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R e v i e w e d b y

Tai Kungs Six Secret Teachings

Translation by Ralph Sawyer

About Tai Kung Aims and Objectives Civil Secret Teaching Martial Secret Teaching Dragon Secret Teaching Tiger Secret Teaching Leopard Secret Teaching Canine Secret Teaching Analysis and application

About Tai Kung

Personal name Chiang Shang, also known as Lu Shang General, teacher, advisor Served under both Shang and Chou dynasties Helped King Wen and King Wu of the Chou to overthrow the Shang dynasty Compared to Confucious in Tang dynasty

Aims and Objectives

The first and only Chinese civil and military classical writing aiming for revolution Proposes government measures for effective state control Discusses war strategy from two grand perspectives civil and martial, and tactics from four perspectives dragon, tiger, leopard, and canine

Civil Secret Teaching

Moral and effective government as a requirment for survival and foundation of warfare Strive for economic prosperity while limiting expenditure , foster appropriate values, implement rewards and punishments, employ the worthy Just love the people how? Profit them - low taxes, do not harm them Emphasis on sharing with the people Promoted fairness, self-control Rulers wisdom the eye values clarity, the ear sharpness, the mind - wisdom Profit people and observe if arrogant (control) Do not loan sharp weapons to others US/Iran Material wealth the only way to be benevolent If strategic military power is not exercised, enemy states will grow stronger relative gains assumption

Martial Secret Teaching

Nothing surpasses unity Give and you shall receive Overthrow a tyrant, step-by-step guid by using deception, plotting, bribery,trap What is too strong will certainly break, too extended must have deficiencies The mind is the means to open up knowledge;knowledge the means to open up the source of wealth; and wealth to open up the people. Gaining their allegience will attract Worthy men. They will help one become king.

Dragon Secret Teaching

Focus on military organization, secrecy in military communication, basic tactics and exploration of tactical advantages Military matters all under the general no interference from ruler The general 5 talents and10 excesses courage, wisdom, benevolence, loyalty, and trusthworthiness; impatient, greedy, coward, soft, too trusting, taking death lightly, too scrupulos, indecisive, too self-reliant, taking too little responsibility General should share hardship with soldiers but not fight in front of naked blades In military affairs nothing is more important than certain victory Of disaster that befall an army, none surpasses doubt.

Tiger Secret Teaching

Focus on importance of military weapons and equipment; on tactics for combat in adverse situations Emphasis on speed, maneuverability, decisivness, ambushes, misdirection, unity, explosivness, and courage Your equipment is your treasure In general, when you venture deep beyond enemys borders, you must investigate the configuration and strategic advantages of the terrain

Leopard Secret Teaching

Focus on tactical advantages and solutions for difficult types of terrains such as forest, mountaines, ravines, rivers etc.; Explores battles against superior foes, defending own territory, employment of explosive force

Canine Secret Teaching

Emphasis on employment of the three major military forces chariots, infantry, and cavalry in variaty of tactical situations Discusses battlefield effectivness Describes how to exploit enemys deficiencies and weaknesses Looks ate selection and identification of motivated, talanted soldiers for elite units Deals with training and development

Analysis and application

On Civil Teaching - Its written only from the perspective and perception of the ruler On Martial Teaching total warfare On Tactical Teachings out of date, although many ideas still apply, such as the secrecy in communication, taking advantage of terrain, etc. Application mainly in realists theory Modern day application security studies

Questions and Answers

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