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Emotions Dianne J.E. Kraus Wilkes University

The thirty-one male and females in the mini-study were a diverse group of Advanced Biology students from Dundee-Crown High School in Carpentersville, Illinois. The students prepared experimental design posters prior to the videotaping of this lesson so that they could complete a

gallery walk to identify errors in thinking relating to scientific variables. The target learning goal for this lesson was that students will be able to describe the key parts of a controlled scientific


The video was taken during a 45 minute period after the students returned from

lunch, and following an unannounced fire drill in a room where the temperature was at 105 degrees Fahrenheit.

EMOTIONS Emotions In this lesson the students were to identify errors in scientific design and give peer feedback for revision. The learning goals for the rubric (Appendix 1) are starting lower on the

mental processing hierarchy and the goals will be scaffolded as we move through our unit. The video-taped lesson is a gallery walk that includes a focus on pacing, physical movement and humor in order to positively affect attention and improve student engagement. The students have prepared experimental design posters based claims in magazine advertisements. They were asked to identify the variables and clearly define them on the poster for their experimental design. After posting their work on the wall, the teacher explained the expectations to the students in order for them to complete the gallery walk and to identify errors in design. The students then revised their work and turned in their designs to the teacher. The assessment for this lesson was aligned with the learning goals (Appendix 2) and was a written assessment that will be used to report students progress to the parents. The goal of the lesson was met as the students were engaged in the lesson, and they were able to identify errors in design to provide quality feedback for their peers to revise their work. The teacher scanned the room to identify students who were not engaged in the lesson and redirected them to please work with their group. The pacing of the lesson kept the students engaged by having them move from station to station in a timely manner so that students could process the information at each poster. The students transitioned quickly into the activity in their groups and quickly re-engaged when the gallery walk began.

EMOTIONS The students were learning classroom procedures and expectations so time was taken

to model the appropriate behavior. The student helpers did an excellent job of demonstrating the expectations for the peer review. In retrospect, the teacher should have given them an AVID clap after their contribution, but time was running late due to an unannounced fire drill at the beginning of the class so the teacher needed to cut out parts of the lesson to facilitate completion before the end of the class. The activity had a clear beginning and ending and the students moved quickly to their stations and completed the task, and returned to their seats to revise their work prior to the end of class. The students had adequate time to process the information on the posters without feeling rushed and they were able to process at least three posters in the allotted time which is valuable because each time they moved to a new location students gained repetition, gained experience in identifying errors in thinking, had practice with a new routine and committed the new content into their working memory. During the lesson the teacher used humor while demonstrating inappropriate behavior in preparation for the gallery walk. The humor was part of the lesson and helped to lighten up the students while giving directions and expectations. Using humor increased student engagement and attention to the event. The teacher used physical movement to engage the students in the content by lifting the energy levels and this was needed that day. The air conditioning broke down and the classroom soared to 105 degrees Fahrenheit. With everyone in the room feeling lethargic and tired after lunch it was important to get the students moving and engaged in gaining more

EMOTIONS information about the content and processing the content to identify errors in thinking. Physical movement gets the blood flowing and stimulates learning centers in the brain. Some of the challenges in the lesson were in regard to student behavior and positive

relationships. The teacher has not yet built relationships with this class of students, as the year has just began, and there are students that are demonstrating the need for negative attention, that feel singled out when redirected and that are adjusting to being mainstreamed into high school from special education classes. The students may be difficult to work with and it is imperative that the teacher uses specific strategies for developing positive relationships with the students. These include being positive, not engaging in confrontation, smiling and encouraging, taking an interest in their personal lives, close proximity, making eye contact, and having high expectations of all students. The students wrote learning logs at the beginning of the next class so that the teacher could gain instructional feedback prior to giving the written test for the unit. The students felt that the pace was adequate, they enjoyed the activity and they felt that their teacher expected them to be on task with the activity. One student felt singled out for being off-task and that is an area of growth where the teacher needs to build a positive relationship with this student so that he feels accepted. The teachers next step is to continue work on building positive relationships with the students, and practice the strategies with the students so that they are well-rehearsed for future lesson plans to support effective pacing. This lesson was innovating and involved many strategies for increasing student engagement that were successfully implemented.

EMOTIONS APPENDIX 1 Experimental Design Scale 4.0 Students will be able to identify errors in scientific design and give peer feedback for revision. No major errors or omissions regarding the score 4.0 content In addition to score 3.0 performance, partial success at score 4.0 content Students will be able to describe the key parts of a controlled scientific experiment. No major errors or omissions regarding the score 3.0 content No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content, and partial success at score 3.0 content Students will be able to recognize the accurate definitions of the scientific variables in a controlled experiment. No major errors or omissions regarding the score 2.0 content Partial success at score 2.0 content, but major errors or omissions regarding score 3.0 content With help, partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content With help, partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content Even with help, no success

3.5 3.0

2.5 2.0

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0


Experimental Design Test Section A (Match the word(s) to the definition):

_____1. Independent variable _____2. Dependent variable _____3. Hypothesis _____4. Observation _____5. Constant _____6. Control group _____7. Experiment _____8. Experimental group _____9. Quantitative observation _____10. Qualitative observation a. observations that state quantity or numbers b. controls all variables but one; tests hypothesis c. the factor being changed by the scientist; x axis d. observations that are descriptive e. group tested with the independent variable f. if... then... because... statement

g. factor being measured; the result; the y axis h. group that experimental group is compared to i. information obtained using the 5 senses j. factors kept the same in an experiment


Section B: Use Scenario 1, as an example and describe the key parts of a controlled scientific
experiment and explain why each component is important in this experimental set-up.

Scenario 1 - Title: The effect of humidity on the distance a baseball will travel Dennis is a baseball fan. He really likes long home run hits. Dennis wondered if there is more humidity outside then it is harder for hitters to hit a home run because the humidity will cause the baseball to travel less distance. To see if he was right, Dennis decided to do a test. Dennis had a professional pitcher throw different types of pitches to a professional hitter. After each hit, he measured the distance the ball traveled. He tested how far each ball was hit at the same temperature of 25 C and he recorded the distance the ball traveled as he changed the humidity level. There were 5 different humidity levels: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. He compared the data collected at each humidity level to data collected at a humidity level of 20% where the humidity was not changed. WRITE ANSWER HERE:

EMOTIONS Section C (answer in the space below)

In Scenario 1 above, identify any errors that exist in the experimental design and explain how you would correct these errors based on your knowledge of a controlled experiment. WRITE ANSWER HERE:

EMOTIONS 10 References
Marzano, R. (2007). The Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.