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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

5.1Mendels Experiment Monohybrid No 1.(a) Marking Criteria Diagram shows pedigree chart of a family for inheritance of earlobe types .Free earlobe is dominant (normal) represent by allele E while attached earlobe is recessive represent by allele e Marks

State the genotype for R and V R:ee V:Ee (b) How can the genotype of R be determine 2 P1-the attached earlobe characteristic is controlled by the recessive allele P2-R with attached ear lobe must be recessive homozygous (ee) to exhibit the attached earlobe characteristic If U and V have four child, complete a schematic diagram of genetic cross below to show the possible genotype of their child

1 1 1 1

(c)(i)

1 (ii) (d)(i) What is the probability of getting a child with attached earlobes ?1 50% If T plans to marry and wants all of her children to have free earlobes, What is the possible genotype of her future husband?1 EE 1 1

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No (ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i)

Marking Criteria P1-The genotype of T is ee because she has attached earlobes P2-and female gamete has only allele e P3-When the genotype of her husband is EE, the male gamete has only allele E P4-For each fertilization , the genotype of the zygote produce is Ee which exhibits free ear lobes

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2.(a)

Name X and Y X: meiosis Y: Fertilization (b) The genotype of individual P is aa .Based on diagram 5.1, explain the inheritance of albinism by individual P P1: The genotype of father is Aa//heterozygous P2: The genotype of mother is Aa// heterozygous P3: During formation of gamete, only one allele can be carried by the gamete P4: During fertilization, allele a from mother/father combine to form genotype aa // homozygous recessive 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

Mendels First law No (a) Marking Criteria Diagram 5.1 shows the hand of a polydactyl. Polydactyl is a genetic disorder and caused by a dominant allele in the autosome. Marks

A heterozygous polydactyl man marries a normal woman. Use D for polydactyl allele and d for normal allele State the genotype of the polydactyl man and the normal woman. ( i ) Polydactyl man Dd ( ii ) Normal woman dd (b) The couple gives birth to a child. State the possible genotype and phenotype of the child ( i ) genotype of the child : Dd or dd ( ii ) phenotype of the children : Polydactyl // or normal ( any one correct correspondingly) (c) Diagram 5.2 shows how blood group is inherited in a family. 1 1 2 1 1 2

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No

Marking Criteria Draw a schematic diagram to show the blood group inherited by the offsprings.

Marks

1 1 What is the percentage of the offspring having blood group O? 0% 2(a) When the mechanism of inheritance of flower colour in garden peas was investigated, red flowered plants were crossed with white flowered plants. The first generation plants all had red flowers. However, when these red flowered plants allow self-fertilizing, about 25% of the offspring had white flowers, the reminder having red flowers. In a similar investigation with snapdragon plants , when pure breeding red flowered of snapdragon plants were crossed with a pure breeding white flowered of Snapdragon plants, the resulting all the first generation had pink flowers. When These pink flowered plants were self fertilized, 25% of the offspring had white flowers, 25%had red flowers and 50% had pink flowers. 1 4

Suggest why the results obtained with pea garden are different from those obtained with the snapdragon plants. 2 P1 Both R and W alleles are dominance/ co-dominance P2 both trait are express equally 1 1 2

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No (b) Keys R = red allele W = white allele

Marking Criteria Draw the schematic diagram to show the above cross based on Mendels First Law.

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1 1

1 1

1 (i) (c) (i) State the genotype of the flower colour for the second generation of the snapdragon plants RR RW WW Some barley plants are susceptible to attack by mildew (a fungus) whilst others are resistance to mildew attack. It was found that the susceptible plants produced only susceptible offspring when self fertilised , but that a resistant plant produced a mixture of resistant and susceptible plants when self fertilised. How would the plant breeder obtain a stock of barley plants which were all resistant to mildew? P1 by repeated crossing P2 of true breeding P3 which produced homozygous dominant (resistant plant) Any two (ii) Assuming that resistance to mildew is controlled by a single gene. What must be the genotype of the resistant stock? Heterozygous (Rr) 1 1 1 1 1

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No

Marking Criteria B represent the dominant allele for black wing while b represent the recessive for pale and speckled wing

Marks

3.(a) Diagram 5.1 shows the inheritance of wing in a moth,biston betularia

State the genotype for the black colour wing and the genotype of the pale and speckled colour wing Genotype for the black colour wing :BB/Bb Genotype the pale and speckled colour wing :bb (b) State the dominant trait of the moth .Explain your answer. Dominant trait:Black colour wing Explanation: E1-More number of moth are black colour//there are three black colour moth and only one pale and speckled //75%of the moth have black colour wing while 25% of the moth have pale and speckled wing //the presence of dominant gene /B (c) Explain how the offspring inherits the pale and speckled colour wing P1-Boith parents are heterozygous//have genotype Bb P2-during meiosis P3-the (male) gamete receive allele B and b //the female (gamete receive allele B and b P4-during fertilization P5-the male gamete with allele b fused with female gamete with allele b (so the offspring has genotype bb//pale and speckled wing ) (d) State one importance of having the difference in wing colour to moth P1-to have varieties in colour of moth//variation P2-better adaptation to the environment //camouflage P3-better survival of the species //any suitable explanation 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2

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No

Marking Criteria

Marks

4.(a) Diagram 6 shows a schematic diagram of Mendels experiment on pea plants.

By using appropriate letters, fill in the genotypes for the P, K and L generations and the gametes.5 1 1 1 1

1 What does process X and process Y represent? M : Meiosis N : Fertilization Give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for the L generation. Genotypic ratio : 1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt Phenotypic ratio : 3 tall : 1 dwarf 1 1 1 1

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

Essay enhancement corner No 1. Marking Criteria Mendels law of segregation is as below The characteristic of an organism are controlled by genes which exist in pairs. Of a pair of genes ,only one gene is present in the gamete Illustrate the above statement using a monohybrid cross between pure-bred tall pea plant and purebred short pea plant 1 Marks

1 1 1 1 8

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No 2.

Marking Criteria Diagram shows the crossbreed between pure breeding mice for black fur and long tail with mice for white fur and short tail

Marks

Explain the crossbreed in the diagram by using a schematic diagram Explaination : E1-Two caharacteristic involves in the crossbreed /dihybrid inheritance E2-The first characteristic is fur colour //traits are black and white E3-The second chracteristic is length of tail //the traits are long and short E4-The black and long tail is homozygous dominant /BBLL E5-The white and short tail is homozygous recessive /bbll E6-involve meiosis E7-The black and long tail produce gametes BL// the white and short tail produce ganete bl E8-Fertilizaion of the gamete occurs randomly E9-F1 produce BbLl E10-Phenotype ratio is all black fur Any 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 10

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No 3.

Marking Criteria A student collected some characteristic of the garden pea plants Pisum Sativum .He listed his observation and finding bin Table 9.1

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A cross between pure breeding tall plant with pure breeding short plants produces all tall plants in the first filial generation (F1)plants T represent dominant allele for tall plants while t plants represent recessive allele for short plants Use a schematic diagram to show the result of the self pollination between progeny of the generation to produce the second filial generation (F2) 1 1 1 1

1 1 4

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Importance of meiosis I in segregation of allele Aspect Definition State Mendels Laws of Segregation. P1- The members of each pair of alleles separate /segregate during the formation of gametes. P2- Only one allele can be carried in a single gamete. Structure 1 1 2 Marking Criteria Marks

By using your biological knowledge explain why none of the children has attached lobe like their mother E1-Allele for free ear lobe is dominant//free ear lobe is dominant trait/phenotype E2-Each gamete carrier one allele form the parent //each offspring receive one allele form each parents E3-Each offspring produced is heterozygous //carries one dominant allele and one recessive allele Allele A represents the dominant allele for normal while allele a represents the recessive allele for albinisms Diagram shows the schematic diagram of inheritance of albinism in human .Allele A represents the dominant allele for normal while allele a represents the recessive allele for albinisms Explain why A and a are celled alleles P1: Allele are different form of the same gene for a trait P2: that occupy the same relative position on a pair of homologous chromosome What happen to allele A and allele a during the formation of gametes? Separation/ segregation

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1 1

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Aspect Essay

Marking Criteria Case B : in a family , father ahs curly hair and mother has straight hair ,whereas ,their daughter has a curly hair The production of gamete occurs through the process of meiosis Offspring produced by sexual reproduction differ genetically form one another and form the parent .Describe briefly how meiosis makes genetic variation possible ,with aid of your biological knowledge P1-crossing over P2-The arrangement and separation of homologous chromosomes .During Metapahse I/Anaphase I//Mendel s Law of independent Assortment P3-Independent arrangement of chromosomes at the equator of spindle occurs during metaphase II //subsequent separation of chromatids occurs during Anaphase II P4-The haploid chromosomes number leads to various of probability of assortment P5-Random fertilization P6-Produce gametes with different combination of chromosomes P7-Phenotype /trait will be expressed by the dominant alleles Synthesis skill: (P1/P2/P3)+(P4/P5/P6)+(P7)

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Dihybrid Aspect Definition Marking Criteria State Mendel Second Law E1-During gamete formation, each member of a pair of alleles may combine randomly E2-With either member of another pair of allele Diagram shows the inheritance of colour body and size of wing in drosophila G represent the dominant allele for grey body while g represent the recessive allele for black body Marks 1 1

Structure 1.(a)

State the genotype and phenotype of A and C Genotype and phenotype A: grey body normal wing GGNN Genotype and phenotype C:grey body normal wing GgNn

1 1 2

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No (b) (c)(i)

Marking Criteria State why the above inheritance is dihybrid1 F-Involve two characteristic Using punnett square ,draw a genetic diagram between C and D to shows the ratio E ,F, G and H

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1 1

2 1 5 1 (ii) Based on punnett square Determine the genotype ratio of dominant homozygous and recessive homozygous 1:1 Determine the phenotype ratio for black eyes, normal wings and red eyes, short wings 9:1 Write all the genotype for black eyes ,short wings3 Mmnn,MMnn Explain why the ratio of genetic diagram from the above diagram follows Mendel Second Law F-During metaphase I, homologous pair of chromosome /paternal and maternal chromosome arrange at random //independent

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

(iii) (iv) (d)

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No 2.(a)

Marking Criteria Diagram shows four variety oil palm in the collection of an agricultural centre. A farmer plans to plant oil palm with thick husk .He decided to use cross breeding method

Marks

Explain by using punnet square, which two varieties should the farmer choose from the agricultural centre for the crossing breeding to ensure all the offspring produced are thick husk and thick flesh P1-Choose OP1 and OP3 1

P2-Label the column in the table correctly P3-State or show OP1 produce gamete with genotype hF P4-State or shows OP3 produce gamete with genotype P5-State or show the genotype of all of the offspring is HhFf P6-Phenotype of HhFf is thick husk and thick flesh P7-all /100% of the offspring are thick husk and thick flesh

1 1 1 1 1 1

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No 3.(a)

Marking Criteria Diagram shows a cross between a homozygous red flower and tall pea plant with a homozygous white flower and dwarf pea plant R represents the dominant allele for red flower while T represent the dominant allele for tail

Marks

Complete diagram to shows the cross between the plants 1. 2. 3. 4. (b) RRTT Rrtt Genotype F1:RrTt Phenotype F1: Red ,tall 1 1 1 1

Use a punnett square to shows the crossing between the F1 generation in 5(a) to produce F2 offspring3

Calculate the phenotypic ratio produced in the F2 generation 3 1 1 1 3

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No (c)

Marking Criteria Explains why some of the offspring produced in F2 do not have the same phenotype as thoier parents

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1 1 1 1 4.(a) Ismail has a brown hair and blue eyes .He was married to the woman who has black hair and brown eye. By using schematic diagram explain how their daughter will get black hair and blue eye P1-This situation involved dihybrid inheritance P2-Ismail homozygous recessive for both hair (hh) and eye (bb) traits P3-His wife is homozygous dominant for her trait (HH)and heterozygous for the eye trait (Bb) P4-Ismail and his wife undergoes meiosis I and II P5-All the gamete (sperm and ovum ) are haploid P6-Ismail will produced only one type of gamete example brown hair and blue eye (hhbb) P7-His wife will produce to type of gametes example balck hair and black eye(HHBb) P8-the gametes (haploid )form Ismail and his wife will fertilize to produce zygote (diploid ) P9-This zygote will receive dominant gene for hair trait form his /her mother and recessive gene for eye trait for either his /her mother P10-So Ismail sons /daughter will have black hair and brown eye P11-Their son /daughter will have heterozygous gene for hair trait and homozygous recessive for eye trait any 10 OR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No

Marking Criteria

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1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

P7-This situation involved dihybrid inheritance P8-The son /daughter (HhBb) inherit the allele hb from father and allele HB from mother P9-the son /daughter (Hhbb) inherit the allele hb form father and allele Hb from mother

10

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No 5

Marking Criteria Based on the characters in Table above the heterozygous pea plants from the first filial generation (F1) with round and yellow seed were self pollinated to produce seeds for the second filial generation (F2) Given that : R = dominant allele for round seed r = recessive allele for wrinkled seed Y = dominant allele for yellow seed y = recessive allele for green seed Use schematic diagram and punnett square to show the inheritance of the phenotypic and genotypic characters of the seed (shape and colour )from the F1 generation to the F2 generation plants6

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1 1 1

1 1

1 1 6

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

5.2 Inheritance of traits in humans Blood groups in the ABO system and the Rhesus factor Aspect Definition What is mean by codominance ? Two different alleles for a genetic trait are both expressed in the phenotype of heterozygous Structure 1.(a) Alleles for human blood goups are IA ,IB and IO In a family ,encik Ahmad has O bood group while his wife has AB blood group (i) State the genotype (blood group of Encik Ahmad IoIO (ii) (b) State the genotype (blood group ) of Encik Ahmad wife IAIO Draw a schematic diagram to shows the product of this cross3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Marking Criteria Marks

They have a son ,whose blood group is A (i)

1 What is the probability of having a child a with A blood group in above 24x100%=50%

(ii) (c)

If the son met with an accient ,can the father donate blood to his son ?Explain your answer P1-yes P2-He is a universal donor //antigen A and B are not present /absent in his red blood cells 1 1 2

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No 2

Marking Criteria

Marks

Keys: A- Blood group A B- Blood group B AB -Blood group AB O -Blood group O

(a)

Diagram 4 shows a schematic diagram of ABO blood group in a family (i) What is the genotype of blood group for Maya? IBIO/BO (ii)Explain your answer P1-She has a son who has O blood group P2-She has a blood group P3-Tahir rcieves one allele IO from his father and one allele IO form his mother Any 2P 1 1 1 1 1

(b)

Draw a schematic diagram if tania marres with a man which is haterozygote blood group B

1 1 1 Syukri was involved in a seriuos accident .Aidil volunteer to donate his blood to save syukris life Explain why is it safe to transfuse blood of group O to an accident victim duriong an emergency ? P1-People who has blood group O is a universal donor P2-Blood group O do not have antigen A nad Antigen B P3-Aggulutination will not occurs Any 2 1 1 1 3

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No 2.(a)

Marking Criteria Diagram 9.1 shows the blood group of a married couple and offspring. The couple has three boys and one girl but with different types of blood group

Marks

Based on Mendels first Law, and with the help of a schematic diagram, explain why the blood of each member in the family is as shown P1-The ABO blood is controlled by three allele IA and IB and IO P2-Allele IA and IB are dominant to allele IO which is recessive P3-Allele IA and IB are codominant and can be expressed equally in the phenotype of the heterozygous offspring

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

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No 3.(a)

Marking Criteria Ahmad has blood group A while his wife has blood group B .Their daughter Amirah has blood group O IA and IB are dominant alleles while IO is recessive allele. The inheritance is summarized as in diagram

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Explain how Amirah inherits blood group O Criteria: P1-Parents genotypes P2-The formation of gamete P3-Random fertilization of gametes P4-Offspring genotype P5-Offspring phenotype P6-Conclusion of Amirah s blood group

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No OR

Marking Criteria

Marks 1

P1-Ahmad probable genotype is IAIA and IAIO Fatimah probable genotype is IBIO Amiarh genotype should should be IOIO P2-to obtain IOIO Ahmads genotype is IAIO,while Fatimah;s genotype is IBIO P3-During meiosis,gametes produced from Ahmad carry allele I and I while form Fatimah carry allele IB and IO P4-During fertilization P5-Genotype produced in the off springs are IAIB,IAIO,IBIO,IOIO P6-Phenotypes produced by the off spring are blood group AB,A,B and O respectively P7-So Amirah with blood group O has the genotype of IOIO Any P1-P6 - 4marks P7 -1mark (b) Amirah lost a plenty of blood during an accident .She need to replace the blood lost .Explain why her father is not compatible donor to Amirah P1-(Ahmad s blood group is A),The erythrocyte has antigen A and the blood p[laasma has antibody B P2-(Amirahs blood group is O) erythrocyte has no antigen A or B but blood plasma has antibody A and antibody B P3-Agglutination of amirahs blood occurs because P4-Antibody A acts on antigen A (In Ahmad s blood) (c) Discuss the importance of the HIV test to ensure the virus is not transmitted to their children P1-HIV test in a screen test done on the blood P2-To detect the present of the virus (HIV) P3-As a safety measure for couple to have children P4-So that the virus is not transmitted //free from HIV P5-Healthy future generation //any suitable explanation on healthy community
A O

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No 4.(a)

Marking Criteria Diagram 8 shows the blood groups of a married couple, Encik Ahmad and Puan Amalina and their children.

Marks

Diagram 8 shows the variation of blood groups in En Ahmads family. Explain why there is a variation in blood groups of the offspring. 1. The ABO blood group in humans is controlled by three alleles IA, IB and Io. 2 Alleles IA and IB are codominant but allele Io is recessive. 3 Ahmad is heterozygous for blood group A // Genotype of Ahmad is IA, IO, 4 Amalina is heterozygous for blood group B // Genotype of Amalina is IB, IO 5 Ahmad produces two types of sperms, one containing allele IA and the other containing allele IO . 6 Amalina produces ovum containing allele IO or allele IB 7 When the sperm containing allele IO fertilizes with the ovum containing allele IO the offspring produced will have the genotype IO IO 8 and the phenotype is blood group O. 9 Three of the children who have the blood group O are produced this way and they have the genotype IOIO 10 When the sperm containing the IA allele fertilizes with the ovum containing allele IB then the offspring produced will have the genotype IA IB 11 and the phenotype is blood group AB. 12 One of the children who have the blood group AB is produced this way and has the genotype IA, IB. Any 10 points

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

10

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4551/2 Chapter 5: Inheritance 2014

No (b)

Marking Criteria Two different alleles for a genetic trait are both expressed in the phenotype of heterozygous The variation of ABO blood group by three different alleles ,but an individual can carry only two of the three allele. Explain how a child could inherit blood goup O of the father s blood group is A while mother s blood group is B F-These bloos group is determined by 3 allele/IA,IB,IO P1-The husband is heterozygous/IAIO While his wife is heterozygous/IBIO P2-He will produce sperm /male gametes with IA or sperms/ male gametes with IO and she will produce ovum/female gametes with IB or ovum /female gametes with IO P3-Meiosis is occurred to produced (haploid )gametes P4-Diploid zygote is produced by fertilization P5-Possible genetic combinations/genotypes in offspring are IAIO or IBIO,IAIB And IOIO P6-Their sons blood group is OP because the genotype is IOIO

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

5(a)

Diagram 5(a)shows example of Eldoncard blood group to test to determine a person groups in minutes .Marias blood is B While her mother blood group is AB. .Maria lost plenty of blood during an accident. She needs to replace the blood lost.Her mother is disappointed when she was told that he cannot help her daughter .Explain why her mother is not compatible donor to Maria P1-Maria who is blood group is B has antigen B on the surface of red blood cells P2-And antibody A in her blood serum P3-Mother who is blood group is AB has antigen A and antigen B P4-If the two blood mixed together, agglutination will occur /clumping together of red blood cells (b) Mr Nick has group A blood while his wife has group B blood. The group of their son is O. Explain how this happen.10 P1: The situation involved is monohybrid inheritance. P2: The genotype of blood group A can be I I /1A10 P3: while the genotype of blood group B can be IBIB or IBIO. P4: Blood group 0 has a genotype, IOIO (while the genotype of blood group AB is IAIB. P5: Alleles IA and IB are codominant P6: IO allele is recessive. P7: Mr. Nick is heterozygous dominant/IAIO (for his blood group A) P8: while his wife is heterozygous dominant/ IBI0 (for blood group B) P9: Mr. Nick and his wife produce haploid gametes/sperm/ovum (as a result of meiosis) P10: Mr. Nick produces (gametes with) genotypes IA /IO P11: (while) his wife (will) produce (gametes with) genotypes 1A/ lO
A A

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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P12: The gamete (IO) of Mr. Nick fuses with his wife's gamete (10) P13: to produce a zygote with genotype IIo. P14: (Thus, they will) produce an offspring with blood group 0. 6.(a) MAXIMUM: 10 marks The variation of human blood group is determined by three different alleles A, B and O. By using a schematic diagram, show the possibilities of phenotypes and genotypes of the offsprings if mothers blood group is AB and fathers blood group is A

1 1 1 10

1 1 1 1 1

1 1

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1 1 1 (b) There are other blood systems in human that affected blood compatibility .One such system is the Rhesus factor Discuss why there is a problem is a Rh-negative mother has more than one Rh-positive babies P1-during first pregnancy some of the Rh blood antigen from RH-positive foetus enter the blood stream (RH-negative) of mother P2-cause antibodies are produced by mother P3-antibodies (form motehr )enter the feotuss blood ( in the subsequently pregnancy) P4-may cause excessive break down of red blood cell in the feotus /lead to brain damage any 3P 1 1 1 1

10

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Different human karyotype No D 1(a) What is the meaning of karyotype The arrangement of chromosome based on number and size (in somatic cell) Diagram shows the human karyotype for individual P and Q and the gametes that can be produce through process X 1 1 Marking Criteria Marks

Name the process X Meiosis (i) State the total chromosome number in a stomata cell for individual P and individual Q Individual P -47 Individual Q -46 State one difference between in individual P and Q D1-P-down syndrome whereas Q is normal D2-P- male /XY sex chromosomes whereas Q is a female /XX sex chromosomes D3-P- There are three chromosomes number 21 whereas in Q three are two chromosomes number 21 (b) (i) Gamete M and N are gamete produced through process X Complete diagram to show the number and type of chromosomes inherited by 17 gamete M and N Gamete M : 22+X Gamete N :22+X (ii) State the characteristic of individual P Broad face /slanted eyes/protruding tongue/flat nose

1 1 1 1 1 1

(ii)

1 1

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Sex determination in offspring No 1 Marking Criteria Diagram 5.1 shows the karyotypes of individuals P and Q. Marks

Diagram 5.1 (a) Name process R Process R.: Meiosis b) (i) ii) Write the number and type of chromosomes inherited by gametes T and V. Gamete T: Gamete T: 22 + XY Gamete V: Gamete V: 22 + XX Name two differences between gametes T and V. Gametes T have a pair of homologous chromosomes that have different sizes, chromosomes pair XY Gametes V consists of all chromosomes pairs with the same size and homologous, (c) Explain why (i) the chances of having either a baby boy or girl are equal. F1 Sex chromosomes of a female is XX and male sex chromosomes is XY F2 (During the production of gametes), the male produces sperms containing either the X or the Y chromosome (in equal quantities) F3 - (During the production of gametes), the female produces ovum with X chromosome F4 During fertilization, the female gamete can either fuse with an X-chromosome / Ychromosome sperm 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

1 1 1 1

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No (ii)

Marking Criteria Explain why in some families, all children are of the same sex. F5 In every pregnancy, there is a 50% chance of having either a boy or a girl F6 the children of the family are all of the females because at each event of fertilization, the X-chromosome sperm fuse with the X-chromosome ovum // all males because at each event of fertilization, the Y-chromosome sperm fuse with the Xchromosome ovum Diagram shows the karoytype of an individual with a type of syndrome

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1 1 2

(a) (b) (c)

What is the meaning of karyotype The arrangement of chromosome based on number and size (in somatic cell) State the chromosomal number of the individual in diagram 45/44+X Based on diagram Determine the sex of the individual Female /women /girl Name the syndrome suffered by the individual by the individual Turners syndrome Explain how the individual inherits the syndrome named in (b) (ii) form the parent2 F1-Sperm ovum from father/mother without sex chromosome fertilizes the ovum /sperm F2-Producing a zygote with single X chromosome

1 1 1 1

1 1

(d) (e)

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Essay enhancement corner No 1. Marking Criteria (a) A species of a mammal has either curly hair or straight hair. The allele for curly hair (H) is dominant. Using a complete schematic genetic diagram, show how a curly-haired and straight-haired offspring is produced in the ratio of 1:1. P1 Genotypes of parents P2 Formation of gametes by having one of the genes from the parent cell P3 Separation of genes during meiosis P4 Random fertilization between gametes P5 genotypes of offsprings P6 phenotypes of offspring 1 1 1 1 Marks

1 1

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Essay enhancement corner No 2. Marking Criteria The probability of getting a son or a daughter is the same Explain the above10 P1-The sex in offspring is determined by the type of sperm which will fertilize the ovum. P2-The sperm produced by the testis has 22 autosomes and one sex chromosomes /either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome// 22 + X or 22 + Y P3-The ovum produced in the ovary has 22 autosomes and one X chromosome . P4-If a sperm that contains the X chromosome fertilizes the ovum, a zygote that has two X /XX chromosome is produced, that is a girl. P5-If a sperm that contains the Y chromosomes fertilizes the ovum, a zygote containing the XY chromosome is produced, that is a boy. P6-As fertilization occurs at random, the probability of having a male child or female child is the same / 50 % 1 Marks

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Sex -linked inheritance Colour blindness No 1(a) Marking Criteria Colour blindness is a sex linked disease .Diagram shows the inheritance of colour blindness in a family (i) complete the diagram to shows the inheritance of colour blind in the family Marks

1 1 (ii) Based on your diagram answer in (c) (i) ,state the percentage offspring that would suffer from colour blindness 1 25% Name another example of sex-linked disease Haemophilia A papaya farmer wants to produce a large number of Exotica papaya in the shortest time possible. State the best technique to use by the farmer. What is the genetic advantage of using this technique? F : Tissue Culture P1: Able to obtain good characteristics that can be used commercially(selectivity) P2: Can be conducted any time and does not need any pollinating agents as it is carried out in the laboratory 1 1 1 3 3

(b) (c)

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No 2.

Marking Criteria Figure 9 shows a pedigree of the inheritance of colour blindness of colour-blindness in a family

Marks

Explain the inheritance of colour blindness based on the following statement F1-A man has XY chromosomes and a women has XX chromosomes F2-Gene for colour blindness is recessive F3-Linked to X chromosomes F4-The chromosomes has no sex linked trait F5-Colour blindness male (Xny) E1-Xn-form mother E2-Y -from father F6-Normal male (Xny) E3-X form mother E4-Y-from father F7-Carier female (XNXn) E5-XN form father/mother E6-Xn from mother/father F8-Colour blindness female E7-X form father E8-Xn from mother
n N

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No 3.

Marking Criteria Colour blindness is a recessive trait which is inherited through the chromosome. In a family the mother is a carrier of the trait while the father has normal vision Using a schematics diagram explain how colour blindness could occur in the family Key: B-allele for normal vision b-allele for colour blindness

Marks

1 Phenotype of offspring: XBXB Normal female XBXb Female carrier XBY Normal mele XbY Colour blindness male 1

Percentage of the family to have colour blindness is 25% 50% from the male will have colour blindness ,whereas another 50% will have normal sight It because male inherited the X chromosome from maternal only,whereas Xa or Xb So the colour blindness gene are found in chromosome X ,so the female are does not have a pair of chromosome X ,which one from maternal and one from paternal (XBXB and XBXB) The daughter have the genotype XBXb which have normal sight because the allele XB is block by allele XB

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Hemophilia No (a) Marking Criteria Adam is suffered from a genetic disease he has a problem of blood clotting ,his blood takes an abnormally long time to time clot (i) Name the genetic disease suffered by Adam Haemophilia (ii) State one difference in the blood content between adam and a person Lack of certain blood clotting factor/factor VIII in adam blood The gene cause this disease is recessive, if it is represent by hwhat is the genotype of Adam XhY (c) (i) Diagram 2.2 below shows the red blood cells of an individual suffering from a type ofgenetic disease. 1 1 1 1 Marks

(b)

Name the genetic disease that cased by the abnormality of red blood cell shown in the diagram Sickle-cell anaemia (ii) Explain the problem faced by the individual who is suffering from the disease named in (d)2 F-red bood cell contain less haemoglobin E1-Less oxygen wil conbine with haemoglobin E2-Less oxygen to be transported to the body cell can be used in cellular respiration 1 1 1 1 1

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Other hereditary diseases Albinism Aspect Causes Chapter 6 What is albinism? P1- It is a genetic disorder due to genetic mutation. P2- It causes a complete lack of pigment in the eyes,hair and skin. Albinism is genetic disorder. Explain the cause of this genetic disorder F: cause by gene mutation E: fail to produce an enzyme for production of melanin Inherit How is albinism inherited by a child from two heterozygous parents? P1- An albino child has a homozygous genotype with two recessive alleles (for the absence of pigmentation.) P2- In sexual reproduction, two heterozygous parents for the genes give rise to a 25% of their child may inherit one recessive( mutant) allele from each parent Diagram shows an albino boy in African village 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 Marking Criteria An albino child cannot expose himself to the sunlight. Marks

Explain why a pair of normal parents could produce an albino offspring P1-Albinism is caused by recessive allele/gene (a) P2- Albinism homozygote P3-Both the parents are carrier P4-genotype of both the parents is heterozygote (Aa) P5-Both the parents produce gametes that carry the allele for albinism(a) P6-through mitosis P7-The gametes fuse through fertilization and form the zygote which is homozygote 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1

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Aspect Schematic diagram

Marking Criteria Diagram shows the schematic diagram of inheritance of albinism in human .Allele A represents the dominant allele for normal while allele a represents the recessive allele for albinisms Complete the schematic diagram on diagram 5.13

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Aa

Aa

1 A a

AA Normal

Aa

Aa

aa Albino

1 1 3

Carrier/Normal Carrier/Normal

Case A : in human , the allele for albinismis recessive to the allele for normal skin pigment Using a schematic diagram ,shows the probability that a child of a mother and father whore heterozygous will be albino5

1 1

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Aspect Essay

Marking Criteria Diagram 6.2 (a) and (b) show two examples of hereditary diseases

Marks

Explain the characteristic of each disease 4 Albinisme F-Albinisme is caused by the change in gene//mutation P1-Body/skin unable to produce black pigment (melanin) P2-The skin and hair of albinos are white /their a eyes are pink Sickle cell anaemia F-Sickle cell anaemia is caused by the change in the genes// mutation P1-Haemoglobiin produced is not normal /abnormal P2-Abnormal haemoglobin unable to bind /transport/carriers the oxygen efficiently P3-The patient will always feel weak /cannot carries out vigorous activities any 2 Sickle cell anaemia 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1

Mutation may be occur on a recessive or dominant gene ,diagram 5.4 shows blood smear with different condition of red blood cells2 F-Sickle -cell aneamia P1-Mutated (recessive) allele causes the production of abnormal haemoglobin which crystallizes P2-Causing the red blood cells to become sickle shaped /S-shaped 1 1 1 2

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Thalassaemia Aspect Marking Criteria Thalassaemia is a disease passed on genetically by a recessive allele. The allele for the normal condition is T. The allele for. thalassaemia is t Marks

What is thalassaemia

Explain what thalassaemia is . P1: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that causes the body to produce less hemoglobin. P2: Hemoglobin helps red blood cells spread oxygen all through the body. P3: Low levels of hemoglobin may cause anemia, / feel weak and tired. / may damage organs and result in death. Any two 1 1 1 2

Schematic diagram

Draw the schematic diagram to show the possible genotype of the offsprings if Lucy and David have children.4

1 1 1 1

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Aspect Essay

Marking Criteria Mr and Mrs.Lim are healthy normal couple .thier forst child is a thalassaemia girl and second child is a thalassaemia son .Thier youngest is a pair of normal identical female twins. Thalassaemia is a disease passed on genetically by recessive allele. the allele for the normal condition is T.The allele for thalassaemia is t. Explain how the inheritance of heredity disease to the next generation of Mr.Lims can be controlled7 C1-The inheritance of thalassaemia if the thalassaemia daughter /son marry thalassaemia person C2-The inheritance of thalassaemia if the thalassaemia daughter /son marry thalassaemia carrier person C1 P1- thalassaemiadaughter /son must not marry thalassaemia person P2-Both partners will produce gamete with recessive gene/t P3-If the (recessive) gamete undergoes fertilization , thalassaemia offspring will be produced //the chance to get thalassaemia offspring is 100%

Marks

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

C2 P4- thalassaemia daughter / son must not marry an thalassaemia carrier person P5-Both partner are able to produce gametes with recessive gene /t P6-If both recessive gamete undergoes fertilization , thalassaemia offspring will be produced // the chance to get thalassaemia offspring is 50%/1:1

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5.3 Genes and chromosmosomes The structure of DNA No 1 Marking Criteria Figure 5.1 shows the structure of a type of nucleic acid. Marks

Complete the structure in figure 5.3. (a) (i) (ii) Based on the Figure 5, name the type of nucleic acid as shown. DNA Name the basic unit of the DNA Nucleotide (b) Draw and label a basic unit of structure show in figure 5.1 X : Phosphate group Y : Pentose sugar / Sugar Z : Nitrogenous base (c) Explain the role of structure in figure 5.1 in determining the characteristics of organisms. P1-Carry genetic information P2- Direct protein synthesis (d) (e) Name another type of nucleic acid. Nucleotide State the component that determines the characteristics of an organism RNA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1

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Genetic engineering Aspect Concept Marking Criteria Diagram 8.1 shows how the required gene can be removed from a chromosome of a donor DNA and cloned in a bacterium using a genetic engineering technique. Marks

DNA finger printing

Based on Diagram 8.1, define the concept of genetic engineering. P1: the technique used to extract P2: to separate P3: to transfer / insert P4: gene from other organism / donor P5: to another organism Diagram show the DNA fingerprinting process .DNA fingerprinting is one of contribution of genetic engineering .Its help people to solve crime investigation or to settle dispute over parentage

1 1 1 1 1

Describe how the process of DNA fingerprinting .Discuss the disadvantage of genetic engineering towards mankind10 P1-The process begins with a blood r cell sample from which the DNA is extracted P2-The DNA is cut into fragment using a restriction enzyme P3-The DNA band patternis transferred to a nylon membrane P4-A radioactive DNA probe is introduced P5-The DNA Probe binds to specific DNA sequence on the nylon membrane P6-the excess probe material is washed away leaving the unique DNA band pattern P7-The radioactive pattern is transferred to X-ray film by direct exposure P8-When developed , the resultant visible pattern is the DNA fingerprinting Disadvantage P1-Misused of knowledge to create new contribution of genes which may be harm ful P2-could alter the natural evolution process P3-Mutation P4-Any acceptable example

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DNA finger printing Aspect Importance Marking Criteria Based on your biology knowledge ,justify the importance of DNA fingerprinting and Human Genome Project to mankind P1-DNA fingerprinting can be used for identification purpose in solving criminal cases P2-for example ,DNA samples from blood ,skin ,hair or semen left by a criminal at the scene o f crime can be analyzed P3-To indentify the parent of someone P4-To test potential organ donors for compatibility with a particular patient P5-to examine the relationship among human population P7-To confirm the genotype of animal and plants in agriculture Marks

1 1 1 1 1 1

Advantage& Nowadays, the DNA fingerprinting technique has replaced the common fingerprinting disadvantage technique in criminal investigations. Explain how DNA fingerprinting is carried out. P1: Tissue samples are taken from the scene of a crime and DNA is extracted. P2: An enzyme breaks down the DNA into fragments. P3: The DNA fragments are classified according to size. P4: An alkali is added to separate the double-stranded DNA into single strands. P5:Each single strand is laid on a nylon membrane and radioactive matter is added to it. A banding pattern appears. P6: An X-ray film is produced and the positions of black bands are compared with the part of DNA treated with radioactive matter. MAXIMUM: 4 marks Based on the given statement, state your opinion on the advantages and disadvantages of DNA fingerprinting. Advantages: P1: DNA fingerprinting is more accurate than common fingerprinting as no two people have the same DNA fingerprints. P2: DNA fingerprinting is more efficient than blood-type identification because many people have the same blood type P3: DNA fingerprinting requires only a small amount of DNA to obtain a highly accurate result P4: DNA samples last longer than fingerprints. P5: Mixed DNA samples can still be used. P6: DNA evidence is harder to clean up compared to fingerprints. Disadvantages: P7: DNA samples may be degraded by adding chemicals, and this will affect the accuracy of the technique. P8: Human errors are possible when different procedures and standards are used in DNA fingerprinting. MAXIMUM: 6 marks

1 1 1 1 1 1 6

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Genetically modified organism (GMO) ESSAY No 1. Marking Criteria Diagram shows one benefit of bacteria to human life Marks

2.(a)

Based on the diagram ,describe the use of bacteria in producing insulin 5 F1-Genetic engineering E1-(segment of ) DNA/gene/gene code E2-for insulin production E3-taken form human cell/pancreas E4-inserted into the bacteria E5-form bacteria DNA recombinant E6-culture/mitosis/binary fission E7-forms more bacteria (DNA recombinant) E8-synthesis insulin E9-Extraction of insulin E10-use to treat diabetics Diagram 7.3 shows few stages that involved in the production of insulin hormone through genetic engeneering technology..

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Diagram 7.3 By using your biology knowledge, explain how this technology can be use in insulin hormone production. 1

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(b)

P1- The gene for the insulin is isolated from human pancreas cell P2- The bacterial plasmid is isolated (DNA found in bacteria) P3- The bacterial plasmid is cut by using enzyme P4- The enzyme used to incorporate gene for insulin production into the plasmid P5- the bacteria are cultured in bioreactor P6- the plasmid replicate as a bacteria divide asexually . P7- the bacteria can produce insulin in large quantity, purified and isolate. Transfer of genes or DNA form an organism to another organism plays an important role in genetic engineering P1-Insulin is produced by the langerhans cell in the pancreas. P2--The genes that are responsible for the production of insulin are isolated from the DNA of langerhans cells / pancreatic cell. P3-The genes are then inserted into the DNA molecule of bacteria (such as Escherichia coli . P4-The bacterium contains a recombinant DNA with the human insulin gene P5-The bacterium is then cultured in a suitable nutrient medium ( in laboratory). P6-The bacterium has the gene for human insulin and able to produce human insulin P7-The human insulin is extracted in large quantity

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(c)

Genetic engineering can be used to produce large quantities of substances which are importance for humans and animals. For example , the production of insulin .Bovine somatotrophin is used commercially to increase milk production in cows and mass of beef cattle BST production has a similar process of insulin production .Based on the above statement .explain how the BST can be produced by genetic engineering P1-Small ring of DNA in bacteria called plasmid P2-Plasmid is cut with restriction enzymes P3-cow somatotrophin gene is isolated form cow cell P4-somatotrophin gene is inserted into plasmid P5- somatotrophin plus bacterial plasmid called as recombinant DNA P6-Plasmid is reintroduced in to bacteria P7-Bacteria are grown in fermentation tank ,producing bovine somatotrophin P8- somatotrophin is separated and purified P9- somatotrophin is delivered to cow ,whose milk production efficiency increases

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No 3.(a)

Marking Criteria Genetic engineering is widely used in the field of agriculture and medicine. Justify the impact of genetic engineering on humans and the environment. Good effects Agriculture F1 Genetic engineering used to produce disease resistant/ pest resistant plants e.g legumes, peas and beans P : Less pesticides are used E1- less pollution to the environment E2- better health for consumers. P : increase yield of crops E3- better livelihood for farmers. E4- help to solve problems of insufficient food. F2 : create crops with better nutrition value e.g tomatoes with higher vitamin A content E5- help to solve problems of malnutrition. F3: create crops with longer shelf lives e.g tomato E6- less food wastage F4 : genetically modified livestock e. g cows E7- produce meat with less fat / more milk. Medicine F5 : genetically modified bacteria produce insulin E1 ; for treatment of diabetis mellitus F6: Genetically modified yeast to produce vaccine for hepatitis E2: for prevention of diseases. F7: Gene therapy for treatment of genetic disorders/ diseases e.g muscular dystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell anaemia E3: Defective gene removed and normal gene inserted. Any 2F and P for agriculture, any 1F and P for medicine Max : 6m Bad effect F1 Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weeds E1: may be difficult to control growth of weeds. F2: Some transgenic crops may have animal genes E2: this may not be acceptable to certain groups for religious reasons. F3: Genetically modified foods may be harmful to health E3: may activate human genes to cause cancer. F4: Transgenic organisms may affect the survival of other organisms in the ecosystem. E4: may cause the imbalance of nature / ecosystem F5: Gene therapy used for the treatment of genetic disorder has its limitations. E5: may not be acceptable because of religious and moral values. E6-very costly Any 2F and P Max 4m

Marks

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No 3(b)

Marking Criteria Diagram 8.2 shows two tomato plants which have been exposed to caterpillars. The normal plant has been completely eaten while the genetically engineered plant Shows practically no signs of damage.

Marks

Discuss the benefits and the risks of using the genetically engineered organisms in agriculture and food production .10 F1: Genetic engineering used to produce disease resistant/ pest resistant plants e.g legumes, peas , maize and beans P1.1: Less pesticides are used P1.2: less pollution to the environment // better health for consumers. F2: Increase yield of crops / profitability P2.1: better livelihood for farmers. P2.2: help to solve problems of insufficient food F3: Increase resistance to herbicide eg. soya bean P3: which allows weeds to be killed without affecting the crop plant F4: Able to survive on poorer quality grassland P4: can resist drought //climatic changes F5 : create crops with better nutrition value e.g tomatoes P5.1: with higher vitamin A content P5.2: help to solve problems of malnutrition. F6: create crops with longer shelf lives e.g tomato P6: less food wastage F7 : genetically modified livestock e. g cows P7: produce meat with less fat / more milk. The risks F8: Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weeds P8: may be difficult to control growth of weeds. F9: Some transgenic crops may have animal genes P9 : this may not be acceptable to certain groups for religious reasons. F10: Genetically modified foods may be harmful to health P10: may activate human genes to cause cancer. F11: Transgenic organisms may affect the survival of other organisms in the ecosystem. P11: may cause the imbalance of nature / ecosystem

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No 4(a)

Marking Criteria Diagram 9 show two tomato plants which have been exposed to caterpillar .The normal plant has been completely eaten wile the genetically plant shows practically no sign of damage 10

Marks

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the genetic engineering technology I agriculture10 F1-Genetic engineering used to produced disease resistant /pest resist plant example : legumes ,peas ,maize and beans P1-Less pesticides are used P2-less pollution to the environment//better health for consumers F2-Incraese yield of crops /profitability P3-Better live hood for farmers P4-Help to solve problem of insufficient food F3-Increase resistance to herbicide example soya bean P5-Which allow weeds to be killed without affecting crop plant F4-Able to survive on poorer quality grassland P6-can resist drought /climatic changes F5-Create crops with better nutrition value example tomatoes P7-With high vitamin A content P8-help to solve problem of malnutrition F6-Create crop with longer shelf lives tomato P9-less food wastage F7-genetically modified livestock example cow P10-Produce meat with less fat /more milk Disadvantages F8-Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weeds P11-May be difficult to control growth of weed s F9-Some transgenic crops may have animal genes P12-this may not be acceptable to certain group for religious reasons F10-Genetically modified food may be harmful to health P13-may activate human genes to cause cancer F11-Transgenic organism may affect the survival of other organism in the ecosystem P14-May cause the imbalance of nature /ecosystem

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No 5.

Marking Criteria Nuclear radiation has been applied in food industrial , medical and plantation .However it is dangerous for those who exposed to radiation in period of time directly or indirectly Give an evaluation of the usage of nuclear radiation whether this technique should be develop further .Your explanation must include example of the advantages and disadvantages Advantages: A1-Food sterile in canning process to prevent Bacteria growth A2-Sterile medical appliances to reduce pathogen infection A3-Produce vast of energy for industrial used A4-Scanning the tissue /bone tissue to indentify any abnormality Disadvantages : D1-Acts as mutagen to cause mutation D2-Gene mutation and chromosome mutation permanently D3-Mutation chromosome change of chromosome number D4-cuase immobilize /disability D5-D5-Down syndrome //turner syndrome D6-Mutation gene occur D7-Sickle cell anaemia D8-Uncontrolled mitosis cause can cer

Marks

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

6.

Genetic engineering is a technique whereby the genetic content of an organism is manipulated .Evaluate the contribution of genetic engineering by stating its advantages and disadvantages 10 F1-good //not good P1-A gene can be inserted into vrop plants which make it resistant to herbicides P2-Enable the rpoduciton of medical /pharmacuetocal /example P3-help to sove environmental problem /oil spliis P4-Using genetically engineered bacteria carry the desired human gene P5-Bacteria multiply rapidly to reproduce papidly and fomr a huge pollution P6-Gene which causes a gentic diorder is replaced with a healthy gene /gene theraphy P7-New variety of crop and farm animals have been produced P8-Enables good selected genes to be transferred within a cross species P9-Increase productivity and effciency in the breeding organism P10-Transgenic food may cause allergic reaction in some consumer (any accaeptable answer) P11-Misused of knowledge create new combination of gene which may used in biological P12-could alter the natural evolution process P13-mutation

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No 7.(a)

Marking Criteria A papaya farmer wants to produce a large number of Exotica papayas in the shortest time possible .State the best technique to use by the farmer. What is the genetic advantage of using this technique? F-Tissue culture P1-Able to abtain good characteristic that can be used commercially (selectively) P2-can be conducted anytime does not need any pollinating agent as it carried out in the laboratory (F + any P) Genetically modified food (GMF) is the result of modifying organism genetically .Diagram 9.2 shown an example of genetically modified food maize.

Marks

1 1 1

(b)

Discuss the benefits and the risks of using the genetically modified organism in agriculture and food production 10 F1-Genetic engineering used to produce disease resistant/pest resistant plants e.g. legumes,peas,maize and beans P1.1-less pesticides are used P1.2-less pollution to the environment//better health for consumers F2-Increase yield of crop/profitability P2.2-better livelihood for farmer P2.2-help to solve problems of insufficient food F3-Increase resistance to herbicide eg. Soya bean P3-which allows weed to be killed without affecting the crop plant F4-Able to survive on poorer quality grassland Can resist drought//climatic changes F5-create crops with better nutrition value eg.tomatoes P5.1-with higher vitamin A content P5.2-help to solve problem of malnutrition F6-create crops with longer shelf lives eg.tomatoes P6-less food wastage F7-Genetically modified livestock eg. Cows P7-produce meat with less fat/ more milk The risk F8-Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weeds may be difficult to P8-control growth of weeds F9-(some transgenic crops may have animal genes P9-This may not be acceptable to certain groups for religious reasons F10-Genetically modified food may be harmful to health P10-may activate human genes to cause cancer F11-Transgenic organism may affect the survival of other organism in the ecosystem P11-may cause the imbalance of nature/ecosystem

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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No 8.

Marking Criteria

Marks

A farmer came to the agriculture centre to ask for consultancy, he plans to plant oil palms with thick husk and thin flesh Explain a method that the farmer can use to produce a big number of oil palm in a short period of time8 P1-Choose OP3 P2-Use tissue culture technique P3-Cut a small piece of leaf or shoot of OP 3 P4-Wash and treat with 10% decolouring/bleaching agent P5-cut the piece of leaf/shoot in small fragment P6-Transfer into sterile medium with suitable nutrient and pH P7-Keep in optimum temperature P8-Plant cell divide through mitosis P9-produce many new cell and form callus P10-Callus grow and form a new plant P11-New plants/offspring have some genetic material as plant P12-all the new plants are thick and thin flesh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8

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EXTRA QUESTION No (a) Marking Criteria Explain how the following microorganism are useful in medicinal field Penicillium notatum Dead or weakened virus F1-Penicilium notatum is a fungus E1-Produces antibiotics E2-Kill/fight/prevent growth other microorganism E3-treat disease such gonorhoea/syphilis/lungs infection any 2 F2-suspension of dead or weakened celled vaccine E1-Injected into human /blood E2-Stimulates lymphocytes E3-produce antibody E4-Kills /fights/neutralises toxins/chemicals E5-Immune to chicken pox /rubella/tuberculosis any 3 Marks

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