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Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South Big Picture Themes 1. After Ft.

. Sumter started the war, keeping the border states were Abes top concern. These were slave states that hadnt left the nation. Throughout the war, Abe would make concessions to keep them happy. The border states never left. 2. All along the South felt that England would help them. The idea was that King Cottons dominance would force the English into helping the Southerners. This never happened, largely because Uncle Toms Cabin had convinced the English people of slaverys horrors. 3. The North had the advantage in almost every category: population, industry, money, navy. 4. Both sides turned to a draft, the nations first. The draft was very unpopular and many riots broke out. IDENTIFICATIONS: Election of 1860 Lincoln won the election of 1860 which prompted the Southerners to secede. They did not want the Northerners imposing laws for the entire nation while the Southerners had nothing. William Seward An American politician from New York, he served as Secretary of State under Abe Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Edwin M. Stanton Helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory while serving as the US Secretary of War. The Alabama A screw sloop-of-war built for the Confederates in England while serving as a successful commerce raider. Emancipation Proclamation An executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln as a war measure during the Civil War that the freedom of slaves of the states still in rebellion were to be legal under the Union. Trent Affair An international diplomatic incident where the British mail ship was stopped and two Confederate diplomats were forcibly removed. Merrimack and Monitor Where two ironclads fought during the American Civil war. The Monitor parried the Merrimack which had easily destroyed 2 Union frigates.

Anaconda Plan A general war plan of the Union that included choking of the Confederates with a blockade and circling to the west in the Mississippi River. Border States States between the Union and Confederates, most of which stayed in the Union, that were vital during the war. Appomattox The location where Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant in the year 1865. Election of 1864 The election where Lincoln was speculated to almost lose, however he was saved in multiple successes, such as the sacking of Atlanta and the taking of the Mississippi River.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Menace of Secession 1. What practical problems would occur if the United States became two nations? Lincoln declared that there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it. He however also mentioned how physically speaking, secession was impractical. The North and South were not separated by any geographical borders but rather connected by the Mississippi and perpendicular to the Appalachians. Questions about the national debt, the jointly-held federal territories, the fugitive slave issue, the Underground Railroad, and armed clashes. European nations would be able to more easily defy the Monroe Doctrine while pinning the two snarling nations at each others throat. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter Know: Fort Sumter, Col. Robert Anderson 2. What action did Lincoln take that provoked a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter? What effects did the South's attack have? Federal forts in the South also posed a problem. Two significant forts in the South still flew the Stars and Stripes, one being Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. Fort Sumter was to run out of supplies in a few weeks. Lincoln didnt want to send reinforcements; South Carolinians would not tolerate a federal fort blocking the mouth of their most important Atlantic seaport. Lincoln decided to provision the garrison.When the Union naval force was started on its way to Fort Sumter, the cannons of the Carolinians launched on April 12, 1861 at the fort. The shelling of the fort electrified the North, which had been saying that the South ought not to be pinned to the Union by bayonets. Lincoln won a calculated victory by being offered an armed response; Lincoln called for seventyfive thousand militiamen and proclaimed a leaky blockage of Southern seaports. Lincolns calling

for troops showed the South a true act of aggression and four other states seceded: North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Brothers' Blood and Border Blood Know: Border States, Billy Yank, Johnny Reb 3. How did the border states affect northern conduct of the war? The only slave states left were the crucial Border States consisting of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and later West Virginia. A white population more than half of the Confederacy existed in these States. Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri would almost double the manufacturing capacity of the South. The Ohio River flowed along the norther border of Kentucky and West Virginia. Two of its navigable tributaries flowed deep into the Dixie. In Maryland Lincoln declared martial law. Union soldiers were deplored in Missouri and West Virginia. Lincoln repeatedly insisted that his paramount purpose was to save the Union, not to fight slavery. The Butternut region of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois would not have supported a war against slavery. The Five Civilized Tribes owned slaves and most sided with the Confederacy. A rival Cherokee and Plains Indians sided with the North. The battle between Billy Yank and Johnny Reb was largely a brothers war. Mountain whites of the South and loyal slave states sent hundreds of thousands to serve the Union. The Balance of Forces Know: Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 4. What advantages did the South have? The North? The Confederacy was fighting a defensive war and only had to defend territory on their own home fronts. The South had the most talented officers, some being General Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. Jackson. Southerners had been managing horses and bearing arms from boyhood. By seizing federal arms, running Union blockades, and developing their own ironworks, Southerners managed to obtain sufficient weaponry. Shortages of shoes, uniforms, and blankets disabled the South. Supply lines were cut while railroads were cut by Yankee invaders and the immense stores of food simply could not get to the soldiers. The North had about three-fourths of the nations wealth and included three-fourths of the thirty thousand miles of railroads. The North also controlled the sea and traded wheat for more munitions and supplies from Europe. The Union had a population of 22 million while the seceding states had 9 million, including 3.5 million slaves. Over 800,000 newcomers arrived between 1861 and 1865, most of the British, Irish, and German. Though Northerners were less prepared for military life, they soon learned soldiering. Lincoln was forced to trial-and-error to figure out a higher commander who would crunch to victory. Many might-have-beens wouldve allowed the South to have succeeded. Dethroning King Cotton Know: King Cotton, King Wheat, King Corn 5. Why did King Cotton fail the South? The South counted on foreign intervention but did not get it, though European aristocrats would be more supportive of the Southern cause. The masses of workingpeople in Britain and sometimes in France had been praying for the North. Though Britain depended on the South for 75 percent of

their cotton supplies, Britain was still not forced into intervention. British manufacturers had already an oversupply of cotton that had come from lavishly productive years between 1857 to 1860. Kindhearted Americans sent foodstuffs to Britain, Union armies captured and brought cotton, and Egypt and India, responding to higher prices, increased cotton output. King Wheat and King Corn usurped the throne with ideal weather during these years while Britain had consecutive bad harvests. Britain would rather take the grain than cotton. The Decisiveness of Diplomacy Know: Trent, Alabama 6. What tensions arose with Great Britain during the Civil War? The South never wholly abandoned its dream of foreign intervention. A Union warship cruising north of Cuba stopped a British mail steamer, the Trent, and removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe. After this Trent affair, war preparations in London buzzed while redcoats embarked for Canada. Britain built Confederate commerce-raiders, notably the Alabama. The Alabama captured over sixty Union vessels before it was sunk in 1864. The American minister, Charles Francis Adams prodded London about the building of commerce-raiders. However chiefly British-built commerce-destroyers destroyed more than 250 Yankee ships. Foreign Flare-Ups Know: Laird Rams, Napoleon III, Maximilian 5.What other circumstances led to serious conflict with Great Britain during the Civil War? The Laird Rams, with iron rams and large-caliber guns were being made by Britain to be able sink the blockading squadrons and bring Northern cities under fire, though Minister Adams told Britain that this is war if Britain released the rams. Irish-Americans launched invasions of Canada. Both a United States and the Dominion of Canada rose from the Civil War ashes. Emperor Napoleon III of France occupied Mexico City in 1863 and installed Austrian archduke Maximilian. When the shooting stopped in 1865, Secretary of State Seward prepared to march South while Napoleon took French leave in 1867 and left Maximilian under the sights of a Mexican firing squad. President Davis Versus President Lincoln Know: Jefferson Davis, States Rights, Abraham Lincoln 8. Describe the weaknesses of the Confederate government and the strengths of the Union government? Jefferson Davis had believed the Confederacy would be united against the Union, but being naturally states righters, they had often refused cooperation with Confederate demands. Jefferson Davis was able though unpopular and was butting heads with the Confederate Congress. Unlike Lincoln, Davis was imperious and inclined to defy rather than lead public opinion. Lincoln enjoyed the prestige of a long-established government. Abe Lincoln listened to his backbiting colleagues and had a genius for interpreting and leading a fickle public opinion. Limitations on Wartime Liberties Know: Habeas Corpus


Give examples of constitutionally questionable actions taken by Lincoln. Why did he act with arbitrary power? Lincoln declared that if he didnt break some rules in the Constitution there would be no Constitution left to mend. Congress generally accepted or confirmed the presidents questionable acts. Since Congress was not in session when war began, he himself declared a blockade and arbitrarily increased the Federal armys size. He advanced $2 million without appropriation. He suspended habeas corpus so anti-Unionists might be summarily arrested. Lincoln also supervised voting in Border States while federal officials also ordered the suspension of certain newspapers. The South however seemed willing to lose the war before it would surrender local rights. Volunteers and Draftees: North and South Know: Three-hundred-dollar-men, bounty jumpers 10. Was the Civil War "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight?" Explain. At first in the North volunteers were who were only needed, with each state assigned a quota based on population. In 1863, Congress passed a federal conscription law for the first time. Rich boys could simply purchase exemption by paying $300. In New York City, a riot broke out in 1863 with underprivileged and antiblack Irishmen. More than 90 percent of the Union troops were volunteers. Generous bounties for enlistment was offered by federal, state, and local officials. Bounty jumpers repeated profitable operations of enlisting to gain thousands of dollars. The Confederacy was much less populous and forced Conscription in April 1862. Slaveowners with twenty slaves might also claim exemption. The Economic Stresses of War Know: Income Tax, Morrill Tariff Act, Greenbacks, National Banking Act, inflation 11. What was the effect of paper money on both North and South? Excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol were substantially increased by Congress. An income tax was levied for the first time to net millions of dollars. Congress passed the Morrill Tariff Act which increased the existing duties some 5-10 percent. Soon higher duties would come to support Northern manufacturers. The Washington Treasury also issued green-backed paper money, totally nearly $450 million at face value. This started to wither under inflation as the currency was inadequately supported by gold. A financial landmark of the war was the National Banking System, authorized by Congress in 1863. Banks that joined could buy government bonds and issue sound paper money backed by them. An impoverished South was beset by different financial woes. Southern states righters refused the high taxes and customs duties were choked off as the Union blockade tightened. The Confederate government was forced to print blue-backed money with complete abandon. The paper dollar was worth only 1.6 cents when Lee surrendered. The North's Economic Boom Know: "Shoddy" Wool, Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorthea Dix 12. Explain why the Civil War led to economic boom times in the North? The Civil War bred a milionaire class for the first time in American history. Manufacturers supplied shoes with cardboard soles and fast disintegrating uniforms of shoddy wool. Clattering

mechanical reapers, which numbered about 250,000 by 1865, proved hardly less potent than thundering guns. The only major Northern industry to suffer a crippling setback was the oceancarrying trade, which fell prey to the Alabama and others.In Washington, D.C. five hundred women clerks became government workers. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Americas first female physician, helped organize the U.S. Sanitary Commission to assist the Union armies in the field. Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix helped transform nursing from a lowly service into a respected profession. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom 13. Give evidence to prove that the war was economically devastating to the South. The suffocation caused by the blockade, together with the destruction wrought by invaders, took a terrible toll. The South had only 12 percent of the national wealth in 1870. The average income per capita became 2/5ths of that of the North.

Chapter #21: The Furnace of the Civil War Big Picture Themes 1. The North thought they could win in a quick war. After they lost at Bull Run, the quickvictory approach seemed to have been a mistake. A northern loss on the Peninsula at Richmond reinforced that this would be a long war. 2. The South started the war winning. Turning point battles, which the North won, took place at (a) Antietam just before Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation, (b) Gettysburg which

effectively broke the Souths back, and (c) Vicksburg which helped the North control the Mississippi River. 3. Lincoln won a hard-fought reelection in 1864. He did so by starting the Union Party made of Republicans and pro-war Democrats and on the simplicity of the slogan, You dont change horses midstream. 4. General Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction. And the South began to lose battle after battle. These events drove the South to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. IDENTIFICATIONS Draft riots of 1863 The riot in New York of many Irish-Americans protesting the riot. They protested that wealthier men could pay off the draft with just $300. Then it turned out to be an antiblack race riot. Charles Frances Adam A lieutenant colonel of the 5th Massachusetts Cavalry, he served during the Civil War and was heavily engaged in Gettysburg. Sherman's March The Savannah Campaign where Sherman began at Atlanta and ended at the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. He destroyed countless civilian and military targets. Clement L. Vallandigham Leader of the Copperheads, he was arrested, exiled, went to Canada, ran for Ohio governor, and finally returned to his home state. Andrew Johnson Abraham Lincolns vice-president, Andrew Johnson became president after Lincolns assassination. A strong Democrat, he was shown to begin vetoing the powerful Republican Congress. John Wilkes Booth The pro-Southern fanatical who assassinated Lincoln. He was an actor who was in the Fords Theatre at the time. C.S.S. Alabama The ship made for the Confederates by the British. The sloop captured dozens of Union merchant ships.

National Banking Act A reestablishment of a banking system that encouraged the development of a national currency backed by bank holdings of U.S. Treasury securities. Union Party The Union Party was made for the 1864 election where Lincoln might not have been elected president if the War Democrats and Republicans did not unite into one party. GUIDED READING Bull Run Ends the "Ninety Day War Know: Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson 1. What effect did the Battle of Bull Run have on North and South? Bull Run was thirty miles southwest of Washington. At first the battle went well for the Yankees, but Stonewall Jacksons gray-clad warriors stood like a stone wall and Confederate reinforcements arrived unexpectedly. Victory was worse than defeat for the South because it inflated an already dangerous overconfidence. Many of the Southern soldiers promptly deserted, feeling that the war was now surely over. The Union dispelled all illusions of a one-punch war. It also set the stage for a war that would be waged also for the abolitionist ideal of emancipation. "Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign Know: George McClellan, Peninsula Campaign, Robert E. Lee, "Jeb" Stuart, Seven Days' Battles, Anaconda Plan 2. Describe the grand strategy of the North for winning the war. George B. McClellan was given command of the Army of the Potomac. He had seen plenty of fighting at first in the Mexican War and then as an observer of the Crimean War in Russia. He however was arrogant, a perfectionist, and overcautious. Lincoln had to finally issue firm orders to advance. McClellan decided to go on a waterborne route. Yorktown was taken in a month, while McClellans anticipated reinforcements were sent to chase Stonewall Jackson in Shenandoah Valley. General Robert E. Lee launched a devastating counterattack, the Seven Days Battles. If McClellan had won this early, then slavery would probably never had prohibited until decades later. Lincoln now began to draft an emancipation proclamation. The Northern military plan began to put itself into total war by liberating slaves, blockading the South, seizing the Mississippi River, sending troops to Georgia and the Carolinas, capture its capital at Richmond, and try to grind the enemys main strength into submission. The War at Sea Know: Blockade, Continuous Voyage, Merrimac, Monitor 3. What was questionable about the blockade practices of the North? Why did Britain honor the blockade anyway? The blockade was leaky however it concentrated on the principal ports. Britain did not break the blockade to start war with the Union. The most successful blockade runners were swift, graypainted steamers. British ships laden with war supplies were seized in that they were likely to end

their continuous voyage in the Confederacy. Southerners built the Merrimack into the Virginia, an impromptu ironclad. The Monitor was built and fought the Virginia to a standstill. The Merrimack was destroyed a few months later to keep it out of the hands of Union troops. The Pivotal Point: Antietam 4. Why was the battle of Antietam "...probably the most decisive of the Civil War?" Robert E. Lee, having broken McClellans invasion on Richmond, encountered John Pope in the Second Battle of Bull Run. Lee thrust into Maryland, hoping for foreign intervention. Little Mac was restored to active command and fatefully found Lees plans. The attack resulted in a draw and though Lee retreated, McClellan was removed for the final time from field command. Both Paris and London were impressed by the Union power at having rebuked the invasion. Lincoln waited for Antietam to make the Proclamation of Emancipation. Lincoln was able to be supported for fighting a full-scale war where the Old South would be changed forever. A Proclamation Without Emancipation Know: Emancipation Proclamation, Butternut Region 7. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences. Explain. Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 declared the slaves forever free in the rebelling states. This was stronger on proclamation than emancipation since no slave was actually freed. Thousands of slaves however flocked to the invading Union armies. Public reactions were varied. Ardent abolitionists complained that Lincoln had not gone far enough. Butternut Northerners felt Lincoln had gone too far. Opposition mounted in the North against an abolition war. Pierce and others felt that emancipation should not be forced. Boys in Blue volunteered to fight for the Union, not against slavery. Congress in 1862 went heavily against the administration. The moral position of the North in preserving the Union and freeing slaves was reinforced by the newly broken steel of chains. Blacks Battle Bondage Know: Frederick Douglass, 54th Massachusetts, Fort Pillow 8. African-Americans were critical in helping the North win the Civil War. Assess. As Lincoln moved to emancipate the slaves, he also took steps to enlist blacks in the armed forces. Black enlistees were not accepted until after the proclamation. Blacks accounted for about 10 percent of the total enlistments in the Union forces on land and sea. Many blacks, when captured were put to death, though 22 received Medals of Honor. Several black soldiers were massacred after they had formally surrendered. Blacks did not serve until a month before the war ended in the Confederacy. The bulk of slaves never revolted, though tens of thousands of slaves ran away. The 54th Massachusetts was one regiment that was fully black and was well recognized. Lee's Last Lunge at Gettysburg Know: Ambrose Burnside, Joe Hooker, George Meade, Gettysburg, Pickett's Charge, Gettysburg Address 1. Why was Gettysburg a significant battle? Ambrose Burnside became commander and launched a rash frontal attack at Fredericksburg, Virginia where he lost. Joe Hooker was next. At Chancellorsville, Virginia he was outflanked and

lost, though Thomas Stonewall Jackson died after being mistakenly shot by his own men. George Meade replaced Hooker to fight in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The failure of George Picketts charge has been called the high tide of the Confederacy. Lincoln journeyed to Gettysburg to dedicate the ceremony and to speak for the sacrifices of the noble Union cause. The War in the West Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Fort Henry, Fort Donnelson, Shiloh, David Farragut, Vicksburg 10. Describe General Grant as a man and a general. Ulysses S. Grant was unsuccessful at West Point and began drinking after being left in the West. Grants first signal success came in Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. By capturing Tennessee, Grant marched to capture the junction of the main Confederate north-south and east-west railroads in the Mississippi Valley at Corinth Mississippi. An impressive Confederate force foiled his plans at Shiloh. David G. Farragut stroke the South a blow by seizing New Orleans and owning the Mississippi River. Vicksburg was put under siege by Grant and Port Hudson fell. The Mississippi River was the Unions wholly. Gettysburg and Vicksburg showed foreign interveners that supporting the Confederacy would be the one choice. Sherman Scorches Georgia Know: William T. Sherman, March to the Sea 11. How did Sherman attempt to demoralize the South? William T. Sherman was very aggressive and called for total war in fighting the South. Tennessee was cleared after Grant fought in Chickamauga in the east of the state. Sherman captured and burned Atlanta and emerged east on the sea at Savannah. Sherman tore through homes and burnt buildings. He poisoned fields and wells. He made off with valuables. After Savannah, Sherman shifted to viciously burn through to Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. Soon he was in NC. The Politics of War Know: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Clement L. Vallandingham 12. Describe Lincolns political difficulties during the war. The election of 1864 fell most inopportunely in the midst of war. The Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War opposed the expansion of presidential power in wartime. Stephen A. Douglas died seven weeks after the war began. War Democrats supported the war while Peace Democrats did not. Copperheads were shown to openly obstruct the war through attacks against the draft and emancipation. Clement L. Vallandigham was most notorious for being a congressman Copperhead. He was soon exiled into the Confederaacy though he journeyed to Canada, ran for Ohio governor, failed and finally simply returned home. The Election of 1864 Know: Andrew Johnson, George McClellan, Mobile, Atlanta 14. What factors contributed to Lincoln's electoral victory? The Union Party was an aggregate of the Republican party and the War Democrats. Though the Union Party lightly considered nominating Secretary of the Treasury Chase instead of Lincoln, he was nominated without serious dissent. Andrew Johnson, who had been a small slaveowner from

Tennessee, ran for VP. Other Democrats nominated McClellan. Admiral Farragut won Mobile, Sherman won Atlanta, and Sheridan laid waste to the verdant Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Northern soldiers were furloughed home to support Lincoln at the polls. Grant Outlasts Lee Know: The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Grant the Butcher, Richmond, Appomattox Courthouse 15. What strategy did Grant use to defeat Lee's army? Grant fought and fought. He fought all of Lees armies at once so they couldnt assist each other. Grant suffered about 50,000 casualties in the Wilderness towards Richmond. In an attack against impregnable Cold Harbor Grant lost seven thousand men in a few minutes. Critics called him Grant the Butcher. Lincoln met with Confederate representatives at Hampton Roads, Virginia to discuss peace terms, though neither side would give in to the others terms. Rapidly advancing Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. The Martyrdom of Lincoln Know: Ford's Theater, John Wilkes Boothe 16. Was Lincoln's death good or bad for the South? Explain. John Wilkes Booth, a fanatically pro-Southern actor, slipped behind Lincoln and shot him in the head at Fords theatre. This dramatic death erased Lincolns shortcomings and caused his nobler qualities to be left in the filter. The assassination killed off a moderately voiced president and would prove deleterious to the recaptured Southerners. Lincolns death set the stage for the wrenching ordeal of Reconstruction. The Aftermath of the Nightmare Know: Lost Cause 17. What was the legacy of the Civil War? Six-hundred thousand young men were killed, 400,000 were seriously injured. Monetary costs would be $15 billion. Nullification and secession were laid to rest; the Federal government had won. The Lost Cause of the South was lost. Slavery was sliced away by the sword. Varying Viewpoints: What Were the Consequences of the Civil War? 18. Do you agree with those historians who say that the importance of the Civil War has been exaggerated? Why or Why not? No, I think the Civil War was very important in transforming the country. It reunited the Union and made nullification a lost cause. A new banking system was made. Slavery, a watertight though immoral economic system in the South was drowned in the blood of war.

Chapter #22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction Big Picture Themes 1. After the war, the question was, What to do with the southern states? The more moderate Republicans, like Lincoln and his successor Andrew Johnson, lost out to the Radical Republicans who desired to punish the South. 2. The South was divided up into military districts. The southern states were not allowed to reenter the U.S. until the Norths stipulations were met. 3. For Southern blacks, these years were good politically. Since whites wanted nothing to do with the U.S., blacks voted and were often elected to state legislatures and Congress. 4. Economically, freed blacks fared worse. They were no longer slaves, but with little other options, they largely became sharecroppers. The end result was little different and little better than slavery. 5. In 1877, a presidential election was essentially a tie. A compromise was worked out, and the South got the U.S. Army to pull out. This left the southern blacks on their ownsouthern whites reasserted their power.

GUIDED READING The Problems of Peace Know: Reconstruction 1. "Dismal indeed was the picture presented by the war-wracked South when the rattle of musketry faded." Explain. All rebel leaders were pardoned by Johnson in 1868 as part of a Christmas present. The Old South had collapsed. Charleston, Richmond, and Atlanta were decimated. Economic life creaked. Banks, businesses, factories, and railroads were all closed. Not until 1870 did the seceded states produce as large a cotton crop as in 1860. Aristocrats were humbled by the war. Land and slaves were temporarily evaporated. Southerners still believed in the lost cause as a just war. Freedmen Define Freedom Know: Exodusters, American Methodist Episcopal Church, American Missionary Association 2. How did African-Americans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war? Slaves found emancipation was uneven throughout the states. A North Carolina slave claimed to have celebrated freedom 12 times. Blacks from one Texas county fleeing were captured and hanged along the riverbank. Other planters legalistically made slaves work. Some loyal workers resisted Union armies while others would violently clabber up to whip their owners with lashes or thieving. Slaveowners all had to deal with the fact that their slaves were free. Tens of thousands emancipated blacks took to the roads, some to test their freedom, others to look for long-lost family. Exodusters include the 25,000 blacks from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi who surged in a mass exodus to

Kansas. Now black churches were formed freely and the African Methodist Episcopal Church quadrupled in the first decade after emancipation. American Missionary Association volunteered their services as teachers to the newly freed blacks. The Freedmen's Bureau Know: Freedmen's Bureau, General Oliver O. Howard 3. Assess the effectiveness of the Freedmen's Bureau. Freedmen were overwhelmingly unskilled, unlettered, without property or money, and with scant knowledge of how to survive as free people. Congress created the Freedmens Bureau on March 3, 1865. This was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to refugees whether white or black. Oliver O. Howard founded this organization. An estimated 200,000 blacks learned how to read. Little land made it into blacks hands as local administrators collaborated with planters in expelling blacks and in signing labor contracts. Johnson: The Tailor President Know: Andrew Johnson 4. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of Andrew Johnson. Few presidents have even been faced with a more perplexing sea of troubles than Andrew Johnson. Johnson had the humblest beginnings of any president. Born in North Carolina and apprenticed as a tailor, he ultimately moved to Tennessee as an impassioned champion of the poor whites against the planter aristocrats. He refused to secede with his own state as he was elected to Congress. Andrew Johnson was a dogmatic champion of states rights and the Constitution. He however was not the correct man to sit in the presidents chair in a Republican government. Presidential Reconstruction Know: Lincoln's "10 percent plan," Wade-Davis Bill, Radical Republicans 5. How did the Presidents' plan for reconstruction differ from the plan of the Radical Republicans? Lincoln believed that the Southern states had never legally withdrawn from the Union and so claimed that only 10 percent of a states voters needed to take an oath of allegiance and emancipation. Republicans rammed through Congress in 1864 the Wade-Davis Bill, which required 50 percent of a states voters to take the oath of allegiance and to have stronger safeguards for emancipation. Congress determined that southern states could only be readmitted as conquered provinces. Two factions were emerging in the Republicans. The majority moderate group agreed with Lincoln while the minority radical group believed that the South should atone more painfully for its sins. Some radicals were secretly pleased when Johnson took the throne as they believed he would be more radical against the planter aristocracy. Johnson agreed with Lincolns 10 percent plan and called for special state conventions that would ratify emancipation, the 14th amendment, and agree to other Union terms. Johnson savored his dominance over the high-toned aristocrats who now begged his favor. The Baleful Black Codes

Know: Black Codes, Labor Contracts, Sharecropping, Debt Peonage 6. How were Black Codes used to keep the freedmen down? Laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks were passed, the first being from Mississippi. Dire penalties were imposed by the Black Codes on blacks who jumped their labor contracts. Blacks were barred from renting or leasing land, serving in a jury, and were punished for idleness by working in a chain gang. Though the worst Black Codes were repealed, blacks could not liberate into economic independence and so slipped into sharecropping status. Luckless sharecroppers sank into a morass of virtual peonage and remained there for generations. Congressional Reconstruction 7. Why did northern congressmen refuse to seat the southerners when they came to take their seats? (Hint: there are two reasons -- one moral and one practical) Congressional delegations from newly reconstituted Southern states presented themselves in the Capitol in December 1865. Most of the Southern leaders were tainted by active association with the lost cause; Alexander Stephens, ex-vice president of the Confederacy, showed up to Congress still under indictment for treason. The Northerners already in Congress wanted to keep the Southerners out because they didnt want to embrace their former enemies and they had enjoyed a relatively free hand passing laws in Congress, such as with passing the Morill Tariff, the Pacific Railraoad Act, and the Homestead Act. Soon Southerners would gain more political counts than ever since blacks counted as a full vote instead of just 3/5ths. Republicans had good reason to fear that they might be elbowed aside. Southerners might join hands with Democrats in the North and control Congress and the White House. They might perpetuate the Black Codes and dismantle the economic program. Johnson Clashes with Congress Know: Civil Rights Bill, "Andy Veto," Fourteenth Amendment 8. How did Republicans use their dominance of Congress? What did President Johnson do in response? Congress and the president clashed, especially when Johnson vetoed extending the life of the Freedmens Bureau in 1866. Congress posed the Civil Rights Bill, allowing blacks to become citizens, though Andy Veto again tried to stop the bill from passing. Congress still passed it, running over the veto. The Republicans undertook to rivet the principles of the Civil RIghts BIll into the Constitution as the Fourteenth amendment. All the Republicans agreed that no state should be welcomed back into the Union without accepting the Fourteenth Amendment. Swinging `Round the Circle with Johnson 9. How did Johnson's campaigning during the 1866 congressional elections backfire? Why did it backfire? The Republicans would settle for no less than to have Reconstruction with the Fourteenth Amendment then Johnson advised the Southerners to reject it. Johnson undertook to speak at various cities in support of his views so that a majority in Congress would be favorable to his opinions in the 1866 congressional elections. Andy Johnson accused the radicals in

Congress of having planned large-scale antiblack riots and murder in the South. Johnson was highly unsuccessful. The Republicans rolled up 2/3rds of the majority in both houses. Republican Principles and Programs Know: Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Moderate Republicans 10. How did the views of Moderate Republicans about reconstruction differ from the views of Radical Republicans? The radicals in the Senate were led by Charles Sumner. The House was led by the most powerful radical Thaddeus Stevens. Stevens was a leading figure on the Joint (House-Senate) Committee on Reconstruction. Moderate Republicans however, preferred polices that restrained the states from abridging citizens rights, rather than policies that directly involved the federal government in individual lives. Reconstruction by the Sword Know: Reconstruction Act, Fifteenth Amendment, Military Reconstruction, Redeemers, Home Rule 11. Describe military reconstruction. Congress passed the Reconstruction Act on March 2, 1867, which divided the South into five military districts. Congress additionally laid down stringent conditions for the readmission of the seceded states. The bitterest pill of all to white Southerners was to guarantee in their state constitutions full suffrage for their former adult male slaves. The only safeguard that couldnt be repealed was the Fifteenth Amendment. Military Reconstruction usurped certain functions of the president as commander in chief. Redeemers or Home Rule regimes had power passed back into their hands when the military left. By 1870, all of the states had reorganized the governments and had been accorded full rights. No Women Voters Know: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Woman's Loyal League, Fourteenth Amendment 12. Why did some women feel that they did not receive their due after the Civil War? The three Reconstruction-era Amendments delighted former abolitionists but deeply disappointed advocates of womens rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony had worked wholeheartedly for black emancipation. The Womans Loyal League had gathered nearly 400,000 signatures on petitions asking Congress to pass a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment inserted the word male for the first time in the Constitution. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South Know: Union League, Suffrage, Hiram Revels, Blanche K. Bruce, Scalawags, Carpetbaggers 13. In what ways did African-Americans become politically involved in the years immediately following the Civil War? How did White southerners view their involvement? Many Northern states did not even allow their black minorities to vote, and now the Fifteenth Amendment was passed saying men of all colors can vote. The Union League was originally a pro-

Union organization based in the North. Assisted by Northern blacks, freedmen turned the League into a network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates. Black women attended the parades and rallies. Black men elected as delegates to the state constitutional conventions held the power by sitting with whites to hammer out new state constitutions. Fourteen black congressmen served in D.C. between 1868 and 1876. Hiram Revels and Blache K. Bruce, both of Mississippi, served in D.C. Scalawags were Southerners who supported this change. Carpetbaggers came from the North, blamed to sell goods for high prices since there were too little products in the South. Steps were finally taken to establish adequate public schools, tax systems were streamlines, public works were launches, and property rights were guaranteed to women. The Ku Klux Klan Know: Ku Klux Klan, Force Acts, Disfranchise 14. In what ways did Southern whites attempt to keep former slaves down? The invisible empire of the South, the Ku Klux Klan, rode out at night to frighten, punish, and lynch those who were upstart. In one Louisiana parish in 1868, whites in two days killed or wounded two hundred victims. Congress passed the harsh Force Acts of 1870 and 1871. White resistance undermined attempts to empower the blacks politically. The white South disenfranchised blacks with literacy tests, and other trickery. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank Know: Radical Republicans, Ben Wade, Tenure of Office Act, Edwin Stanton 15. How did the Radical Republicans "manufacture" an impeachment of Andrew Johnson? Radicals decided to remove Johnson with Congressional procedures. The president pro tempore of the Senate would become president: Ben Wade of Ohio. Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act over Johnsons veto. This required the president to secure the consent of the Senate before he could remove his appointees. However, Johnson abruptly dismissed Edwin Stanton the next year. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson Know: Benjamin F. Butler, Thaddeus Stevens 16. Why were the Radicals unsuccessful in removing Johnson from office? Benjamin Butler and Thaddeus Stevens had a hard time building a compelling case for impeachment. Johnson claimed to have dismissed Stanton to test the Tenure of Office Act, which he believed was unconstitutional. By a margin of one vote, the radicals failed to remove Johnson. Fears of creating a destabilizing precedent played a role. This might abuse the constitutional mechanism of checks and balances. The Purchase of Alaska Know: William Seward, Russia 17. Explain why Alaska was called "Seward's Folly," but was purchased anyway. The Russians were willing to sell Alaska in 1867. The felt they would lost the province to their enemy the British and the land had already been furred out. William Seward purchased Alaska for

$7.2 million . Russia, alone among the powers, had been friendly to the North during the Civil War. There were rumors that the land was rich with furs, fish, and gold. The Heritage of Reconstruction 18. Assess the success of Republican reconstruction. The Southerners regarded Reconstruction as worse than the war as it definitely changed their lifestyle and ways of living. The Republicans acted to protect freed slaves and to promote the Republican Party itself. Moderate Republicans never fully appreciated the extensive effort necessary to make the freed slaves completely independent citizens. Deep-seated racism deemed too formidable an obstacle.