa and bears from Kashmir, astonishinly large wild boar tushes, binoculars from idyllic afternoons on the Serengeti and a collection of fishing gear from patient morninings on the crystal streams of Scotland. The Billiards Room in The Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India with portraits of outstanding Victorian and Edwardian race-horses, and oils of horses from Maharaja Sardar Singh's race stable at the turn of century are outstanding. Sardar Singh's colours, the Panchranga - the five

colours, the Flag - flashed victorious past many a finishing post during those years, as the showcases of silver cups in the Palace. The sub-terranean swimming pool below the central Rotunda forms a part of the Umaid Bhawan's Zodiac Club, which includes, besides the billiards room, a gymnasium, a sauna, two unique marble squash courts, four tennis courts and croquet lawns to sunbathe on The towers and walls and parapets of Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India have been lavished with interesting and exquisitely crafted carvings, each one painstakingly sketched by the architect himself. Elephants and peacocks recall the majesty of the Rathores while the gargoyles are suitably intimidating. Horses, in the home of the equestrian Rathores, are everywhere to be seen but pride of place goes to Umaid Singh's imperial medals on the rear facade. Elsewhere stylized aeroplanes celebrate his passion for flying. Towers, big and small, of different shapes and designs, complement the central cupola. Some are purely aesthetic and symmetrical components; others are disguised water tanks. Present status of Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India The present owner is His Highness Gaj Singh, The Maharaja of Jodhpur. He has divided the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India into three functional parts, one having a five-star hotel (in existence since 1972), one is the residence of the royal family and one has been opened to public where a small museum displays pictures, arms, swords, and other items relating to Jodhpur's royal heritage. The opening times of this museum are 10 AM to 4 PM, and it is closed on Sundays. Umaid Bhawan Palace Hotel at Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India Converted to a hotel in 1972, the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India was thrown open to the public at large as a residential hotel. Since 1978, the hotel has been associated with one of India's premier hotel chains-ITC Hotels. Today Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India is the flagship of the welcome Heritage Chain, which runs charming heritage hotels, spread across Rajasthan and its adjoining states. Guests and residents of the Palace experience aspects of royal living, with period furniture, priceless antiques and artefacts adorning the public areas as well as the rooms in which the hotel section is situated Classified as a 5 Star Deluxe property by the Government of India, the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India has every modern convenience to cater to today's traveller and several unique features. The Central Dome soars 110 feet overhead, and provides spectacular centerpiece - a focal point for all the visitors to the property .The Trophy Bar, the Risala Restaurant ,the Marwar Hall, the Pillars restaurant and the Kebab Konner from the backbone of the hotels Food & Beverage activities, providing residents and guests a choice of dining options and cuisines. The view from the Pillars, especially at sunset, is spectacular. Landscaped gardens adorn the exteriors of the building and the spacious lawns at the rear of the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India create an ambience which is at once serene, restful and yet spectacularly royal. Deep inn the heart of the building, the Zodiac Swimming Pool is a cool blue retreat. Located indoors, it is in fact under the main plinth of the building, tucked away in the basement, which makes it private an accessible only to residents of the hotel. The Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India has in the past few years become increasingly popular as a conference destination and venue with meeting spaces available for small and large numbers contained within the building. A visit to Jodhpur cannot be complete without the experience of staying at the Umaid Bhawan Palace, which is rated as perhaps the world's finest palace hotel.

Museum of Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India The private museum attached to the Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India contains a small but exquisite set of display section, exhibiting arms, furniture, antique clocks and priceless China vases that formed a part of the private collection of Maharajas of Jodhpur. The Umaid Bhawan Palace is equipped to cater to all segments of travelers, be they visitors on business or leisure to the city of Jodhpur.

jaipur The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens). The directions of each street and market are East to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are three gates facing East, West, and North and a Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South. For Jai Singh

II and his advisor Vidyadhar, the founding of Jaipur was aritual and opportunity to plan a whole town according to the principles of Hindu architectural theory. The city was originally within walls, though it has expanded outside of the original walls over time. The gates used to be closed at sunset and opened at sunrise. The town of Jaipur is built in the form of an eight-part Mandala known as the 'Pithapada'.

BRIEF: The essence of case study is to understand and analyze the vernacular architecture in form of traditional dwelling in light of climatic & geographical consideration, family structure & customs, planning & design, and building technology & material. INTRODUCTION: The house belongs to an affluent family of the town and is about 70 yrs old. The house was designed and built in during the colonial period with rapidly changing Indian society and new life styles, therefore reflects the features of the period. As the house is now divided into two halves each belonging to the two brothers, defines how a dwelling modify itself over time.

Views of the Dwelling

ABOUT THE SITE:

LATITUDE:-26.52 N LONGITITUDE:75.50 E

The site lies in the city of Jaipur, capital of Rajasthan. It was the first planned colony that came up outside the main walled city, around early 20th century. It acts as a link between the traditional Rajput architectural setup and that of planning of modern Jaipur. The roads run parallel nd perpendicular to each other with service lanes. It is in form of bungalow system surrounded by houses of same status and period. It is in close vicinity to railway station, bus stand and main markets.

DESIGNING AND PLANNING: The house stands well in approxmately square plan with nearly 55% of carpet area. The plan well facilitates the need of the family and the customs they follow.

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

FIRST FLOOR PLAN Features:

-Courtyard house. -Mirror image along central axis into halves. -Two flights of stair case. -First floor construction in three parts. -Bedroom on southwest. -Pooja & study in north. -Guest room & servants quarter in east. ELEVATION: As the building was built in the colonial period it reflects the elements of influence like the pillars & the arches. The faade is colored white blended with Jaipur style.

Views of the Elevation:

Arches with stone columns and brackets with jaipuri carved jalis.

Big windows with ventilators. SECTIONS:

Views of Interior:

First Floor Terrace

Room Layout

Typical Staircase in Jaipur

Ventilators in a Room

The courtyard is the core area of the house hold activities with circumferential verandah and aid in light and ventilation.

As told the cornice are painted with flowers and leaves design in vegetable and natural colors.

There are large windows with low sill for ventilation is also typical to hot climate.

The rooms in the faade are chamfered at 45, and forms two octagonal volumes vertically, which is unique to Jaipur and can be seen in many buildings of the old city as in Hawa Mahal. KEY DESIGN GENERATORS: 1. Climate and Geography: composite climate, hot-dry and dusty summers with moderate rainfall, winters with warm dry days & cold nights. Courtyard to support ventilation. Big windowds with low sill. High ceiling to increase comfort levels. Construction: stone the basic construction unit - lime is used as binding material Big stone pillars used in elevation. Complete rubble masonary. Kota stone flooring. Customs and Rituals: daily pooja by pandit - girls received education at home - sweepers allowed in restricted area only. Pooja Room (Praying Room) & WC (western comode) kept on opposite side of central axis. Clear division of house into public & private area. Provision of study. Separate entry & staircase for sweepers. Family Structure: head was a medical doctor - wife expired early - four sons & two daughters - elderly mother and 2 sisters - 3 to 4 cousins to study - 3 full time sevants - regular visitors - tutor was pandit (Indian priest) Big house with number of rooms. Doors opening into each other interlinking the whole house at the cost of personal privacy. Assets:2 cars and 2 horses - cooking done on stoves & klins fueled by wood & coal - annual food for big family. Added storage for the above assets like garage, granary, stores. ZONING AND SPACE TYPES: As seen in most of vernacular planning, due to social customs, the whole house is clearly divided into public & private zones. In this case: The right half is the public zone or mens area, which belonged to the head of the family. The left half is the private zone with study, bedrooms specially for the ladies, kitchen and dinning.

There is not much vertical zoning as the family lived as a unit. As the first floor is built in three parts. The rooms are not separated by any corridor or any other space and open into each other at the cost of individual privacy.

CLIMATE AND UTILITY PATTERN: The north is along the diagonal. It is a south west facing with maximum fenestrations. North east is guarded by biulding beyond and courtyard in north east.

There is sequence of spaces being used with changing solar angle and seasons. FOUNDATION AND ROOM SIZE RESTRICTIONS:

Foundation 12 deep, of stone slabs resting on walls.

As the roof was made up of stone slab so the room size was restricted to 10, where ever required to increase the size of room iron girders were used as beams.

PROFILE OF GWALIOR Planning and Architecture The city of Gwalior is composed of three sub-cities: Old Gwalior towards the north-northeast, Lashkar towards the south and the Morar Cantonment towards the east. The expanding urban fabric now joins the three cities. The undulating landscape is dotted with hilly outcrops, but none are as high as the Fort Hill. The Gwalior fort built atop the towering tabletop hill is the most important landmark in the city. The three cities have spread on the foothills and the valleys, with many manmade water bodies to catch surface run-off from the catchments of sloping lands. The river Swarnalekha, which cuts through the city, has also influenced the urban form.

The nucleus of Gwalior is the fort citadel covering an isolated rock about 91 m (300 ft) high. The rock is said to have been a fortified settlement for more than ten centuries, and the Old City (Hazira) is located on the eastern base of the rock. The old town of Gwalior was built in a haphazard fashion and is of considerable size. Buildings and urban spaces date mainly from the fifteenth to the early twentieth centuries. The fort palaces, gardens, lakes and ponds, streets, sectors, common people's houses, shops, mausoleums, cenotaphs, institutions, industries, religious buildings and public facilities all testify the architectural quality, beauty and splendour of life in historic Gwalior. The major streets were laid out along the contours parallel to the northeastern edge of the fort hill, joined by roughly perpendicular streets that have the fort hill as the focus. The rectilinear sectors held between these streets show an organic-accretive fabric, with narrow streets leading to the introverted houses and beautifully organized urban open spaces. These urban spaces are on a human scale, a complete opposite to the large monumental and extroverted urban spaces introduced in Lashkar, the 19thcentury city. The mohalla or neighbourhood districts are based on different communities of caste and religion. The old city is situated close to the new section of the city called Lashkar, founded by Daulat Rao Scindia. Lashkar is derived from the Persian word meaning army or camp, as it was originally the camp, and later the permanent capital, of the Scindia dynasty of Gwalior state. Lashkar is a few miles southwest from the fort. This city is totally disassociated from the fort and is complete in itself, as against old Gwalior that had the fort as centre of power and focus. Here the centre is the Maharajbada, the residential and administrative sector of the King. The Maharajbada is a large urban square flanked by monumental buildings, each exhibiting a different architectural style. The centre of the square is designed as a garden; in the middle is the magnificent statue of the Scindia ruler set in a Gothic pavilion. The streets radiate from this new power midpoint. The city plan can be compared to a military formation, with the king in the middle surrounded by his generals. The city shows spectacular urban design and architecture, an interesting integration of various Indian and European design styles. The streets are lined with commercial and residential land use dotted with institutions, temples, dharmashalas and public services. A thriving bazaar with many shops, academic and medical institutions surrounds the square/chowk. Three miles east of the old city there is a town called Morar which was formerly a separate town. It was earlier a British military cantonment. It became the scene of the most serious uprising in Central India in 1857. By 1900, it had become a centre for local trade and had an important training industry. Morar is generally a rural farming town and the area is known as the green part of Gwalior because much of the area is still rural. The cantonment area makes up a large area of Morar with official residences for the Indian Army.

UNIT IV PART A 1. What were the purposes of gateways and towers in the medieval palaces of India?
A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. Its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area. It differs from a turret in that it is usually a freestanding structure. A defensive tower built on top of a mound is surrounded by a fence and an outer ditch. The tower may be made of wood or stone and the mound may be natural or man-made

Gateways, like all openings, were recognised weak points in any defensive fortress. The first was acheived by severely restricting the number of gateways. The second method - protecting gateways, Gates were made of wood, which made them vulnerable. To maximise the strength they were made as thick at practicable, often with layers of wood alternating beween vertical and horizontal.Some doors were reinforced by metal plates as shown on the right.In India external doors are often fitted with long spikes to deter barging by elephants

2. How was the mandala adopted in the layout of the city of Jaipur?

First however, the term mandala applies to more than the laws that govern how a town should be planned or how a building should be built. In most cases the basic form of the mandala remains a symmetrical diagram, concentrated about a single

center, divided into four quadrants usually of equal size and built of concentric circles and squares that possess the same center. Early mandalas however, display elementary and basic square like structures much more simple than the later more complex representations. Jaipur constructed in the late 1720 by the ruler Raja Jai Singh II in the district of Rajasthan India follows the ancient manuals of the mandala. The individual architectural monuments however portray the influence of the Moghul empire. Still, with few exceptions like the extension to the town on the southeast corner the plan is very typical of the vastu purusha mandala. For example, the wall around the main square, the avenue running from east to west, the palace in the central pada, and nine padas of equal size. The north west pada however was attached to the southeast side of the city to account for the topography. The movement of the pada removes some of the rigidness of the original plan. The layout of Jaipur is rectangular, not exactly square and there is not a central square as such. This evidence reveals that the city must have been planned on a mandala with unevenly divided sides (Volwahsen 1969). Another interesting deviation from the mandala principles is the orientation of the streets, which run east-southeast, and west-northwest. This may have been an oversight, necessitated by the rules of proportion or for astrological considerations since the site slopes towards the northeast, which the manuals direct, and therefore may be an explanation for the different orientation (Volwahsen 1969). The street in Jaipur takes on a new meaning as it is meant for more than just a route; it is a destination. The same is true for sidewalks as residents and storeowners occupy the space for their own use. The streets are laid out in a hierarchy with the main streets being 108 ft wide the secondary 54 and the tertiary 27. The primary streets are the focus of commercial use and generally provide visual links to major landmarks. Secondary streets are slightly less congested and usually offer more specialized commerce. Tertiary streets mostly serve the local population as they are very narrow and intimate and often lead to squares are dead ends. The main use on tertiary streets is housing.

3. Military fortification is a key element in medieval forts Illustrate with an example. 4. Define Pols of medieval period? the pols which comprise it: The grouping of houses into pols is typical of Gujarat and especially of Ahmedabad. When compared to the costs engendered by the modern cities, the pols seem most economical making use of simple facilities, techniques and easily accessible social amenities, something lost in the City Development Plan for Ahmedabad 5. Define Chaupar as a significant public place in the medieval town?

6. List down the five major city gates of Jaipur. 7. Which medieval city is called the golden city of India? How did the geographic location of the city help in its defense?
Jaisalmer pronunciation (helpinfo) (Rajasthani: ), nicknamed "The Golden city", is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located 575 kilometres (357 mi) west from the state capital Jaipur. It was once known as Jaisalmer state. The town stands on a ridge of yellowish sandstone, crowned by a fort, which contains the palace and several ornate Jain temples. Many of the houses and temples are finely sculptured. It lies in the heart of the Thar Desert (great Indian desert) and has a population of about 78,000. It is the administrative headquarters of Jaisalmer District.

8. Discuss the significance of Bastions in the fortification system?


A bastion is an angular structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of an artillery fortification. The fully developed bastion consists of two faces and two flanks with fire [1] from the flanks being able to protect the curtain wall and also the adjacent bastions. It is one element in the style of fortification dominant from the mid 16th to mid 19th centuries. Bastion fortifications offered a greater degree of passive resistance and more scope for ranged defense in the age of gunpowder artillery compared with the medieval fortifications they replaced.

9. The forts of Rajasthan are the manifestation of its power, structure and Architectural culture. Discuss. 10. Discuss briefly the structure of the Jaisalmer city. 11. Name the nine classification of Indian forts?

Types of Ancient Indian Forts

Detail on stupa at Sanchi showing evidence of crenallations and embrasures

Though most of the structures have been decayed and are lost, India's legacy of ancient forts is seen [5] mostly in the shastras(ancient Indian treatises) and in the reliefs on stupas. On some of the early relief work, the carvings indicate that ancient Indian forts has crenallations, embrasures and sloping [3] walls. The Arthashastra the Indian treatise on military strategy describes six major types of forts differentiated by their major mode of defense. Jal durg:a fortress surrounded by water, also known as audaka-durga and ab-durga. There are two subtypes - the island fortress, or antardvipa-durga, and the plain fortress or sthala-durga. The

sea or the waters of a river wash the first like Murud-Janjira.The latter is encircled with artificial moats filled with water or irrigated by a river. Plain fortresses are naturally much more common. Giri durgs: Giri-durga, or parvata-durga, is a hill or mountain fortress. There are three varieties: prantara-durga, giri-parshva-durga and guha-durga. Prantara-durga is a fortress built on the summit (usually flat) of a hill or a mountain. This was the most common type in the Middle Ages, and the best examples are the castles of Gwalior, Mehrangarh and Chittor . In giri-parshvadurga both major civilian structures and fortifications extend down the slope of a hill or mountain though the summit is certainly included into the defence system, too. The living quarters of aguha-durga fortress are situated in a valley surrounded by high, impassable hills. The hills house a chain of outposts and signal towers connected by extensive defensive walls. Vana durg or vrikshya-durga, would be surrounded on all sides with a dense, impassable forest over a distance of at least 4 kroshas(14.6 km). Variations were the khanjana-durga, built on fens and encircled with thorny woods, and the sthambha-durga, erected in the jungles among high trees but lacking sufficient sources of water. Dhanu durg Dhanvana, dhanva, or maru-durga are desert fortresses, usually to be found in an arid area bare of trees, grass or sources of water over a distance of no less than 5 yojanas(73 km), hence its other name, nirudaka-durga, or waterless fortress. An airina-durga is built on saline soil of barren tract or on fens impregnated with saline water and protected by the thorny bushes that grow there. Mahi durg There are three types of mahi-durga or earth fortress. Mrid-durga are encircled with earthen walls; the approaches to panka-durga are protected by fens or quicksand; and parighadurga are surrounded by walls made of earth and stone or brick, their height exceeding 5.4m and their width constituting half of the height. Nar durg or fortress with men, was defended by a large and loyal army of proven warriors, and was well supplied with arms. It was usually a city fortress, well populated with a substantial garrison. It was also called nara-durga andbala-durga.

Each type of fortress had different advantages.Manu (author of the Manusmti a Vedic text) considered the hill forts offers the best defenses. Some Sanskrit text also consider hill forts to be the abode of gods and hence auspicious. Manu also considers the disadvantages of other fortresses. A fortress surrounded by water often sheltered reptiles and snakes, which made for a rapid spread of disease; on the other hand, reptiles and snakes could deter an assault on a fortress, and disease could force the enemy to lift a siege.Earth fortresses often swarmed with rats and rodents, which might in the long run eat away their foundations. Monkeys plagued the inhabitants of arboreal fortresses, while a fortress that housed a lot of people had to be kept well supplied with food and water to feed all those mouths.However the Mahabharata considers Nri-durga to be the best [6] defensive structures. Most of the time a combination of defenses were used to guard the fort.Ranthambhore Castle, for example, stands on a hill (giri-durga) and used to be surrounded by dense forests (vana-durga). When a considerable garrison of soldiers was billeted in it, the castle could also be classified as nri-durga. The method of planning of the fort is also described along with the layout of the roads. Kautilya suggests that the roads should be laid along the four cardinal directions with a temple at the centre. The Kings house should be at the north.

One of the oldest and most well preserved of such structures are the excavated ruins of ancient fortifications at Sisupalgarh in Orissa. It is estimated to date from the 3rd century BCE and was in occupation for a thousand years at least. Outlines of the fort indicate it had eight gates and thick walls. The western gate was quite elaborate. In 2005, sonar analyais suggested the presence of a deep moat around the fort

PART B 1. What are the salient features of Medieval Forts in India? Illustrate using any one example of a typical fort in North India.
Of all the Indian monuments, forts and palaces are most fascinating. Most of the Indian forts were built as a defense mechanism to keep the enemy away. The state of Rajasthan is home to numerous forts and palaces. Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh are also not far behind. In fact, whole India is dotted with forts of varied sizes. The magnificent forts and palaces of Rajasthan were built during the medieval period. The notable feature about each of the forts and palaces is the exquisite carving work that has survived till date and still receives appreciation from people worldwide. These magnificent forts can not be described in words as they will look too small in front of splendor of forts that beautify India. Some prominent forts of Rajasthan are Amber fort, Chittorgarh fort, Jaisalmer fort, Lohagarh fort, Bikaner fort and Jaigarh fort. Delhi, the capital of India also boasts of some great forts. Some of the notable forts of Delhi are the Red fort, Purana Quila and the Tughlaqabad fort. These grand forts clearly depict the glory of Indian majestic past. There are many other forts of importance in India. Some of the most notable are the Red fort, Agra, the Gwalior fort and the Junagarh fort.

2.

How did defense and security play a key role in the planning and disposition of citadels and strongholds? Illustrate with examples.

3. Explain the evolution of the settlement pattern of Jaipur with sketches. 4. What are called Fortified Settlements? Explain any one example from Northern India. 5. Explain with neat sketches the settlement pattern of Jaisalmer and mention its salient features. 6. Illustrate with neat sketches the salient features of the Gwalior Fort. 7. Jodhpur palace provides a picturesque contrast between the exigencies of defense and the flamboyance of prosperous peace. Discuss.