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Part I: Section A: At Grenloch Terrace in Washington Township, New Jersey, all of the teachers are required to use positive

reinforcement with their students. This means they are only allowed to reward good behavior and are not allowed to punish students for their bad behavior. In order to make sure all of the students are engaged and not wanting to act out my cooperating teacher used whole-brain teaching, which is when all of the subjects are taught intertwined into one lesson. This style of learning helps keep the students always engaged and wanting to learn. To try to make sure all of her students are pay attention my teacher has them blow into their hands the answer to a question she asked them. They also have partners in class and my teacher asks them to talk to their partners about the answers as well. Whenever the students remember to do something or remember something that was hard, she would tell them to kiss their brains because they are so smart. My cooperating teacher also had a student of the day, who did the whole morning meeting and calendar. They would have to count, read the sight words, tell shapes, and lead the class to counting to 100. When that student would get something right she would tell the rest of the class to give them a finger cheer. They would range from a one finger cheer to a ten finger cheer. Also when the whole class gets something right she would have to say Oh Yeah! and pump their fists in the air. These actions and sayings she has them do help the students want to learn and shows positive reinforcement. Another teacher at Grenloch uses fast lessons to make sure all of her students are always fully engaged. She does this by having her students listen with their whole bodies. She also sets expectations for the students from the beginning. She makes sure they stick to their expectations for behavior. 1

My teacher also teaches self-regulation through a point system she uses. At the beginning of each day, the students start out with no points. Then throughout the day the teacher rewards them with points if they are well behaved or if they are paying attention. If they all are not behaving the way she wants them to, the teacher receives a point. My teacher does not point out who did the one bad behavior. This allows the students to self-regulate and think about if they were the one who did something wrong, and if they did how could they fix it. To get the students to pay attention the teacher will say Class, Class and they have to respond Yes, Yes, and if they all respond the class gets a point. They can also get points if they are all sitting properly in their seats and are paying attention to the teacher while she is giving them instructions. By the end of the day, if the students have more points than the teacher they are able to put a piece on Mr. Potato head. Once they have all the pieces, they are able to have a fun day. The other teacher that I interviewed also used a point system but she uses a slightly different method. She has a jack-o-lantern on the board, which she changes as the seasons change. Throughout the day if the students behave well she will put a piece of the jack-o-lantern on and if they fill it up, they are able to choose an activity they want to do at the end of the day. At Grenloch they have half day kindergarten so my teacher has two different classes a day and in each class she has one trouble student. For each of her two students she has a different method. But before she comes up with a way to stop the bad behavior she looks for a mode of behavior. For the class I am in, my cooperating teacher did not find a working method until about the last two weeks I was there. The trouble student is six years old, so the teacher expects a little more from him than the rest of the class. But he never behaves properly. He never wants to sit correctly on the floor. The teacher has to tell him multiple times a day to sit correctly or else he would have to go sit in his chair. He also never really talks or participates with the class while 2

on the carpet. She noticed that when she told him that mommy would not be happy with the way he was acting, he would straighten up and listen to her. So she gave him a card everyday that had a happy face and a sad face on it, and the card is sent home to his mom at the end of the day. Throughout the day if she found him doing something wrong she would say Ryan, dont you want to be able to get a happy face to show to mommy? At the end of the day she asks him which face he thinks he should get and if the teacher agrees with him he colors in which face he deserves for the day. Every day she would tell him that he did well and that the next day he should try harder to do better in class. In my teachers afternoon class, she told me that she also had a trouble student in that class. But unlike her student in the morning class, she discovered a method that worked early on in the year. She uses a stamp system. When the student does something right she rewards him with a stamp on his stamp card. When acting out she tells him that if he calm himself down she will give him a stamp. Then once he fills up his card he gets a reward of his choosing. The other teacher also has one trouble student and she uses a card system. The student has twenty cards at the front of the classroom. If the student does something good or follows directions, the teacher flips a card over. Once all of the cards have been turned over, the student gets a reward of their choice. Both teachers at Grenloch have very similar methods to their behavior management plan. The school requires them to provide positive reinforcement, so of course they will both have a reward system. Both teachers also make sure that their students are involved in every way possible and that the students enjoy school so they all behave well.

Section B: Throughout my time at Grenloch Terrace I observed several behaviors that the children kept repeating. One of the most frequent behaviors was the children not sitting with their legs crossed on the carpet. Multiple children were always told to sit down on their bottom so that everyone could see the front of the room and so that they did not end up kicking anyone. I noticed that most of the children she told to sit down were boys. They were either too eager to be involved or just did not want to sit correctly. When the teacher corrected them she told them once to sit on the floor correctly. But if they continue to sit incorrectly she tells then they have an option to either sit correctly or to go back to their seats. This behavior was always demonstrated with Ryan, until the teacher was able to form a working method to get him to behave correctly. Another behavior I noticed that occurred frequently was that one little girl always called out the answer before raising her hand or before the teacher asked for the answer. When the teacher was addressing the class she would tell them to blow the answer in their hand so that everyone could think of the answer on their own, but one little girl never was able to do that. She would always call out the answer and the teacher would tell her to blow it in her hand and tell her when she asks for the answer. This behavior occurred regularly throughout almost every day. Once the little girl was told to not call out she would follow the teachers orders and yell out the answer when everyone else did. Her answer was always right too. A third behavior that I noticed was that many of the students would not follow directions for their projects. The teacher would always try to keep the whole class together during each activity so that they all understood what they were doing. But there were always a few students who caught on to what would come next so they would move on but their teacher did not want

them to do that. So she would point them out and tell them to wait for the rest of the class and that they were not supposed to move on without her. There was always at least one student a day that would skip ahead and they were all mostly girls. A fourth behavior that I noticed was while sitting on the carpet while waiting for the rest of the class to come sit down some students were always messing around. Sometimes the messing around turned into someone being hit by another student and their teacher has to tell them to say sorry and that hitting is not nice. Normally when they get caught and have to say sorry they say it in such a low voice that you can tell right away they understood they did something wrong. This did not happen very often and when it did it was normally out of fun and not with the intentions to actually harm someone else. I noticed that it was a mixture of both boys and girls that were hitting each other. It was mostly a girl hitting a boy or a boy hitting a girl. The fifth and final behavior that I noticed was that all of the students would go to the bathroom often throughout the day. The students are only at school for about two or three hours and many students go to the bathroom at least three times a day. The one student who does this the most was a little girl; she would always ask to go right once she got there, then again after snack time, and then again right before they leave. This behavior can be distracting to the other students if the class always has to be stopped to tell them they can use the bathroom. I believe that most of the time the students who go this often are either trying to get out of class and want to wander around or they have a small bladder.

Part II: I really like the ideas that are expressed at Grenloch Terrace regarding their behavior management plans. I noticed that my teachers class was very well-behaved for their age and that they all had respect for their teacher, which is everything that I want in my future classroom. I like the positive reinforcement and the idea of rewarding the students who are being well behaved and showing the rest of the students how their teacher wants them to behave. I like the point system as well and how it makes the students use self-regulation and determine if it was them who made their teacher get a point. However, I also think it is important to make sure the student knows what action they did exactly was wrong, so the student does not continue to do the same action. In order for a student to be able to self-regulate, they have to first be able to identify the behavior they were expressing. They then have to be able to see if what they are doing was a good behavior or if it was a bad behavior. They only way a student will be able to know this is if their teacher sets expectations and expresses to the students certain ways they need to act in the classroom. Then once the student is able to identify their behavior they will either establish what they did was right and know to continue to do that behavior, or they will establish what they did was wrong and that they need to change that behavior. I also think it is important to set the rules and goals early in the year and to stick to them. The students should all be aware of what expectations are being set and how they are supposed to act in the classroom. This is a good way to teach your students how to monitor their behavior. They want to be able to follow those goals and rules you set for them. I think that when developing rules at the beginning of the year it is important to get the students involved. When I

have my own class, I plan on allowing the students to come up with a rule, and then I will give a rule, and we would go back and forth until we have established a good set of rules for the students to follow throughout the year. This will allow all of the students to know what the rules are since they helped create them. Also when starting the school year I plan to demonstrate to them the appropriate behaviors they need to express in class and towards their peers. I liked the idea of having pictures on the wall expressing different good behaviors, such as sharing. When a student is expressing this behavior they can point at the picture to show that is what they are doing or use the pictures to resolve an issue. I also really liked how my teacher at Grenloch got her students attention. She would say Class, Class and the students would have to respond Yes, Yes. She also always said Crisscross and the students would have to respond applesauce and they have to be sitting on the floor with their legs crossed after they say that. Also, when she wanted to make sure the students were listening and comprehend what she was say she would tell them to repeat after her what they were about to do. All of these methods I noticed worked really well with focusing the students and I plan on using them in my future classroom.

Part III: For my behavior management plan, I plan on taking the behaviorism approach. I believe that in order to fully understand a childs actions you need to find out the reasoning behind it, such as are they doing it get attention, and what exactly causes the child to act out. The three steps for a behaviorism approach are finding the anecdotes, specifying the behavior, and then finding out the consequences of the behavior. A behaviorist also believes in the reward system. I think it is important to reward or praise the students who are behaving well. If the children who are acting out notice that the children who are following directions are getting the attention, they will soon realize that in order to get attention they need to follow directions and the teacher. If a teacher was to completely ignore the good children and constantly draw attention to the children acting out it will allow the child acting out to see this attention as a reinforcement continue with that behavior. When rewarding the students who are listening and follow directions, I plan on praising them and directing my full attention onto them instead of the child or children who are not behaving properly. At the end of the day, I will give each child a sticker that I saw expressed good behavior throughout the day and make it clear to all of my students the reason why some students got stickers and why some did not so they understand what behaviors are acceptable. With my negative students, I will first have to figure out what causes their behaviors and why they are acting this way. Once I do this I will create a way to reward them for when they are representing good behavior. I think that with each student the reward system will vary. Not everything will work on all students, as my teacher at Grenloch helped me notice.

Part IV: With my approach of behaviorism for behavior management, there are five strategies that I plan to use. Those strategies are to preview rules or behavior expectations, teach students the turtle technique, modeling, apology, and a behavioral contract. Preview rules or behavior expectations helps students who think more impulsively. Before the students do something in a challenging situation or setting the teacher will remind the students of the rules and expectations are for what they are doing, such as walking down the hallway they have to be quiet. It is a good way to make sure students remember all of the rules they need to follow for good behavior. A tool that can be used along with this is say what you want to see, not what you saw, the teacher is giving the students clear expectations and telling them to walk quietly down the hallway instead of stomping loudly. Teaching students the turtle technique is important to help the students to calm down when they have been upset. The student needs to recognize the way that they are feeling, then think stop, go inside their shell and take three deep breaths to calm themselves down. Then they come out of their shell they will feel calm and have a solution to their problem. A tool that relates to this strategy is keep a level head, teach the turtle technique. The next strategy is modeling. If a teacher wants students to behave a certain way they need to demonstrate for students visually through modeling. When a trouble student sees a teacher praising another student for a good behavior that he or she did the student will model after than student and the teacher will immediately praise the troubled child. The tool that most relates to this is paint the picture, a visual can speak a thousand words. Using visual cues to show what exactly the behavior a teacher is looking for is s great way to reinforce that behavior.

The next strategy is an apology. An apology is a great way to show when a student has done something wrong without fully giving them attention for the behavior. The student also has to understand what they had done wrong and that their apology is genuine so that they fully comprehend what they did wrong. The tool that is related to this strategy is dont just blow the whistle; coach students to think of a solution. This tool is good for this because the students need to think about what they did wrong that they have to apologize for. There is always a solution to problems and one way to solve problems is through apologizing. The last strategy I plan to use is a behavioral contract. For a behavioral contract the student and teacher both come up with an agreement where the student engages in positive behavior instead of their negative ones, the privileges or rewards that the student will receive when they follow through with their positive behavior, and the terms by which the student will receive the reward. I thought that this was a good idea because it helped replace the student bad behavior with a positive behavior. The tool that this most relates to would be the nuts and bolts of a good plan is teaching a new skill. I thought that replacing the problem behavior with a new positive one was a god way to reward or enforce better behavior.

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Part V: Part I: The legal definition of bullying according to the Harassment, Intimidation, and Bullying Law (H.I.B.) is any gesture, any written, verbal, or physical act, or any electronic communication, whether it be on or off school property that disrupts or interferes with the orderly operation of the school or the rights of the other students. The H.I.B. Law in New Jersey has been created to help prevent the act of bullying and intents to strengthen the reporting, investigation, and responding to incidents of bullying and to reduce the risk of suicide. According to the H.I.B. law the procedure for reporting an act of bullying is that all acts must be reported verbally to the principle within the same day as the employee or other adult witnessed or was informed of an incident with reliable information. Then the principle must notify the parents of the student involved. Also all acts must be reported in writing to the principle two days within the incident. At Grenloch they follow the H.I.B. protocol when reporting an act of bullying. Every two years the teachers are trained by the guidance counselor of the H.I.B. protocols for everything. The main support system at Grenloch is the guidance counselor. If any student or teacher has an issue they report it to the guidance counselor who will follow up with the correct protocol. Part II: Contributing factors that could lead to bullying would be a childs race or ethnicity, if they have a disability, their religion, ancestry, gender identity, sexual orientation, or any other distinguish factor or characteristic. Some of these factors may not come into effect yet at such an early age. In Washington Township, there are parts of the town that are rich and others that have less. So these factors may come into effect at Grenloch. If a student is not able to have as nice things as another student or if they do not have as much outfits as other students, they

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become more susceptible to bullying from the other students who are wealthier. Also another factor could be that a trouble student could start to become bullied because they are holding up the rest of the class. Part III: In my class at Grenloch Terrace, I did not really notice many behaviors that could potentially lead to bullying. At such a young age it is hard to tell what is actually bullying and what is just the students playing around with one another. When the students come into the room they have to put all of their homework in the bin on the teachers desk and then hang up their book bag and their coat. Once they do that they are supposed to sit on the carpet and many of them mess around and play games with each other. A lot of the time they start to mess around and hit one another. Even though this is just considered play to them it could potentially lead to something bigger. Their teacher tells them to stop hitting one another and that it is not nice to do that. She also tells them to apologize to each other. Another thing that I noticed was that a little boy told a little girl that was sitting next to him that he did not like her and that she annoyed him. He only said it to her when the teacher was not paying attention and when I was not around. The little told me what he said and I made the little boy apologize to her and told him that it was not nice to say that to anyone. This behavior could potentially lead to verbal bullying in the future.

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Conclusion: This project has taught me a lot of things. I learned new ways to deal with trouble behaviors and got to see some of those techniques in action and to see which ones work and which ones do not. I also realized that your behavior management plan will always need to be adjusted every year because you will have new students which means there will be new behaviors and new students that will have a behavior problem. I learned the different types of behavior theories and which one I most enjoy and can relate to for my own theory for behavior management. I also learned a lot from my field classroom. It put a lot of things into perspective and I was able to see firsthand the way a behavior management plan works within the classroom. Many of my personal beliefs about behavior were demonstrated in the classroom that I was in. One of the most influential things I learned from bullying and the H.I.B. law was the protocol to reporting an act of bullying and how important it is to report it the same day. Another important thing I learned about bullying was about the whole H.I.B. law. I knew some things about the law; however, I did not comprehend everything about it until now. After I reread it over I began to fully understand and remember what it is about and what it involves. I never realized how much teachers and other employees that work with schools have to learn through training and how often they need to learn about this. It also taught me that bullying can start at any age, and that some actions young children do can reflect onto their future.

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Appendix A sample of a behavior contract: First the student and I will establish behavior the student is doing wrong and figure out how to correct this behavior, such as the student is being rude or does not have good manners. So we would first list the goal. The student will write their name and say My goal is to establish good manners. We will then work together to establish what the consequence will be if they have bad manners again. For example, consequence could be not having play time or free time. We would then establish what the reward will be if the student meets their goal. A reward could be they receive a gold star or something that the student will personally enjoy. They will then write their name at the bottom saying they agree to this contract.

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References: An Overview of Amendments to Laws on Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying. (2011, July). Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/behavior/hib/overview.pdf Guidance for Educator Preparation Programs on Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying. (2011, November). Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/behavior/hib/HIBGuidanceEdPrep.pdf Morrison, G. S. (2014). Guiding Children's Behavior. Fundamentals of Early Childhood Education. (7th ed., pp. 362-383). Pearson Education. Trawick-Smith, J. Guiding Young Children's Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.easternct.edu/cece/guidance_training.html Wright, J. Teacher Behavioral Strategies: A Menu. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/behavioral-interventions/challengingstudents/teacher-behavioral-strategies-menu

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