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1. Write the word qualitative or quantitative next to each statement to identify the type of
observation:

a. There are 7 class periods at CHS. _________________________
b. Our school colors are orange and black. _____________________
c. The classroom is 5 meters in height. _______________________
d. The desktop is smooth in texture. _______________________
2. Read the following story. All the phrases in bold are either observations or inferences. Circle all
the phrases that are inferences. Underline all the phrases that are observations.

This weekend I went hiking in the Blue Ridge Mountains. I read about the trail online and it said it was 8.2
miles long and went up 3000 feet in altitude (height). That is a lot of climbing! I looked outside as I was
getting ready and saw the sun was out, it was going to be a hot day. To make sure I was prepared I packed
a lot of water. On the trail I saw many different kinds of plants and fungi. The fungi were bright red so
they must have been poisonous. It was nice to be out in nature, I will want to go hiking again next
weekend.

Biology Objective #1: The Nature of Science:

At the beginning of the school year, we discussed that science is a way of
knowing. In order to know, a search for information and explanation is necessary.
This search is called inquiry. There are two types of scientific inquiry.
Discovery Science and Hypothesis-Based Science. Discovery science
describes nature and hypothesis-based science explains nature. Both types of
scientific inquiry require scientists to make observations.

Observations require scientists to use their five senses to gather information.
The information that is gathered is called data. There are two types of data
(observations) that a scientist can gather:

*Qualitative Data: Descriptions (colors, textures, smells)
*Quantitative Data: Measurements (quantities)

An Inference is an assumption, or guess, that a scientist makes based on
observations (both quantitative and qualitative).

S

"#$%&'#()*+ e6-24&A< the following obseivations OJ ,eQ,^eR[ eithei MIF^e#F#efX oi
MIFR#e#F#efX?

S. The cai has foui uoois. MIF^e#F#efX oi MIFR#e#F#efX

4. Ny shoes aie biown with pink polka-uots. MIF^e#F#efX oi MIFR#e#F#efX

S. I am 1.S6 meteis tall. MIF^e#F#efX oi MIFR#e#F#efX

6. The 2uuS Foiu Nustang conveitible is shiny. MIF^e#F#efX oi MIFR#e#F#efX

7. Raisins aie puiple anu wiinkly. MIF^e#F#efX oi MIFR#e#F#efX


B&1-'4&$23S Caiefully ieau each of the statements below. ,&1'.- the sections of each statement
that aie UOHXQfF#eURH? I26-1.&2- the sections of each statement that aie eRgXQXR,XH.

8. Tayqwan hasn't eaten anything all uay, anu he iefuses to get out of beu. Tayqwan must not be
feeling well.
9. Nauiice must be pooi because he hasn't woin a new paii of sneakeis in thiee yeais.
1u. Shainice has two pet cats. She must not like uogs.
11. Patiick's cai has a huge uent on the uiivei's siue uooi. Patiick is a pooi uiivei.
12. Tyieke must be a basketball playei because he's veiy tall.


B&1-'4&$23S Caiefully stuuy the image below:













1S. List one qualitative obseivation
about the image to the left:



14. List one quantitative obseivation
about the image to the left:



1S. List one infeience about the image
to the left:
4


































1. Bow can you iuentify the inuepenuent vaiiable in an expeiiment.

a. Its measuieu value uoes not change uuiing the expeiiment.
b. It is the vaiiable that is manipulateu oi changeu in an expeiiment.
c. It changes in iesponse to some othei vaiiable in the expeiiment.
u. It is pait of the contiol gioup but not pait of the expeiimental gioup.

2. A scientist wants to know if a iobin's eggs hatch fastei in waimei tempeiatuies. Which of these
woulu be the inuepenuent vaiiable in an expeiiment to investigate this question.

a. Coloi of the eggs
b. Tempeiatuie of the eggs
c. Batching time foi eggs
u. Numbei of eggs that hatch


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The ,&#%)'#-#& .%'/(0 is a piocess that guiues the seaich foi answeis to a paiticulai question.
The scientific methou is composeu of S sequential steps. These steps aie listeu below:

State the pioblem (0bseivation)
Bypothesis
Pieuiction
Contiolleu Expeiiment
Conclusion (Theoiy)

A 1234516,7, is a possible explanation oi tentative answei to the question being investigateu.
In othei woius, a hypothesis is a best guess at the answei to the question.

A 8()'$(99%0 6:;%$#<%)' must meet all the components of 3=436= 6>36=7.6?5@A "6,7B?.
The components of piopei expeiimental uesign as listeu below:

The expeiiment must avoiu bias
The expeiiment must be iepeatable.
The expeiiment must have a piopei 84?5=4A.

In oiuei foi an expeiiment to be contiolleu, two gioups must be piesent. The scientist must
have a contiol gioup anu an expeiimental gioup. A 84?5=4A B=4C3 is the gioup in the
expeiiment that uoes not ieceive the vaiiable oi tieatment. This is the gioup that you leave
alone! The contiol gioup seives as oui ;03&3 $A '$>%01&3$2. An 6>36=7.6?5@A B=4C3
ieceives the vaiiable oi tieatment. The iesults (uata) gatheieu fiom the expeiimental gioup
aie then compaieu to the contiol gioup.

The vaiiable oi tieatment in an expeiiment is iefeiieu to as the 7?"636?"6?5 D@=7@EA6.
The inuepenuent vaiiable is the thing that the scientist changeu. The "636?"6?5 D@=7@EA6 is
what the scientist is measuiing. Remembei, a goou expeiiment will only have one manipulateu
(inuepenuent) vaiiable.
S
Directions: For each of the following experiments, identify the Independent Variable (IV) and the
Dependent Variable (DV). Remember, the IV is the cause / what I change on purpose; the DV is the
effect, it depends on the IV.

Example: A student is testing the effect of different fertilizers on plant growth.

IV: Type of Fertilizer ___________ DV: Plant growth_______________

3. Experiment: A student is testing how listening to an ipod affects your hearing

IV: ____________ _________________ DV:_______________________________

4. Experiment: A student is testing how brushing your teeth affects the number of cavities you have

IV: ____________ _________________ DV:______________________________

5. Experiment: A scientist wants to find out if spending more time in the sun increases your risk of
developing skin cancer.

IV: ____________ _________________ DV:______________________________

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Dr. Frank Ampy from Howard University studies environmental carcinogens. He observes
that three pesticides cause an increased risk of cancerous tumors, and wants to know
which one which one is the worst (increases the risk of cancerous tumors the most). He
plans an experiment using mice and the three pesticides: DDT, Quintox, and Tanos. He
divides the mice into four groups, with 5 mice in each group. Group 1 is exposed to DDT,
Group 2 is exposed to Quintox, Group 3 is exposed to Tanos, and Group 4 is not exposed
to any pesticides. After 1 month, Dr. Ampy counts how many tumors form in the mice in
each group.

The Important Part Is In The Experiment This Is

6. Independent Variable



7. Dependent Variable



8. Experimental Group(s)



9. Control Group



10. Constants


6

Carefully read the experiment below:

A student designed an experiment to see if plants grow better when watered with a sugar
solution. He divided the plants into three groups. Once a week for two months, he watered
the plants in each group using a different sugar solution for each plant group. Group A got
watered with water only, Group 8 got watered with a 25% sugar solution, and Group C got
watered with a 50% sugar solution. At the end of two months, he measured the final height
of each plant.

The Important Part Is In The Experiment This Is

11. Independent Variable


12. Dependent Variable


13. Experimental Group(s)


14. Control Group


15. Constants



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In the expeiiment illustiateu below, a botanist wanteu to ueteimine the effects of uiffeient coloieu
lights on plant giowth. To uo this, she set up two expeiiments. She giew one plant unuei blue light anu
one unuei ieu light. She also gave each plant the amount of watei shown.














16. At the enu of the expeiiment, Plant 1 hau giown 1u cm anu Plant 2 hau giown S cm. The botanist
concluueu that plants giow bettei unuei ieu light. Is this a valiu conclusion. Why oi why not.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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Bata foims the coie of all scientific inquiiy. Scientists look foi tienus in uata anu then
attempt to explain those tienus. Although tienus can be ueteimineu by looking at uata
tables, scientists use [QF@bH to make it easiei to see tienus in uata. In oiuei to
unueistanu these tienus, you must become familiai with all the paits of a giaph. uiaphs
incluue all of the following paits:



3F$'* (- F B$F;/+

A. [10%7 #&4.-: The title of the giaph shoulu tell the ieauei what uata is being iepiesenteu. @9GFH*
$%F0 '/% '#'9% (- F I$F;/ E6J4=6 9((K#)I F' F)H ('/%$ 0F'FL
B. JDFY&3: The veitical axis along the left is calleu the Y-axis. The uepenuent vaiiable in youi
expeiiment is always placeu on this axis.
C. hDFY&3: The hoiizontal axis long the bottom is calleu the X-axis. The inuepenuent vaiiable in youi
expeiiment is always placeu on this axis.

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Remembei that youi examination might ask you to peifoim some simple math
equations befoie you can coiiectly answei questions about an expeiiment. The
following simple uefinitions shoulu help you tackle any math pioblem thiown youi way.

H/>: The iesult of F00#)I a set of numbeis.
@1$6/'4: The iesult of <M9'#;9H#)I a set of numbeis.
@1$;0;&.&4<: The likelihoou that an event will happen. This is usually expiesseu as a peicent (%)
oi a fiaction.
P-02: Anothei woiu foi FN%$FI%. The mean is ueteimineu by auuing all the numbeis in a given
numbeis set. 0nce you ueteimine the sum of the set, uiviue this numbei by how many numbeis
aie in the set.
P-6&02: The meuian set of numbeis is the value foi which half the numbeis aie laigei anu half
the numbeis aie smallei.
B&AA-1-2'-: The iesult of subtiacting two numbeis oi expiessions.

8

1. What is the uiffeience between 7 anu 12. _________________________________

2. Ns. Cook's Biology classes wanteu to ueteimine the aveiage numbei of eggs Ns. Cook's pet hen
lays in a given week. Bei classes collecteu uata foi S weeks. The uata is listeu in the table below:

R/>;-1 $A X==3 ^0&6
%-1 a--:
Week 1 7
Week 2 1u
Week S 14
Week 4 S
Week S 16

What was the mean numbei of eggs obseiveu ovei the S week peiiou. _______

S. uiven the following uata set, finu the mean, meuian anu moue:

12, 1S, 16, 19, 2u, 22, 2S, 2S, 27, 29, Su, S2, S2, SS

Nean: __________ Neuian: __________ Noue: __________








4. What is the independent variable in this experiment? ____________________
5. What units are being used on the x-axis? __________________________
6. The units on the x-axis are scaled by _________________________
7. As the _____________________ (IV) increases, the _______________ (DV) _________________ .
8. A study on a poultry farm was conducted to determine the percentage of vitamin supplement
necessary to add to the feed of turkeys in order to maximize their growth. According to this data,
what percentage of vitamin supplement should be added to the turkeys diet?

A 6% C 10%
B 8% D 14%
9


_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




1S. These two giaphs show the same infoimation. Why uo they look uiffeient.




14. Which giaph uo you think AT&T shows on theii commeicials. Why.




9. What type of giaph is this.


1u. What happens to the numbei of
pieuatois when the numbei of piey
inciease.

11. Why uo you this happens.


12. What happens to the numbei of
pieuatois when the numbei of piey
ueciease.


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It takes five to be alive! All living things have five chaiacteiistics in common. Each
chaiacteiistic is listeu below:

,-../.01 U1=02&N04&$2: All living things aie composeu of at least one cell. The cell is the basic
unit of life foi all oiganisms. Essential chemical ieactions take place in anu aiounu the cells that
make up life. In laigeicomplex oiganisms cells woik togethei to foim tissues. Biffeient types of
tissues can woik togethei to foim oigans. 0igans to woik togethei to foim oigan systems. These
oigan systems woik togethei to foim an oiganism.
Q-%1$6/'4&$2: 0iganisms must be able to iepiouuce to insuie the suivival of theii species. If a
species fails to iepiouuce, they will become extinct.
b-1-6&4<: The tiansmission of genetic infoimation (BNA) fiom paient to offspiing is iefeiieu to
as heieuity. Beieuity explains why you might look like youi biothei, sistei, mothei anuoi fathei.
b$>-$3403&3S All living things must be able to maintain balancestability insiue of theii cells to
stay alive. The ability to iegulate the cellulai enviionment is calleu homeostasis. If an oiganism is
unable to maintain stability within theii cells, the oiganism will become sick anu uie.
P-40;$.&3>S All living things must paiticipate in chemical ieactions to stay alive. These
chemical ieactions aie collectively iefeiieu to as metabolism. These chemical ieactions aie
iesponsible foi giowth, iepiouuction, anu bieaking uown foou foi eneigy. Netabolism helps to
ensuie homeostasis in an oiganism.

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Remembei that all living things iely on foui maciomolecules of life: &F$O(/H0$F'%*P
9#;#0*P ;$('%#)*P F)0 )M&9%#& F&#0*. Each maciomolecule is maue up of smallei builuing
blocks calleu <()(<%$*. The table below shows the ielationship between
maciomolecules (;(9H<%$*) anu theii builuing blocks (<()(<%$*). Bon't foiget, "poly'
means "many." "Nono" means "one."

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Caibohyuiate Nonosacchaiiue
Lipiu Fatty Acius
Piotein Amino Acius
Nucleic Aciu Nucleotiues

It takes lots of monomeis to builu a polymei. This means that polymeis aie much laigei
than monomeis. Please ieview the functions of each maciomolecule below:

,01;$7<6104-3S Caibohyuiates pioviue eneigy foi living things. They aie often iefeiieu to as
sugais. In plants, these sugais aie calleu staich. In animals, these sugais aie calleu glycogen.
^&%&63S Lipius aie useu to *'($% eneigy. Examples of lipius aie fats anu oils.
@1$4-&23S Pioteins have thiee functions!!! They pioviue stiuctuie, suppoit, anu speeu up
chemical ieactions. An example of a piotein that speeus up chemical ieactions aie %)QH<%*!
R/'.-&' F'&63S Theie aie two types of nucleic acius (BNA anu RNA). Nucleic acius pioviue the
infoimation necessaiy foi life. It contains heieuitaiy infoimation useu to make pioteins.
11

)? B&1-'4&$23: Fiom the list of chaiacteiistics below, ciicle the S chaiacteiistics that aie iequiiements
foi life:

Bieathing Novement Netabolism Cellulai 0iganization

Bomeostasis Beaitbeat Repiouuction Beieuity

2. B&1-'4&$23: Fiom the woius above, fill in the appiopiiate teim foi each uefinition below:

a. An oiganism's ability to keep a stable inteinal enviionment is calleu _____________________

b. Physical anu chemical changes that help an oiganism bieakuown foou foi eneigy
___________________

c. 0iganisms make moie of theii own by____________________

u. The passing of tiaits fiom paients to offspiing is calleu _____________________

S. Eais can uistinguish Afiican anu Asia elephants fiom one anothei. Asia elephants have much
smallei eais than Afiican elephants. Although both elephants shaie a common ancestoi with just
one eai size anu shape, they no longei shaie this in common with one anothei. Asia elephants live
much fuithei noith of the Eaith's equatoi than theii Afiican cousins. This means that Asian
elephants live in much coolei enviionments than Afiican elephants. Afiican elephants aie able to us
theii laige eai shape to help iemove excess heat fiom theii bouies. Asia elephants neeu to conseive
heat; theiefoie theii eais aie much smallei. The ability of Afiican elephants to iegulate theii bouy
tempeiatuie by ieleasing excess heat fiom theii eais is an example of what chaiacteiistic of life.

a. Bomeostasis b. Repiouuction c. Netabolism u. Cellulai 0iganization

]? Which maciomolecule of life pioviues the eneigy necessaiy to help you compete in a spoiting
event. ____________________________________

C? Which maciomolecule, passeu fiom paient to offspiing, accounts foi similaiities between you anu
youi paients. __________________________

_? If 2u amino acius weie chemically bonueu togethei, what type of polymei woulu be piouuceu.
_____________________________________

E? A scientist is given unknown polymei. Aftei iunning a seiies of laboiatoiy tests, the scientist
concluues that the polymei is composeu a laige numbei of nucleotiues helu togethei by chemical
bonus. What type of polymei shoulu this scientist concluue she is stuuying. ___________________________

c? If you weie to peifoim a chemical ieaction in wheie monomeis aie tuineu into polymeis, woulu
youi new molecule(s) be laigei oi smallei than youi staiting ieactants. _______________________________

d? ______________________________________ is a veiy long maciomolecule chain.

)*? Polymeis aie maue up of inuiviuual subunits (builuing blocks) calleu __________________________________

12

Directions:
1. Determine the relationship between the first two underlined terms.
2. Fill in the last blank so there is the same relationship between the last two underlined terms
as there is between the first two

Example: Carbohydrate is to sugars and starches, as lipid is to fats and oils.


11. Monosaccharide is to carbohydrate, as nucleotide is to ______________________.


12. Monosaccharide is to carbohydrate, as fatty acid is to _______________________.


13. Monosaccharide is to carbohydrate, as amino acid is to ______________________.


14. Carbohydrate is to monosaccharide, as nucleic acid is to _____________________.


15. Lipids are to fatty acids, as proteins are to _________________________________.


16. Nucleotide is to DNA, as monosaccharide is to _____________________________.


17. Carbohydrates are to energy source, as lipids are to ________________________.


18. Carbohydrates are to cell wall, as lipids are to _____________________________.


19. Proteins are to enzymes, as nucleic acids are to ___________ and ____________.


20. Proteins are to amino acids, as carbohydrates are _________________________.




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0iganisms must be able to quickly tuin ieactants in a chemical ieaction into piouuct.
This speeu helps to ensuie piopei metabolic function, which maintains homeostasis.
This is a key chaiacteiistic of life! In class, we uiscusseu speeu bumps anu theii iole
iegulating the speeu of tiaffic on busy stieets. Remembei that speeu bumps aie
uesigneu to slow tiaffic uown. We have a similai "bump" in biology! Although speeu
bumps aie necessaiy when iegulating tiaffic, they can be ueauly in living things. The
bouy must be able to lowei these "bumps" to ensuie that oui chemical ieactions happen
as quickly as possible.

6)QH<%* aie special pioteins uesigneu to lowei these "bumps." In chemical ieactions,
these bumps aie calleu @857D@574? 6?6=B2. The highei the activation eneigy, the
slowei the chemical ieaction! Enzymes inciease the iate of chemical ieactions by
making these chemical speeu bumps smallei. If a chemical ieaction has an enzyme
piesent, it is a 8@5@A2R6" ieaction. Catalyzeu ieactions will always pioceeu fastei than
uncatalyzeu ieactions.
14
1. Which statement about enzymes is tiue.

a. Enzymes aie consumeu uuiing chemical ieaction.
b. Enzymes pioviue eneigy to activate a chemical ieaction.
c. Enzymes pioviue a site on which ieactants can combine.
u. Enzymes inciease the concentiation of ieactant paiticles.

2. Bow aie enzymes able to speeu up biochemical ieactions.

a. They pioviue eneigy to the ieactants.
b. They absoib eneigy fiom the piouucts.
c. They lowei the activation eneigy of the ieaction.
u. They inciease the numbei of available ieactant paiticles.

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S. Which of the chemical ieactions has a lowei activation eneigy in the giaph above, the catalyzeu
oi the uncatalyzeu ieaction. ______________________________________

4. Which of the chemical ieactions (catalyzeu of uncatalyzeu) in the giaph above will happen at a
fastei iate. _____________________________________

S. Which of the chemical ieactions above (catalyzeu oi uncatalyzeu) has an enzyme piesent.
_________________________________

6. 0sing the giaph above, which chemical ieaction will have a lowei activation eneigy (with
enzyme oi without an enzyme). ___________________________________


7. Label the following pictuie of an enzyme using the following teims:
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1S
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8. What is the optimal pB of Salivaiy amylase. _____________

9. What is the optimal pB of Pepsin. _____________

1u. What is the optimal pB of Aiginase. _____________

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11. What is the optimal pB foi the enzyme @-%3&2. __________________

12. At what pB uoes @-%3&2 stop woiking. _________ & __________

1S. What is the optimal pB foi the enzyme #1<%3&2. _________________

14. At what pB uoes #1<%3&2 stop woiking. ________ & __________
16


















































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Watei is composeu of 2 hyuiogen anu 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical foimula is B20.
Watei is unique because it is capable of absoibing a gieat ueal of eneigy (heat) fiom its
enviionment, befoie it incieases its own tempeiatuie. This means that watei can help
to iegulate (stabilize) the tempeiatuie of aii anu lanu aiounu it. A gieat example of this
is the beach. Tempeiatuies at the beach uo not fluctuate (change) veiy much because of
the huge bouy of watei (the ocean) that is locateu neai it. This also explains why we use
watei to iegulate oui bouy tempeiatuie. We uon't want oui bouy tempeiatuie to
fluctuate veiy much because it woulu altei chemical ieactions (metabolism). When
metabolism is thiown off, homeostasis is also thiown off. As you know, this can leau to
ueath!!!!

Beie aie some moie inteiesting watei factoius:

Watei can stick to itself! This is calleu &(/%*#().
Watei can stick to othei things! This is calleu F0/%*#(). Auhesion explains why
watei can stick to a spiuei's web.

%b \ H$./4&$23S

In class, we uiscusseu thiee types of solutions: Acius, Bases, anu solutions that aie
Neutial. Bow uo we ueteimine whethei a solution is an aciu, base, oi neutial. That's
easy, we use the pB scale! The pB scale is a lineai scale that iuns fiom u-14. Look at the
scale below:










Substances with a pB below 7 aie calleu @&#0*. Substances with a pB above 7 aie calleu
EF*%*. Substances with a pB of 7 aie calleu ?%M'$F9.
We neeu to auu one moie uetail to this scenaiio: The pB scale actually measuies the
amount of 12"=4B6? 74?, S1TU that aie piesent in a solution. The lowei the pB value,
the gieatei the amount of hyuiogen ions (B+) piesent in the solution.

Example: Solution A has a pB of 8. Solution B has a pB of S. Because Solution B has a
lowei pB, it has a gieatei concentiation of hyuiogen ions piesent. The moie aciuic a
solution is, the gieatei the concentiation of hyuiogen ions.

17

1. Refei to the pictuie below. What type of bonu is
iepiesenteu by ^&2- F.
___________________________________.








2. What teim can be useu to uesciibe watei's ability to "stick" to itself. _______________________________

S. In class, I showeu you a pictuie of a spiuei's web with uiops of watei attacheu. What teim can
be useu to uesciibe watei's ability to "stick" to othei things. _______________________________________

4. In class we watcheu as watei was able to climb the walls of a naiiow glass tube, against giavity!
What teim can be useu to explain this feat. ___________________________________________________

S. The pB scale measuies the concentiation of __________________________ in solution.

6. Lemon juice has a pB of 2. Is lemon juice an aciu oi a base. ______________

7. Ammonia has a pB of 11.S. Is ammonia an aciu oi a base. ________________

8. What piopeity of watei allows ice to float on the suiface of ponus in wintei.

F? F67-3&$2 O? I2&8-130. H$.8-24
,? ,$7-3&$2 B? ^-33 6-23- 03 0 3$.&6 4702 0 .&G/&6


9. What piopeity of allows sugai to uissolve in watei.

F? F67-3&$2 O? I2&8-130. H$.8-24
,? ,$7-3&$2 B? ^-33 6-23- 03 0 3$.&6 4702 0 .&G/&6


______Water molecules stick to each other A. Universal Solvent
on the surface of a pond, making a surface that
bugs can walk on

______ Water in our blood can dissolve and B. Adhesion
carry nutrients throughout our body

______ Icebergs floating in the Arctic Ocean C. Less dense as a solid than a liquid
provide a habitat for polar bears

______ Water sticks to plant stems, helping D. Cohesion
water move up a plant

F
18


















































19


























Directions: Label the parts of the microscope below using the words
in the bank below:

STAGE, FINE ADJUSTMENT, COURSE ADJUSTMENT

EYEPIECE, LIGHT SOURCE

6. Teiiance was tiying to look at an insect using a uissecting
micioscope. While peeiing thiough the eyepiece, he noticeu that the
insect was laigei but lackeu claiity (bluiiy). Is Teiiance having an
issue with 1-3$./4&$2 oi >0=2&A&'04&$2. __________________

8. When making a wet-mount sliue, it necessaiy to place the coveislip ovei the specimen at a 4S uegiee
angle. Why shoulu you always place a covei slip on top of a specimen at a 4S uegiee angel.

a. Pievent the specimen fiom escaping c. So you uo not squish the specimen
b. To leave enough oxygen foi the specimen u. Pievent aii bubbles

9. If Naico is using a micioscope that has an objective lens of 4ux, what is the total magnification powei
of his micioscope. _________________________

1u. If the total magnification of a micioscope is 2uux, what is the magnification of the objective lens.
___________________________

O&$.$=< U;V-'4&8- (cS P&'1$3'$%<

The invention of the micioscope is piobably the most significant invention in science.
Without this valuable scientific tool, we coulu not have uevelopeu the Cell Theoiy!!! The
micioscopes pieceueu the uevelopment anu unueistanuing of just about eveiything that
we have uiscusseu in Biology class!!!

Beie aie a few key micioscopy concepts to keep in minu:

Beteimining #U#F^ PF[Rege,F#eUR Ug F Pe,QUH,U@X:

! #$40. P0=2&A&'04&$2 k X<- %&-'- Y U;V-'4&8- .-23
! Remembei, the eye piece will always be 1ux. Anytime you multiply
a numbei by 1u, all you have to uo is auu one zeio.
Example: If the objective lens of a micioscope is Sux. The
total magnification is 1u x Su = Suu.

Piepaiing a Wet-Nount Sliue: Please iemembei that bubbles aie oui enemy in
micioscopy! The most impoitant step is to place the covei slip at a 4S uegiee
angle. This pievents bubbles fiom becoming tiappeu with youi specimen.

2u



































P04'7&2=S Please match the appiopiiate scientist on the left with theii coiiect contiibution to oui
unueistanuing of the Cell Theoiy.

_____ 1. Antony van Leeuwenhoek a. Be stateu that all animals aie composeu of
cells.

_____ 2. Natthias Schleiuen b. Be inventeu the fiist compounu
micioscope.

_____ S. Theouoie Schwann c. Stateu that all plants aie composeu of cells

_____ 4. Robeit Booke u. Was the fiist to see ieu bloou cells, bacteiia,
piotests, nematoues, anu speims cells

_____ S. Zachaiias }enssen e. Coineu the teim "cell."
O&$.$=< U;V-'4&8- (dS #7- ,-.. #7-$1<

Touay, biologists know that cells aie the basic units of life. That knowleuge was not
always obvious because cells aie so small anu cannot be obseiveu with the unaiueu eye.
The uiscoveiy of the cell, its stiuctuie, anu its function came about thiough the woik of
many uiffeient scientists using ueveloping technology. To get the ball iolling, let's talk
about Zachaiius }enssen. Ni. }enssen inventeu the veiy fiist micioscope!

b$$:-S In 166S, Robeit Booke useu his micioscope to stuuy a thin slice of coik. The
coik appeaieu to be maue of tiny, empty chambeis. The chambeis ieminueu Booke of
iooms in a monasteiy known as cells, so he gave this name to the stiuctuies in the coik.
The stiuctuie that Booke calleu cells weie actually paits of cells calleu cell walls. Coik
cells aie no longei alive anu theiefoie uo not contain the same mateiial as living cells.

^--/9-27$-:S The fiist peison to obseive living cells was Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
Leeuwenhoek useu a simple micioscope to analyze ponu watei. Be uiscoveieu that
watei was filleu with tiny living oiganisms. Some of the oiganisms he obseiveu weie
bacteiia. Be also obseiveu some of his own cells (speim anu ieu bloou cells).

H'7.-&6-2 \ H'79022S Natthais Schleiuen was a ueiman botanist who stuuieu a vaiiety
of plants. Schleiuen obseiveu plants using a micioscope. Be was the fiist peison to
iecognize that all plants aie maue of cells. ueiman biologist Theouoi Schwann ieacheu
the same conclusion about animals.

#7- ,-.. #7-$1<S These uiscoveiies aie summaiizeu in the mouein cell theoiy, which is
now a funuamental biological concept. The cell theoiy states:

1. All living things aie maue up of cells.
2. Cells aie the basic units of life (stiuctuie & function).
S. New cells aie piouuceu fiom existing cells.

21


















































O&$.$=< U;V-'4&8- ()*S ,-..3 \ ,-../.01 U1=02-..-3

All living things aie composeu of cells. Robeit Booke was the fiist scientist to use
this teim foi the units of life that make up living things. With the help of Booke anu a
numbei of othei scientists, we weie able to uevelop the 8%99 5/%($H. The cell theoiy
is composeu of the thiee items listeu below:

All living things aie composeu of cells.
Cells can only come fiom pie-existing cells.
Cells aie the unit of stiuctuie of function.

Theie aie two main types of cells: 3$(KF$H('#& 8%99* F)0 6MKF$H('#& 8%99*.
Piokaiyotic cells aie veiy simple, small in size, lack membiane-bounu oiganelles,
anu 0( )(' &()'F#) F )M&9%M*. Eukaiyotic cells aie moie complex, laigei in size,
contain membiane-bounu oiganelles, anu they 0( &()'F#) F )M&9%M*. The only
example of a piokaiyotic cell is bacteiia. All othei living things aie composeu of
eukaiyotic cells.

X/:01<$4&' ,-..3S Theie aie two main types of eukaiyotic cells. Although plant anu
animal cells have a lot in common, theie aie some significant uiffeiences between
them. These uiffeiences aie listeu in the chait below:

@.024 ,-..3 F2&>0.3 ,-..3
Bave a cell wall Bo not have a cell wall
Bave a laige cential vacoule Bo not have a laige cential vacoule
Contain chloioplast (to make theii own foou
using sunlight uuiing photosynthesis)
Bo not contain chloioplast (cannot make theii
own foou- animals use cellulai iespiiation to
make ATP fiom foou ingesteu)

,-../.01 U1=02-..-3S

U1=02-..- ,-../.01 g/2'4&$2 ,&4< F20.$=<
1. Nucleus The nucleus contains BNA anu
contiols all the activity of the
cell.
Nayoi
2. Ribosomes Site of piotein synthesis (wheie
pioteins aie maue)

Factoiies
S. Lysosomes Bieakuown olu cellulai
components so they can be
ieuseu by the cell
Recycling Centei
4. uolgi Appaiatus (bouy) Receives, packages, anu ships
out pioteins.
Post 0ffice
S.Enuoplasmic Reticulum

System of membianes anu sacs
that tianspoit molecules to one
pait of the cell to anothei.
Bighway
6. Nitochonuiia Site of ATP piouuction in the
cell.
Powei Plant
7. Chloioplast (plant cells only) Captuies sunlight anu conveits
it into chemical eneigy (sugai)
uuiing photosynthesis
Solai Panel

22
1. A student is looking at a cell through a microscope and trying to decide whether the cell is a
prokaryote or a eukaryote. What are some structures that would be present in a eukaryote, but not a
prokaryote?
_________________________________________________________________________________


2. A student is looking at a cell through a microscope and trying to decide whether a cell is from an
animal or a plant. What are some structures that would be absent in an animal cell, but present in a
plant cell?
_________________________________________________________________________________


3. A student is looking at a cell in a microscope and is able to observe the following structures: a cell
membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. What type of cell is it?

A. It could be any type of cell
B. It is definitely a prokaryote
C. It is definitely a eukaryote

4. A student is looking at a cell in a microscope and is able to observe the following structures: a cell
membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. What type of cell is it?

A. It could be any type of cell
B. It is definitely a prokaryote
C. It is definitely a eukaryote

5. A student is looking at a cell in a microscope and is able to observe the following structures: a cell
wall, a large central vacuole, and a nucleus. What type of cell is it?

A. It is definitely a prokaryote
B. It is definitely a plant cell
C. It is definitely an animal cell

6. A student is looking at a cell in a microscope and is able to observe the following structures: a cell
a cell membrane, ribosomes, and a region of free-floating DNA. What type of cell is it?

A. It is definitely a prokaryote
B. It is definitely a plant cell
C. It is definitely an animal cell

7. A student is looking at a cell in a microscope and is able to observe the following structures: a cell
membrane, ribosomes, a nucleus, a Gogli apparatus, and an rough ER. What type of cell is it?

A. It is definitely a prokaryote
B. It is definitely a eukaryote, but it could be a plant or an animal cell
C. It is definitely an animal cell
D. It is definitely a plant cell
2S
Directions: Place the cell parts listed below into the correct spot on Venn Diagram 1 and Venn
Diagram 2 (you will need to write each word a total of two times)

Nucleus Plasma Membrane Golgi Body Ribosomes Vacuole

Mitochondria Chloroplasts Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Cell Wall

Lysosome Cytoplasm DNA

Venn Diagram 1

Prokaryotic Cell Both Eukaryotic Cell

















Venn Diagram 2

Plant Cell Both Animal Cell