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LABORATORY REPORT CMT565 Water and Wastewater Technology

Total Solid (TS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Experiment Name of Partners Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) Ainnatul Mardhiah Bt Idris Nur Ain Bt Mohd Nor Nurul Sabirah Bt Mohd Saleh Group Lecturers name Instructors name AS225 4A Dr. Shariff B. Che Ibrahim Sir Ahmad Faisal Fadzil 2012665234 2012640602 2011581687

TITLE: Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), and Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS)

INTRODUCTION: In this experiment, we will determine the total solids, total suspended solid, and volatile suspended solid in wastewater that have chosen by the laboratory. The term solid is used when referring to any material suspended or dissolved in water or wastewater that can be physically isolated either through filtration or evaporation. Solid can be classified as either filterable or non-filterable. Filterable solid may either be settleable or non-settleable. Solids can also be classified as organic and inorganic. Total solid is the term applied to the material residue left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at a defined temperature. Measurement of solids can be made in different water samples and is defined as residue upon evaporating of free water. Thus total solids are nothing but summation of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. The term total dissolved solids refer to materials that are completely dissolved in water. Those solids are filterable in nature. It is defined as residue upon evaporation of nonfilterable sample on a filter paper. Dissolved solids may lead to scaling in boiler, corrosion and degraded quality of the product. Estimation of total dissolved solids is useful to determine whether the water is suitable for drinking purpose, agriculture and industrial purpose. Suspended materials are very displeasing and provide adsorption sites for chemical and biological agents. Suspended organic solids which are degraded anaerobically may release obnoxious odours. Volatile suspended solids are a water quality measure obtained from the loss on ignition of total suspended solids. The sample water is filtered through a filter paper of known weight. The paper is then dried out and weighed to get the "suspended solids". Then the filter paper is heated to an elevated temperature and weighed again. The % loss of the mass is the volatile suspended solids.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), and Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS) in a water sample.

METHOD: 1) TOTAL SOLID ( TS ) 1) The water sample was shaken thoroughly to homogenize it. 2) 5ml of sample was pipetted into the weighed porcelain crucibles or evaporating dish, which has been cleaned and dried to a constant weight in an oven previously. 3) The water was evaporated off on a steam bath until dry then it is dried in an oven at 105 degree celsius for 1 hour. 4) The porcelain crucibles or evaporating dish was cooled in a desiccator, before it was weighed. 2) TOTAL SUSPENDEN SOLID ( TSS ) 1) The filter disk was dried in the oven at 103 degree to 105 degree for 1 hour. It was cooled in a desiccators and weighed. 2) The filter disk was dried. 10 ml of water sample was pipetted onto centre of disk in a Buchner flask by using gentle suction. 3) The disk was carefully washed with 10ml distilled water. The disk was dried at 103-105 degree for 1 hour.

3) VOLATLE SUSPENDED SOLID (VSS) 1) The SS from TSS was wrapped with aluminium foil and it was ignited at 550 degree in the muffle furnace for half an hour. 2) It was cooled in a desiccator and it was weighed. It was repeated till a constant weight was obtained.

RESULT: 1) Total Solid ( TS ): Initial weight (g) 38.7986 2) Total Suspended Solid ( TSS ): Initial weight (g) 0.3031 3) Volatile Suspended Solid ( VSS ): Initial weight (g) 0.3218 Final weight (g) 0.3133 Final weight (g) 0.3218 Final weight (g) 38.9543

DISCUSSION: a) From this experiment, we have obtained; Total Solids (TS) = 31140 mg/L. Based on our result, the TS value is accepted which is in the range. There must be several errors occur while the experiment done; such as technical error and human errors. b) From this experiment, we have obtained; Total Suspended Solids (TSS) = 1870 mg/L. Based on our result, the TSS value is not in the accepted range, but the result still follow the theoretical value; TS>TSS which is the value of Total Solids is greater than Total Suspended Solids. The TSS value is not in the accepted range, this is because of several errors occurred while doing this experiment; such as when the water sample is taking up from the bottle, the sample does not thoroughly mix and not homogenized completely before pipette, so that it will affect our result. Besides that, temperature of the oven which is not stable also will affect our result. The temperature should be between 103oC to 105oC and cannot less than 100oC. Since there are many groups doing the same experiment in one time, the oven is open too often and causes the temperature not constant. The sample cannot dry completely and this will effect on weighing the solids. Some of the sample stacked

on the wall of the disk in Buchner flask. This caused the amount of the solid become less and the result may be not accurate and not follow the theory on the experiment.

c) From this experiment, we have obtained; Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) = 850 mg/L. Based on experiment 2, 3 and 4, only TS value is accepted which is in the range. Although our TSS and VSS value is not in the accepted range, but the result still follow the theoretical value; TS>TSS>VSS which is the value of Total Solids is greater than Total Suspended Solids followed by Volatile Suspended Solids. From our result, the VSS value is not in the accepted range. This may be caused of several errors occurred while doing this experiment that was mentioned earlier on the above paragraph.

d) We have compared our results to the standard B in the Environmental Quality Act, EQA 1974 and we noticed that the value of TS, TSS and VSS from our result is greater than 100.

CONCLUSION: Total Solid, Total Suspended Solid and Volatile Suspended Solid are 31140 mg/L, 1870 mg/L and 850 mg/L respectively. The value of TS, TSS and VSS from our results is greater than 100mg/L from EQA. Therefore as the conclusion, the water sample we used is polluted and contained high total suspended solids.

REFERENCES: 1) http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/env211/tss.htm 2) http://www2.vernier.com/sample_labs/WQV-04-COMP-total_solids.pdf 3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_dissolved_solids

APPENDIX: a) CALCULATION

Total Solids (TS) = Weight of evaporating dish - Remaining solids 106 Volume of sample = 38.9543-38.7986 x 106 5 = 31140 mg/L

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) = (Weight of dish + solids) - (Weight of empty dish) 106 Volume of sample used = 0.3218-0.3031 x 106 10 = 1870 mg/L

Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) = (Weight of filter disk+solids before)-(Weight of empty filter disk+solids after) 106 Volume of sample used = 0.3218-0.3133 x 106 10 = 850 mg/L

QUESTIONS:

Experiment 2: 1. Name the various forms of TS that can be found in wastewater. Total solids are the form of the suspended and dissolved solids which is organic, inorganic solids. In an average domestic wastewater, the organic compounds presented are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats together with the products of their decomposition. The organic solids, which are subject to decay, constitute the main problem in wastewater treatment. Inorganic solids are the natural waters that dissolve some of the rocks and minerals include sand, gravel and silt.

2. Explain the importance of Total Solid determination with respect to wastewater treatment plant. Total solid determination is important to determine and measure the value of wastewater strength. When the high amount of total solids goes to the wastewater treatment plant, it will damage the pump, especially the one that present as insoluble form. The total solid determination helps us to protect the pump. The insoluble form of total solids also can clog pipes. Also, it increases the possibility of pipe to be corroded.

3. List four possible sources of error in this determination. Sources of error can be from the apparatus and technique of handling the apparatus which is come from human error. One of the errors occurs when the water sample is taking up from the bottle. The sample does not thoroughly mix and not homogenized completely before pipette, so that it will affect our result. Besides that, temperature of the oven which is not stable also will affect our result. The temperature should be between 103oC to 105oC and cannot less than 100 oC. Since there are 7 groups doing the same experiment in one time, the oven is open too often and causes the temperature not constant. The sample cannot dry completely and this will effect on weighing the solids. Some of the sample stacked on the wall of the disk in Buchner flask. This caused the amount of the solid become less and the result may be not accurate and not follow the theory on the experiment.

Experiment 3:

1. What are the impacts of TSS on wastewater quality? TSS in the wastewater can causes the light cannot penetrate on plant for photosynthesis process as well as disturbed the process of photosynthesis to occur normally. TSS also will affect the temperature of the wastewater where the temperature will rise over the normal temperature and give harm to the living organism which it can clog the gills and can cause death. The TSS also can cause the water become cloudy and shallow.

2. Explain the significance of TSS in wastewater and in the mixed liquor of the activated sludge aeration tank. In wastewater solution, the existence of TSS can affect the turbidity. In the mixed liquor of the activated sludge aeration tank, it contains the TS, SS and microorganisms. The incoming wastewater mixed with the microorganisms. The amount of TSS determines the weight of microorganisms.

Experiment 4:

1. Can ordinary filter paper be used in this test? No, it is because the ordinary filter paper will burn and destroy when we ignite it to a high temperature (500 C) in the muffle furnace.

2. What is the significance of this determination of Volatile Suspended Solids in wastewater? Volatile suspended solids (VSS) are measured of organic solids in a sample. For an activated sludge biological plant treating human sewage, it is measure of bacterial population present. VSS is determined by taking a TSS sample and heating the sample to the high temperature which is 500 C. The VSS is important in wastewater determination in order to get rough approximation of the amount of insoluble organic matter present in average wastewater sample.