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Doyle 1 Kenneth Doyle Professor Bolton English 101 November 1, 2013 Annotated Bibliography: Steven Caseys Death on Call

The evolution of warfare and technology has become synonymous with each other. With the ever-changing tactics in war, the need for advanced technology is increasing. From unmanned aerial vehicles to precision laser guided missiles to remote controlled robots, combat technology has evolved very rapidly over the past decade, and with that, the need for Americas military to be properly trained for this equipment must also evolve to prevent the unnecessary casualties and the misuse of the new, possibly, deadly technology. In Steven Caseys Death on Call, he provides an example of how this innovative technology can cause undesired casualties if used without the proper knowledge/training. Death on Call recites an incident soon after the first Army Special Forces Group, ODA 595, was inserted into Afghanistan, for the annihilation of Al Qaeda and defeat of their Taliban hosts.(Casey 63) While the units Tactical Air Controller was calling in Close Air Support, the batteries in his GPS died. He quickly replaced them and continued to relay the coordinates displayed on the GPS, unbeknown to him however, the coordinates displayed on the GPS had reset with the replacement of the new batteries, and were now showing the units current location. Although the operator was a member of the highly trained Special Operations group, he had not received enough training or experience with the newer technology that he was using, and as a result, he wound up killing 13 members of his own team and wounding over 40 others. Some people may claim that this incident is a clear example of how relying on technology, can cause the unnecessary deaths of our armed forces, the very people who are risking their lives to protect the freedoms and safety that Americans enjoy on a daily basis. This misfortunate event, however,

Doyle 2 should not represent the integration of technology and war. The recent technological innovations do quite the opposite; in fact, they are making the battlefields much safer for our troops. It is important that the U.S. military continue to integrate advanced technology with combat, to protect our troops, as well as our homeland. War will continue to evolve and it is imperative that our military evolve with it. My research paper will inform readers about the benefits of using technology in combat. My research paper will reflect on this bibliography, which will serve as the basis for my research.

Frontline. Interview with Capt. Jason Amerine. Campaign Against Terror. PBS Frontline, 2002. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. In the interview with Capt. Amerine, he discusses the hardships and difficult events that followed the initial insertion in Afghanistan. He explains how difficult their mission was, to destroy Al Qaeda and the Taliban, with so few men, as well as having to deal with the language and cultural barriers he faced with the local militia allies. This interview is a credible source because it is the direct words from the man who led the ODA team, the same ODA team in the story that provoked my research paper. I will use this interview to provide a real life example of how technology saved the lives of Capt. Amerine, and how their team would have quickly been crushed, had it not been for the advanced technology that they possessed. Specifically, I am referring to the laser guided missiles and Close Air Support that was the teams only support on this mission in Afghanistan.

National Research Counsel. Countering the Threat of Improvised Explosive Devices: Basic Research Opportunities. National Academies Press, 2007. eBook Collection. ebrary. Web. 27 Oct 2013. The National Research Counsels eBook provides definitions of what characterizes an Improvised Explosive Device, as well as providing tactics to counter-act them. They discuss how insurgents have

Doyle 3 been known to employ IEDs against our forces and how the insurgents have effectively used IEDs on our troops. Furthermore, they examine countermeasures, contradicting the use of technology, such as using human terrain to analyze demographics and societies, in order to possibly prevent the insurgency altogether. One example that the National Research Counsel considers is, social-network research can be engaged to understand the conditions and characteristics that could encourage the formation of new networks that support security and stabilization rather than disruption and violence (National Research Counsel 5). This strategy that they are suggesting, has already been adapted in modern warfare by the Special Operations community. In my own experiences, working with Special Operations in Afghanistan, we developed Village Stability Projects, where we would imbed our unit inside a village, known to have insurgent ties, to provide security, and also attempt to win the hearts and minds of the local populace, by doing so, in theory, we could disrupt the local insurgency in the area. While technological advancements are a fantastic tool to counter-act enemy forces, the tactics that are suggested in this book are also a viable tool to disrupt enemy forces as well. The National Research Counsel is a credible resource because is it comprised of many accredited people, of whom have varying back grounds in different subjects such as chemical engineering, retired military, risk analysis, and defense analysis. Having such a diverse group of highly knowledgeable, field specific, individuals, will provide an un-biased perspective on the topic of countering the IED threat; ultimately looking out for the safety of our militaries as well as our nation. I can use this source to provide an opposing suggestion to technology, as a means to provide overall safety of our troops at war. Specifically, the suggested use of human terrain in combat, and its effectiveness. Though advancements in technology will give the United States a big improvement in warfare, the age-old tactic of human-to-human interaction can also provide us with a strategic means to counter-act the enemy.

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New Market Report: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Market (2013-2018). ClickPress. 2 July 2013: n.pag. Infotrac Newsstand. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. This article talks about the future of UAVs and how they are in great demand, for use in military and civil areas, such as here in the United States. The article goes into further detail exploring the cost as well as the competition of companies to manufacture various types of UAVs to play different roles. It also discusses the benefits of using UAVs in a warzone setting and the safety it provides for the military. The article gives a good insight to how the UAV technology will prove to be a safer option, in many cases, to ground troops. The report states: The wars fought in Iraq and Afghanistan [have] also increased the demand for UAV's, as identification of and strikes against targets hiding among civilian populations required persistent surveillanceunmanned systems reduce the risk to our war fighters by providing a sophisticated stand-off capability that supports intelligence, command and control, targeting, and weapons deliveryUAVs have gained favor as ways to reduce risk to combat troopsand to conduct missions in areas that can be difficult to access or otherwise considered too high-risk for manned aircraft or personnel on the ground. The article is creditable because it was taken from a report produced by iCD Research, which provides industry-leading research and business information, by drawing from a gratuitous amount of research by expert analysis teams. The reports that iCD research provides are suited for various audiences, and therefore must be objective and purely fact driven. I will incorporate the statement from this article in my research paper to support my claim, that increasing the role of technology in war provides a safer environment for the men and women fighting. The article states that, although a human can complete the same mission, it is much safer to rely on technology because it eliminates the chance of death by a manned pilot and decreases the chance of unnecessary casualties, due to the use of precision weaponry.

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Robot Warriors: The shape of Armies to Come. Martin Himel, 2010. Films on Demand. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://storm.hgtc.edu:2048/login?url=http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=3503&x tid=52250>

The film, Robot Warriors, discusses the ongoing trends in developmental robotic technologies for the use of military and national defense. The film explains why robotic technologies, to include unmanned robotic vehicles, remote controlled robots, and precision weaponry, are quickly becoming the future for militaries around the world. Specifically it refers to Israel and the United States, as they are leading the way in advanced warfare technologies. Brian Hart, founder of Black-I Robotics, explains, in the film, why this new technology is essential on the battlefield: Theres no reason a Lance Corporal or PFCs should go down roads that arent inspected, go through doorframes that have insurgents behind them, those events can be prevented with low cost, reasonably, accessible technology Hart is referring to using robots as a means to create a safer environment for our troops. By having a robot that can go ahead and search a building, prior to soldiers entering, the robot can deal with whatever risk may lie inside, rather than a soldier possibly being killed. This film is credible because it is comprised of interviews with experts, as well as the founders of major robotic companies who are putting forth the effort to develop new technology that will benefit our armed forces as well as our nation. Singer, P.W. Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century. New York: The Penguin Group, 2009. Print. Senior Fellow for the Brookings Institution, Peter Warren Singer, wrote the book Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century. Singer discusses the current role that technology is, and will play in future armed conflicts. He further discusses the possibility of how the psychology and ethics involved with warfare could change, due to disengaging from direct human-to-

Doyle 6 human contact. One specific example that he brings up focuses on how the use of robots is making the battlefield much safer for troops overseas. He states, The EOD version of the PackBot that served in Iraq comes with an extendable arm on top that mounts both a head, containing a high-powered zoom camera, and a clawlike gripper. Soldiers use these to drive up to IEDs, peer at them closely, and then, using the gripper, disassemble the bomb, all from a safe distance (Singer 22). This is just one example that Singer provides of how technology is saving lives in war. I have personally worked with EOD teams and this same exact type of robot many times while in Iraq, as well as Afghanistan, and it is an invaluable tool, which has reduced the risk of human casualties in the daunting, all-too-frequent task of removing an improvised explosive device. Singer is a very credible source because he is a Senior Fellow at a well-known research organization, Brookings Institution, located in Washington D.C. Singer has previously worked in the Pentagon, has consulted for the United States Department of Defense as well as the Department of State, the CIA, and the U.S. Congress. Singer is a nationally recognized expert in the field of international affairs and U.S. defense needs and future affairs. Singer has a Ph.D. in government for Harvard University and is currently the director for the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence. He has analyzed many different sides to what the future holds for technology in war, down to how the laws of armed conflict will need to be revised if the anticipated technology is released. He has clearly done his research and offers both sides of the story in his book. Because I am writing about how the military can benefit from technology, this book is a great source, due to how in depth Singer looks at the future of technology and its involvement in war, I have a better understanding of the magnitude that technology has over armed conflict in the future. Specifically, I will be able to address the topic of safety and the well being of our men and women in the military.