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1. Fixed Fiduciary system: This is based on currency principle.

According to this system, the central bank can issue notes up to a certain limit fixed by the Government., without gold backing. The remaining notes are backed by Government., securities and bonds and if at any time the Central bank wants to issue more notes then, it should be backed by 100% gold reserve. We can say in other words that Central bank can issue notes up to same limit against Government., security and excess of amount should be backed by 100% metallic reserve. Advantages:

1. This system is check on inflation and there is no chance of over issue because of 100% metallic reserve. 2. This system provides security for the convertibility of notes.

Disadvantage: 1. In emergency, if there is no gold is available for reserves then, this system is inelastic.

2. Proportional reserve system: According to this system, a portion of the note issued is backed by metallic reserve and rest of the amount is backed by Government., securities and bonds. In other words central bank issued currency notes from 25% to 40% of which is backed by gold and the rest of 75% or 60% is backed by government, securities.

This proportion is different from country to country. In Pakistan, this percentage is 30%. It means that 100 rupee note is issued against 30 gold coins reserve etc. Govt. can change to percentage required for metallic reserve in certain conditions. Advantages:

1. Elastic system: The main advantage of this system is that it makes the supply of money elastic.

2. A proportion of note issued are covered by gold reserves. Disadvantages: 1. 2. Chance of over issue may cause problem of inflation in the country. Note stability of value of money can not be ensured

What are the different principles and methods of note issue Discuss their advantages and disadvantages

PRINCIPLES OF NOTE ISSUE :There are two principles of note issue. First is the currency principle and the second is banking principle. There are different views about these principles. One school of thought says that there should be full convertibility of notes into gold bullion. The second gives importance to the elasticity of supply. Now we discuss these two principle.

CURRENCY PRINCIPLE :The lover of this principle say that paper money is better than the metallic money but there should be 100% backing of gold reserves. They say that in order to maintain the prestige of paper money gold should be available for the conversion of notes when presented.

ADVANTAGES :i. Safety And Security :The advantage of this system is that it gives full safety and security to the paper currency.

ii. No Danger Of Over Issue :There is no danger of over issue of the currency. So it is an effective check on inflation.

DISADVANTAGES :i. Inelastic :-

The disadvantage of this principle is that it makes the supply of money inelastic. According to this principle paper currency can only be printed and issued if there is a 100% gold cover available against it. So this system can not meet the requirement of trade and industry.

ii. Lock Up Of Gold :A huge amount of gold is unnecessarily locked up which can be used in other productive projects.

BANKING PRINCIPLE :According to this principle there is no need of reserve requirements of gold and silver for the notes issued. The banks are authorized to regulate the note issue keeping in view the need of the business in the country. The banks themselves will maintain adequate reserves of gold for meeting their obligations of note. If there is an over issue of notes, the excess money will be automatically presented for cash payment and proper ratio will be maintained between the supply of money and the gold reserves.

MERITS AND DEMERITS OF ELASTIC SYSTEM :The merit of this principle is that it secures elasticity in the issue of currency.

Not Safe :The demerits of this principle is that it is not a safe. In the history of England banking, many times over issuance of money created problems for the economy.

Conclusion :After discussing both the principles we can say that both are defective. For a sound system of not issue security and elasticity must go side by side. Keeping in view the above defects modern world have devised new methods of regulating note issue.

METHODS OF NOTE ISSUE :Fixed Fiduciary System :Under this system the central bank of the country is permitted to issue bank notes of a given amount without giving gold and silver cover. The fixed quantity of notes allowed by law to be issued is to be backed by Govt. securities only. This is named the fiduciary limit. The amounts of notes circulated in excess of the fiduciary limit must be 100% backed by gold.

ADVANTAGES :1. Elastic System :The first advantage of this system is that it makes the supply of money elastic.

2. Safety :It also gives maximum safety because notes can not be issued in excess of the fiduciary limit unless they are 100% covered by gold.

3. Check On Inflation :The inflation can be effectively checked.

DISADVANTAGES :1. High Fiduciary Limit :If fiduciary limit is high or it has been increased with the passage of time then people will loose confidence in the currency.


1. Great Britain is considered the home of this system of note issue and it has successfully survived since 1844.

2. Japan and Norway are also practicing this system of note issue even today.

PROPORTIONAL RESERVE SYSTEM or PERCENTAGE SYSTEM :According to this system the central bank is required by law to keep a fixed percentage varying from 25 to 40 percent against the note issue. The essential feature of this system is the provision of proportional metallic reserves against the notes in circulation. The reserve ratio may be allowed to drop below the legal minimum.

COUNTRIES :1. It was adopted by France and reserve ratio was 30%.

2. Germany adopted it keeping 40% of gold against the note issue.

3. The federal reserve Bank of U.S.A has also adopted it with slight modification.

ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE :1. Elastic System :The main advantage of this system is that it makes the supply of money elastic.

2. Lock Up Of Gold :The defect with this system is that it locks up the gold reserves unnecessarily. So we cannot use it for other purpose.

3. Exchange Management or Modified Proportional Reserve System :J.M. Keynes has suggested modified form of proportional reserve system and calls it exchange management. According to this system the central bank is required by law to keep the percentage required against the note issue in the form of gold, foreign bills or cash at some foreign banks where gold standard prevails.

COUNTRIES FOLLOWED :This method is followed in India, Pakistan and in many European Countries. The state bank of Pakistan has to keep 30% of gold silver or approved foreign exchange against the note issue. This method of note issue economies the use of gold and also makes the currency system elastic.