Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Slide 1: Title

A presentation by Stephen Carter, in partial fulfillment for course Education 6610, Research in Computers in the Curriculum.

Slide 2: Introduction Slide 3: Concept Map Purpose


The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the theme of student satisfaction in distance, blended and online learning environments Yukselturk (2009) defines students satisfaction as a learners attitude or reaction toward a program or class. Bolliger and Martindal (2004) define student satisfaction as students perceptions concerning college or school experiences and perceived value of the education or training received while attending an educational institution Student Satisfaction is a personal viewpoint influences by a students opinions and experience while attending school. Student opinions are influenced by the perceived value of the education received, quality of education and overall school experience. Student experiences are ether positive or negative and linked to achievement, success, and enjoyment in the learning experience.

Slide 4: Concept Map Student satisfaction in distance, blended and online learning environments

Ali & Ahmad, 2011 found that students with higher levels of satisfaction are linked to higher levels of learning compared to those with low levels of satisfaction. Kuo, Walker, Belland, & Schroder, (2013) stated that student satisfaction is an indicator of quality of learning experience while Bolliger & Martindale, (2004) added that student satisfaction increases retention. Sahin and Shelley (2008) stated that satisfaction influences motivation in students and it is an important factor in academic success

Slide 5: Methods Slide 6: Concept Map Background Research

The analysis only included sources that contained student satisfaction, and either: (i) online learning, (ii) blended learning, or (iii) distance education in the title of the articles Database searchers were conducted using Academic Search Premier, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Google Scholar to find 15 peerreviewed journal articles 15 sources were selected from eight peer-reviewed educational technology journals

The studies selected ranged in publication year from 1999 2013

Slide 7: Concept Map Research Methodology and Studies Data Collection


From the selected studies 12 were designed from a quantitative perspective while three used mixed methods approach. The studies were conducted in wide range of countries. Five were conducted in the United States; three were conducted in Turkey, two in Taiwan, and one in Canada, Pakistan, Japan, and the UAE. The number of participants involved in the select studies ranged anywhere from 45 up to 1406. The majority of these participants were university students in undergraduate, graduate, or doctoral students programs.

Slide 8: Findings Slide 9: Sub Theme 1 Perceptions of technology and student satisfaction Slide 10: Concept Map Perceptions of Technology Student Satisfaction is influence by a students perceptions of technology. Generally a student perceptions toward technology are either positive or negative. Positive o Sahin and Shelley (2008) reported that having high levels of computer expertise helps students focus on learning and satisfaction is increased. o Additionally students who use information technology in their work and personal lives were more comfortable and familiar with online learning environments (Sahin and Shelley,2008) o Bray et al., (2008) added students who found it easy to use computers were more satisfied then those who did not. o Sun et al., (2008), Wu et al., (2010), and McFarland and Hamilton (2005) stated that there was a positive relationship between student comfort with technology, students success and satisfaction in online learning environments o Wu et al., (2010) added that the ease of technology use and Internet quality contributed to satisfaction o Naaj et al.,2012 found that Technology can have positive influence on student satisfaction o Calli et al, 2013 stated that student satisfaction is increased when students become more familiar, confident, and capable of learning through online environments. o Furthermore, the more functional and easy to use an online environment is, the less frustrations occur and satisfaction increases (Calli et al., 2013) o Wu et al. (2010) reported system functionality and content features are related to student satisfaction

Negative o Chang & Smith, (2008) and Wu, et al., (2010). Found that learner anxiety toward computers and computer use decreases satisfaction in online environments

Slide 11: Sub Theme 2 Instructor performance and student satisfaction Slide 12: Concept Map Instructor performance and student satisfaction

Ali & Ahmid., (2007), Sun et al., (2008) and Swan, (2001) highlight that instructors need to be experienced teachers, available for student access, provide prompt responses and encourage their students in online activities Ali & Ahmid., (2007) found that students satisfaction increased when teachers encouraged questions and comments, gave students respect, presented materials clearly, and highlighted major points and concepts Bollinger and Martindale (2004) added that communication, feedback, preparation, content knowledge, teaching methods, encouragement, accessibility and professionalism increase satisfaction Furthermore, teachers who teach in online learning environments need to be good teachers to enhance students satisfaction (Bollinger & Martindale, 2004)

Slide 13: Sub Theme 3 Course structure and student satisfaction: Slide 14: Concept Map Course structure and student satisfaction

Shain & Shelley, (2008) found that Course flexibility and quality are factors that significantly increasing student satisfaction. Sun et al., (2008) added that e-learning in not confined by space, time, and location; therefore students have a high degree of flexibility and choice for selfpaced learning Sahin and Shelley (2008) showed that e-learning courses should provide students with flexibility in their interactions with the instructor, fellow students and course material. Flexibility in course structure was identified to be a key strategy to overcome intrinsic and extrinsic barriers in e-learning environments, which promotes enjoyment and satisfaction (Sahin and Shelley, 2008). Sun et al. (2008) findings highlighted that satisfaction was linked to course schedule, discussion arrangements and type, and course material quality E-learning instructional expertise and technology assistance must be in place to enhance students satisfaction in online learning environments (Sun et al., 2008) Sun et al., (2008) added most e-learning environments have built in help pages or frequently asked questions sections if problems occur during online classes. Well-designed platforms with help tools can decrease e-learning uncertainly and frustration with e-learning courses and enhance learner experience (Sun et al., 2008)

Slide 15: Sub Theme 3 Student interactions and students satisfaction: Student instructor interactions Slide 16: Concept Map A Student interactions and students satisfaction: Student instructor interactions Ali & Ahmid., (2001) and Swan (2001) found that student-instructor interactions (SII) are related to students satisfaction Bray et al. (2008) reported that student satisfaction was increased when students felt they were able to communicate with their instructor effortlessly and the instructor provided help in a timely manor. Bollinger et al., (2008) found that in order to increase student satisfaction, online learners need to be given ample opportunities to participate in discussion in order to feel involved and stay engaged in the learning process Swan (2001) reported that students who do not have adequate access to their instructor feel they learn less and are less satisfied with their online course

Slide 17: Concept Map A Student interactions and students satisfaction: Student instructor interactions Ali & Ahmid., (2001) indicated that course discussion, feedback, interactions with instructor, the instructors ability to treat students as individuals, and informing students of their performance increase the perceptions of teacher interactions, thus increasing student satisfaction Chang et al., (2008) highlighted that the instructor is responsible for facilitating studentstudent, student-instructor, and student-content interactions in online learning environments Furthermore, interactions between students and instructors impact student satisfaction. Factors that influence student-instructor interactions included communication, synchronous chat, frequently update grade books, and constructive feedback about student work (Chang et al., 2008)

Slide 18: Sub Theme 3 Student-student interactions: Slide 19: Concept Map Student-student interactions: Swan (2001) found that students who reported their level of interactions with other students in their class as high also reported significantly higher levels of online course satisfaction Bray et al.,(2008) reported students who did not prefer social interactions when learning were more satisfied than those who preferred social interactions

Chang et al., (2008) highlighted that students in online learning environments often feel isolated and disconnected from other students because of the lack of interaction Bray et al., (2008) findings reveled that limited student interactions with other students in online classes leads to less satisfaction in online learning environments Bray et al., 2008; McFarland & Hamilton, 2005 reported that lack of interactions decreases satisfaction in online learning environments

Slide 20: Sub Theme 3 Student-Cotent interactions: Slide 21: Concept Map Student-Content interactions: Swan (2001) reported that students who are more active in courses, either online or offline, are more sa tisfied with their online course and learn more Kuo et al., (2013) stated that the design of online content may be the most important factor in contributing to students satisfaction. The organization of content, document layout and ease of accessibility of online content influences learn er interaction with the course and indirectly effects student satisfaction Chang et al., (2008) added that well organized course material and streaming lectures could help student learning, facilitate student-content interaction and increase learner retention and satisfaction

Slide 22: Sub Theme 3 Characteristics of online students and student satisfaction:

Slide 23: Concept Map Characteristics of online students and student satisfaction: Yukselturk (2009) reveled that online learners should be active learners in the learning process and know how to study Students need to be aware of their responsibilities and self-disciplined. Furthermore, education level and academic maturity was a strong predictor of student satisfaction (Yukselturk, 2009) Yukselturks qualatitative results of instructors views show that online learners should be at least undergraduate or graduate students. Graduate students were more motivated, able to adapt to new learning environments and had higher levels of satisfaction in online learning environments compared to undergraduate students (Yukselturk, 2009)

Slide 24: Discussion Slide 25: Concept Map Discussion 1

Of the 15 studies selected eight studies highlighted the importance of technology perceptions in increasing students satisfaction (Bolliger et al., 2004; Bray et al., 2008; Kuo et al., 2013; McFarland & Hamilton, 2005; Naaj et al., 2012; Sahin & Shelley, 2008; Sun et al., 2008; and Wu et al., 2010).

Studies by Bray et al. (2008), Wu et al. (2010), and Sahin & Shelley (2008) showed that students who had higher levels of computer self-efficacy, computer expertise and positive attitudes toward computers use displayed higher levels of satisfaction Sun et al. (2008) and Sahin & Shelley (2008) findings revealed that flexibility of course structure is a strong predictor of student satisfaction in online learning environments. Flexibility in online courses helps non-traditional students attend school as well as give traditional students options in course platform. (Sun et al., 2008) added that these options are one of the leading factors for why students take online courses

Slide 26: Concept Map Discussion 2

Sun et al. (2008) and Ali & Ahmad, (2001) identified that teacher attitudes toward e-learning significantly affected e-learners satisfaction. Additionally, teachers response times to questions and problems were directly related to student satisfaction Bollinger and Martindale found that communication, feedback, preparation, content knowledge, teaching methods, encouragement, accessibility and professionalism increase satisfaction

Slide 27: Concept Map Discussion 3 Interactions with students were shown to be the most common theme of the 15 articles analyzed. Nine out of the 15 articles looked at interactions with students as a variable and all nine shows that student interactions to be a significant predictor of satisfaction (Ali & Ahmid., 2011; Bollinger & Erichsen, 2013; Bollinger & Martindale, 2004; Bray et al., 2008; Change et at., 2008; Kuo et al., 2013; Naaj et al., 2012; Sun et al., 2008; Shawn, 2001; Wu et al., 2010) B Swan (2001) added that students who do not have ample access to their instructor feel they learn less and are less satisfied Chang et al., 2008; Bray et al., 2008; Swan, 2001 found that Student-student interactions were also noted as a factor that impacted student satisfaction Chang et al. (2008) found that students often feel isolated in online courses because of the lack of student student interactions Bray et al.,(2008) found that students who did not prefer social interactions when learning were more satisfied then students who preferred interactions when learning. Kuo, et al., (2013) and Chang et al., (2008) found that course organization and well made course materials increase student satisfaction. Furthermore, document layout and ease of accessibility of online content increase student satisfaction

Slide 28 Slide 29:

Conclusion Concept Map Conclusion The findings of the 15 sources suggest that there are many factors that influence student satisfaction in online learning environments. The majority of the studies concluded that student interactions were key predictors of student satisfaction (Ali & Ahmid., 2011; Bollinger & Erichsen, 2013; Bollinger & Martindale, 2004; Bray et al., 2008; Chang et at., 2008; Kuo et al., 2013; Naaj et al., 2012; Sun et al., 2008; Shawn, 2001; Wu et al., 2010). Additionally, factors such as flexibility of course, quality of instructor and technology self-efficacy were shown to influence student satisfaction

Slide 30 - Implications Slide 31: Concept Map Implications Chang et al. (2008) Kuo et al. (2013); and Swan (2001) stated there is a need for online course developers and teachers to understand the needs of their students and that course structure and quality plays an active role in students satisfaction. Ali & Ahmid., 2007; Sun et al., 2008; Swan, (2001) stated that instructors need to understand that they play a vital role in students satisfaction. Instructors need to ensure that the qualities of materials, timeliness of feedback are of high standards to best meet the needs of their students Bollinger et al., (2008) state that teachers need to promote students-student and student-content interactions in online environments by making discussion an active part of the online learning process Chang et al., 2008 stated that group projects, required discussion post, and online chat rooms in both synchronous and asynchronies forms help students engage and interact with other students and the instructor

Slide 32: Limitations Slide 33: Concept Map Limitations Some studies had small sample sizes thus limiting the results and the generalizability of the findings (Bollinger & Martindale, 2004; Kuo et al., 2013; Naaj et al., (2012) Sahin and Shelley (2008); and McFarland & Hamilton, 2005) All of the 15 sources data collection took place at a single location. Results from these studies may be applicable to the particular school or location, but larger more inclusive study of the general population is needed to infer generalizability. all 15 studies collected data from university students in undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs. Further research is needed on secondary age students to confirm results and increase generalizability

Slide 34 : Slide 35: Slide 36: Slide 37: Slide 38: Slide 39:

References References Numbers 1 to 4 References Numbers 5 to 7 References Numbers 8 to 10 References Numbers 11 to 13 References Numbers 14 to 15