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Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South Big Picture Themes
1 !fter "t Sumter started the #ar$ %eeping the &order states #ere !&e's top concern These #ere s(a)e states that hadn't (eft the nation Throughout the #ar$ !&e #ou(d ma%e concessions to *%eep them happ+ , The &order states ne)er (eft 2 !(( a(ong the South fe(t that -ng(and #ou(d he(p them The idea #as that .ing Cotton's dominance #ou(d force the -ng(ish into he(ping the Southerners This ne)er happened$ (arge(+ &ecause /nc(e Tom's Ca&in had con)inced the -ng(ish peop(e of s(a)er+'s horrors 0 The North had the ad)antage in a(most e)er+ categor+: popu(ation$ industr+$ mone+$ na)+ 1 Both sides turned to a draft$ the nation's first The draft #as )er+ unpopu(ar and man+ riots &ro%e out 23-NT2"2C!T24NS: -(ection of 1560 Four-way race for the presidency between Republican Abraham Lincoln, Democrats Stephen A Douglas and John C !rec"enridge, and John !ell Sla#ery in the territories was the biggest issue $t resulted in the election of a sectional minority president, Abraham Lincoln Wi((iam Se#ard Secretary of state who was responsible for wanting to purchase Alas"an %erritory from Russia &e e'panded the territory of the nation that would pro#e to be e'tremely lucrati#e -d#in 7 Stanton Secretary of war for Lincoln during the Ci#il (ar %here was a big fuss about him being fired by Johnson since they were on bad terms Johnson went against the )ffice of %enure Act by firing Stanton, which almost got Johnson impeached from presidency The !(a&ama A boat built for the Confederate *a#y by !ritain in +,-. John Laird made this so it would be a raider, and it it attac"ed /nion ships, but ne#er entered a southern port -mancipation Proc(amation %he formal act which stated that all blac"s in rebellious, or confederate, states were finally free %his enabled the /nion to field e#en more men for the war by gi#ing them something to fight for &owe#er this did not abolish sla#ery

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Trent !ffair A /nion ship stopped a !ritish ship on the way to 0ngland and arrested . confederate diplomats, 1ason and Slidell %he CSA and !ritain demanded their soldiers bac" !ritain prepared for war against /S sent troops to Canada but Lincoln decided to release Confederates because he didn2t want to fight a two front war 7errimac% and 7onitor %wo ironclad warships, which were reinforced so that they would not crumble under the attac" of cannons, 1errimac" for Confederates and 1onitor for /nionists %he ironclads fought at Chesapea"e !ay !naconda P(an Union general in chief Winfield scott called for this plan which would block all of the Confederates supplies, winning by a siege. This plan did not work until the very end when the South was almost out of supplies. Border States Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky were sla#e states that stayed in the /nion at the beginning of the war !ppomatto8 The Appomattox courthouse in3irginia where 4eneral Robert 0 Lee surrendered to / S 4rant in April +,-5, finally ending the Ci#il (ar -(ection of 1561 Republican Lincoln ran against Democratic 1cClellan 1cClellan was against the war while Lincoln was for it Lincoln, by creating the /nionist 6arty which united all of the Republicans and the (ar Democrats, helped him win the electoral and popular #ote

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The 7enace of Secession 1 What practica( pro&(ems #ou(d occur if the /nited States &ecame t#o nations; If the United States became two nations, the economies would not survive on their own. Families and friends would be split, creating immense tensions between the two nations. The armed forces would have to be split meaning that the nation would have to remap, resettle, and redo the national and shoreline defense. Finally the go#ernment structure would also ha#e to be re#ised

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South Caro(ina !ssai(s "ort Sumter .no#: "ort Sumter$ Co( 9o&ert !nderson 2 What action did <inco(n ta%e that pro)o%ed a Confederate attac% on "ort Sumter; What effects did the South=s attac% ha)e; Lincoln sent a ship full of supplies to Fort Sumter which pro#o"ed the Southerners to open fire %his began the war and Lincoln issued 75,888 #olunteers to 9oin the military &e also ordered a na#al bloc"ade of the South2s ports %his initiation of war pro#o"ed 3irginia, Ar"ansas, %ennessee, and *orth Carolina to secede from the /nion Brothers= B(ood and Border B(ood .no#: Border States$ Bi((+ >an%$ ?ohnn+ 9e& 0 @o# did the &order states affect northern conduct of the #ar; 1issouri, :entuc"y, and 1aryland were sla#e states that had not seceded %ennessee e#entually 9oined the south but many #olunteers went up north %hese border states were handled with care by Lincoln as he wanted their support and their #olunteers for the war

The Ba(ance of "orces .no#: 9o&ert - <ee$ Thomas AStone#a((A ?ac%son 1 What ad)antages did the South ha)e; The North; %he south only had to defend their land, they "new their geography in the South so it would be easy to na#igate, and they had the best leadership %heir greatest ad#antage lied in Rob Lee and Stonewall Jac"son2s leadership )n the other hand, the north had a population ratio of ;<+, producing much more soldiers %here was more industry, money, and transportation in the *orth as well 3ethroning .ing Cotton .no#: .ing Cotton$ .ing Wheat$ .ing Corn B Wh+ did .ing Cotton fai( the South; :ing Cotton essentially failed in the South because they could not get foreign aid from 0urope to buy their cotton %he split of the /nited States would benefit 0urope, so they did not want to help, and most of them wanted to side with the *orth anyway %here was no real reliance on the South2s cotton in the world because 0ngland could use cotton from $ndia and 0gypt :ing cotton was defeated by the *orth2s :ing (heat and :ing Corn The 3ecisi)eness of 3ip(omac+ .no#: Trent$ !(a&ama 6 What tensions arose #ith Great Britain during the Ci)i( War;

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%he issues with the %rent affair created tensions with the *orth and !ritain, and demanded the release of the two Southerners %he !ritish also wanted to help the South by building them raider ships and also used the Alabama to capture northern #essels "oreign "(areC/ps .no#: <aird 9ams$ Napo(eon 222$ 7a8imi(ian D What other circumstances (ed to serious conf(ict #ith Great Britain during the Ci)i( War; !ritain2s laird rams were meant to destroy northern ships, creating e#en more tension between the *orth and !ritain %hese mini wars were constantly wea"ening the *orth %he South had hope that they would gain full foreign aid from !ritain and other 0uropean countries President 3a)is Eersus President <inco(n .no#: ?efferson 3a)is$ States 9ights$ !&raham <inco(n 5 3escri&e the #ea%nesses of the Confederate go)ernment and the strengths of the /nion go)ernment; From the start, the confederacy was wea" since any state could brea" away at any time A state could choose not to send money or troops at any time $ts leader, Jefferson Da#is was not popular and did not lead #ery well &owe#er, the /nion go#ernment had control o#er the states and their troops and Lincoln was rela'ed and ran a relati#ely stable go#ernment <imitations on Wartime <i&erties .no#: @a&eas Corpus F Gi)e e8amp(es of constitutiona((+ Guestiona&(e actions ta%en &+ <inco(n Wh+ did he act #ith ar&itrar+ po#er; Lincoln during the Ci#il (ar had to act arbitrarily so that he could "eep the union intact %he president went against the Constitution in se#eral ways First, by increasing the si=e of his army, sending . million dollars to ; pri#ate citi=ens for solely military purposes, suspended &abeas Corpus so that searches and arrests could be done with ease, monitoring the border stated so they would #ote in his fa#or, and finally by declaring martial law on 1aryland Eo(unteers and 3raftees: North and South .no#: ThreeChundredCdo((arCmen$ &ount+ Humpers 10 Was the Ci)i( War Aa rich man=s #ar &ut a poor man=s fight;A -8p(ain %he Ci#il (ar was indeed a rich man2s war but a poor man2s fight because rich men had the ad#antage Since #olunteers were short and the enthusiasm died down, a draft in the *orth and South was needed to get soldiers &owe#er, the rich could essentially buy their way out by paying ;88 dollars, but a poor man could not afford that $n the South, if men had more than .8

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sla#es he was e'empt from fighting 1en e#en signed up multiple times to get their bonuses in the *orth

The -conomic Stresses of War .no#: 2ncome Ta8$ 7orri(( Tariff !ct$ Green&ac%s$ Nationa( Ban%ing !ct$ inf(ation 11 What #as the effect of paper mone+ on &oth North and South; (hen the %reasury Department printed greenbac" paper money, it was not bac"ed by gold and it immensely affected inflation %he South2s economy was ruined since they could not e'port cotton and they had no customs duties $nflation went up >888 percent in the South compared to ,8 percent up in the *orth &owe#er, the *ational !an"ing System helped control and standardi=e the money system and regulated the amount of money in circulation The North=s -conomic Boom .no#: AShodd+A Woo($ -(iIa&eth B(ac%#e(($ C(ara Barton$ 3orthea 3i8 12 -8p(ain #h+ the Ci)i( War (ed to economic &oom times in the North; %he Ci#il (ar led to an economic boom in the *orth due to the amount of manufacturing needed for the war Since most of the industry was based in the north, they made a large profit &owe#er there were indi#iduals who made cheap products and sold them for a lot of money ! Crushed Cotton .ingdom 10 Gi)e e)idence to pro)e that the #ar #as economica((+ de)astating to the South !efore the ci#il war, the South held most of the nation2s o#erall wealth $t went from holding ;8? to +.? of the nation2s wealth Furthermore, before the war the a#erage per capita income of the South was @ of the *ortherners now it was of the northerners after the Ci#il (ar Railroads were destroyed and metal became e'tremely scarce

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Chapter #21: The "urnace of the Ci)i( War Big Picture Themes
1 The North thought the+ cou(d #in in a Guic% #ar !fter the+ (ost at Bu(( 9un$ the Guic%C)ictor+ approach seemed to ha)e &een a mista%e ! northern (oss on *the Peninsu(a, at 9ichmond reinforced that this #ou(d &e a (ong #ar 2 The South started the #ar #inning Turning point &att(es$ #hich the North #on$ too% p(ace at JaK !ntietam Hust &efore <inco(n's *-mancipation Proc(amation,$ J&K Gett+s&urg #hich effecti)e(+ &ro%e the South's &ac%$ and JcK Eic%s&urg #hich he(ped the North contro( the 7ississippi 9i)er 0 <inco(n #on a hardCfought ree(ection in 1561 @e did so &+ starting the */nion Part+, made of 9epu&(icans and proC#ar 3emocrats and on the simp(icit+ of the s(ogan$ *>ou don't change horses midstream , 1 Genera( Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction !nd the South &egan to (ose &att(e after &att(e These e)ents dro)e the South to surrender at !ppomatto8 Courthouse 23-NT2"2C!T24NS 3raft riots of 1560 New York City was home to crowded riots which protested against the Enrollment Act, drafting for the Civil War. Troops were sent to control the chaos. It showed the desperation of the nation for troops and the faltering support and patriotism of the citizens. Char(es "rances !dam In Britain, he was the Prime Minister during the Civil War. He was the one who believed that Britain should remain totally neutral to the Civil War so they would not be entangled with the North or South. Sherman=s 7arch

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(illiam Sherman and his troops went on a A1arch to the SeaB which spanned from Atlanta to South Carolina &e and his troops called it a total war, destroying, burning, and ra#aging e#ery part of the citi=en2s li#es &e ruined 4eorgia for a long time C(ement < Ea((andigham Democrat from )hio who was the leader of the Copperheads during the Ci#il (ar %he Copperheads were Lincoln2s biggest opponents %hey were a faction of the 6eace Democrats who were against the draft, emancipation, and Lincoln !ndre# ?ohnson A Southerner from tennessee who was added as Lincoln2s #ice president gather #otes from the (ar Democrats and the !order States during the +,-5 election (hen Lincoln died he followed and he was against the Republicans in office &e was almost impeached ?ohn Wi(%es Booth An e'tremely famous American actor that assassinated Lincoln at Ford2s theater in (ashington DC on April +C, +,-5 &e was later found in a farm and then shot to death C S S !(a&ama A !ritish warship that was used to help the Confederacy $t looted and sun" se#eral /nion warships, one of the Laird Rams by !ritish John Laird $t caused chaos within the /nion trade and bloc"ade Nationa( Ban%ing !ct The banking system was used to create the sale of government bonds and to create a uniform bank note currency. The system could buy government savings bonds and money to back the bonds. The National Banking Act was made during the Civil War, and was the first real step taken toward a unified banking system. /nion Part+ Cleverly created by Abraham Lincoln, it mixed together all the Republicans and the (ar Democrats, not including the copperheads and peace democrats Lincoln was afraid that the he would lose control of the Republican party, and it helped Lincoln win his second term

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Bu(( 9un -nds the ANinet+ 3a+ War, .no#: Bu(( 9un$ Stone#a(( ?ac%son 1 What effect did the Batt(e of Bu(( 9un ha)e on North and South;

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The North and South were affected differently by the Battle of Bull Run. It made the war real for the first time, it was essentially a smack in the face. The North and South both realized that this wold not be a short war. It would be full of death and cruelly fought. Both of the armies thought that they could win in a few battles, but little did they know that the war would last more than a couple years.

ATard+ GeorgeA 7cC(e((an and the Peninsu(a Campaign .no#: George 7cC(e((an$ Peninsu(a Campaign$ 9o&ert - <ee$ A?e&A Stuart$ Se)en 3a+s= Batt(es$ !naconda P(an 2 3escri&e the grand strateg+ of the North for #inning the #ar For the North, the dominant strategy was the Anaconda 6lan to conDuer the Confederacy $t was aimed to put the South under siege by attac"ing all of its ports until they finally ran out of supplies $t formed a bloc"ade surrounding coast of 3irginia down to the Florida peninsula, along Louisiana2s gulf coast to the 1ississippi ri#er The War at Sea .no#: B(oc%ade$ Continuous Eo+age$ 7errimac$ 7onitor 0 What #as Guestiona&(e a&out the &(oc%ade practices of the North; Wh+ did Britain honor the &(oc%ade an+#a+; The Norths blockade had many holes since unionists were accepting bribes to let Southerners through. Smuggling goods through the blockade was lucrative. Britain could have run throught the blockade but they honored it anyway because Charles Frances Adams did not want to get Britain into the Civil War. The Pi)ota( Point: !ntietam 1 Wh+ #as the &att(e of !ntietam A pro&a&(+ the most decisi)e of the Ci)i( War;A Antietam was the most decisive point of the Civil War because one of the largest and bloodiest. The South wanted to conquer the North and this was their only real chance to. They also wanted foreign aid but their loss guaranteed that Europe would stay out of their reach. For the North, it gave Lincoln the victory needed to boost morale and announce the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in the rebellion states. ! Proc(amation Without -mancipation

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.no#: -mancipation Proc(amation$ Butternut 9egion D The -mancipation Proc(amation had important conseGuences -8p(ain %he 0mancipation 6roclamation only freed sla#es in the Southern Confederate states, not the !order States Lincoln did not want to anger the !order States, ma"ing them more #ulnerable to the Confederacy &e did not ha#e the right to free the sla#es until the +;th Amendment %he only real effect of the proclamation was the moral boost it ga#e to the *orth

B(ac%s Batt(e Bondage .no#: "rederic% 3oug(ass$ B1th 7assachusetts$ "ort Pi((o# 5 !fricanC!mericans #ere critica( in he(ping the North #in the Ci)i( War !ssess $nitially, African-Americans were not allowed to enlist and to right &owe#er their numbers started to gain as the support from white soldiers started to die down %he *orth opened the army to them and they ended up ma"ing up +E+8 of the /nion2s army <ee=s <ast <unge at Gett+s&urg .no#: !m&rose Burnside$ ?oe @oo%er$ George 7eade$ Gett+s&urg$ Pic%ett=s Charge$ Gett+s&urg !ddress F Wh+ #as Gett+s&urg a significant &att(e; 4ettysburg was a turning point for the Ci#il (ar $t was Lee2s last big chance to win the war 4en !urnside lead the army for the *orthern troops, but defeated by Confederate troops 4en &oo"er replaced !urnside but was defeated at Chancellors#ille where Stonewall died from his own men %his was 4eneral Lee2s most impressi#e win 4en 1eade replaced &oo"er at 4ettysburg, which lasted ; days 6ic"ett2s Charge ruined Lee2s army 4ettysburg finally bro"e down the South and started their ma9or decline Lincoln2s 4ettysburg Address rallied troops, boosted morale for the *orth, gi#ing them a great last push to the end The War in the West .no#: /(+sses S Grant$ "ort @enr+$ "ort 3onne(son$ Shi(oh$ 3a)id "arragut$ Eic%s&urg 10 3escri&e Genera( Grant as a man and a genera( As a general, 4rant was mediocre and considered a bad student at (estpoint &e was shy, sloppy, and aw"ward &e only became famous when he demanded and unconditional surrender at Fort Donnelson &e was frowned upon for drin"ing too much, but Lincoln was fond of him &e was wiped out at the !attle of Shiloh but he was redeemed at 3ic"sburg

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Sherman Scorches Georgia .no#: Wi((iam T Sherman$ 7arch to the Sea 11 @o# did Sherman attempt to demora(iIe the South; Sherman attempted to demorali=e the south with his 1arch to the Sea through 4eorgia &e scorched and pillaged his way from Atlanta to Sa#annah Destroying houses, farms, crops, women, and warehouses &e declared total war on the area, which greatly de#astated 4eorgia, both physically and morally

The Po(itics of War .no#: War 3emocrats$ Peace 3emocrats$ Copperheads$ C(ement < Ea((andingham 12 3escri&e <inco(n's po(itica( difficu(ties during the #ar %hroughout the war, Lincoln had many opponents Radical Republicans felt he was not doing enough to help the blac"s, punish the South, or win the war 1en li"e 3alandigham opposed Lincoln and drew support away from him Copperheads opposed the 6resident and openly obstructed the war by attac"ing the draft, emancipation, and Lincoln himself The -(ection of 1561 .no#: !ndre# ?ohnson$ George 7cC(e((an$ 7o&i(e$ !t(anta 11 What factors contri&uted to <inco(n=s e(ectora( )ictor+; Lincoln2s reelection in +,-C came about because of his in#ention of the /nion 6arty %his new party 9oined Republicans and (ar Democrats Despite the strong opposition, he won the popular and electoral #ote with ease &is #ice president, Andrew Johnson, attracted war democrats and the !order States Grant 4ut(asts <ee .no#: The Wi(derness$ Co(d @ar&or$ Grant the Butcher$ 9ichmond$ !ppomatto8 Courthouse 1B What strateg+ did Grant use to defeat <ee=s arm+; 4rant had no fear in sending his men out to fight e#en if it meant e'treme casualties &is sacrifice of many soldiers was "ey since he "new that the South could not last #ery much longer 4rant2s string of battles were bloody and thousands of men died at each Lee finally surrendered at the Appomatto' Courthouse in 3irginia The 7art+rdom of <inco(n

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.no#: "ord=s Theater$ ?ohn Wi(%es Boothe 16 Was <inco(n=s death good or &ad for the South; -8p(ain For the South, Lincoln2s death was supposedly a #ictory &owe#er, it was much tougher for the South without Lincoln as president %he Radical Republicans were far more cruel than Lincoln and wanted to punish the South for what they had done $n the end, Lincoln2s death was detrimental to the South2s well being and their path bac" to normalcy during the Reconstruction

The !ftermath of the Nightmare .no#: <ost Cause 1D What #as the (egac+ of the Ci)i( War; %he Ci#il (ar was one of the most tragic wars that the /nited States e#er faced -88,888 li#es were painfully lost, and thousands more were in9ured, lea#ing a lost generation of young men $t cost +5 billion dollars in damage and ruined the economy %here were instilled tensions in the *orth and South that still last to this day %he South was immensely destroyed and too" years for it to restore normalcy &owe#er, it showed that the nation could sur#i#e through such a brutal war Sla#ery was abolished and blac"s were able to gain rights to #ote %he /nited States was now seen as one of the world2s top players after the Ci#il (ar

Ear+ing Eie#points: What Were the ConseGuences of the Ci)i( War; 15 3o +ou agree #ith those historians #ho sa+ that the importance of the Ci)i( War has &een e8aggerated; Wh+ or Wh+ not; %he Ci#il (ar was one of the most nation-changing e#ents to occur in our history Just the mere e'perience of the war changed the /nited States fore#er and it has made its lasting impression on the nation (ithout it, li#es would not ha#e been lost, but sla#ery would probably still remain $t sol#ed the sla#ery problem and it created a national ban"ing system that would help control the economy for years to come %he deaths of the soldiers are not e'aggerated as they died for their cause, despite the lost generation 0#en though blac"s were not treated eDually, they finally had a basis to be free and ha#e the #oting rights they so long fought for through the #arious abolitionist causes

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Chapter #22: The 4rdea( of 9econstruction Big Picture Themes


1 !fter the #ar$ the Guestion #as$ *What to do #ith the southern states;, The more moderate 9epu&(icans$ (i%e <inco(n and his successor !ndre# ?ohnson$ (ost out to the 9adica( 9epu&(icans #ho desired to punish the South 2 The South #as di)ided up into mi(itar+ districts The southern states #ere not a((o#ed to reenter the / S unti( the North's stipu(ations #ere met 0 "or Southern &(ac%s$ these +ears #ere good po(itica((+ Since #hites #anted nothing to do #ith the / S $ &(ac%s )oted and #ere often e(ected to state (egis(atures and Congress 1 -conomica((+$ freed &(ac%s fared #orse The+ #ere no (onger s(a)es$ &ut #ith (itt(e other options$ the+ (arge(+ &ecame sharecroppers The end resu(t #as (itt(e different and (itt(e &etter than s(a)er+ B 2n 15DD$ a presidentia( e(ection #as essentia((+ a tie ! compromise #as #or%ed out$ and the South got the / S !rm+ to pu(( out This (eft the southern &(ac%s on their o#nLsouthern #hites reasserted their po#er

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The Pro&(ems of Peace .no#: 9econstruction 1 A3isma( indeed #as the picture presented &+ the #arC#rac%ed South #hen the ratt(e of mus%etr+ faded A -8p(ain After the Ci#il (ar, many of the of the Southerners felt disassimilated after the cruel aftermath of the war $t had to be greatly reconstructed after being the battleground for the *orth %hroughout this time, the South stood against the *orth "reedmen 3efine "reedom

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.no#: -8odusters$ !merican 7ethodist -piscopa( Church$ !merican 7issionar+ !ssociation 2 @o# did !fricanC!mericans respond to emancipation in the decade fo((o#ing the #ar; After their emancipation, the African Americans did not "now what to do or how to do it %&ey hae been cared for all their li#es by their plantation owners and now they were on their own Freedmen tended to either stay n their plantation, fled north, and e#en went through fits of #iolence Churches li"e the A10 helped them stay as one community

The "reedmen=s Bureau .no#: "reedmen=s Bureau$ Genera( 4(i)er 4 @o#ard 0 !ssess the effecti)eness of the "reedmen=s Bureau %he Freedmen2s !ureau was made to help the uneducated, uns"illed, and untrained freed sla#es $t was a type of welfare as it helped them with food, shelter, and education $t was not successful because it too" in bribes to help benefit the men in charge of the bureau &owe#er, it did ha#e it2s success in teaching blac"s how to read ?ohnson: The Tai(or President .no#: !ndre# ?ohnson 1 -8p(ain the strengths and #ea%nesses of !ndre# ?ohnson Johnson was "nown to be a humble and opinionated man from the South &e was against the war so he was against the Reconstruction &owe#er, he had a Duic" temper and he had no real followers %he *orth did not li"e him because he was a Southerner against the war and the South did not li"e him because he was on the *orth2s side Presidentia( 9econstruction .no#: <inco(n=s A10 percent p(an$A WadeC3a)is Bi(($ 9adica( 9epu&(icans B @o# did the Presidents= p(an for reconstruction differ from the p(an of the 9adica( 9epu&(icans; Lincoln2s +8 percent plan allowed Southern states to readmit to the union if +8percent of the #oters too" a loyalty oath and respected emancipation of blac"s $t was far more welcoming and reasonable than the Radical Republican2s plan as they wanted to punish the south and proposed the (ade- Da#is !ill which states that 58 percent of #oters too" oath and ha#e safeguards to protect the freedmen

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The Ba(efu( B(ac% Codes .no#: B(ac% Codes$ <a&or Contracts$ Sharecropping$ 3e&t Peonage 6 @o# #ere B(ac% Codes used to %eep the freedmen do#n; %he blac" codes were essentially codes that tied the free men bac" to their former employers Contracts had them sign for wor" with the whites for a period of time, and A9umpingB the contract could bring on fines !lac"s still could not ser#e on 9uries or rent land, much li"e their time before emancipation Congressiona( 9econstruction D Wh+ did northern congressmen refuse to seat the southerners #hen the+ came to ta%e their seats; J@int: there are t#o reasons CC one mora( and one practica(K %hey refused to seat the southerners because they now had much more representati#es in Congress since sla#es were freed and the three-fifths compromise was nullified *ortherners were scared that they2d 9oin sides with the *orthern Democrats and re-ensla#e all blac"s once again and ta"e o#er congress ?ohnson C(ashes #ith Congress .no#: Ci)i( 9ights Bi(($ A!nd+ Eeto$A "ourteenth !mendment 5 @o# did 9epu&(icans use their dominance of Congress; What did President ?ohnson do in response; Since Johnson did not agree with the Congress or the *orth, he #etoed the Ci#il Rights !ill %his upset the Republicans so they passed the !ill as the Fourteenth Amendment to be added to the Constitution Johnson in turn ad#ised the Southern states to re9ect the amendment S#inging M9ound the Circ(e #ith ?ohnson F @o# did ?ohnson=s campaigning during the 1566 congressiona( e(ections &ac%fire; Wh+ did it &ac%fire; Since Johnson #etoed both the Freedmen2s !ureau and the Ci#il Rights !ill, he was greatly disli"ed by congress, and the +8percent go#ernments passed cruel blac" codes During his speeches, he was yelled at and and it rallied up #otes for the Republicans 9epu&(ican Princip(es and Programs .no#: Char(es Sumner$ Thaddeus Ste)ens$ ?oint Committee on 9econstruction$ 7oderate 9epu&(icans 10 @o# did the )ie#s of 7oderate 9epu&(icans a&out reconstruction differ from the )ie#s of 9adica( 9epu&(icans;

Bianca Yugar period 6 Calero

%he radical republicans aimed to help the blac"s, and they were lead by Sumner and Ste#ens who wanted slow Reconstruction so there could be ma9or social and economical change in the South &owe#er, 1oderate republicans did not want the go#ernment to get too in#ol#ed in people2s e#eryday li#es &owe#er, both sides felt that the blac" should be granted the right to #ote 9econstruction &+ the S#ord .no#: 9econstruction !ct$ "ifteenth !mendment$ 7i(itar+ 9econstruction$ 9edeemers$ @ome 9u(e 11 3escri&e mi(itar+ reconstruction %he Reconstruction Act had the military districts split into 5 and they ensured control in the South %ens of thousands of confederate soldiers were also disenfranchised temporarily 0' parte 1illigan also stated that military courts could no try ci#ilians when ci#il courts were present %his was all immensely disli"ed in the South

No Women Eoters .no#: -(iIa&eth Cad+ Stanton$ Susan B !nthon+$ Woman=s <o+a( <eague$ "ourteenth !mendment 12 Wh+ did some #omen fee( that the+ did not recei)e their due after the Ci)i( War; After the Ci#il (ar, many women felt that they deser#ed right to #ote as they played a large role in the abolitionist mo#ements After the +;th,+Cth, and +5th amendments, women were disappointed that women could not yet #ote

The 9ea(ities of 9adica( 9econstruction in the South .no#: /nion <eague$ Suffrage$ @iram 9e)e(s$ B(anche . Bruce$ Sca(a#ags$ Carpet&aggers 10 2n #hat #a+s did !fricanC!mericans &ecome po(itica((+ in)o()ed in the +ears immediate(+ fo((o#ing the Ci)i( War; @o# did White southerners )ie# their in)o()ement; After the Ci#il (ar, African Americans organi=ed in the /nion League, where they could build churches, help elect Republican candidates, sol#ed issues, and recruited a blac" military for defense !lac" women howe#er could only support at parades, churches, and con#entions Since (hite Southerners weren2t able to #ote because they had not yet ta"en the oath of allegiance, blac" congressmen were electedFRe#els for /S senator and !ruce for SenateG %he whites were furious

Bianca Yugar period 6 Calero

The .u .(u8 .(an .no#: .u .(u8 .(an$ "orce !cts$ 3isfranchise 11 2n #hat #a+s did Southern #hites attempt to %eep former s(a)es do#n; %he Southern whites attempted to "eep former sla#es down by scaring them and "eeping them Ain placeB %he ::: wanted to do this because they did not li"e that they were free (hites also enacted literacy tests to ha#e illiterate blac"s from #oting ?ohnson Wa(%s the 2mpeachment P(an% .no#: 9adica( 9epu&(icans$ Ben Wade$ Tenure of 4ffice !ct$ -d#in Stanton 1B @o# did the 9adica( 9epu&(icans AmanufactureA an impeachment of !ndre# ?ohnson; %he Radical Republicans manufactured the impeachment of Johnson by passing the %enure of )ffice Act which stated that the president needed the Senate2s appro#al to fire anyone who had been appointed by him and appro#ed by the Senate Congress wanted to protect Stanton, a radical republican spy Johnson fired Stanton and therefore Congress impeached him

! NotCGui(t+ Eerdict for ?ohnson .no#: BenHamin " But(er$ Thaddeus Ste)ens 16 Wh+ #ere the 9adica(s unsuccessfu( in remo)ing ?ohnson from office; 0#en though Johnson was impeached based on the firing of Stanton, Johnson2s lawyers argued that he was going under the Constitution not the %enure of )ffice Act %he two-thirds #ote was not made as it was short by one #ote 1ost congressmen were scared of the unstable future if he was to be impeached The Purchase of !(as%a .no#: Wi((iam Se#ard$ 9ussia 1D -8p(ain #h+ !(as%a #as ca((ed ASe#ard=s "o((+$A &ut #as purchased an+#a+ Seward2s choice to buy Alas"a was moc"ed by many because it was not popular at the time since they were concerned about the economy and preoccupied with the Reconstruction &owe#er it pro#ed to be e'tremely lucrati#e to the nation The @eritage of 9econstruction 15 !ssess the success of 9epu&(ican reconstruction

Bianca Yugar period 6 Calero

%he Republican2s reconstruction was felt differently on both sides, *orth and South $n the South, it was hated and often seemed worse than the war $t created tensions between the two sides and e#en to this day they remain 1any of the blac"s were far worse than before the war %hey were destitute and had no real prospects for them, and they were "ept down by the whites )#erall, the Reconstruction did bring bac" the South into the *orth and granted blac"s the right to #ote, but it did lea#e immense tensions and chaos in the South