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Friction and

Gravity
Chapter 4, Section 3
Friction

The force that one surface


exerts on another when the two
rub against each other is called
friction
The Nature of Friction

Friction acts in a direction


opposite to the object’s
direction of motion
The strength of the force of
friction depends on two factors:
the types of surfaces involved
and how hard the surfaces push
together
Rough surfaces produce greater
friction than smooth surfaces
Controlling Friction
Is Friction Sliding friction- when solid
surfaces slide over each
Useful or Not? other
Rolling friction- when an
Walking object rolls over a surface
The force needed to
Automobiles overcome rolling friction is
much less than the force
needed to overcome
sliding friction
Fluid friction- the friction
that occurs when an
object moves through a
fluid
Force needed to overcome
fluid friction is less than
needed to overcome
sliding friction
Gravity
Free Fall Projectile Motion

Gravity is the force Projectile- An object


that pulls objects that is thrown
toward each other
A projectile is in free
When the only force fall
acting on a falling
object is gravity, the Horizontal motion of a
projectile does not
object is said to be in
interfere with its free
free fall
fall
Objects in free fall
Projectiles and
accelerate 9.8 m/s2
objects dropped will
hit the ground at the
Air Resistance
Objects falling through air
experience a type of fluid friction
called air resistance
Air resistance is an upward force
Greater surface area of an object
the greater the air resistance
Air resistance increases with
velocity
Eventually air resistance equals
force of gravity
Terminal velocity- the greatest
velocity the object reaches
Growth of
Weight
Seedlings
Plants’ growth Weight- the measure
responds to the force of the force of gravity
of gravity- on a person or object
gravitropism at the surface of a
planet
Mass- the measure of
the amount of matter
in that object
Weight = Mass X
Acceleration
Universal Gravitation
Gravity acts between objects
everywhere in the universe
Law of universal gravitation- the
force gravity acts between all
objects in the universe; any 2
objects in the universe attract each
other
The strength of gravitational force
depends on the masses of the
objects involved
Gravitational force also depends on
the distance between the objects;
farther apart the objects, weaker

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