avid Crystal in his dictionary (2003.138) defines diglossia as a situation in which two different varieties of language are used in a speech community. One of them is a high variety and the other one is low, so they differ in terms of formality. The high variety is the one that is learned at schools and used in churches, radio and TV programms; in other words, it is used in serious and formal situations and its use rather than the low variety is related to social prestige. As for the low variety, it is used in informal situations, for example, among family members. An example about diglossia is the Arabic diglossic situation with high variety; classical and low variety; colloquial. In his Sociolinguistics (1996:49), Hudson mentions that diglossia has been introduced in English language literature on sociolinguistics by Charles Ferguson 1959 who defines it as the existence of two distinct varieties one of them is used in formal public occasions which is the high variety. The second on is used by everybody under normal everyday circumstances and it is the low or vernacular variety. People in the Arabic speaking societies use the local variety of Arabic at home or into the street. At a university or a mosque they use the standard variety which is quite different from the local or vernacular one. Ferguson`s definition is specific in the sense that it requires that the high and low varieties belong to the same language as in the Arabic high and low varieties. Some writers have extended the term to cover situations which do not count as diglossic according to this definition. Joshua Fishman(1967:79), for example, refers to Paraguay as a diglossic community, although the high and low varieties are Spanish and Guarani; an Indian language totally unrelated to Spanish. Another example is Latin which has been used the medieval Europe for religion, education, literacy and other prestigious purposes while other languages (in the case of the medieval Europe, the vernacular languages of that era) have been used for informal use (Coulmas,1998:143). Other labels to the classical diglossia of Ferguson and the extended diglossia of Fishman, have been introduced by Kloss; the term in-diglossia when the two varieties are closely related and the
term out-diglossia when they are unrelated. Scotton(1986) uses the term narrow giglossia to refer to Ferguson`s giglossia and the term broad to label Fishman`s (Ibid:144). As for Spolsky, it refers to "two distinct varieties are used side by side for two different sets of functions ". It refers to a society that has divided up its domains into two distinct clusters using linguistic differences to determine the boundaries and offering two clear identities to the members of the community. Educational systems are directed with H variety and those who cannot master it are usually socially marginalized. At the same time the L has its value as a sign of membership of a peer or ethnic group. Spolsky highlights an important thing which is triglossia; the emergence of an intermediate variety, for example, a kind of educated standard Arabic (Spolsky,1998: 64). Wardhaugh uses the term code to refer to a language or a variety of language. Thus, he defines a diglossic situation as a situation "exists in a society when it has two distinct codes which show clear functional separation"; that is one code is used in certain circumstances while another one is used in another type of circumstances. A diglossic situation is a situation in which there is a difference between standard written language and colloquial spoken language. In Switzerland there are the standard German which is a high variety (abbreviated as H) and Swiss German as a low variety (abbreviated as L). In Haiti there are standard French (H) and Haitian Creole (L). The (H) variety is used in delivering sermons or formal lectures especially in a parliament or for giving political speeches, for broadcasting the news on radio and television, in writing literature as so on. As for the (L) variety it is used in informal situations like talking with friends, giving instructions to workers in occupations of low prestige, popular programs on the radio and folk literature (Wardhaugh,2010:85). Sometimes a person may use (H) variety to deliver a lecture, but he uses the (L) variety in answering questions or explaining parts of the lecture just to ensure understanding. One cannot use the (H) variety in situations that require (L) variety and at the same time he cannot use low variety in writing serious work of literature because it will be a kind of risk( Wardhaugh,2010:86).
In 1966, the Norman French arrived at England, following their victory at Hastings under William the Conqueror. Those French speaking invaders became the ruling class in England so French was the language of nobility, government, law and prestige. It was the (H) variety while English was considered as the (L) one (Yule,1996: 218-219). This situation continued for three centuries until Chaucer broke it. Chaucer used the (L) variety; English, in his works and gradually English had another function associated with the (H) variety and it was possible to use it in literary works (Wardhaugh,2010:86). Diglossic languages and diglossic language situations are usually described as consisting of two varieties that coexist in a speech community. These domains are usually ranked in a kind of hierarchy, from highly valued (H) to less valued (L); when the two varieties are recognized (or tacitly accepted) as genetically related, the domains of the H variety are usually the reserve of the more conservative form of the language, which is usually the literary dialect if there is a written form. “Formal” domains such as public speaking, religious texts and practice, education, and other prestigious kinds of usage are dominated by the H norm; the L norm is used for informal conversation, jokes, in the street and the market, the telephone, and any other domains (e.g., letter writing, cinema, television) not reserved for the H norm. For diglossic situations involving two different (genetically unrelated) linguistic codes (sometimes referred to as “extended” diglossia) the one dominating the H domains has the greater international prestige or is the language of the local power elite or the dominant religious community and/or its priesthood. In such cases the H-variety language is clearly the language of the more powerful section of the society, however power is defined. Thus in French Canada, English occupies the H-variety because it has the greatest prestige in North America, its population even within Canada is numerically greater than the community of French speakers, and its speech community is economically dominant, both in English Canada and in French Canada. Conversely, in France, French is the H-variety in diglossic situations involving other varieties are only used as L-variety spoken vehicles in the home, on the street, in the construction trades, etc. (Coulmas,1998:141).
1.2 The Differences between the High and Low Varieties
In addition to the major difference between the (H) and (L) varieties concerning using one of them in formal situation and the other in informal ones, there are other differences. The (H) variety is more prestigious and powerful than the (L) one. It seems to be more beautiful, logical and expressive than the (L) that is why it is used for literary and religious purposes. Translations are done in (H) varieties rather than (L). There might be a considerable and widespread resistance to translate certain books into the L variety, for example, the holly Qur`an into a colloquial variety or the Bible into Haitian creole. Most of literary works are written in (H) prestigious variety and few works are written in (L) and such works can be transmitted into (H) by those who are well experienced in (H) variety ( Wardhaugh, 2010:86). Another difference between the H and L varieties is that most children learn (L) not (H) although the latter is taught at schools or used in churches and similar settings. Some may learn the H variety, but many do not learn it at all; for example, most Haitians have no knowledge at all of standard French, but all can speak some variety of Haitian creole. The H variety is also likely to be learned in some kind of formal settings; in classrooms or as part of a religious or cultural indoctrination. Thus, the (H) is taught whereas the low is learned. Teaching requires dictionaries, grammars, standardized texts, an accepted view about the nature of what is being taught and how it is taught. The (L) does not require the availability of dictionaries or grammars and so on. If such grammars are available, they will be written by "foreign linguists". Such linguists are neither well known by people whose language they describe nor well received by those people. Such grammars are written to support some myths like the myth that (L) has no grammar (Ibid, 87). Wardhaugh`s idea about The L variety as having no grammar contradicts with Spolsky`s who say that it has grammar, but it is simpler than that of the H variety and there are distinctions in the vocabulary. The H variety is more stable because it is protected from change by its association with written texts and by the educational system (Spolsky,1998:64).
Sometimes the (L) variety tends to borrow words from (H) especially when the speakers try to use (L) in a formal way. The result is a mixture of both (H) and (L). There are words in (L) and (H) that are used to refer to common objects, but still the (L) words are used in low situations and the (H) words are used in high situations. Diglossia reinforces social distinctions. It asserts social position and keeps people in their places especially those who are of low classes (Wardhaugh, 2010:89).
1.3 Diglossia and Solidarity and power
Brown and Gilman (1960) report that the use of certain pronouns (like the French Tu and Vous ) can be an expression of power and solidarity. The use of L where H is expected or the vice versa constitutes a violence of communicative competence rules and a foreigner`s inadequate understanding of the linguistic culture. T (tu) is more familiar and nonrespect form than V (vous). If T is used by equals, it will express solidarity. If it is used between non-equals, the one who uses it puts himself in a position of power while the receiver is expected to answer with V. When V is mutually used, it indicates mutual respect and social distance. In a diglossic situation, the use of high or low varieties is similar to the situations of using T and V. The use of L may express solidarity, but sometimes it cannot be used to address those whose social position is superior or distant. When white speakers of American English use the Black English to address African Americans might be seen as an insult unless it is allowed to that speaker to use it. As for using L or H variety in literature or sacred books, Hudson reports that in Tamil, the conversational portions of novels and short stories are in L variety, but not the narrative or the descriptive portions. In South Asia, a highly structured oral system is used to transmit sacred texts. The reliance on orality is motivated by the power of spoken words to invoke the intervention of the gods. In their traditions if the text is learned in a proper way by a proper person; usually male, then the power of the word when it is spoken is irrevocable, that`s the gods must and will act. Writing the words on the paper is not a substitute for pronouncing it (Coulmas, 1998:146).
Diglossia refers to the existence of two varieties of a language; one is a high variety and the other is a low one. In some societies the two varieties are not of the same language like the Haitian Creole that is used as a low variety and the standard French as a high prestigious variety. There are a lot of differences between the H and L varieties. The H is associated with social prestige, education, literature and formal use whereas the L variety is related to everyday use and informal contexts. Despite the differences between them, they share certain sets of vocabularies. The use of one variety than the other depends on many factors like the social distance between the speakers, formality of the context and other factors. It can be also an indication of social power or solidarity.
Bilingualism and Multilingualism
2.1 : Definitions
Monolingual (Unilingual) : a person who can speak one languages . (Crystal : 2008 ) having, or being able to use, only one language, in contrast to bilingual (Yule :2006) Bilingual : a person using or able to use two languages especially with equal fluency and the origin of the word is from Latin bilinguis , from bi + lingua (tongue) and its First Known Use: 1829 (Webster's dictionary :1961)
The general sense of this term a person who can speak two languages , it contrasts with monolingual. The focus of attention has been on the many kinds and degrees of bilingualism and bilingual situations which exist. Definitions of bilingualism reflect assumptions about the degree of proficiency people must achieve before they qualify as bilingual (whether comparable to a monolingual native-speaker, or something less than this, even to the extent of minimal knowledge of a second language , A balanced bilingual is someone whose command of both languages is equivalent. (Crystal : 2008 )
The ability to speak two languages. In modern western society, the ability to speak two languages is often seen as something of a remarkable achievement, particularly in the English-speaking countries.( Trask:2007) bilingualism is the native-like control of two languages. (Bloomfield :1935) bilingual is anyone who possesses a minimal competence in only one of the four language skills, listening comprehension, speaking,
reading and writing, in a language other than his mother tongue Macnamara (1967) a person who has some functional ability in a second language. This may vary from a limited ability in one or more domains, to very strong command of both languages (which is sometimes called balanced bilingualism) (Spolsky:1998) Ambilingualism : A term sometimes used in language learning and sociolinguistics for the ability to speak two languages with equal facility. The notion is usually included within the more general concept of bilingualism . (Crystal : 2008 )
Multilingual : A term used in sociolinguistics to refer to the individual speakers who have this ability to use two or more languages ; it contrasts with monolingual. Multilingualism (or Plurilingualism). multilingual abilities demonstrated are of several levels of proficiency. (Crystal : 2008 ) The term “multilingualism” can refer to either the language use or the competence of an individual or to the language situation in an entire nation or society. However, at the individual level it is generally subsumed under “bilingualism.” (MICHAEL CLYNE: 2002) All these definitions, which range from a native-like competence in two languages to a minimal proficiency in a second language, raise a number of theoretical and methodological difficulties. On the one hand, they lack precision they do not specify what is meant by native like competence, nor by minimal proficiency in a second language, nor by obeying the concepts and structures of that second language. o Can we exclude from the definitions of bilingual someone who possesses a very high competence in a second language without
necessarily being perceived as a native speaker on account of a foreign accent? o Can a person who has followed one or two courses in a foreign language without being able to use it in communication situations, or again someone who has studied Latin for six years, legitimately be called bilingual? On the other hand, these definitions refer to a single dimension of bilinguality, namely the level of proficiency in both languages, thus ignoring non-linguistic dimensions. For example, Paradis (1986: xi), while suggesting that bilinguality should be depend on a multidimensional continuum, reduces the latter to linguistic structure and language skill. When definitions taking into account dimensions other than the linguistic ones have been proposed, they too have been more often than not limited to a single dimension. For example, Mohanty (1994: 13) limits the definition of bilingualism to its social-communicative dimension, when he says that a bilingual persons or communities are those with an ability to meet the communicative demands of the self and the society in their normal functioning in two or more languages in their interaction with the other speakers of any or all of these languages. More recent definitions insist on the specific characteristics of the bilingual. For example, Grosjean (1985) defines a bilingual speaker as more than the sum of two monolinguals in the sense that the bilingual has also developed some unique language behavior. Equally for Ludi (1986) bilinguality is more than an addition of two monolingual competences, but an extreme form of polylectality¹. (Josiane F. Hamers and Michel H. A. Blanc:2004)
2.2 : Bilingualism and Multilingualism
Monolingualism, that is, the ability to use only one language, is such a widely accepted norm in so many parts of the Western world that it is often assumed to be a world-wide phenomenon, to the extent that bilingual and multilingual individuals may appear to be unusual. Indeed, we often have mixed feelings when we discover that someone we meet is fluent in several languages: perhaps a mixture of admiration and envy but
1 A term polylectality refers to any speaker´s ability to use a repertoire of languages , dialect , language varieties and styles to fulfill a number of social functions .
also, occasionally, a feeling of superiority in that many such people are not native to the culture in which we function. Such people are likely to be immigrants, visitors, or children of mixed marriages and in that respect marked in some way, and such marking is not always regarded favorably. However, in many parts of the world an ability to speak more than one language is not at all remarkable, In fact , a monolingual individual would be regarded as a misfit, lacking an important skill in society, the skill of being able to interact freely with the speakers of other languages with whom regular contact is made in the ordinary business of living. In many parts of the world it is just a normal requirement of daily living that people speak several languages: perhaps one or more at home, another in the village, still another for purposes of trade, and yet another for contact with the outside world of wider social or political organization. These various languages are usually acquired naturally and unconsciously, and the shifts from one to another are made without hesitation. People who are bilingual or multilingual do not necessarily have exactly the same abilities in the languages ; in fact, that kind of parity may be exceptional . As Sridhar (1996, p. 50) says, „multilingualism involving balanced, native like command of all the languages in the repertoire is rather uncommon. Typically, multilinguals have varying degrees of command of the different repertoires. The differences in competence in the various languages might range from command of a few lexical items, formulaic expressions such as greetings, and rudimentary conversational skills all the way to excellent command of the grammar and vocabulary and specialized register and styles.‟ Sridhar adds: „Multilinguals develop competence in each of the codes to the extent that they need it and for the contexts in which each of the languages is used.‟ Context determines language choice. In a society in which more than one language is used you must find out who uses what, when, and for what purpose if you are to be socially competent. Your language choices are part of the social identity you claim for yourself. There may be some doubt that very many people are actually bi- or even multi-dialectal. They may speak varieties which are distinctly different, but whether each separate variety is genuinely a dialect depends on how one defines dialect, which, as we saw in previously, is not at all an easy matter to decide. So it sometimes is too with deciding who is or who is not bilingual. Is someone who speaks both Hindi and Urdu bilingual, who
speaks both Serbian and Croatian, Nynorsk and Bokmål, or Russian and Ukrainian? Such speakers may well tell you they are. But, on the other hand, a Chinese who speaks both Mandarin and Cantonese will almost certainly insist that he or she speaks only two dialects of Chinese, just as an Arab who knows both a colloquial variety and the classical, literary variety of Arabic will insist that they are only different varieties of the same language. In some cases, then, the bilingual – bidialectal distinction that speakers make reflects social, cultural, and political aspirations or realities rather than any linguistic reality. What we will concern ourselves with, then, are unequivocal cases in which there can be no doubt that the two languages, or codes, are mutually unintelligible. (Wardhaugh: 2006) Over 70 % of the Earth‟s population are thought to be bilingual or multilingual (able to speak three or more languages), and there is good reason to believe that bilingualism or multilingualism has been the norm for most human beings at least for the past few millennia so Bilingualism – more generally, multilingualism – is a major fact of life in the world today. To begin with, the world‟s estimated 5,000 languages are spoken in the world so that communication among the citizens of many of the world‟s countries clearly requires extensive bi- (if not multi-) lingualism. In fact, David Crystal (1997) estimates that two-thirds of the world‟s children grow up in a bilingual environment.
2.3 What causes Multilingualism?
A multilingual situation can develop for reasons which may be difficult to disentangle because of their obscure historical origins. Often the situation is of the people's own choosing; but it may also be forced upon them by other circumstances. Politics: Annexation, resettlement, and other political or military acts can have immediate linguistic effects. People may become refugees, and have to learn the language of their new homes. After a successful military invasion, the indigenous population may have to learn the invader's language in order to prosper. Religion: People may wish to live in a country because of its religious significance, or to leave a country because of its religious oppression. In either case, a new language may have to be learned.
Culture: A desire to identify with a particular ethnic culture or social group usually means learning the language of that group. Nationalistic factors are particularly important Education: Learning another language may be the only means of obtaining access to knowledge. This factor led to the universal use of Latin in the Middle Ages, and today is one of the motivating factors behind the international use of English Economy: Very large numbers of people have migrated to find work and to improve their standard of living. This factor alone accounts for most of the linguistic diversity of the USA, and an increasing proportion of the bilingualism in present-day Europe. Natural disaster: Floods, volcanic eruptions, famine, and other such events can be the cause of major movements of population. New language contact situations then emerge as people are resettled. (Crystal:2006)
2.4 The Benefits of Being multilingual/ bilingual
Being multilingual/ bilingual person is something beneficial , not the contrary, as many research conclude , so a multilingual/ bilingual person have an advantage in comparison with monolingual person , many aspect of person life may developed through multilingualism/ bilingualism this paper listed few of them and there is a lot of other benefit this paper cannot list them all . 2.4.1 Cognitive Individuals who are bilingual switch between two different language systems. Their brains are very active and flexible (Zelasko and Antunez, 2000). Research also shows that bilingual people have an easier time for : understanding math concepts and solving word problems more easily (Zelasko and Antunez, 2000) developing strong thinking skills (Kessler and Quinn, 1980) using logic (Bialystok and Majumder,as cited in Castro, Ayankoya , &Kasprzak, 2011) focusing, remembering, and making decisions (Bialystok, 2001) thinking about language (Castro et al 3122 learning other languages ( Jessner3112
In addition, research indicates that bilingualism may delay the onset of Alzheimer‟s disease (Dreifus: 2011). 2.4.2 Learning School readiness and success for children who are dual language learners (DLLs) is tied directly to mastery of their home language (Zelasko and Antunez, 2000). Bilingual children benefit academically in many ways. Because they are able to switch between languages, they develop more flexible approaches to thinking through problems. Their ability to read and think in two different languages promotes higher levels of abstract thought, which is critically important in learning (Diaz, 1985). The list of benefits of bilingualism is constantly growing. Current research shows that people who use more than one language appear better at ignoring irrelevant information, a benefit that seems to exist as early as seven months of age (Kovács and Mehler, 2009). Thinking in a second language frees people from biases and limited thinking (Keysar, Hayakawa, & An, 2011). Children who learn to read in their home language have a strong foundation to build upon when they learn a second language. They can easily transfer their knowledge about reading to their second language (Páez and Rinaldi, 2006).
2.5 Individual vs. Societal Multilingualism /Bilingualism
Linguists usually draw a distinction between individual and societal multilingualism, although it is not always possible to maintain. Some countries such as Canada, are officially bilingual in English and French, although not all Canadians are bilingual. There are many more Frenchspeaking Canadians who learn English as a second language than English-speaking Canadians who learn French. In other countries such as India, Singapore, and Papua New Guinea there is a high degree of individual bilingualism with the average person knowing at least two or more languages. In Singapore four languages, English, Mandarin, Tamil, and Malay share co-official status, and most people are bilingual in English and one of the other official languages. Some of the connections between individual and societal bilingualism become evident when we consider some of the reasons why certain
individuals are or become bilingual. Usually the more powerful groups in any society are able to force their language upon the less powerful. If we take Finland as an example, we find that the Sami, Romanies, and Swedes have to learn Finnish, but Finns do not have to learn any of these languages. Similarly, in Britain, the child of English-speaking parents does not have to learn Panjabi or Welsh, but both these groups are expected to learn English. In Papua New Guinea few children know English before coming to school, yet most will still be educated in English because this language policy is a legacy of the country's colonial heritage. The middle-class Anglophone (speaking English) parents in Canada who send their child to a French immersion school are, however, by contrast, under no obligation to do so. Many do so, however, as a means of enriching their children's development and because they believe knowledge of another language is an advantage. The co-official status that Singapore attaches to Tamil and Malay (also designated the national language) is not matched by supportive language policies that guarantee their transmission. School outcomes clearly reflect the advantages being given to the Chinese majority (Gupta 1994). Even in countries where minority languages are recognized for some purposes, what this means varies in practice. By “minority language” means one with a relatively small number of speakers living within the domain of a more widely spoken language, whose knowledge is usually necessary for full participation in society. Swedes in Finland probably have the best legal protection of any minority group in the world. The next strongest position is held by minority languages which have limited (often territorial) rights. This is the case in Canada, where certain provinces are officially declared bilingual, and others, like Ontario (where the national capital lies) are not. It would be naive, however, to assume that bilingual countries were created to promote bilingualism, rather than to guarantee the legal right to more than one language in a society. We can distinguish between de facto (“by fact”) and de jure (“by law”) bilingualism. There are often fewer bilingual individuals in de jure multilingual or bilingual states than in those where de facto multilingualism or bilingualism occurs. A good example is Switzerland, where territorial unilingualism exists under federal multilingualism. Although Switzerland is widely cited as a successful example of multilingualism, only about 6 percent of Swiss citizens can be considered multilingual in the country's four official languages: German, French, Italian, and Romantsch. English is much preferred over the other official languages as a second language. Of the 26 cantons, 22 are officially monolingual. Economic and political power is more greatly concentrated among German speakers. (ROMAINE:2007)
Multilingualism is shaped in different ways depending on a variety of social and other factors which must be taken into account when trying to assess the skills of speakers and how speakers use the languages they know. It is possible ( or not according to some linguist ) for a bilingual to be fluent in both languages taken together without being able to function completely like a monolingual in either one on its own. The study of the behavior of multilingual individuals and societies thus requires us to go beyond many of the concepts and analytical techniques presently used within linguistic theory which are designed for the description of monolingual. There is no evidence to indicate that multilingualism is an inherently problematic mode of organization, either for a society or for an individual. Because languages and dialects are often potent symbols of class, gender, ethnic, and other kinds of differentiation, it is easy to think that language underlies conflict in multilingual societies. Yet disputes involving language are really not about language, but instead about fundamental inequalities between groups who happen to speak different languages. REFERENCES Aronoff, Mark and Janie Rees-Miller (2002). The Handbook of Linguistics . Blackwell Publishing, Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bloomfield, L. (1935) Language. London: Allen and Unwin. Castro, D. C., Ayankoya, B., & Kasprzak, C. (2011). The new voices/Nuevas voces: Guide to cultural and linguistic diversity in early childhood. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Coulmas, Florian, Ed. (1998) The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. England: Blackwell. Crystal, David (2003) A dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. London: Blackwell Publishing. Crystal, David (2006) How Language Works. London: Penguin.
Diaz, R. (1985). The intellectual power of bilingualism. In Southwest Hispanic Research Institute, Second language learning by young children. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico. Dreifus, C. (2011, May 30). The bilingual advantage. Interview with Ellen Bialystok. The New York Times. Gove, P. B, (1961), Merriam-Webster 3rd New International Dictionary, London, G. Bell & Sons Ltd. Hamers , Josiane F & . Blanc Michel H. A (2004). Bilinguality and Bilingualism . London : Cambridge University Press Hudson, R. A. (1996) Sociolinguistics. England: Cambridge University Press. Jessner, U. (2008). Teaching third languages: Findings, trends, and challenges. Université de Lausanne. Kessler, C., & Quinn, M. E. (1980). Positive effects of bilingualism on science problem-solving abilities. In J. E. Alatis, (Ed.), Current issues in bilingual education. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Spolsky, Bernard (1998) Sociolinguistics. England: Oxford University Press. Trask ,R.L (2007). LANGUAGE ANDLINGUISTICS The Key Concepts .England: Rutledge Wardhaugh, Ronald (2010) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. England: Wiley-Blackwell. Yule, George (1996) The Study of Language. England: Cambridge University Press. Zelasko, N., & Antunez, B. (2000). If your child learns in two languages. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.