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# Energy and Momentum

## Due: 12:00pm on Friday, November 8, 2013

To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment.

## Ups and Downs

Learning Goal: To apply the law of conservation of energy to an object launched upward in the gravitational field of the earth. In the absence of nonconservative forces such as friction and air resistance, the total mechanical energy in a closed system is conserved. This is one particular case of the law of conservation of energy. In this problem, you will apply the law of conservation of energy to different objects launched from the earth. The energy transformations that take place involve the object's kinetic energy K = (1/2)mv2 and its gravitational potential energy U = mgh. The law of conservation of energy for such cases implies that the sum of the object's kinetic energy and potential energy does not change with time. This idea can be expressed by the equation
Ki + Ui = K f + U f

where "i" denotes the "initial" moment and "f" denotes the "final" moment. Since any two moments will work, the choice of the moments to consider is, technically, up to you. That choice, though, is usually suggested by the question posed in the problem. First, let us consider an object launched vertically upward with an initial speed v. Neglect air resistance.

Part A
As the projectile goes upward, what energy changes take place? ANSWER: Both kinetic and potential energy decrease. Both kinetic and potential energy increase. Kinetic energy decreases; potential energy increases. Kinetic energy increases; potential energy decreases.

Correct

Part B
At the top point of the flight, what can be said about the projectile's kinetic and potential energy? ANSWER:

Both kinetic and potential energy are at their maximum values. Both kinetic and potential energy are at their minimum values. Kinetic energy is at a maximum; potential energy is at a minimum. Kinetic energy is at a minimum; potential energy is at a maximum.

Correct
Strictly speaking, it is not the ball that possesses potential energy; rather, it is the system "Earth-ball." Although we will often talk about "the gravitational potential energy of an elevated object," it is useful to keep in mind that the energy, in fact, is associated with the interactions between the earth and the elevated object.

Part C
The potential energy of the object at the moment of launch __________. ANSWER: is negative is positive is zero depends on the choice of the "zero level" of potential energy

Correct
Usually, the zero level is chosen so as to make the relevant calculations simpler. In this case, it makes good sense to assume that U = 0 at the ground level--but this is not, by any means, the only choice!

Part D
Using conservation of energy, find the maximum height
hmax

## to which the object will rise.

Express your answer in terms of v and the magnitude of the acceleration of gravity g. ANSWER:
hmax

2g

Correct
You may remember this result from kinematics. It is comforting to know that our new approach yields the same answer.

Part E
h 0.5 v

At what height

## above the ground does the projectile have a speed of 0.5 v?

Express your answer in terms of v and the magnitude of the acceleration of gravity g. ANSWER:
h

3v

8g

Correct

Part F
What is the speed u of the object at the height of (1/2)hmax? Express your answer in terms of v and g. Use three significant figures in the numeric coefficient.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

You are being asked for the speed at half of the maximum height. You know that at the initial height (h ), the speed is v. All of the energy is kinetic energy, and so, the total energy is
(1/2) mv
2

= 0

. At the

maximum height, all of the energy is potential energy. Since the gravitational potential energy is proportional to h, half of the initial kinetic energy must have been converted to potential energy when the projectile is at
(1/2) hmax.

Thus, the kinetic energy must be half of its original value (i.e.,

(1/4) mv

when

h = (1/2) hmax).

You need to determine the speed, as a multiple of v, that corresponds to such a kinetic

u

.707 v

Correct
Let us now consider objects launched at an angle. For such situations, using conservation of energy leads to a quicker solution than can be produced by kinematics.

Part G
A ball is launched as a projectile with initial speed v at an angle above the horizontal. Using conservation of energy, find the maximum height hmax of the ball's flight. Express your answer in terms of v, g, and .

## Hint 1. Find the final kinetic energy

Find the final kinetic energy
Kf

of the ball. Here, the best choice of "final" moment is the point at which the

ball reaches its maximum height, since this is the point we are interested in. Express your answer in terms of v,
m,

and .

## Hint 1. Find the speed at the maximum height

The speed of the ball at the maximum height is __________. ANSWER: 0
v v cos v sin v tan

Kf

0.5 m( vcos( ))

2

hmax

(vsin ( )) 2g

Correct

Part H
A ball is launched with initial speed v from ground level up a frictionless slope. The slope makes an angle with the horizontal. Using conservation of energy, find the maximum vertical height hmax to which the ball will climb. Express your answer in terms of v, g, and . You may or may not use all of these quantities. ANSWER:
hmax

2g

Correct
Interestingly, the answer does not depend on . The difference between this situation and the projectile case is that the ball moving up a slope has no kinetic energy at the top of its trajectory whereas the projectile launched at an angle does.

Part I
A ball is launched with initial speed v from the ground level up a frictionless hill. The hill becomes steeper as the ball slides up; however, the ball remains in contact with the hill at all times. Using conservation of energy, find the maximum vertical height hmax to which the ball will climb. Express your answer in terms of v and g. ANSWER:
hmax

2g

Correct
The profile of the hill does not matter; the equation
Ki + U i = Kf + Uf

would have the same terms regardless of the steepness of the hill.

## A Mass-Spring System with Recoil and Friction

An object of mass m is traveling on a horizontal surface. There is a coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface. The object has speed v when it reaches x = 0 and encounters a spring. The object compresses the spring, stops, and then recoils and travels in the opposite direction. When the object reaches x = 0 on its return trip, it stops.

Part A
Find k, the spring constant. Express k in terms of ,
m, g,

and v.

## Hint 1. Why does the object stop?

Why does the object come to rest when it returns to x
= 0?

Although more than one answer may be true of the system, you must choose the answer that explains why the object ultimately comes to a stop. ANSWER: When the object reaches x = 0 the second time all of its initial energy has gone into the compression and extension of the spring. When the object reaches friction.
x = 0 x = 0

the second time all of its initial energy has been dissipated by

is an equilibrium position and at this point the spring exerts no force on the object. the force of friction exactly balances the force exerted by the spring on the object.

At

x = 0

## Hint 2. How does friction affect the system?

Indicate which of the following statements regarding friction is/are true. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Work done by friction is equal to mgd, where m is the mass of an object, g is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, is the coefficient of kinetic friction, and d is the distance the object has traveled. Energy dissipated by friction is equal to (1/2)gmt2, where is the coefficient of friction, g is the acceleration due to gravity, m is the mass of the object, and t is the amount of time (since encountering the spring) the object has been moving. Friction is a conservative force. Work done by friction is exactly equal to the negative of the energy dissipated by friction.

## Hint 3. Energy stored in a spring

The potential energy stored in a spring having constant
k

d 0

Espring = F dx =

kx dx =

1 2

kd

## Hint 4. Compute the compression of the spring

By what distance d does the object compress the spring? Look at the initial condition when the object originally hits the spring and the final condition when the object returns to x = 0. Express d in terms of v,
,

and g.

## Hint 1. How to approach this question

Use the fact that
Ef inal = E initial + Wnonconservative

## Hint 2. The value of E f inal

In its final position, the object is not moving. Also the spring is not compressed. Therefore E f inal = 0 .

Hint 3. Find

E initial

What is the value of E initial ? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables m, v, acceleration due to gravity.
,

and

and g, the

## Hint 1. How to approach this part

Initially the spring is uncompressed, so the only contribution to the system's energy comes from the kinetic energy of the object. ANSWER:
E initial

1 2

mv

Hint 4. Find

W nonconservative

What is the value of Wnonconservative ? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables m, v, acceleration due to gravity.
,

and

and g, the

## Hint 1. How to approach this part

The only nonconservative force in the system is the frictional force between the object and the surface it's on. If the object moves through a distance x, the work done by friction Wf riction is
Wf riction = f s = mgx

Wnonconservative

mg(2 d)

d

4g

## Hint 5. Putting it all together

In the previous part, at the two ends of the motion considered, the spring had no energy, so k was not part of the equation. However, you were able to find a relation for d in terms of the known quantities. To obtain an equation involving k, use conservation of energy again,
Ef inal = E initial + Wnonconservative

but this time, take the initial condition to be the moment when the spring is at its maximum compression and the final condition to be the moment when the spring returns to x = 0. So now Einitial can be written in terms of k and other variables.

Ef inal

Hint 7. Find

Einitial for

## this part of the motion

What is the value of Einitial for this part of the motion? Express your answer in terms of d and containing k.
k,

## Hint 1. How to approach this part

Since the spring is at its maximum compression, the object must be momentarily at rest. So the only contribution to the energy is from the potential energy of the spring. ANSWER:
Einitial

1 2

kd

Hint 8. Find

W nonconservative for

## this part of the motion

What is the value of Wnonconservative for this part of the motion? Express your answer in terms of m,
, d,

## Hint 1. How to approach this part

The only nonconservative force in the system is the frictional force between the object and the surface it's on. If the object moves through a distance x, the work done by friction Wf riction is
Wf riction = f s = mgx.

Wnonconservative

mgd

g v 2

8m (

Correct

Bungee Jumping

Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass m, and the surface of the bridge is a height h above the water. The bungee cord, which has length L when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as Kate falls. Assume the following: The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant k. Kate doesn't actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. Kate's height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. Use g for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.

Part A
How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn't touch the water. Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction.

## Hint 1. Decide how to approach the problem

Here are three possible methods for solving this problem: 1. No nonconservative forces are acting, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on the cord's final length d) and solve for d. 2. Since nonconservative forces are acting, mechanical energy is not conserved. Set the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on d) equal to Kate's gravitational potential energy plus the work done by dissipative forces. Eliminate the unknown work, and solve for d. 3. When Kate comes to rest she has zero acceleration, so the net force acting on her must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on d) equal to the force of gravity and solve for d.

Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find d given the information available? ANSWER: a b c

## Hint 2. Compute the force due to the bungee cord

When Kate is at rest, what is the magnitude F b of the upward force the bungee cord exerts on her? Express your answer in terms of the cord's final stretched length d and quantities given in the problem introduction. Your answer should not depend on Kate's mass m.

## Hint 1. Find the extension of the bungee cord

The upward force on Kate is due to the extension of the bungee cord. What is this extension? Express your answer in terms of the cord's final (stretched) length ANSWER: Extension =
dL d

and

L.

## Hint 2. Formula for the force due to a stretched cord

The formula for the force due to a stretched cord is
F = kx,

where k is the spring constant of the cord and x is the extension of the cord.

Fb

k( d L )

d

mg k

+L

Correct

Part B
If Kate just touches the surface of the river on her first downward trip (i.e., before the first bounce), what is the spring constant k? Ignore all dissipative forces. Express k in terms of L,
h, m,

and g.

## Hint 1. Decide how to approach the problem

Here are three possible methods for solving this problem: 1. Since nonconservative forces are ignored, mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy in the bungee cord at the lowest point (which depends on k) and solve for k. 2. Nonconservative forces can be ignored, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on k) equal to Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge plus the work done by gravity as Kate falls. Compute the work done by gravity, then solve for k. 3. When Kate is being held just above the water she has zero acceleration, so the net force acting on her must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on k)
k

## equal to the force of gravity and solve for k.

Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find k given the information available? ANSWER: a b c

## Hint 2. Find the initial gravitational potential energy

What is Kate's gravitational potential energy
Ug

at the moment she steps off the bridge? (Define the zero of

gravitational potential to be at the surface of the water.) Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. ANSWER:
Ug

mgh

## Hint 3. Find the elastic potential energy in the bungee cord

What is the elastic potential energy first downward trip? Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction.
Uel

stored in the bungee cord when Kate is at the lowest point of her

## Hint 1. Formula for elastic potential energy

The elastic potential energy of the bungee cord (which we are treating as an ideal spring) is
U el =
1 2 2

k( x)

where x is the amount by which the cord is stretched beyond its unstretched length.

## Hint 2. How much is the bungee cord stretched?

By how much is the bungee cord stretched when Kate is at a depth d1 below the bridge? Express your answer in terms of d1 and ANSWER:
x L.

d1 L

Uel

1 2

k(h L )

2mgh

(hL )

Correct

## Work Raising an Elevator

Look at this applet. It shows an elevator with a small initial upward velocity being raised by a cable. The tension in the cable is constant. The energy bar graphs are marked in intervals of 600 J.

Part A
What is the mass
m

m/ s

## Hint 1. Using the graphs

Think about which graph(s) show energies that are directly related to the mass of the elevator. There may be more than one. You would like to get the most accurate number you can, so choose the graph that you can read most accurately.

## Hint 2. Needed formula

Recall that the gravitational potential energy the mass of the object, ground. ANSWER:
m g U

## near the earth's surface is given by

U = mgh,

where m is

is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration, and h is the height above the

= 60

kg

Correct

Part B
Find the magnitude of the tension T in the cable. Be certain that the method you are using will be accurate to two significant figures.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

In the previous part, you could use the graph of potential energy to determine the mass to two significant figures, because when the elevator stopped, the top of the potential energy bar lay right on one of the grid lines. In this problem, you could use the graph of work to find the tension, but since it lies somewhere between the grid lines, it is unlikely that you could determine the tension to the necessary accuracy. However, it is a good way to get an estimate with which to check your answer. The numerical data given in the window beneath the graphs do have two significant figures of accuracy, and thus they could be used in combination with the data in the graph of the final energy to get a more accurate value for the work done on the elevator. Recall, in fact, that the work done on the elevator by the tension must equal the change in mechanical energy of the system.

## Hint 2. Find the change in mechanical energy

From the information given in the applet and the information found in Part A, determine the change in the total mechanical energy of the system E. Express your answer in joules to two significant figures.

## Hint 1. Find the initial mechanical energy

Assuming that the potential energy of the elevator at the instant when you run the simulation is zero, what is the initial mechanical energy E initial of the system? Express your answer in joules to two significant figures.

## Hint 1. Definition of mechanical energy

Recall that the mechanical energy of a system is defined as the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy, E = K + U. Note that, at the instant when you run the simulation, the potential energy U of the elevator is zero. Thus, the total initial mechanical energy of the system is simply given by the initial kinetic energy of the elevator K = (1/2)mv2, which can be evaluated from the information about the mass of the elevator found in Part A, and the information about the initial speed of the elevator given in the window beneath the bar graphs in the applet. ANSWER:
E initial

= 480

E

= 1900

T

= 480

Correct

Spring Gun
A spring-loaded toy gun is used to shoot a ball straight up in the air. The ball reaches a maximum height from the equilibrium position of the spring.
H,

measured

Part A
The same ball is shot straight up a second time from the same gun, but this time the spring is compressed only half as far before firing. How far up does the ball go this time? Neglect friction. Assume that the spring is ideal and that the distance by which the spring is compressed is negligible compared to H .

## Hint 1. Potential energy of the spring

The potential energy of a spring is proportional to the square of the distance the spring is compressed. The spring was compressed half the distance, so the mass, when launched, has one quarter of the energy as in the first trial.

## Hint 2. Potential energy of the ball

At the highest point in the ball's trajectory, all of the spring's potential energy has been converted into gravitational potential energy of the ball. ANSWER: height =
1 4

Correct

Problem 7.29
The reservoir at Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project is 270m above the pump/ generators and holds 10 1.6 10 kg of water. The generators can produce electrical energy at the rate of 1.08GW.

Part A
Find the total gravitational energy stored in the reservoir, taking zero potential energy at the generators. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER:
U

= 4.21013

Correct

Part B
Find the length of time the station can generate power before the reservoir is drained. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER:
t

= 11

Correct

Problem 7.34
A carbon monoxide molecule can be modeled as a carbon atom and an oxygen atom connected by a spring.

Part A
If a displacement of the carbon by 1.6 10 m from its equilibrium position relative to the oxygen increases the molecule's potential energy by 0.015eV, what is the spring constant? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER:
k
12

= 1.9

kN/m

Correct

Problem 7.51
In ionic solids such as NaCl (salt), the potential energy of a pair of ions takes the form U = (b/ rn ) (a/ r) , where 28 98 r is the separation of the ions. For NaCl, a and b have the SI values 4.04 10 and 5.52 10 , respectively, and n = 8.22.

Part A
Find the equilibrium separation between ions in NaCl. ANSWER:
req

= 2.82

Correct

Problem 7.23
In a railroad yard, a 3.0104kg boxcar moving at 7.5m/s is brought to a stop by a spring-loaded bumper mounted at the end of the level track.

Part A
If the spring constant 1.5MN/m , how far does it compress in stopping the boxcar? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER:
x

= 1.1

Correct

## A Game of Frictionless Catch

Chuck and Jackie stand on separate carts, both of which can slide without friction. The combined mass of Chuck and his cart, mcart , is identical to the combined mass of Jackie and her cart. Initially, Chuck and Jackie and their carts are at rest. Chuck then picks up a ball of mass mball and throws it to Jackie, who catches it. Assume that the ball travels in a straight line parallel to the ground (ignore the effect of gravity). After Chuck throws the ball, his speed relative to the ground is vc . The speed of the thrown ball relative to the ground is vb.

Jackie catches the ball when it reaches her, and she and her cart begin to move. Jackie's speed relative to the ground after she catches the ball is vj . When answering the questions in this problem, keep the following in mind: 1. The original mass
mcart

of Chuck and his cart does not include the mass of the ball.

2. The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity. An object's speed will always be a nonnegative quantity.

Part A
Find the relative speed u between Chuck and the ball after Chuck has thrown the ball. Express the speed in terms of vc and
vb .

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

All this question is asking is: "How fast are Chuck and the ball moving away from each other?" If two objects are moving at the same speed (with respect to the ground) in the same direction, their relative speed is zero. If they are moving at the same speed, v, in opposite directions, their relative speed is 2 v. In this problem, you are given variables for the speed of Chuck and the ball with respect to the ground, and you know that Chuck and the ball are moving directly away from each other. ANSWER:
u

vb + vc

Correct
Make sure you understand this result; the concept of "relative speed" is important. In general, if two objects are moving in opposite directions (either toward each other or away from each other), the relative speed between them is equal to the sum of their speeds with respect to the ground. If two objects are moving in the same direction, then the relative speed between them is the absolute value of the difference of the their two speeds with respect to the ground.

Part B
What is the speed vb of the ball (relative to the ground) while it is in the air? Express your answer in terms of mball ,
mcart

, and

u.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Apply conservation of momentum. Equate the initial (before the ball is thrown) and final (after the ball is thrown) momenta of the system consisting of Chuck, his cart, and the ball. Use the result from Part A to eliminate vc from this equation and solve for vb.

## Hint 2. Initial momentum of Chuck, his cart, and the ball

Before the ball is thrown, Chuck, his cart, and the ball are all at rest. Therefore, their total initial momentum is zero.

Hint 3. Find the final momentum of Chuck, his cart, and the thrown ball
What is the total momentum
p f inal

of Chuck, his cart, and the ball after the ball is thrown?
mcart

p f inal vb

vc ,

and

vb .

## are speeds, not velocities, and thus are positive scalars.

mcart vc + mball vb

vb

## m cart u m cart + m ball

Correct

Part C
What is Chuck's speed vc (relative to the ground) after he throws the ball? Express your answer in terms of mball ,
mcart

, and

u.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use the answer to Part B to eliminate vb from the equation derived in Part A. Then solve for vc .

vc

## m ballu m cart + m ball

Correct

Part D
Find Jackie's speed vj (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of vb. Express vj in terms of mball ,
mcart

, and

vb .

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Apply conservation of momentum. Equate the initial (before Jackie catches the ball) and final (after the ball is caught) momenta of the system consisting of Jackie, her cart, and the ball, and solve for vj .

## Hint 2. Initial momentum

Just before Jackie catches the ball, the momentum of the system consisting of Jackie, her cart, and the ball is equal to the momentum of the ball as it flies through the air: p initial = mball vb.

## Hint 3. Find the final momentum

What is the final momentum
p f inal

mcart

p f inal

, and

vj .

vj

## m ballvb m cart + m ball

Correct

Part E
Find Jackie's speed vj (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of u. Express vj in terms of mball ,
mcart

, and

u.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

In Part B, you found an expression for vb in terms of u. You can substitute this expression for vb into the equation you found in Part D, which will give you an expression for vj in terms of the desired quantities.

vj

um ball

m cart
2

(m + m cart ) ball

Correct

## A Bullet Is Fired into a Wooden Block

A bullet of mass mb is fired horizontally with speed vi at a wooden block of mass mw resting on a frictionless table. The bullet hits the block and becomes completely embedded within it. After the bullet has come to rest within the block, the block, with the bullet in it, is traveling at speed vf .

Part A
Which of the following best describes this collision?

## Hint 1. Types of collisions

An inelastic collision is a collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved. In a partially inelastic collision, kinetic energy is lost, but the objects colliding do not stick together. From this information, you can infer what completely inelastic and elastic collisions are. ANSWER: perfectly elastic partially inelastic perfectly inelastic

Correct

Part B
Which of the following quantities, if any, are conserved during this collision?

## Hint 1. When is kinetic energy conserved?

Kinetic energy is conserved only in perfectly elastic collisions. ANSWER:

kinetic energy only momentum only kinetic energy and momentum neither momentum nor kinetic energy

Correct

Part C
What is the speed of the block/bullet system after the collision? Express your answer in terms of vi ,
mw ,

and

mb .

## Hint 1. Find the momentum after the collision

What is the total momentum
p total

p total

( mw + mb )vf

## Hint 2. Use conservation of momentum

The momentum of the block/bullet system is conserved. Therefore, the momentum before the collision is the same as the momentum after the collision. Find a second expression for p total , this time expressed as the total momentum of the system before the collision. Express your answer in terms of vi and other given quantities. ANSWER:
p total

mb vi

vf

mb

vi m b +m w

Correct

## Trading Momenta in a Collision

Two particles move perpendicular to each other until they collide. Particle 1 has mass 2 p , and particle 2 has mass 2 m and momentum of magnitude p . Note: Magnitudes are not drawn to scale in any of the figures.

## and momentum of magnitude

Part A
Suppose that after the collision, the particles "trade" their momenta, as shown in the figure. That is, particle 1 now has magnitude of momentum p , and particle 2 has magnitude of momentum 2 p ; furthermore, each particle is now moving in the direction in which the other had been moving. How much kinetic energy, collision? Express your answer in terms of m and
p. Klost ,

is lost in the

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

To find the kinetic energy lost in the collision, compute the initial kinetic energy and the final kinetic energy .
Kf inal Kinitial

## Hint 2. Find the relationship between energy and momentum

What is the kinetic energy ANSWER:
K K

p?

2m

## Hint 3. Find the initial kinetic energy

What is the initial kinetic energy
Kinitial

m.

K1.initial

K1.initial

m.

2

K1.initial

(2p) 2m

## Hint 2. Find the kinetic energy of particle 2

Find the kinetic energy
K2.initial

m.

p
2

K2.initial

2(2m)

Kinitial

9p

4m

## Hint 4. Find the final kinetic energy

What is the final kinetic energy
Kf inal

## of the two-particle system?

m.

Kf inal

3p

2m

Klost

3 4

Correct

Part B
Consider an alternative situation: This time the particles collide completely inelastically. How much kinetic energy
Klost

Klost

p.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

As in Part A, to find the kinetic energy lost in the collision, compute the initial kinetic energy the collision) and the final kinetic energy
Klost = Kinitial Kf inal . Kf inal Kinitial

(before

## Hint 2. Definition of completely inelastic

A completely inelastic collision is one in which the particles stick together after the collision.

## Hint 3. Initial kinetic energy

The initial kinetic energy in this case is the same as it was in the partially elastic collision.

## Hint 4. Find the final kinetic energy

What is the combined kinetic energy use the formula K =
p
2

Kf inal

p

2m

, remember that

p.

## Hint 1. Find the magnitude of the final momentum

What is the magnitude of p f inal , the total momentum of the two particles after the collision? Express p f inal in terms of p .

## Hint 1. Find the final momentum vector

What is the total momentum
pf inal

## of the two particles after the collision? Take the positive x

^. y

direction to be to the right in the figures and the positive y direction to be upward.
^ and Express your answer as a vector in terms of p and the unit vectors x

pf inal

^ + py ^ 2px

p f inal

5 p

Kf inal

5p

6m

Klost

17 12

Correct

## Traffic Accident Analysis

Consider the following two-car accident: Two cars of equal mass m collide at an intersection. Driver E was traveling eastward, and driver N, northward. After the collision, the two cars remain joined together and slide, with locked wheels, before coming to rest. Police on the scene measure the length d of the skid marks to be 9 meters. The coefficient of friction between the locked wheels and the road is equal to 0.9. Each driver claims that his speed was less than 14 meters per second (50 mph). A third driver, who was traveling closely behind driver E prior to the collision, supports driver E's claim by asserting that driver E's speed could not have been greater than 12 meters per second. Take the following steps to decide whether driver N's statement is consistent with the third driver's contention.

Part A
Let the speeds of drivers E and N prior to the collision be denoted by of the speed of the two-car system the instant after the collision. Express your answer terms of ve and
vn . ve

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

In general, you can find v2 either by using conservation of energy or by finding the individual components of the velocity v using conservation of momentum, depending on which quantity is conserved. What is conserved in this collision? ANSWER:

## Hint 2. Find the x and y components of velocity

The velocity of the two-car system immediately after the collision may be written as
v = vx ^ i + vy ^ j,

where the x and y directions are the eastward and northward directions, respectively. Find vx and vy . Express the two components, separated by a comma, in terms of ve and
vn .

## Hint 1. Conservation of momentum in two dimensions

Recall that conservation of linear momentum may be expressed as a vector equation, p initial = p f . inal This means that each vector component of linear momentum is conserved separately. Also recall that
p initial = mi vi ,
i

## where mi is the mass of the ith component with initial velocity

inal . p f inal = mf inal vf

, vi

and similarly,

## Hint 2. Find the initial momentum

Find the components
pe

vn ,

pe

and

ve .

pn

(initial) =

mve , mvn

## Hint 3. Find the final momentum

Write the components of the final momentum of the two-car system. Express your answers, separated by a comma, in terms of m, the final velocity of the two linked cars. ANSWER:
pe vx ,

and

vy ,

the components of

pn

(final) =

2 mvx , 2 mvy

vx , vy

0.5 ve , 0.5 vn

## Hint 3. The magnitude of the velocity vector

Recall that the square of the magnitude of a vector is given by the Pythagorean formula: 2 2 2 v = vx + vy .

v
2

1 4

(ve

+ vn

Correct

Part B
What is the kinetic energy
K

vn ,

and

m.

## Hint 1. Definition of kinetic energy

The kinetic energy
K

of an object of mass

1 2

mv

## Hint 2. The mass of the system

After the collision, the mass of the two-car system is
2 m.

K

m 4

(ve

+ vn

Correct

Part C
Write an expression for the work
Wf ric

## done on the cars by friction.

Express your answer symbolically in terms of the mass m of a single car, the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity g, the coefficient of sliding friction , and the distance d through which the two-car system slides before coming to rest.

## required to move an object through a straight-line

displacement d is given by W = F d = F d cos , where is the angle between the direction of the force and the direction of the displacement.

## Hint 2. Magnitude of the frictional force

The magnitude of the frictional force F f ric is given by
F f ric = n ,

## where n is the magnitude of the normal

force exerted on the cars by the road. In this problem, n is simply equal to the combined weight of the two cars. (Why? Because aside from gravity and the normal force, there are no other forces acting in a direction perpendicular to the road surface, and the cars are not accelerating in this direction.)

## Hint 3. Direction of the frictional force

The sliding frictional force is always directed opposite to the direction of motion. Quantitatively, the angle between the frictional force and the straight-line displacement of the two cars is radians.

Wf ric

2 mgd

Correct

Part D
Using the information given in the problem introduction and assuming that the third driver is telling the truth, determine whether driver N has reported his speed correctly. Specifically, if driver E had been traveling with a speed of exactly 12 meters per second before the collision, what must driver N's speed have been before the collision? Express your answer numerically, in meters per second, to the nearest integer. Take g, the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, to be 9.81 meters per second per second.

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use the work-energy theorem,
Kf inal = Kinitial + Wnc ,

## to relate the kinetic energy of the two-car system

immediately after the collision (now Kinitial for this part of the motion), to the nonconservative work done by friction in bringing the two cars finally to rest.

Note that
Kf inal = 0 ,

## since the cars are finally at rest.

vn

= 22 m/s

Correct
If you believe the report by the third driver that the speed of driver E's car was less than or equal to 12 meters per second, then driver N's speed just obtained is the minimum speed that driver N could have had before the collision. So, even if you do not know that driver E's car was traveling at exactly 12 meters per second before the collision, it is still evident that the driver of car N was not reporting his speed accurately. Also, we have assumed that neither driver brakes before or during the collision. Including this factor makes the analysis somewhat more involved in real situations.

## A Relation Between Momentum and Kinetic Energy

Part A
A cardinal (Richmondena cardinalis ) of mass 3.60102kg and a baseball of mass 0.146kg have the same kinetic energy. What is the ratio of the cardinal's magnitude p c of momentum to the magnitude p b of the baseball's momentum?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Recall that the kinetic energy of an object (of mass magnitude of the momentum by
p = mv. m

K=

1 2

mv

, and the

## Combining these equations into a single expression can then be

used to eliminate v, giving an expression of the kinetic energy in terms of the momentum instead of the velocity. We can then use this relation, along with the assumptions, to find the ratio of the momenta p c /p b in terms of the masses.

## Hint 2. Find a relationship between kinetic energy and momentum

Select the general expression for the kinetic energy ANSWER:
1 2 1 2

## of an object with mass

and momentum

p.

pm
p
2

pm
p
2

m 1 2

p m

pc pb

= 0.497

Correct

Part B
A man weighing 690N and a woman weighing 440N have the same momentum. What is the ratio of the man's kinetic energy Km to that of the woman Kw ?

## Hint 1. How to approach the problem

As in the previous part, an expression for the momentum must be found in terms of the kinetic energy. Then the ratio of the kinetic energies Km /Kw must be found in terms of the weights, instead of the masses.

## Hint 2. Find a relationship between momentum and kinetic energy

Select the general expression for the momentum ANSWER:
K m

## and kinetic energy

K.

Km 2 Km
K m

Km 2 Km

Km Kw

= 0.638

Correct

Problem 9.14

Part A
Find the center of mass of a barbell consisting of 50-kg and 80-kg weights at the opposite ends of a 1.5-m-long

d

= 92.0

cm

## from 50-kg weight

Correct

Problem 9.28
A neutron (mass 1u ) strikes a deuteron (mass 2u ), and the two combine to form a tritium nucleus.

Part A
If the neutron's initial velocity was
^ ^ 12 i + 20 j Mm/s , ^ ^ 28 i + 17 j Mm/s and

## what was the velocity of the deuteron?

(3 ^ i + 20.5 ^ j ) Mm/s (5 ^ i + 9^ j) Mm/s

## (12 ^ i + 24 ^ j ) Mm/s (4 ^ i + 21.5 ^ j ) Mm/s (6 ^ i + 24.5 ^ j ) Mm/s

Correct

Problem 9.44
A 950-kg compact car is moving with velocity
v1 ^ ^ = 32 i + 17 j m/s. v2

## collides with a 450-kg hay wagon moving with velocity

^ ^ = 12 i + 14 j m/s.

Part A
If the two stay together, what is their velocity? Express your answer in terms of ^ i, ANSWER:
^ j.

^ ^ 25.6 i + 16.0 j

m/s

Correct

Problem 9.60
A proton (mass 1 u ) moving at v1 = 6.90Mm/s collides elastically and head-on with a second particle moving in the opposite direction at v2 = 2.80Mm/s . After the collision, the proton is moving opposite to its initial direction at 8.62 Mm/s .

Part A
Find the mass of the second particle. ANSWER:
m2

= 4.00

Correct

Part B
Find the final velocity of the second particle. ANSWER:
vf

= 1.08

Mm/s in

## the initial direction of the proton

Correct

Problem 9.57
A 1200-kg Toyota and a 2200-kg Buick collide at right angles in an intersection. They lock together and skid 22 m; the coefficient of friction is 0.91.

Part A
Show that at least one car must have exceeded the 25 km/h speed limit in effect at the intersection. ANSWER:

Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including spaces). 3785 Character(s) remaining (none provided)

Problem 9.21
A runaway toboggan of mass 9.0kg is moving horizontally at 21km/h . As it passes under a tree, 12kg of snow drop onto it.

Part A
What is its subsequent speed? ANSWER:
v

= 9.00

km/h

Correct

Problem 9.29
Two identical trucks have mass 5900kg when empty. One truck carries a 8600kg load and is moving at 75km/h . It collides inelastically with the second truck, which is initially at rest, and the pair moves off at 38km/h .

Part A