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Introduction
o &tie"cwetYiew 01 substationengineering
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ubstations form onimportant portof thetransmission anddistribution networks
- ofelectricp;;,wersystem.They control thesupplyofpowerondifferent circuits by
means of various equipment such 0$ transformers, compensating equipment,
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circuit breakers,etc. Variouscircuits arejoinedtogetherthroughthesecomponentsto
bus barsystems atthe substations. While the bus-barsystems follow certain definite

patterns, limiting the scaP'! for variation, there is practically no standardization
regarding the physical arrangement, called the layout of the various components
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relating to oneanother. For the sometype of bus-bar system different layouts have
been used in different countries and in fact in Indio therearevariations in this regard
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not only among the various State Electricity Boards but also within a State Electricity
Board. This manual gives the basic requirements ond for the sake of illustration
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containstypical layoutsfor varioustypesofbus-barsystems.
Oneofthe primary requirements of a goodsubstation layout is that it should beas

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economical as possible, but it should ensure the desired degree of flexibility and
\) reliability, ease of operation and maintenance, expansion and meets all safety
requirements of the operation and maintenance personnel. Besides, the layout"
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should not leadto breakdowns in powersupplydueto faults within thesubstation, os
such faults are more serious. A brief discussion on the various components and
1) auxiliaryfacilities required in substationandhowtheyaffectthelayoutis included.

Manystandardsviz. IS, as, lEe, IEEE andthelikeguidethedesign of substations. It is
essential that the equipment used and the practices followed conform to the latest
standards, asrequired by thecustomer.
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This manual is aimed at understanding the basis of sub-station design. If deals with

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voltage levels between 33 kV and 400 kV and standard switching schemes. It also
discusses, brieflyabout of majorequipment.

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introduces lhe di(fll!rent types 01 subsla/ions
Generation station
Generation is done at 11 kV - 15kV level. As power of very high capacities cannot be
.,;::nsmitted for long distances at these voltages it is stepped up using generator
transformers to 110 kV - 400 kV levels. Generation stations are. in simple terms,

step-up stations.
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Grid station
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Grid Stations are used to interconnect different grids/regions/sectors. They are
generally 400 kV substations. They are stotions, switching power from one
generation/grid station to other. They can olso be called Switching Stations.
Distribution station
Distribution Stations are located at the load points where the power is stepped down to
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11 kV - 110kV levels.
Bulk Industrial supply stations
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Bulk Industrial Supply Stations are distribution stations catering to one or 0 few
consumers. The supply voltage can range from 33 kV to 110 kV. Industriol users do
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have their own generotion focilities besides the. SEB supply and these s1a1ions oct as
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step-up stations as well.

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Sur' :1S can also be classified as Step-up stotions, Primary grid Stations, Secondary
stc Sub-secondary stations and Distributions stations depending upon their
POSHI\;,;n in the power system hierarchy.

Generally the Substations are of outdoor typefor 33 kV and above. EHV Stations can
be indoor depending upon the environmental conditions like, pollution, salinity etc.,
and space constraints. Indoor stations are Air - Insulated or SF6 gas - insulated
depending' upon the availability of space and financial constraints. Gas Insulated
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preferred only when it is absolutely necessary.
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Substationtypes
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Salientfeaturesofmajor equipment
Major eqc.. ,Omenl In a $vbslalion.
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r.... substation layout is influenced to a great by the dimension of the
eCjUlpmentandtheiraccessorieswithin thesubstwlon.
CircuitBreakers
Circuit Breaker is a mechanical device capable of making, carrying and breaking
currents undNnormal circuitconditionsandmaking, carryingfora specified time and
breaking .IS undershortcircuitconditions. Circuit Breakersofthe types indicated
belowareusedin India.
36 kV Minimumoil/Vacuum/ Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
72.5kV Minimumoil/Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)'
145kV andabove Sulphurhexafluoride (SF,,).
245 kV and higher voltage outdoor circuit breakers, generally necessitate the
provisionofapproachroodsfor breakermaintenance.
400 kV CBs may hove pre-insertion resistors depending up on the system
requirement. When a CB interrupts a transformer or a reactor circuit, switching over
voltages can be'more than 1.5 p.u. or 2.5 p.u. respectively (maximum limit
recommended by IEC). resistors are required to prevent restrikes due to current
chopping. When lightly loaded tines are disconnected, interruption of capacitive
currentstakeplacecausingrestrikeswhich cansetin oscillations ofa few hundred Hz.
CBs with self.generatingpressureandcomparatively slowcontadmovement, such as.,
bulkoil, minimum- oil, SF" puffer type might restrike. However, modern SF6 puffer
type breakersaredesigned, restrike-free.
CBs can be live tank type or dead tonk type depending up on ihe substation design
and economy. Dead tank type CBs come by design with sets of current tronsformers
on the bushings. They are normally used in the l'h breaker or Ring bus scheme,
where, thereareCTs on either sideoftheCB. This type of cais less expensive when
compared with a live tonk type ca and two free standing (generally oil filled) CTs
combination.Thesearenot popularin Indio.
Live tank CBs areused in otherschemeswhere CTs are not required on either sides
oftheca,likedoublemainscheme,doublemain transferschemeetc. asthey oreless
PlCnensivethandeadtankCBs.
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DisconnectSwitchesandEarthSwitches
Disconnect switches are mechanical devices which provide in their ope.. 'positions,
isolating distances to meet the specified dearances. A disconnect switch can open
anddosea circuit when eithera negligiblecurrenthasto bebrokenor modeorwhen
';"ere is no significant change in voltage across the terminals of each pole of the
Qlsconnect. It can also carry currents under normal circuit !itions and the short
circuit currentsfor a specified time. Disconnectswitches are used for transfer of load
from one bus to another cnd to i$ ,13 equipment for maintenonce. Although a
variety of disconnect switches are available, the fadar which hos the maximum
influence onthe station layout is whetherthedisconnect switch is of theverticol breok
type or horizontal break type. Horizontal breaktype normally occupies more space
than the vertical break type. Between the horizontal center break and horizontal
doublebreaktypes,theformerrequireslargephaseto phoseclearance.
The location of disconnect switches in substations affects not only the substa,ian-
loyouts but maintenance of the disconnect contacts also. In some substations, the
disconnects are mounted of high positions either vertically or horizontally. Although
such substations occupy lesser area,the maintenance of those disconnect switches is
moredifficultandtimeconsuming.
The disconnect switch serves as adamonaf protection for personnel, with breoker
or!'ln, during maintenanceor repairwork on thefeederandalso enoblesthe breaker
;... ,,;e isolatedfrom thebusfor inspectionandmaintenance.
Earth ~ i t c h is a mechanical switching device for earthing different ports of a circuit,
which is capable of withstanding short-circuit currents, for a specified time but not
requiredtocarrynormal rated currentsofthecircuit.
InstrumentTransformers
Instrument transformers are devices used to transform currents and voltages in the
primary system to values suitable for ins1ruments, meters, protective relays etc. They
isolo:ethe primarysystem from thesecondary.
CurrentTransformers(CTs) mayeitherbeofthe bushingtype orwound type. The
bushingtype is accommodatedwithinthetransformer bushings and the wound types
are seporateJy mounted. The location of the crwith resped to associated circuit
breakerdepends onthe protectionscheme and the layoutofsubstotion as. well. So
for. Ihe wcund type CTswith deadtonk construction has been useo. Howeve,. current
transformers with live tonk constructionalso are being offered. It is ck:lImed thot These
transform"":; offerthefollowing advantages:
They capableofwithstanding high shortcircuit currents, dueto their short and
ngid: maryconductarandhencemorereliable,
They r.:Jve "0W reactanceandtherefarehove bettertransient performance.

These current transfarm ;: s do nat have their majar insulation over the high
currer' carrying primary. Therefore,the heatgeneratedis easily dissipoted dueto
which "1e insulation has superiorthermal stability andlonger life. However, these
,,'"., have "mitations in withstanding seismic forces and have 10 handled and
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transported carefully,
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Thetwo differentusesofa CTare
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Protection

Metering
These two requires conflicting properties of saturation, hence different types of cores

areused. For protection, theCT shouldfaithfully reproducethechanges in thecurrent
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for higher magnitudes, whereas for metering, the CT should saturate at higher
magnitudes in orderto preventanydamagetothemeters.

Protection Classes
(110.

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PS
Closs PS CTs areOt low reactance and their performancewill bespec" . In
terms ofthefollowing charaderis:;cs.
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1. Turns Ratio, which will be numerically the same as the roled
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transformation ratio.
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2. Minimum Knee-PointVoltage (Vk), specified in accordance with the
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formula; V
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=KI, (R.:, +RJ
- K -+ specified by the purchaser,whichdependson the system foult level
andthecharacteristicsoftherefoy, intended10 be used
I, -+ ratedsecondarycurrentofIhe CT
R.:, -+ resistanceofthesecondarycorrected1o 7O'"C
-+ impedanceofthe secondarycircuitaspacifiedby the purchaser
3. Maximum Exciting Current, at the rated knee-point voltage or at any
specifiedfraction ofthe ratedknee-pointvoltage.
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In this way, a CT designated in terms of percent composIte error ond
accuracylimitfactor
x CompositeerrDI'". IheRMS valueofIhedifference oetweefl til",nSlontancous
voluesatIhe prtmorycurrentandlheratedIranstormohon rohO hOles the oct"ur
secondarycurrenl. Thestandordcomposileerrors'" are5. 10 and 15
P-+ Protection
Y-+ Accuracylimitfactor,Iheraliooftheraledaccuracy1.01.1 pnmary:urreonllo
lheratedprimClrfcurrent,whereraledocc:vracyIim.1 primarycurrentIS th.valueof
lhehighestprimorycurrenluplawhichthetransformerwill complyw.th thespecified
limits ofthecompqsileerror. Thestandardaccuracy hmitfoclors are5. 1O. 15.20
ond30
VoltageTransformer(VTs) may be either Electro-magnetic type (IVT) or capacitor
type (CVT). IVTs are commonly used where high accuracy is required, like revenue
metering. For other applications CITis preferred particularly at high voltages dueto
their lower cost andcan beused asa coupling capacitor, as well. for the Power line
Carrier Communication (PlCq equipment. Each CVT will be earthed through an
earthelectrode.
For ground fault relaying, on additional core is required in the VTs, which can oe
connected in open delta. The VTs are connected on the feeder side of the circuit
breakerandonthebusbarsfor synchronization.
The standardaccuracyclassesforClTswill be
for 0.2,0.5, 1.0and3.0
for protection, 3Pand6P
T. .ormer
Transformer is the largest piece of equipment in a substation ond it is, therefore,
important from the point of view of station layout. For instance, due to its large
dimensions and reliability, it is generally not possible to accommodate two
transformers in adjacent boys. One of the problems could oe, the radiators being
wider than the bay width.. In order to reduce the risk of fire, large transformers are
providedwith stonemetol filled sooking pitswith voids ofcapacityadequoteto contain
the total quantity of oil. Besides, separation walls are provided in-between the
transformers andbetweentransformersandroadswithin thesubstation.
One of the important factors governing the layout of the substation is whether the
transformer is a three-phose unit or a bankofthree single-phose transformers. The
space required for single-phase banks is more than that with three-phase
transformers. Besides,single-phosebonksareusuallyprovidedwith onesparesingle-
phose transformer, which is kept in the service boy and used in case of a fault or
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01 one d the single-phose Allernatively, the spore un:' be
installed in the switchyord ready to replace the uni:, ;)u! of
::;",'Vlce. Tni:;, however, requires on elaborate bus arrangement and isolalor SWitching.
Reactivi' Compensation Equipment
Reactive compensation may be switched or non-switched type as indicated by system
studies 01 Ine network. The non-switched type compensation usually comprises shunt
reactors p-:::rmonently connected to transmission line or to bus bars at the substation.
t-.lext to Ih transformer, shunt reodor is the largest piece of equipment. These also
can be In the form of single-phase units or three phose units. Often, neulral
grounding reador, which is connected between the neutral bushing of the line shunt
reactor the earth is provided to facilitate singlepole auto reclosing. Since these
equlprr; :00 contain oil, all fire-safety precautions that are token for transformers
should be followed.
Switched compensotion can be through switched reodors, switched capacitors or
thyristor controlled readors and thyristor switched capacitors known as Stotic VAr
Compensators (SVC). These are selected according to the system requirements and
conneded diredly to the system through their own dedicoted tronsformers. The shunt
capacitor bonks ore composed of 200400 kVAr copocitor units mounted on rocks in
series/parallel operated in.groups to provide the required reodive power (MVAr)
output at the system voltage. Mony.o.time only some of trese moy be required in the
initial stage and may undergo alteration as the system develops.
Dired Stroke Lightning Protection
Any substation hos to be shielded from direct lightning strokes either by provision of
overhead shield wire/earth wire or spikes (masts). The methodology followed for
systems up to 145 kV is by suitable placement of earth wires/masts to provide
coverage to the entire station equipment. Generally, 60 angle of shield for zones
covered by 2 or more wires/masts and 45 for single wire/most is considered
adequate. For installations of 245 kVand above, eledromognetic methods are used.
The commonly used methods for determining shielded zones are the Mousa Method
and Razevig Method.
Surge Arrestors/Lightning Arrestors
Besides direct strokes, the substation equipment has also to be protected against
travelling waves due to surge strokes on the lines entering the substation. The
equiprlentmost commonly used for this purpose is thesurge arrestor 01 the line entry
of the __ostalion. The mostimportantandthe costliestequipmentin a sub_ .1110n is the
trans:- -ner and the normal practice is to install surge arrestors as near the
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transL cner as possible. The fixing up of insulation level for equipment within a
\ requiresa detailed insulationco-ordinations1udy withsurgearrestor asthe
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[ocal for protectingtheequipmentfrom powerfrequen-: ,-/er-voltogeexceeding
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the or- estor rating. Besides protecting the transformers, the surge arrestors also
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arresters con be provided, depending up on, the isocerounic level, anticipoted
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overvohogesandtheprotection requirements.
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Insulators
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Adequate insulation should be provided in a substation for reliability of supply ond


safety of personnel. However, the station design should be so evolved that the_
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quantity of insulators required is the minimum and commensurate with the expected
security of supply. An importont consideration in determining the insulation in a
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substotion, porticularly if it is located nearsea,a thermol powergenerating station or


onindustrial place,is the level ofpollution, which canbecombated using insulatorsof
higher creepage distance. In case this does not suffice,theinsulators need to be hot
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line washed periodically and this aspect has to be kept
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in mind while deciding the

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loyout of the substation. Another method, which hos proved to be successful, is
suitabletype ofgreasesorcompoundson1hesurfaceofthe insulators ofter
cleaning,thefrequencydependingupon degreeandthetypeofpollution.
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FOLLUTION LEVELS ANDMINIMUMNOMINALCREEPAGE DISTANCETOBE
ADOPTED AS PER IS/IEC
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Pollution Min. NorrinalCreepage TypeofPollution
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Level Distance(mm/kV)
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Light 16 Non-Industrial, Agricultural,
Mountainous areas beyond 20 Km
fromsea

Medium 20 Industrial Area without polluting
smoke and chemical effluents and
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nottoodosetosea
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Heavy 25 Industrial Area with polluting
smoke & chemical efffuents close

to sea and exposed
windsfromsea
to strong
VeryHeavy 31 Industrial Area subjected to
conductive dust polluhon, smoke
very close to sea, exposed to sea
and very strong winds from sea,
desertareasetc.
The highest line-to-Iine voltage of the system IS used to determine the creepage
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distance
Thefollowing types of insulatorsarenormallyused:
a) BusSupportInsulators
(i) Solid coretype
b) StrainInsulators
(i) Disc insulators
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(ii) longRod Porcelaininsulators
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(iii) Polymerinsulators
Structures
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The cost of structures also is a major consideration while deciding the layout of a'
{) substation. For instance, in the case of flexible bus-bar arrangement, cost of
structures is much higher than in the case of rigid bus type. Similarly, the form of
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structures also ploys onimportant portand the choice is usually between using a few
0 heOYystructuresor morenumberofsmallerstructures.
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Hot-dip galvonized steel is the most commonly used material in Indio for substation
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structures. When, galvanizing is not effective; particularly in a substation located In
0 coastalorindustrial areas,paIntingbecomesessential.
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PowerLineCarrierCommunication (PLCC)
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The carner equipment required for communication, relaying and tele metering is
connected to line through high frequency coble, coupling capacitor and wove trap.
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The wave trap is installed atthe line entrance. The coupling capacitors are installed
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ontheline sideofthewave trapand arenormally base mounted. The wave traps for
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voltagelevels upto 145kV can bemounted onthegantry structure onwhich the line
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is terminated at the substation or mounted on top of the capacitor voltage
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transformer. Wave traps for voltage level:.; of 245 kV and above generally require
separate supporting insulator stock mounted on structures of appropriate height,
however,245 kV wavetrapscanalso besuspendedfrom thelinesidegantry.
The differ-ent typesof coupling usedare
Inter-circuitcoupling
Incase of doublecircuit lines onephoseon eachcircuit need be used
lor communicotion. This type of coupling is called inter-circuit
coupling.
to Phosecoupling
I ncose ofsinglecircuit lines coupling con betweenanytwo pi-::Jses of
::) tnecircuitdependingupontheimpedanceofthe phases
Phoseto Earthcoupling
Anyonephoseonlycanbe for carriercommunicationwherethe
earthis usedasthereturn path.
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Substationswitchingschemes
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dela11s the switching sCMmes
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election of a bus bar scheme for a porticular sub station is on important step in
design. The choice of the bus-switching scheme is by various factors,
which aim at a simple. safe and economic sub-station. Some 01 the
important fodors that dictate the choice of the bus-switching scheme are,
System reliability and ovailat ,y
Operational flexibility
Limitation of short circuit level
Simplicity of protection arrangements
Ease of extension
Availability of land
Cost
The relative importance of these factors varies from case to case and depending on
the voltage level, number of circuits, desired level of security, etc.
Types of schemes
The various bus-switching schemes that are in pradice are,

Single bus

Sectional Single bus

Main and Transfer bus

Double Main

Double Main and Transfer bus

One and Half breaker

Mesh scheme
Aport from these schemes, there are a few which are less frequently used
Sectionolized Main and Transfer bus
Double Main with bypass isolator
Sedionalized Double Main and Transfer bus
Double bus and double breaker
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Criteriaforseledion
lhefollowing criteria are usually followed when selecting a switching scheme for a
sub-station.
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It should be possible to take out any circuit breaker or any other equipment for
1J'0intenancewithoutremovingthecorrespondingcircuitfrom service.
Therr",in buscouldbeisolatedfor maintenancewithoutloss ofanycircuit.
CB failure, Busfaultshouldcouseminimum lossofcircuits
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Economy
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Theacceptablelevel ofreliability has notbeendefined byanystandardandtherefore


jt is extremely difficult to quantify it for a system. In such a situation, the prevailing
practices and experience gainedfrom system operation aretoken into consideration.
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For instance, in 400kV systems,OneandHalf breakerschemeis preferredover other
0 schemesosa majorshut down cousing loss of2 ormorefeeders is just improbable,
albeit beingmoreexpensivethanothers.Furthermore, for 220kV systems,the Double
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MainT ronderschemeis preferred.
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0 Singlebusbarscheme
This type of arrangement can be used only where interruption to service is relatively
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unimportant. Butthis is a simplestarrangementwhereeachcircuit is providedwith its
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Thecircuit breakerenablesthe feeder to be removedfrom service while it is carrying
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theloadswhenthere isfault onthefeeder.Thedisadvantagewith this r-"'Ongement is


that ifthe incoming circuit breaker is to beshut down for mainteno ~ e load on
:> thatfeeder hasalsoto beshutdown. If the bus is supplied by moret ~ i onefeeder,
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the reliability of supply to the feeders using this type of layout is considerably
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increased.
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Sectionalisedsinglebusbarscheme
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If adequatenumberof bus sectionsaremade,thesingle sectionalised busprovides an
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'"" economical way of limiting circuit outage is case of fault on a bus sedion, as the
..,! sectioncircuit breakers acts as backupto the circuit breakers of the maincircuits. ThE'
... arrangement may be considered for intermediate switching stations or smo/i
generating stations where mil1imising of circuit outage is important for systern
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reliability. The sectionalising breaker may also be used at medium sized substations

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receiving supplyfrom morethon <;me sourcetosynchroniseorsegregatethesupplies,
asper.theopemtingrequirements.
Theinterlockingarrangementissimplefor boththetypesofarrangements .
MainandTransferbusbarscheme
In this type ofcnongement,the mainondtransferbus borsarecoupledbymeans of
a normallyopencircuitbrealcer. All theincomingandoutgoing circuitsareconnected
with the mainbus bars through thei; controlling circuit b r ~ k e r s keeping the transfer
busidle. Eachcircuit is alsoconnectedtothetransfer bus barthrough onisolator.. In
case the circuit breaker of any circuit is shut down for maintenance, this circuit is
cannected to the transfer bus bar through its tronsfer bus isolator. Under such
circumstances, Jhis particular circuit will be controlled by the bus transfer circuit
breaker. Sincethe arrangement to the transfer bus is through the isolators coreful
interlocking is necessarywith bustransfer breolcersothatonly onecircuittransferred
ata time.
Doublebusbarscheme
In this arrangement,eachincoming andoutgoingcircuithasits owncontrollingdrcuit
breaker and,bt means of bus selection isolators, can be conneded to either of the
buses. Each bus baris designedto takethestation total load andeitherbus bar
..y betokenoutformoin1enonce. Eachcircuit may, in addition, be providedwith a
bye-pass isol...., enabling it to be connected directly to one of the bus bars. bye-
passing the controlling circuit breakers of thecircuit. The circuit can in thatcase be
energisedthroughthebus barcouplercircuit breakerasin the main andt,ansferbus
scheme, andthe controlling circuit breakerofthe circuit token out for mainter.ance.
Use of a bye-passisolatorwith doublebus necessarily requiresadoptionofa relatively
costlyswitchyard arrangement. It should,therefore, be resorted to only in casewhere
outage of the particular circuit will have undesirable repercussions on the system
operation. In case maintenanceofthe circuit Ix-eakers can be arranged by taking the
relevantcircuitout(e.g. wheretwo ormorecircuits oralternative routes areavailable),
the normal double bus arrangementwithout bye-pass should be favoured as simpler
and cheaper physical layouts can then be used. The two buses of a double bus bar
arrangement enn be sectionalised through circuit breokers or isolators as required
from reliabilityconsiderations.
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Double Main and Transfer scheme
In this scheme, ther!! are two bus bars, which can carry the total load, and one
spore bus bar, which can carry the load far anly one bay. As in single main and
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transfer bus bar scheme, the transfer bus bar is "jle and the feeders are fed from
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either of the buses which, can be selected through isolators. There is a bus coupler to
couple the bus bars and a bus transfer bay to couple the main buses ond the transfer
,)
bus. Careful interlacking is required to transfer anly one bay at a time. Interlockin!3

.. is complicated whereas; the protectian scheme is simple.
()
.
One and a half breakers scheme
0
"a
I

In one ant.. ;l holf breaker scheme, three circuit breakers are used for connecting two
0 feeders ond hence the name. This scheme is more flexible than any other scheme
described previously and the continuity of supply is assured. Interconnection of grid
feeders in each boy can be maintained even without energising the bus bars. The
.t)
feeders con be energised without energising the bus bars. If one of the breakers in
0
one boy requires any maintenance, it can be attended to by keeping the other two
breoken in circuit. This scheme ovoids the necessity of bus coupler circuit.

e
Interlocking scheme is simple with this arrangement. The only disadvantage is that it
is a costlier orrangement and the protection scheme is complicated. It is often
0
questionable whether the expense of such an arrangement is justified and it should be

used only where the importance of the continuity of service warrants it.

Mesh scheme

Mesh scheme contains a ring with circuit breakers as many as the number of feeders,
a
with associated isolators. Each feeder is connected between two circuit breakers. This
;)
provides a double feed to each circuit; opening one breaker for maintenance or
) otherwise does not affect supply to any circuit. AI! sections of conductor in the station
ore covered by the Feeder differential protection and no separate bus protedion is
)
needed. Though it is cheaper than the double bus or main and transfer bus schemes,
)
it would be advisable to use mesh arrangement only at substations where a limited
:>
number of circuits are to be conneded. However, in Indio 1112 breaker scheme IS
preferred to mesh scheme.
)
)
:>
layoutconsideraUonsandclearance
deloils Ihtf swilching sdurmS
O
verall system security and reliability of supply to consumers is dependent on
the cumulative effect of the reliability of individual systems and components of
the power system. For instance, the reliability of the step-up switchyord of 0
generoting station is of utmost importance for the overC'; of a power
network, since loss of 0 generator or group of generators may result in not only
interruption of supply to loads but sequential tripping of other generotors ond
instability. The main planning philosophy of a grid is to ensure that available
generation is transmitted reliably even under conditions of outage of a transmission
line.
a. Feeder Oearance
Feeder Fault Ideally, only one circuit breaker has to operate to isolate a faulty
feeder. However, certain schemes like Breaker and Half requires operation of two
breakers to isolate a fault.
Bus Fault -Though the bus faults are rare in switchyards, these may lead to extensive
loss of generation or circuit outage occur because all breakers connected to that
particular bus have to be opened to isolate the faulty bus. The aim of the design is to
F ;It the loss of generation or circuit outage to the maximum extent possible.
In two bus bar schemes, continuity of supply is maintained even in case of a bus fault
becalJse each circuit is feed through two paths.
b. Failure of main equipment and bus bar components
The reliability of a switchyard is directly related to the total number of
equipment/components and failure rate of each of these. Ideally, when any
equipment or component fails of feeders should be minimum. The effect of
failure af these is discussed below:
Equipment Failure - Though experience says that main equipment are quite reliable,
substation design has to cater to failure of main equipment without disturbing the
continuity of supply, as for as possible. Albeit, stuck breaker condition is uncommon
in a substation, designers cater to this eventuality. In schemes like breaker and half a

-'
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-
,

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stuck breaker would result in loss of either one or two feeders only, depending on
which (bus side or tie) breaker isstuck.
Component Failure - Failure of bus bar components like clamps etc. is more
common than equipment failure. Component failure would result in conditions
identical to those in bus fault. It is, pertinent to recognise that for any failure of
components or faults in the feeder boys, there shall be no or minimum of
service.:
c. Redundancy in Design
..
The reliability of a feeder con be increased by providing redundant paths either active
. or standby dePending on whether these are permanently connected in service or are
switched on when required. Each feeder is fed from two paths and has definite
advantage during bus fault or stuck breaker because alternate poth is available. Even
during breaker maintenance, because of this active redundancy only less number of
breaker and disconnector operations are required. The only drawback with active
redundancy is the requirement of interrupting bath feeds during isolation of a feeder.
Operational Flexibility
Operational flexibility in a sub-station is possibility of achieving the different
switching arrangements, which may be required, and the ease of changing from one
arrangement to another.
Simplicity of protedion Arrangements
More the number of circuit breo!:ers required to be tripped during fau! ,ditions,
more complicated will be the protection arrangement. This is porticula.) ;0 when
automatic operanon or redosing is used. Some schemes require operation of one
breaker while others two. However, the situation is different when a breaker has to
be taken out for maintenance. In some schemes like Double Main Transfer, the trip
circuits have to be transferred to the bus coupler/bus transfer breakers. While in
Breaker and Half scheme no such transfer is necessary. Further, multiplicity of bus
bars and the provision of connecting a feeder to either of the two buses may
complicate the bus differential protection but in Breaker and Half scheme bus
differential protedion is simple.
Maintenance - effects on System Security
)
, From maintenance, the best scheme is one in which each component can be taken
J
outfor maintenancewithoutany loss offeeder and with easeof changeover. Circuit
breaker manufacturers hOYe b a s ~ the design of EHV circuit breakers on modular
concept The maintenance period is dependent on mean annual duration of circuit
breakermaintenance.
EaseofExtensions
Substation arrangement should be suitable far further extension without loss af
feeders.
."\
'" .'
"'
Interlocks
:J
, ~ ,
interlocking arrangementbetween circuit breakers, disconnectors andearth switches
...;
) should be suitably designed to provide security in operation and avoid catastrophic
1)
consequencesarisingoutafoperators'mistakes.
<.J
Disconnectors are interlocked electrically or mechanically, such that they cannot be
, ~
operated unless the associated circuit breakers are opened. Earth switches are
0 electrically interlocked such that they cannot be aperated unless the associated

disconnedars are opened. Circuit breaker cannot be operated locally unless its
associatedearthswitchesarein thedosedposition.
0
()
USYOUT
designing a switchyard layout, various aspeCts are considered which are

,
aescribedhereunder.

~ CLEARANCES
The position of equipment in an EHV switchyard is greatly influenced 'by the air
Z)
clearances to be adopted. Two types of air dearances are calculated for the
r)
purpose, which are phasetogroundclearanceand phose to phaseclearance.
)
Sedional clearancein Q swilchyard is derived from these, which is used for safety
'\
.I
reasonsduringthe maintenanceofequipment.
-
Theclearancesarecalculatedconsideringtheinsulationlevels adoptedfor a system.
400kV 220kV 132kV 110kV 66kV
HighestSystem kV 420 245 145 123 72.5
Voltage
,
-
LIghtningimpulse
with standvoltoge
kV"
1425 10501
950
6501
550
5501
450
325
SWitchingsurge
withstondvoltage
kVp 1050
1min. Power freq.
Withstandvoltoge
kV, .... 630 460 140
PhasetogroundClearance
-'
The phase to ground cleorances for a substation is calculated considering various
......
-
electrode configurations and their eJedrical response to the above mentioned
overvoltogesandthehighestofthevaluesis adopted.
>
0
()
This he ..!r does not apply to the length of post insulator where the phose to
. "
'J ground .orancecanbeadoptedbasedontestscondudedonthemand marginfor
J}
inaccuracyin erection&variationsinequipmentgeometryis provided.
0
3
PhasetoPhaseClearance
()
It is well known that lightning surge stresses between phases will not be normally
D

higher than phase to ground lightning.surge stress. Considering this asped the
phaseto phase clearanceis calculatedhosed on switching surge stresses for system
a voltagesabove ~ 4 5 kY. Adesign marginis provided for the inaccuracy in erection,
variationin equipmentgeometry.


\I
Sectional clearance is obtained by rounding off the sum of PIE clearance and
9 clearancetothegroundfrom the lowestport ofinsulator.
:3
MinimumCearances
Based onCSIP ManualonSubstationEquipment,Illumination& layout,Dec. 1996.
-a
inm
400 leV 220kV 132kV 110kV 66kV
f}
Phose- Phose 4.2 2.1/1.9 1.3/1.1 1.1/0.9 0.63
:) Phose- Earth 3.4 2.1/1.9 1.3/1.1 1.1/0.9 0.63
Sedion 6.5 5/4.5 4 4/3.5 3
')
Ground 8 5.5 4.6 4.6 4
~
Boy Width 27 18/17 12 10
"
.:i
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./
EquipmentSpacing
')
. I
J

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....
,...,;
a
0
i

{
"

;3
a

e-

3
!)
3
.)
)

)
.,.,
.;
.)
)
)
-
Thespacingfor theplacementofequipment,betweenthemis decided by considering
Terminalclampsofadjacentequipment.
Easeofmaintenance/removalofequipment
Equipmentfoundation&theircobletrenches.
Landavailability
Distance between LA and protected equipment has been decided considering
protectionreachof LA.
BusBars
The bus bars of 400 kV Switchyard .,.,1 consist of flexible and rigid conductors
conductors.
Sequenceofinstallationofwavetra'ps lightningarrestersand capacitive
transformers:
The sequence ofinstallation of line traps, lightning arresters and capacitive voltage
transformers is decided basedoninsulationco-ordinationconsiderations.
Structure
All switchyard structure will be designed for a factor of safety of 2 under normal
conditions and 1.5under brokenwire conditions & 1.1 undercombined short circuit
& broken wire conditions. A slightly higher vertical load sholl be considered in
design to toke care any future increase in load during replacement. The gantry
structures are designed to terminate the conductor at 30
,
degree angular deviation,
hOWF.!'Ver considering design safety the allowable maximum angular deviation is 15
The maximumwind loadingwill betakenos perIS ; 802. Thestructure
shollbehotdippedgolvonised.
EquipmentSupports
Supportdesignsholl bedonebyconsidering themostsevereconditions ofwind and
shortcircuit forces. Support structuresareforeseen to be latticetype.
RoadLayout
Proper road facilities sholl be provided so as to facilitate movement of the heavy
equipmentand machinery. Roods are providedthroughoutthe peripheryfor security
& patrolling andalsoacrosstheswitchyardaswell aseaseofmaintenance.
.......
../
Bus Post Insulator
"


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i

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s"ltKfIDn of a bus pos/ insula/or
S
election of a bus post insulator is based on both electrical and mechanical
requirements. This chapterdealswith both andmechanicaldesign.
Electricaldesign
The important parameter which are to be considered in post insulators designs, for
use in outdoor and indoor substations, are the basic insulation level (impulse
withstandvoltage),temporaryovervoltage,switchingsurge,dryandwet
power frequency voltage, creepage distance, corona and radio
interferencevoltage.
For voltages upto 300kV theBasicInsulationLevelassumesimportancein
the design, whereas for higher system voltages the bosic characteristics of the
insulatorsaredetermined bySwitchingSurgeLevelandCreepageDistance.
Mechanicaldesign(Ref: ElectricalEnginetlf"s' Handbookby Knowlton)
Post insulators for supporting bus bars and disconnecting switches have to be
designed to withstand abnormal operating loads, viz., electromagnetic force due to
short-circuit,seismicloadondwind load .
ShortCircuitForce
Shortcircuitdueto electro-mogneticforce,
N X M x Kx 2.05 \2 x Lx 10.
8
Fs =
p.
Where,
Fs = Electro-magneticforce in Kgf.
= Peakvalveofmaximumshort-circuitcurrent.
p.
=
Centerto centerspacing between phasesinmeters.
l = Spanbetween twosupporting pointsin meters.
N =
Correctionfodorfor actualfield condition.
K
::: Correctionfadorfor shopeandarrangementof buses, for tubular
busesK=1 .
M
=
Multiplyingfactor
Short Short-circuitcurrent(l) M Forceoneonductor
Circuiting expressedas
(AI IS1 Max. peak 1.00
!A)-(B),q R.M.S., Asymmetrical 2.66
j,/ or 8
R.M.S., Symmetrical 8.00
IAI. (B).IC'- representphaseconductors
1 H)- representshort-circuitsbetweenphosec:onduc:IOrs
, - ~ .
Generally multiplying fodor, M.is token to be 8, considering the worst condition of a
-'
~ ,
.
threephosesymmetricalfault.
.,
~ \
, ,
ThefadarN is generallyusedfor calculatingthe steadyshortcircuitforce towhich the
()
supportinsulatorsareto be designedforfield conditions. Analysis showthatthevalue
for Ncan be 0.4 to 0.45 for three phose and phose to phose faults for most of the
J )
f
field conditions. Although strudure could be safely designed assuming even smaller
5
valuesfor N, a valueof0.5istokengenerally.
{)
Thefador N X Mis calledasStressfactor.
it)
I
SeismicForce
..
The predominantfrequencyrangeofseismicvibrationis consideredto bein the range
of3 Cps to 15Cps,which is doseto thefrequency spectrum for electrical switchgear
&
andthe:rinsulatoriUPPOrts. The horizontalearthquakefprce component,
i
FE =S x W
.... ,


""
F,
=
Horizontalearthquakeforce componentin Kgf.
'"
S
=
Seismicintensity. Afadorof0.25is consideredto bein thevery
't:#
strong.
1) W
=
Weightofinsulatorin Kg.
D
Wind Force
~ )
Force due to wind pressure is one of the important criteria to be considered in the
. C"\
.J
mechanicaldesignofsupportinsulators.
--:;,
The wind pressureis calculated basedonmeasuredwindvelocities, called Basic wind
.....,
speed in different regions. The wind pressure in kg/m
2
s given by the relation (in IS
802)is,
I
"
-
-..
:.:"
p
=
0.6 X V;l
)
f ~
~
Where,
,)
v, = Vt, x k, x k;
basic wind speed, m/s
J
.,
k, =
0 wind force in kg is
1-....
F.
=
p x LxBx 1.2 x 1.92
''-<II
Where,
10
L
_.
length of the insulator
.""
J B
=
breadth of the insulator
0
Generally, 5% design margin is added to Ihe calculated wind force.
;D
..J For bus c..:.rs, wind pressure is assumed acting on full projected area whereas, for
support insulator, the effective projected area of the insulalor is assumed 50% of Ihe

I
projected area. Tha wind pressure acting on a column is considered uniformly
disturbed load for bending moment calculation.

8
The cantilever load at the support insulators is calculated considering lotal load either
due to short-circuit force and wind force or short-circuit force and
earthquake force, whichever is higher. This is due to the fact thallhe occurrence of
earthquake and maximum wind pressure together with the Electro-magnetic force

8
'.
under short-circuit condition is most unlikely in actual serVice.


i 0
)
0
BusHars
-
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, "
.
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Bus8ft,

.
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)
)
Sclce 'n of blls bars
B
US bars are either rigid or flexible type. In the rigid type, ,PIPes/tubes are used
for bus bars for making connections to the equipment wherever required. The
, bu's bars and the connections are supported on pe.; insulators. Since thf
bu;; bars are rigid, the clearances remain constant ana as the bus bars and
are not very high from '.d ground, their maintenance is easy. Due to
large diameter of the pipes, the corona loss is substantially reduced. It is also claimed
that lhe system is more reliable with the rigid bus than thm with the flexible bus .
The flexible type of bus bars is on overhead system of conductors strung between
supporting structures and flexible type insulators. The stringing tension may be limited
to 5 9 kN for installations up to 132 kV. For 220 kV and 400 kV installations limiting
tension for a sub-conductor (of a bundle condudor) may be as high as 20kN. Design
of structures for 245 kV and higher voltage substations can economized by suitably
locating the spacers in the conductor bundles.
The materials in common use for flexible bus bars and connections are Aluminum
Conductor Steel (ACSR) or Ali A1umioom Conductors (MC). For the rigid
bus bar, aluminum pipes of Grode 63401 WP conforming to IS: 5082 is commonly
Copper rigid bus bars can also be used,. however their use in Indio is not
encouraged due to reasons of economy and pilferage. In case of fong spans,
expansion joints should be provided to avoid strainon the supporting insulators due to
thermQI expansion or contraction of pipes. In adcition to this, at one end of bus
bar WIll be provided with expansion damps and circuit breakers and transformers will
alwoys be provided with expansion clamps to toke core of the vibrations during
operation .
The bus-bar sizes should meet the electrical and mechanical requirements of the
specific application for which these are chosen.
Rigid BusBor
Rigid bus bars Can be mode of copper or aluminium. Aluminum bus bars are
available as IPS (Iron Pipe Size) type and ExIra HeavyIPS type, depending on
the weight of the tube. Electncol and mechamcal characteristIcs nove to be token in to
considerat:on whiledeciding on a rigid bus bar.
Electrical
The electrical parametersthathaveto beconsideredfor decidingona bus btlr are.
Continuouscurrentrating and
Shof' ';mecurrentrating
Continuous current ratings .n indoor and outdoor conditions will be different due
convection of heatproduceddueto f1R effect. Shortcircuit currentrating for 3swill be
1/\'3times thatof 1 s rating.
The area of cross section In mm
1
required to corry the short circuit current for the
specified time is,
".
I" x "t x (2SAf
A =
),
0
14 X10
4
X[Og [T... + 258 ]]0.5
9 To + 258
Where,
~
symmetrical shortcircuitcurrentinA
I" =
t
=
duration offault in seconds
;8
To
=
initial temperatureof the condudorbeforeshortcircuitin C
T",
=
final temperatureofthecondudoraftershortcircuitin PC
0
Mechanical
,9
The mechanical characteristics thot has to be considered for seledion of a rigid bus
,
F"'.
......
barare
BendingStress
Vertical Deflection
"
AeolianVibration
Bending stress
Threeloadswhichcausesthe bendingstressare,
, \
Wind load
ShortcircuitForce
Deadload
Wind load
Wind load on busbarper meterlength,
WI
=
pxD
Where,
p
=
wind pressurein kg/m
1
D
=
diameterof therigidbus bar
circuitforce
10
8
N x M x K x 2.05 x I" x
Snortcir.::uit force per meter length :=
\Nnere.
Fs Electro-magneticforce in Kgf.
= Peakvalueof maximumshort-circuitcurrent.
P,
= Centerto centerspacing between phasesin m.
-c-
L Spanbetweentwosupporting points in m.

..
J
N
=
Correctionfactarfor actualfield condition,for calculatingsteady

.,-
force N=O.S
K = Carrectionfactor for shapeandarrangementof buses,for tubular

buses K=1
..("
M = Multiplying factor, for 3 phasesymmetrical faultsM=8
,
(}
Both wind loadandshort circuitforce actin the horizontal direction whereasthe force
0
duetotheweightofthebus baractsvertically.
0
The bendingstressonthe rigid bus baris
0
= MIl
8
where,
g
M
=
Be:ldingmomentin kgm
=
WL'/8


..
\.
=
resultantforcein kg/m
L
=
lengthofthe busbarin m
Z
=
sectionmodulusm
3
,-"\
The maximum allowable bending stress in aluminium alloy is 2.1098 x 10
7
kg/m2
."",
andthefactor ofsafetyspecified by IE rules is 1.5.
a
')
Vertical deflection
.,..,.
Thevertical deflection is
0.0054 X LA X W
)
=
ExMI
Where,
L = unsupportedlengthinm
W ::
weight ofthetubularbusbarin kg/m
E == Young'smodulusin kg/m'
)
A
MI == momentofinertia m
)
, .
Tne verlical ceflecllon should be less than half the diameter of the tube or
l/200.
Aeolian vibration
The natural frequency of vibration is
::: 5.61/
which should be more than 2.75 cycles per second.
-
Flexible Bus Bar
,'\
,-
. for flexible bus bar, Sag tension and spacer spon calculations are performed .
.....)
-
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}
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0
0
V
"'"
0
fl)
..,
"""
:0
"


D
D
..;
.. }

-
Grounding IEanhingl
Grounding is very essential for ensuring saltily for personnel equipment
t:' roundingis doneto providemeansto carryelectric currents into the earth under
I',Jnormal and fault conditions without exceeding any ..aling and equipmen!
.....'
,
limits or cdversely affecting continuity of service and to that a person near
grounded facilitiesis notexposedtotl- dangerofcritical electrical shock,
-',
Groundingcanbeofonethefollowing twotypes
.....,.. Intentional
(
-0
This consists ofground electrodesburiedtoabout2.5to 3 m belowthe earth
Q
surface.
0
Accidental

g
This is temporarily established by a person or a thing (good or poor
1) conductor)exposedto a potential gradientneara groundedfacility.
J
CL:umstancesthatleadtoa shock:
0
1. Relativelyhighfaultcurrentto groundin relationtotheareaof ground system
anditsresistanceto remoteearth.
2. Soil resistivity and distribution of ground currents such that high potential
gradientsmay occuratsomepointsontheearthsurface.
3. Presenceof on individual atsuch a pointtimes and positions that the body is
bridgingiwo pointsofhigh potentialdifference.
4. Absence of sufficient contact resistance other series to limit or
.
resistance,
currentthrough thebodyto a safevalue, undertheabovecircumstances.
5. Duration of the fault and body contact, and hence, of the flow of. current
througha human bodyfor a sufficienttimeto couseharm atthe given current
intensity.
The relative infrequency of accidents of this type, os compared to accidents of other
kinds, is due largely to the lo,!", probability of coincidence of all the unfavorable
conditions menDoned above. For instance, GermanGrounding Standard DIN 57141
(1977 edition) recognizes this lOW' probability and allows reduction for grounding
calculations of a given fault current magnitude by a certain foetal. A 0.7 value is
-,
recommended for stalions of 110 kV closs ond above.
Importance of High-Speed Fault Clearing:
,
,j
Considering the significance of fault duration, high-speed clearing of ground faults is
advantageous for two reasons: .
~
,I0'I0-;
> --'
1 . The probability of electric shock is greatly reduced by fast fault clearing time,
:J
in contrast to situations in which fault currents could persist for several minutes
"\)
or possible hours.
2. Both tests and experience show that the chance of servere injury or death is
...J
I
greotly reduced if the duration of a c ~ r r e n t flow through the bodyis very brief;
0
the allowed current value moy therefore be based on the clearing time of
primary protective devices, or that of the back-up protection.
9
a
Effed of Reclosing:
Redosure ofter a ground fault is common in modern operating practice. In such
circumstances, a person might be subiected to the first shock, which would not
..


permanently injure him, but would upset and disturb hiJ!l temporarily. Next, a single
~
fast automatic redosure could result in a second shock, occurring after a relatively

short interval af time bek:9 the person has rlKOVered, thot might cause a ,,!.tfJaus
accident. With manual redosure, the possibility of exposure to a second > k is
reduced since the redosing time interval may be substantially greater.
Potential Difference during Shock Situations:
Ground Potential Rise (GPR): The maximum voltage that a station grounding grid
may attain relative to a distance grounding point assumed to be at the potential of
remote earth.
Step Voltage: The difference in surface potential experience by a person bridging 0
distance of 1 m with his feet without contacting any other grounded obiect.
)
TCAP
- ~ .
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.
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...-' I
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a
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.:,.-
,.
0
)
Touch Voltage:The potential differencebetween theground potential rise (GPR) and
lne surfc::ce potential atthe point wherea person is standing. while at the sometime
navinfl ~ 5 handsincontactwith a groundedstructure.
IIOTE: .1 convenhonol sub!Jolion, the wont ,ouch voltoge is usuolly found the potenhol dlHerence
oetwee" 'IOnd andthefeel 01 a pointofnlOIIimum ,eachdistance. However, ,nthe ... ~ a of'ometol-to
.ne.ol c. :.:Jct from hand-to-hand or from hand-to-leel, which is of concern in the gosinsulo.ed
\ubstohc" , both sIIuaIions should be inve!Jigoted for lhe possible worsl reach condition, ,ncludlng both
'lands.
MeshVoltage:The maximumtouchvoltagetobefound within a meshofa ground
grid.
Transferred Voltage: A special case of the touch voltage, where a voltage IS
transferredinto oroutof the substation.
CalculationsbasedonIEEE GuideforsafetyinACsubstations- ANSI/IEEE
Std80- 1986
SizingtheConductor
The areaof crosssectionfor theconductoris given by theexpression
te a,p, 10"
=
./
Where
A
=
T",
To =
T,
=
0
0
=:
a,
p, =
RMS currentin kA
conductor crosssection in mm
2
maximumallowabletemperaturein C
ambientallowabletemperatureinC
reference temperatureinC
thermal coefficientofresistivityat0C
thermal coefficientof resistivityotreference temperatureT,
resistivity ofthegroundconductoratreference temperatureT rin
~
1I ao or ( 1/ ex,. )- Tf
durationofcurrentflowin s
:')
,')
TCAP
=
thermal capacityfador in J/cm
3
/ "'C
:)
=
4.184SHSW
:)
SH
=
specific heatcapacityin Col/gram/ "C
, ~
SW = specificweight in gram/cm
J
,.

~ .
,
MaterialConstants
If ..
'-J
0
Conductivity a
r leo
Fusing p, leAP
Description % @20C @oc Temp. @20"C J/cm
3
rc
(}
StandardAnnealedCu wire 100.0 0.00393 234 1083 1.7241 3.422
'J
-
Commercial harddrown CuWare 97.0 0.00381 242 1084 1.7774 3.422
~ j
Cuclodsteelcarewire 40.0 0.00378 245 1084/ 4.397 3.846
1300
)
J
!
Cuclodsteelcorewire 40.0 0.00378 245 1084/ 5.862 3.846
:0
1300
Commercial EC AI wire 61.0 0.00403 228 657 2.862 2.556
9
AI allaywire5005 53.5 0.00353 263 660 3.2226 2.598
..
..
AI alloywire 6201 52.5 0.00347 268 660 3.2840 2.598
0
AI clod steel carewire 20.3 0.00360 258 660/ 8.4805 2.670

1300
Zinccoatedsteelcorewire 8.5 0.00320 293 419/ 20.1 3.931

1300
~
Stainlesssteel # 304 2.4 0.00130 749 1400 72.0 4.032

,
StepandTouchVoltage Criteria:The safety of a person depends on preventing
the critical amount of shock energy from being absorbed before the fault is cleared
andthe system de-energized. The maximum driving voltage of any accidental circuit
shouldnotexceedthelimits definedbelow. For stepvoltagethe limit is
E".so = (1000 + 6C.p,)0.116/.J t,
or
Estep70 = (1000+ 6C,p,}0.157/ .J t.
The actual stepvoltage, E" should be less than the maximum allowable stepvoltage,
ESItIp, toensuresafety. Similarly, thetouchvoltage limit is
Etovd>50 = (1000 + 1.5C,P.)O.116/"t,
Esfap50 = {1000 + 1.5C,p,}0.1571" t,
Where,
C. = 1 ;for noprotedivesurfacelayer
f
.::,;
::)
~
0
J
}
I 0
0
Q
0

0
..Z)

1 [ a
= - 1+2 L
-:-:=:=K="::;::::;;:::--J'; otherwise
0.96 n_1
..J 1+(2nhjO.08f )
Simple c: 'ernative approaches, based on the equivalent hemisphere, such as
= 1-0 [l-P/P. I
approximately; a= 0.106 m. which avoids
2h,+a) infinite summation series, olso possible
p. = the resistivityof the surface material in Om
t. = duration of shock cu' 'ent in seconds
The actual touch voltage, mesh valtagt:, or transferred voltage should be less than the
maximum allowable touch voltage, E
loudv
to ensure safety.
However, ElINp50 & ~ are taken into consideration, os these would give lesser
limiting volues.
Grounding System Elements
1. Ground electrode: A condudor imbedded in the earth and used for collecting
ground current from or dissipating ground current into the earth.
2. Grounding grid: A system of horizontal ground electrodes that consists of a
number of interconnected, bare condudors buried in the earth, providing a common
ground for eledric;al devices or metallic structures, usually in one specific location.
NOTE: Grids buried horizontally near the earth's surfac. or. alS? effective in controlling the svrfoce
potential gradients. A typical grid usually is supplemented by a number of ground rods and may be
f,., '<!rconnected to ouxiIiory ground electrodes, to lowerits resiAance with respectto remote earth .
3. Ground mat:A solid metallic plate or a system of closely spaced bore condudors
that are connected to and often placed in shallow depths above a ground grid or
elsewhere at the earth surface, in order to obtain an extra protective measure
minimizing the danger of the exposure to high step or touch voltages in a critical
operating area or places that are frequently used by people. Grounded metal
gratings, placed on or above the soil surface or wire mesh placed directly under the
crushed rock, are common forms of a ground mat.
4. Grounding System: Comprises all interconnected grounding facilities In a
specific area.
Basic Aspects of Grid Design:
Conceptual analysis of a grid system usually starts with inspedion of the station layout
plan, showing all mojor equipment and strudures. In order to establish the basic ideas
and .concepts. the following points may serve as guidelines for starting a typICal
groundinggriddesign:
L A continuous conductor'loop should surround the perimeter to enclose as
much area as pradical. This measure helps to ovoid high current
concentrotion and hence high grodients both in the grid area and near the
projectingcobleends. Enclosingmoreareaalsoreducestheresistanceof the
grounomggrid.
2. Within the loop, conductors should be laid in paralleled lines and, where
practical, along the structures or rows of equipment, to provide for short
groundconnections.
3. Atypical gridsystemfor a substationmayinclude4/0barecopperconductors
buried 1.3-0.5 m below grade.spaced 3-7 m aport, in a grid pattern. At
cross-connedions, the condudors would be securely bonded together.
Ground rods may be atthe gridcomers and at each second junction point

o
alongthe perimeter. Groundrodsmayalsobe installed atmajorequipment.
In multi layer or very resistive soils, it might be useful to use longer r o d ~
(lengthsexceeding 100ft. havebeenused bysomeutilities.)
o
4. This grid systemwould be extendedoverthe entire substation switchyard and

o
often beyondthefence line. Multiple ground leadsorlargersized conductors
would be usedwhere high concentrations ofcurrent mayoccur, such asat a
neutral-to-groundconnectionofgenerators,capacitorbonks,ortransformers.
5. The ratio ofthesidesofthemeshusually is fro", 1:1 to 1:3, unless a precise
1)
(computer-aided) analysis warrants more extreme values. Frequent cross-
e, cannectionshove(.; relativelysmalleffedonloweringtheresistanceof 'grid.
Their primaryroleis toassureadequatecontrolofthesUrMee potel"' The
cross-connections are also useful in securing multiple paths for Ine fault
current, minimizing thevoltagedropinthe grid itself. and providing a certain
measureofredundancyin thecaseofa condudorfailure.
DesignInDifficultConditions:
In areas where the soil resistivity is rother high or the subslcrtion spoce is at 0
Q ' "
premium, it may not be possible to'obtain a low impedance grounding system by
spreading the grid electrodes over a large area, as is done in more favorable
D
conditions. Such a si1uation is ty;:>icol of many GIS installations, occupying only 0
;;
fraction ofthe landareanormally usedforconventional equipment. This often makes
:) thecontrol ofsurfacegradientsdifficult. Someofthesolutions include:
:>
~
J
.,
(1) Connection(s) of remote ground grid(s) and adjacent grounding facilities; a
,"
"
combined system utilizing separate installations in buildings, underground
'"",
vaults, etc. Apredominant use of remote ground electrodes requires careful
consideration of transferred potentials, surge arrester locations, and other
CI itical paints. Asignificantvoltagedrop may develop between the local and
remotegroundingfacilities.
12) Useofdeep-drivengroundradsanddrilledgroundwells, in combinationwith
a chemicaltreatmentafsails,aruseafbentonitedaysfor backfilling.
(3J Use af caunterpoise wire mats. In exposed areas, it is feasible ta combine
both an insulating material and fabricated mats made of wire mesh,
I :)
expanded metal, ar gratings; first ta equalize the gradient field near the
surface and then ta reduce ca.nductance from the surface to the underlying

metal strudures. A typical counterpoise mesh might consist of copper dad
J
steel wires of AWG No.6 size, arranged in a 0.6 0.6 m (24-24 m) grid
paHern, installed 0.05.0.15 m (2-6 m) below the earth's surface and
overlaying the main grounding grid, which is installed in greater depth,
.
usually between0.3- 0.5m(12 18mI.
(4) Where feasible, controlled use of other available means to lower the overall
resistanceofa graundsystem, suchasconnectingstaticwires and neutralsta
theground (see Typical is the use af metallic objects an the site that
qualify for andcanserveosauxiliarygraundelectrades, arasground ties to
other systems. Cansequences of such of course, have to be
carefullyevaluated.

Wherever prodicol, a nearby deposit of low resistivity material af sufficient
volumecanbeused toinstallonextra (satellite) grid. This satellitegrid,when
sufficiently connectedto the main grid, will lower the overall resistance and,
thus, the ground potential rise of the grounding grid. The nearby low
resistivity material may bea daydeposit or it may be a part of some large
structure,suchastheconcretemassafhydroelectricdam.
ConnectionstoGrid:
Candudors of adequate ampacity and mechanical strength should be used for the
cannectionsbetween:
[l) All ground electrodes, such asgraunding grids, rodbeds, ground wells, and,
whereapplicable, metal,water,orgaspipes,waterwell casings, etc.
(2) All fault current sourcessuch assurgearresters, capacitor banks, or coupling
:>
capacitors, fransformers and, where appropriate, machine neutrals,
)
secondorylighting, andpowercircuits.
-


9
DesignCriter,ia:
There are two main design goals 10 be achieved by any sl?b:;tation ground system
l?nder normal aswell asfault conditions. These are
to provide means ta dissipate elec"lc currents into the earth without
exceedinganyoperatingandequipmentlimits
to assure that a person near grounded facilities is not exposed to the
dangerofcritical eledricshock.
Critical parameters,which hove impadongrid design, are:
1 . Moximum Grid Current(I
G
)
The magnitudeof the grid currentis didated by systemrequirements.
2. 1::_, tt Duration (t
f
) and Shock Duration (t,): The fault duration and shock
Jtion is normally assumed equal, unless the fault duration is the sum of
successive shocks, such as from redosures. The selection of t, should reflect
o
fast dearing time for transmission substations and slow dearing times for
D
distribution and industrial substations. The choices t, and t, should result ~ n
the most pessimistic combination of fault current decrement factor and
tJ
allowable bodycurrent. Typical valuesfort
f
andt, rangefrom 0.25- 1.0s.
t)
3. Soil Resistivity (p): The grid resistance and the voltage gradients with In a
substationarediredlydependentonthesoil resistivity
4. Resistivity of Surface loyer (pJ: Athin surface layer of crushed rock helps in
limiting the body current by adding resistary:e to the equivalent body
t)
resistance. Valuesfrom 1000to 500012m have beenusedfor p,.
"
Designinga GroundGrid:
Thefollowing stepshould befollowed to design a groundgrid:
(i) Coiledfield data
)
(ii) Choosethecondudor
)
(iii) AssumeSpacing
(iv) Calculatelir:'liting ElOl>p and~
(v) Calculate Em andE" L.:, Rc
)
(vi) CheckEm< E..,...;., Es< E.,ep, L.:>l,.q & Rs < R,eq.
(vii) If yes increasethespacingandcheckuntil theconditionsfoil.
(viii)'If nodecreasethespacingandcheck until theconditionsare passed.
CalculationofMaximumStepandMeshVoltage:
Em = pK",KHland
E, = pK.,KHl

._,.;
MeshVoltage(E...):
,,,\
.
,-
.
::J
s}

..
I:}
...,

}
"


0
...
.J
0
I

f'l
:J
'J .-

;j --
:)
)

spcclngfador Em for meshvoltage by simplified methodis:
'1 (O+2h)'1 h J K,. 8'J
:::;
'\,-
v
In -+ -- + -In-
2j[
16hd BOd 4d K.. p(2n.l)
[
t
..ere
K
=
1.
, for grids with ground rods along the perimeter, or for grids
with ground rods 10 the grid corne as well as both along the perimeter and
thegridarea
K
=
for gridswith noground rodsorgridswith only a few
ground rods,'none located in the corners or on the
perimeter.
K_
= ..)1 +h/ho
h.. = 1m (referencedepthofgrid)
D
=:
spacingbetweenparallelconductorsin m
h = depthofgroundgridcondutorsin m
n
=
numberof parallelcondudorsin onedirection
d = diameterofthegridcondudorin m
CorrectiveFactor:
K 0.656+0.172n
For meshvoltagecalculation,
n
=
Wherex&yarecondudorsin eachdiredion.
For easy identification, K; for meshvoltagecalculationisdenotedasK!!l'
Forstepvoltagecalculation,
n
=
max(x,y)
For easyidentification, K; for stepvoltagecalculationis denotedasK;!.
StepVoltage(EJ:
The spacingfoetor forstepvoltagebysimplified methodis
1 1 1 1 'I
K = - +- + -O-O:Sfto').,
i

..,
"
.:t
,..j. -
...~
..,
)
'"
I


4J
0

)
,
f)
~
t>
;,
"
...
-'
.."
. .-
-"
"
.;
1't
2h D+h o
Moreover, for depthssmallerthan0.25m.
1 [ 1
=
+ - 0
K.,
:----;
D+h
+
1
w]
Where
w
+ + +
2 3 4 n-1
Orfor n~ 6
W = -- +In (n-1) - 0.423
2(n-1)
The use of a differentequotion for 1(., depending on thegrid depth h, reflects thefad
thatthestepvoltagedecreasesrapidlywithincreaseddepth.
In equotionfor Em ondE,
L
= L.+L,
=
1..+ 1.15L,
for gridswith nogroundrods oronlya few rodsin e
thecenterowayfrom theperimeter
for gridswith ground rodspredominantlyaround
theperimeter.
EstimationofMinimumBuriedCondudorLength
. .
K", KPIG ~
L >
116 +0.174C,P
RefinementofPreliminaryDesign:
If colculations based on the preliminary design indicate that dangerous potential
differences can exis1 within the station, the following possible remedies should be
studiedandappliedwhereappropriate.
{1) Decreaseintotalgridresistancewill decreasethemaximumgroundgrid
"
potential riseandhencethemaximumtransferred potential. The mosteffectivewayto
decreaseground grid resistanceis by increasingtheareaoccupied bythegrid.
Deep driven rods or wells may be used if the ovailable area is lirnited. Decrease in
stotion resistance mayor may not decrease appreciably the local gradients,
dependingonthemethod used.
...,.
,
v

0
C)
!)
0
a
n



D
-"
...i
)
"")
....:
..
)
,)
(2) Improvement of Gradient Control. By employing closer spacing of
grid condudors. the condition of the continuous plote can be appraached more
eiosely. potentiolswithin thestationcanthusthe eliminatedata cosl. The
problem c" ''"Ie perimeter may be more difficult, especially at a smal! station where
earth res::' ,ity is high. -However, it is usually possible, by burying the grid
perimeterground condudoroutsidethefence line, to ensure that the steeper
gradients outside this grid perimeter do no1 contribute to the more
dangerous ::::>uch contacts. Anothereffediveandeconomicalwav to control perimeter
gradients cnd step potentials is to bury two or more parallel conductors
around the perimeter at successively greater depth as distance from the
slalionis increased.
(3) Diverting a greater part of the fault current to other paths. For
example,connedingoverheadgroundwiresoftransmission linesor by increasingthe
tower footing resistance near the substation. Concerning the lotter, however. the
effedonfault gradientsneartowerfootings shouldbeweighed.
(4) Limiting of short-circuit currents flowing in the ground mat to
lowervalues. If feasible, this will decreasethe total rise in ground motvoltage and
all gradients in proportion. Otherfadors, however,will usually mokethis impractical.
Moreover, if accomplished atthe expense of greaterfault clearing time, the danger
may beincreasedratherthandiminished.
I' Barringofaccesstolimitedareaswhereit'maybeimpractical to
e:otepossibilityofexcessivepotentialdifferencesduringa fault.
By uSing one or more of the above methods where necessary, designs can be
completed for construdion purposes. These should be reasonably liberal, as
grounding facilities can usually be installed more cheaply if all go in as port of the
generalconstruction job,withoutthenecessityofmakingaddITions later.
LimitationsofSimplifiedEquationsforEm andE.:
Severol simplifying assumptions are mode in deriving the equations for Em and Es.
These assumptions may result in inaccurate results, for some cases, in comparison
with the results from more rigorous computer analysis or scale model tests. The
inclusionofcorrectionfadorsintotheequationsfor Em and E, practicallyeliminatesthe
inaccuracy (within certain ranges for the various parameters) for most pradical grid
designs.
)
\}
0
3
When using the equatlons for E.., and E the following limits are recommended for
")
squaregrids, orfor rectangulargrids having the somenumber of condudors in both
'-,
diredions:
....__ 0'
n S 25
0
0.25m ~ h ~ 2.5m
-:;
d < 0.25h
1)
D > 2.5m
Although the equations for Em and E. have been tested for n greater than 25 and
0
found to be sufficiently accurate, the tests were not extensive enough to form solid
o.
conclusions. Thus, caution should be exercised before exceeding the limits given
above.
0
Grid ;tance:
)

1
G
e
0

tl)
Where,
h
=
gridburieddepth in m
A
=
Area ofgridin m'
0
L = totollengthofcondudorin m

0
CalculationofMaximumStepandMeshVoltage:"BasedOnIS 3043
AreaofCrossSection
~
)
Theareoofcrosssection requiredforthegroundcondudoris,
3 l...n

s =
k
0
Where,
0 S
=
Crosssectionareoin mm'
=
rmsvalueoffaultcurrentinA
0
=
durationoffault in s
:J
k
=
fadordependenton materialoftheprotective conductor
~
Thefactorkis
....,
{)
Q., (8 + 20)
~
K =
~


B + 9;
.:-}
')

:>
Q Volumetric heatcapacityofthe material in JrCmm
J
E reciprocal oftemperaturecoefficientof resistivityofthe at
<)
O"C in C
(.J
= electricalresistivityof200cinOmm
J
= initialtemperatureofconductorC
1:1. = initialtemperatureofconductorC
.)
Material Constants
()
Material B,oC
QCI JrCmm
3
5
201
Omm
\)
Copper' 234.5 3.45x 10.
3
17.241 X 10-
6
() ) Aluminum 228 2.5x 10.
3
28.264X 10-
6
)
0
-- Lead 230 1.45x10-
3
",
241 X 10.
6
.;.. - x'10"
Steel 202 138x 10"
0

D
CurrentRatingofVariousProtectiveEarthingMaterials
For boreconductorwithoutanyriskoffir.or0I'tf othertouching moleriol, in A/mm2
o
0
.'

)
9
0
Q
Material __ . Copper' "I-n'.:::' Aluminum Steel
..
1scurrentrating 205 . 126 80
3scurrentrating 118 73 46
IniliollemperOlvre: 400c; 395"<:(Cu).325"C(A1),500"C(Sleel)
A noteonFences:
Fence grounding is of major importancebecause the most dangerous touch contacts
ore involved. The outsideofthefence is usually accessibleto the public, In addition.
the fence may occupy a position on the periphery of the ground-grid area where
surface potential gradients are the highest. Post utility practices have been quite
varied, buta fewfacts aredear.
Two differentgeneralphilosophiesoffencegroundinghave beenfollowed:
(l) Inclusionofthefencewithinthe area
(2) Placementofthefence outsidethe ground-grid area, either with or
withoutclose electriccoupling betweenfence andadjacentearth along its length, but
with no electriccoupling betweenfenceandmainstationgrid.
"
-
, I
...'
1)
""" <..,.'
0
j
~ )
"
I
0
()
0

0

0
l '\
0
0
{)
!
:)
{)
iD
"""\
'IV'
I
D
D
~
Inclusion of the fence within the ground-grid area increases the size of the area and
thereby reduces. often substantially, the ground-grid resistance. and hence the
maximum ground-grid voltage.rises as well. While the fence now tokes port fully in
~ i s rise. this is not of concern if intemal and perimetergradients ofthe grid are kept
Vlithin acceptablelimits.
Under the firs: philosophy, the perimeter condudor of the grid will normally either
follow the fence line, or paraUel it at about O.5-1.5m outside. In either case. the
oerimeter ground condudor and fence should be bonded eledrically at frequent
;ntervals.
Placement of the ground condudordiredly on the fence line permits the latter to be
iocated on the property line if desired, without obtaining on easement to place 0
groundcondudoronadjacentproperty. Ontheotherhand,plocementof theground
condudor a short distance outside the fence line will decrease the possible touch
;:)otentiol to.which a person outside the fence could be subject, Whether or not this
differenceis importontwill dependonthecircumstonces.
,)
0
. ~
'J
D
j
.r
Q )
0
0
0
0


0

(
)
\
()
0
()
"
,J
()
"-'
~
"""
J
"
::>
DirectStrokelightningProtection
L
ightning conductors ore used to protect the equipment ond I : : : ~ I S bars in the
Switchyord from lightning strokes. Each conductor consists of a lightning
receiver, a groundgrid andaninterconnection.Typically the lightning conductor
canbelightning rodsorgroundwires.
Proper earthing of lightning conductors is essential to prevent breaking down of the
insulating medium, generally air, betweenthelightning conductorandthe object to be
protected duetovery high voltages. The protectiveodionofthe lightning conductors is
bosed on the fact that charges, stored on it's tip in the leader stage of lightning
discharge, produce the greatestfield intensity alongthe path between the head of the
leadercanalandthetipofthelightningcondudortowhich thedischarg3 is directed.
The spacearounda lightningconductor, in which theprobabilityofa lightning strokeis
small, is called the "Protective Zone." The break down voltages of air gaps of tens of
meters have considerable probability scatter, hence lightning conductors provide
protectionwith a certaindegreeofprobability.
Ra:zevigMethod
Pr("\hcctive Zonesofa LightningMast
Lightning Most
.)
.-
'l
J.J
,..
..."
!-
.
c
------..1
0-
)
0
Q
.0
t;)
0
9
I
__L ___
I
I
I
I
0 Construction of the protective zone
lightning rnosl.
1-:;implilicd con:slruciion
0
2- prolective to ic conslructod Irom
\
4.-
I
The protective zone of a single lightning mast up to 0
!l
3
...
-j
r. =
1.5h
--"
r)
l
= 0.75h - if h. > 2/:lh
0.8 h

",-"
Where H - height of the lightning conductor

r. - radius ofprotective zone at 0 height h.

,J'
h. - height of the obiect to be protected

:./
J
_-_:: ">.,.
-
I
I
5cchorl
Ihe f'rnteeliy"
Inne 01 u t'u:I:;n*
0; b sinqlc
Eq
height 30m is shown in the figure
;.
As the effectivenessof lightning masts of height greater than 30 becomes less, the
volue obtained has to be multiplied by a co-efficient
'-,
!
p = 5.5
-.JH
Two Ughtning Masts
The protective zone for two lightning masts has considerably greater dimensions than
Iesum of the protedive zones of two single mosts.
The internal portof the protective zone of twolightning Inthe plane passing
-+-
, I
I
I
k
,I
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
r
----.,._----
---------------
.----
I
I
I
I
'0 ,.. ,
I
"
"
I
I
I
.. 1--_,-
:- :.....
,r-,." _
'.."
through ooth the lightning masts is bound by the are of 0 circle which can be
constructed on three points: two of them are the tips of the lightning masts at a height
equal to ho.
The height of protedion at mid way between the lightning masts is
a
ho =
h- ;h< 30m
7
!"'\
...J
a

=
h- ;h> 30m
J
..
7p
a = h. h,
Provided, the distance between the masts is less thanseven times the active
height. The external port of the protective zone is determined in the some way as for
.,
..,
single lightning masts. Generally, in large substations there are more than two
.
.
...,; lightning masts. Th., external partof protection is similar to that of two lightning masts
whereas the internal part is different. The objects of height h. falling inside the
0
rectangleformed byfour masts(orUletriangleformed bythree masts)will beprotected
~
'.I
in the case of the diagonal of the rectangle formed by four masts (or the
\) diameterofthecirclepassing throughthetips ofthe masts in triongularformation)
is lessthaneighttimestheactiveheightofthelightning most. Theactive heightof
0
themostis the differencebetweentheheightofthemostandtheobjectprotected.
......
')
V
for 3lightningmasts for 4 lightning masts
0
!
~
o s
!
I
0
~ ....1
i
<)
i

e
~
o

'.
0
&..
o <= 8(h- h.); ifh<=30m
~
< 8(h- h. )p; if h> 30m
S)
s <= 7 (h- h.); if h<=30m
a
< 7 (h- h. )p; if h> 30m
:)
0
ProtectiveZonesofGroundWires
0
The protective zone of a ground wire is shown in the figure. The cross section of
[)
protection zoneona perpendicularplaneto the groundwire is constructed in thesome
way asfor the lightning most with the only difference that breadth of the zone atthe
groundlevel fora wire less than30mhigh is 1.2h.
~
)
r
h.
b.
= 0.6h 1--
hx> 2/3h
.)

h
1.2h 1-- .
[
h'J
O.Sh '
J
o
:0
()-----
o
)
-",+' . _._-......

8
f
"
I

9
!
,
.
Ii
/
l

0
hx > 2/3h
s(tC'tiOf'll
!). I'lot.eh..ron_
:t' C" "'9.... h.
Furthermore,iftwo groundwiresareplacedata distanceS=4ftbetweenthemthe
pointsituated onthegroundsurface onthe midway between"ground wires will not
I )
bestruck by lightning. If the distance betweenthe grind wiresS < 4h then the point
situotedmidway betweenthegroundwires ota level ofhO wiDbeprotected.

S
= h-
0
4
0
;)
;J
;)

+
, ..
'....
,1)

j
1
0' . .
I I
. .
o I
.Q
/

G
Angle Method
I.

BasedonIS 2309.
e::--- ..
Protection angle instead of protedion zone can also be specified. It is the angle
between the vertical line passing through a ground wire and the line joining a
condudorandthe groundwireandlying on the plane perpendicularto the conductor
axis.

"
e.
t )
o
:8
o
o

Protection
angle
Z) Groundlevel
lightningConductor
- --:.". Objecttobe
prolected

Generally, the protection angle should not exceed 60" when placed between two
o
groundwires and45when protectedbyonewire only.

o
o
()
AtSTO)M

t:) ..
..a
o
Q
o
t. )
.). ....
G

.
,.L DESIGN .
) ..
AlSTO'M
Pre-tendering Design Requirements
The basicobjective ofpre-tendering design for the SwitchyardlSub-station is to provide a
simple, reliable and economical configuration having maximum flexibility for operation
and maintenance with minimum possible interruption in the event of equipment!
component failure. Preliminary single line diagram and corresponding layout plan/
sectional drawing are boreminimum requirementfor proposing a Switchyord/Sub-station
------ evenfor a budgetoryquote.
0
In casethese drawings arenotfurnished by thecustomeralongwith the enquiry, the same
....
)
are to be developed based on customer's requirement of switching schemes. In the

U
J
absenceof details ofswitching schemesfrom customer, the somehasto be proposed to
them'with advantage/disadvantage of different schemes. The bus switching schemes
generallyfollowed are:
I
0
a) For400kV i) Oneand Halfbreakerscheme
~
(PrimaryTransmission) ii} Doublemainwith Transferbus
10
b) For220kV i) Doublemainwith Transferbus
---<- -"--'- -
(Primary/Secondary ii) Doublemoinbus...
e-
Transmission)
0

c} For 132/66kV i) DoubleMainbus


:.') (SecondaryTransmission) ii) Singlemainwith-Transferbus
iii} Single bus
'"
Apart from these schemes (i) Sectionalised Mainwith. Transfer bus, (ii} DoublE' .;n
/
'\
with by pass Isolators, (iii) Sectionalised Double Main bus, [IV) Mesh scheme etc. a r ~ ; j O
adopted.
\)
Once the SLD and Layout Plan & Sections are available, the bill of quantities can be
9
preparedfor majorequipmentI aswell asauxiliaryequipments/materials.
0
a
Majoreguipmentsarecategorisedasfollows:
,"'\
v
1. PowerTransformers.
e-
.
2. Circuit Breakers (with pre-insertion resistor, if required).
J
3. CurrentT ronsformers.
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4. VoltageTransformers.
~
~
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5. CapacitiveVoltageTransformers.
6. Isolators.
~
7. lightning Arrestors.
.
--
8. Control& Relay Panel.
0
9. Powerline CarrierCommunication Equipments.
9
10. EHV Cobleterminating bushings(forU.G. Coblelines)
-1l
Auxiliary eguipments/materialsarecategorisedasfollows:
0
:>
Bus Post Insulators.


CJ


)
Disc Insulators.
U
'#,
3. InsulatorHardwareswithSag compensationspring (if required).
')
4. BoyMorshalling Kiosks. #
5. Cf/VT /CVT Junction Box.
6. Clamps&Connectorsforequipmentsand busbars.
7. Busbarmaterials.
8. a) 1.1 kV Power&ControlCablesandCableGlands.
b) H.T. PowerCablesandJointing Kit.
e

9. CobleTrays &SupportAngles.
10. Sattery&Bc:tteryChargers.
~
i
11. AC Dish
~ .
12. .. 6cDistribution Boord.

ft-
)
13. a} Earthing Materials.
j
b) lightning ProtectionSystem.
14. Illuminationfor Switchyord&Controlroom.
15. Fire Fighting System (portable/sprayhydrantsystem)
"
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16. Structures.
0
1 7. NeutralGrounding Resistors.
0
18. Diesel GeneratingSets.
I;)
19. SCADA.
20. Toriff metering system.
Z,
21. AuxiliaryTransformers.
~
22. Air Conditioning&Ventilation.
)
i
!)
i
- -
Majortechnical parametersconsideredfor equipmentare:
0) Rated voltage.
b) Designambienttemperaturewith permissiblemaximi.:m temp. rise.
c) Breakdown insulationlevel.
d)
e)
Creepagedistance.
Rated currentcarryingcapacity.
Rated shortcircuitcurrentcapacitywith duration.
Materiological data like altitude,wind speed, maximum&minimum
temperature, level.
:9
:g; ? . h) Cantileverstren:;) ofbushing/supportinsulator. >
:':c.. Electromechanical strengthofstring insulators.

"'c.

Majortechnical parametersconsideredfor Switchyard layoutare:
--
o
1) Phosetophoseclearance.

.3t.. Sectionalclearance.
It 4) Ground clearance.
.' 5) ..Shortcircuitforce on equipment/ supports/ gontrystructure.
-- . . .,"-
- 6J-'--JiOximumsagfor longestproposed span.
I. '
' ... \
7) Main busbarheightfrom ground(finished level}.
lot
.Following parametersaretobeobtainedfrom customerin theabsenceofdetailed
specificationanddrawingsfor roughestimation:
l. Soil datawith soil bearingcapacityandsoil resistivity.
2. Plot planofthe proposedarea.
3. locationoftheControl Room with respedtoSwitchyard.
4. DistanceoftheSwitchyard fencefrom the Power House, in caseofPowerStation.
5. locationoftheGeneratingTransformerwith respecttoSwitchyard.
6. lengthoftheTransmission linesconnectedtothe Switchyard.
7. Availablespacefor Switchyord (fencearea}.
.J
8: -.. Additional provision for sporebays.
information areto beobtainedfor availabilityofadeguatesite faciliti ...:.
1. locationof proposedsiteand nearestrailwaystation.
'J
2. Acces$ibility to siteby rood.
3. Construction&drinking water(free/chargeable).

4. Construction power(free/chargeable).
:')
Following information are to be obtained for pl0viding post commissioning services to
() -:...=;:;: customer.-
o
J. Requirementofmandatoryspores.
o ) 2. Requirementof recommendedspores.
d
... ofspecialtoolsandtacklesforoperation&maintenance.
I.
;. 4 .
oftesting equipments.
G

1.)
Following datosarerequired generallyfrom customersfor reasonablequotation:
9
. Breaker
: Single pole/gang operated, live/dead tonk, pneumatic/spring
-
operatedtype, duty cycle requirement,creepagefor interrupter
-,...;-'
'\1)
(arcchamber),aswell assupportinsulator, closing andopening
time,'indudive/capacitivecharging rating.
live/deadtonktype, nominalcapacitancein caseofcvr,
Transformerscreepageof thebushing
Shed profile, creepage,cantileverstrength.
Disc insulatorsstring/long rod insulator, electro mechanical
strength.
e)C&R Panels 1) Numerical/static/eledro-magneticrelay.
2) Additional requirementofTariffmetering with
closs ofaccuracy.
3) Requirementofbusbarprotection.
4) Requirementofsynchronising panel/trolley.
S} Requirementofseparatedisturbance recorder
with eventlogging.
6) 'Requirementofrecorderslike voltage,
frequencyetc.
7) Requirementofinterfacing with SCADA.
o
.,
..
d)DiscInsulators
f) Isolators
g) Cables
-.
()
-,
.
'-'"
h}Busbar
i)Earthing material
....,1
0
~ : )
?
j) Battery
k) PLCC
~
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0
i) lightning
Protection
i.:)

,
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k)
Illumination
Structures
~
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8} Requirementofmimicpanel.
9) Simplex/duplextypeofpanel.
Single/doublebreak, Conventional/Pantograph, single
pole/gong operated, motor/manualoperated,
aluminium/copperblades,creepageandcantileverstrengthof
suaportinsulators.
PVC/XlPE, Copper/Aluminium, Armoured/Unarmoured,
Flameretardant/ordinary
Flexible/ Rigid bus, Copper/Aluminium material
MS, GI/Copperbars
lead acid/NICAD, ordinary/maintenance free In case of lead
acid.
i} Phase to phase/Phase to Earth/Phase to Phose inter circuit
coupling (in caseofdoublecircuit line).
ii) Programmable/non-programmable PlCterminal.
iii} Milli Henry requirementoflinetrap.
By lightningMast/ShieldWire/Spikes onthe
GantryTowers.
Using lightning Mast/separate lighting Most or poles for light
fixtures.
1} Conductor tension for line take off/line termir
gantries.
2} Shortcircuitforces.
3) Wind pressure.
4} Gantryarrangement.
5) Conductorspan.
6} Minimum & maximumtemperatureofthe proposed areas.
")
,...
Since majorequipmentswith standard rating aresupplied bydifferent manufacturers with
marginal differer.ce in Ex-works costs, following items need to be near accurately
.no,.
estimated for a competitivequotation in on EHV Switchyard projectofturnkey nature,
'\
1} PostInsulators.
.....
.)
2) HT & LT Power& Control CablesandAccessories.
J
3) Structures
4) Busbarmaterials.
S) Clamps&Connectors
6) Earthing material
7) Illumination System
~
8) PostInsulators
....

....-
9) Disc insulators&hordwaresets
~ 10) Lightning protectionsystem
,-L
11) Batterysizing fortotol D.C. loads
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.\ Air conditioning&ventilation (if in scope).
__me customers are also interested in alternate offer with better economical design, in
addition tothe baseofferasperlayouts specified by them. Within thestipulationsmadein
specification for eledrical clearances, altemateoffer can be proposed, if economized on
following aspects:
1) Switchyardspace.
2) Busbarmaterials.
3) Insulators&Hardwares.
4) Structures.
S) Illumination.
6) Civil Worksinvolvement
7) Power&ControlCables.
8) Earthing materials.
A sic.;ard desir;put sheet developed for overall system requirement IS enclosed
herewithfor necc:, . ~ data required from customerfor pre-tendering design.
---
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NDER INfORMATION REPORT
II. COMMERCIAL INPUT
CUSTOMER
iA) CUSTOMER'S NAME, ADDRESS &CONTACT PERSON
,8) PRESENT LEvEL OF CONTACT
!
2 !cUSTOMERREF
3 !DUE DATE i
4 ICOMPETITORS
A) DOCUMENTS OBTAINED BY
ACTIVE SHOVIN BY
BY CUSTOMER

,
FUNDING I
TO jI
r 9FTHE Cl!STOMERwiTH, A) AlSTOM II
, I 8) COMPETITIORS
I '
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CONSULTANT (NAME, ADDRESS &CONTACT PERSON) i
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OfINV9LVEMENT I I
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PREPARE SPECIFICATIONS
,EVALUATE OffERS TECHNICALLY
,EVALUATE OFFERS COMMERCIAllY
iPLACEMENT OF ORDEf<
IDETAILED ENGINEERING ON RECEIPT OF ORDER
,
) :TYPE OF CONTRACT
1
NEW I WElLKNOWN
.
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YES I NO
YES I NO
YES I NO
YES I NO
iYES I NO
,DIVISIBLE/INDIVISIBLE
IDG/I,,(HI, b 10uO(14 (;1
Page 1cJ l
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OfTHE fOLLOWING TAXES8. DUTIES IN THE STATE
THE PROJECT IS TO BE EXECUTED .

,,
SALES TAX 8. SURCHARGE
"' SALES TAX 8. SURCHARGE (CONCESSIONAl ,
"
,rrfl'''l"r!NST ANY SPECifiC FORM AND APPLICABILITY)
WPfkSCONTRACT TAX & SURCHARGE, IF ANY
",p,}'
nSERVICE TAX ON DESIGN 8. ENGG, If ANY
::1 fJ TAXES, LIKE ENTRY TAXES, ETC "
"
YES I NO
t WILL fURNISH LOCAL :>ALES TAX YES I NO
F0RJ.A I
J\-JI"" !
WILL FLJRNISH 'C' FORM I
I
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2, PIE SIDCONFERENCE'S DATE &VENUE
I
.....,.., -- -.. ,-- ---- -_........ -- "- .. I, ,.......... - ...
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:: 4" ...., l
8,', TRMS
'
OF PAYMENT
. ",;\ ...... .. -.

It; SUPPLY
:r fRicTiON
:
'::1 !
9\'RfFERfNCE FOR PSUs YES I NO (If YES. WHAT IS THE PERCENTAGE?)
PREFERENCE YES I NO ,
YES I NO 'I:t
.
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10QfOl08.'.2000 07
Page2017
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APPROVED/PREfERRED MAKES
.
. REO (PLEASE REFER NOTE NO. 21
'KTAANSFQRMERS YES / NO

YES / NO
.:"".V. SWITCHGEAR
I'
"
'YES / NO
!,ROTECTION &CONTROl PACKAGE YES / NO
lAi.STOMAS ACONTRATOR :YES / NO
I
:-gPE I II ! : ;SUPPlY / ERECTION / CIVilWORKS
I,L--.-
I I .
, FOR , ,C, "-4,
AIRCONDITIONING EQUIPMENT
-----'''1...... -, "" "," " "
VAlUE OF THE PROJECT
-_... - ...... -. __ .
I I I
_ .. ____L ... _,,,, -. ,"-- . '. '" .. I l' ,-_.' .'.
ACTIONPROPOSED AND SPECIFIC STRAREGY ': -
-..-........---"....,.--... ._......." ... .. I" . .. , .-- -. -- .... .
1
. OT - '0 ;WS.NOTiTHAT NO
o
D1r-AiiiIHOUiD
1
.l
1
i:l;r-- N;'Ulli c" 'i.'0""" i. iNCOMPu\j'W'Tiiou"'"CIfIlD
,, .. _ ..'"'.'
!,.'. MIl'!
" Eg. BYA lACK-UP GUARANTlI, ITC. . "',
i. 13. ALL INHOUSE EQUIP'MENTS,,E_HV c...PANELS, SWITCHGEAR,'THERESPEtii,,!
!'"', 1 . '" -- .... _."... .."">_" _, ._-, -_..... __.. _____ ..,." __ ...__ ".,.
.., 'j !.! UP REl!() COpy TO BI
:' , DIRECTLYTO THE RESPECTIVI UNITS. '. .' .... , ,
I i4. OriUDGTAiiY"OFF-Ea5;ITEM NOS: 12.1','21 &23-24ARE NOTMANDATORY.
q-.ofJ'.
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PaQ41 3017 ," I)
10 2000.04.07
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t\LSTO)M ..
."
.
TECHNICAL INPUT
.
REMARKS NO. PARAMETERS
1. System Rated Voltage, kVrms
SYltem switching scheme (tick amongthefollowing, asapplicable)
,
,
; Single main bus
t
!
I
:
Singlemain bus with transfer
I
I i
Double main bus
I
,
I :
I I
Double main buswith transfer I
. . - . .. ..
I
.. -.. ...
j
I
Breakeranda half
,+-- .' i
I
I
Other(please specify)
I
,
I
3 SYltem ratedfault current, kA ;period, s
I I i I
4
... "
,
Number of Bays
I
0, Une
I
I
b. Transformer
_.... .. ...- .-... ....
:.- .. ;---t. -... -:-'--
. " ,
e. , Bus Readorl _ .'., .. j. '_"
f. Tie for 1feeder . !!:
I ' ,
. j , ii, i
g. Tie for 2feeders II j I I' I
:
I
I
I
r
,
!
I
.....- ,.,'.- 'i .....- ....- .. ,.
;
i
!
-. _._.... ,,_ I ..,
i
I
- _'_'"''_''' ....-- ........-r'.:.
,
------- ..__._- --1-- ..
I
- - " t I
! '
' '
: I
-.. -.. - ....
,- '" . - ....
,.
,

i
. ,........ .
.. ' ..".
..,
"4_'
...."
,
OQfOJ08, 8, 100004.07
Page4 of 7
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t\lSTO)M
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h. Spore / future (unequipped)
5

Meteorological Dato
10, Altitude (less than 1000 m in case more than 1000 m indicate value)
6
b, Wind Pressure kg /m
2
c, Pollution/Creepage .' Light / Medium / Heavy / Very heavy
Site Plot plan (Reference. drawing /I if available) lor Space limitations
Sile . conlour mop (Reference. drawing /; if available, j
Sile data
a. Soil or soil type
I .". _..
b.
(not required if civil works is I
Soil Resi5tivity, Ohm m.' I
I --
I
I
I
I I I
I
I i
1 . . . .
Location of site
./
-

Availability of approach road and its suitability for movement


-.. _-.... - . .. ..... --.. - .. -.. "-'-- ..........--..--. -------_-1----- ... -- .-_....... - - .. 1-'_--
of transformer
, ,.
Whether site is reasonably levelled, if nol indiucole quantum of
!
filling required
Ust of local erection controdors and civil contarciors 10 be
enclosed
)QF0308, B, 20000407
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Drawings (Indicate drawing numbJrs,fg)drawing. !
< ) '
SLD
loyoutPion
S.c;lion
Control Room
Struc;lurol I
r
f.ControIS,hemolics
,

' I.I.
.c&RPANELS . .. f YES/NO
'-- -t--- 1; --.;-- ,-- ...,
__. ,._.. , ' l _..__ , __J___i____.. __.__ .. _,., "_1 ....._.__._
, ... anl of the "'- .---;-.-- ......_-- --......,- _I '
of Ihe Re.pectlv. Unit. to b. ENCLOSED.' "., ,
- ..._._ ... ___- ....._ .. --", , ......-.,... 4- - .........-- .....-.... ,
i . !',1 '

---'---'-" ,,1,
if- ------. ! !. "-"'rr '--r------ -.-. --.---..-..r.s/!i':.... .,. I
............. _.___. .. " i 1 ______,----- ___ .. __" ...
. Roadworks ,I ; Yas/No I
7" -_.. -' .- --,-- ......-;": :\ y.SiNo..,' "1'
-- .. -, \"t.._..I ..... :-:.. _. --- -,----.- .. /"',...........- ..YeS/No' '. '1 -
, ... " . , .. .' , I
...
Conlfoiroo," bu;ld;ng .1-- . .- I
Y

. I Yes/No

1-- ._.__ .... l-_....

I' .._. .....
r I
: Yes/No Swilchyord iIIuminotion
,-_- p -.'. - ... ,', -
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'.'
)Qf0308,8, 2000.04.07 Page6 of7
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"19' IListof 10 with oilor ..' --"
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:.... .. _ .... ,... ..... . .. ...._... .._..._ __._._._._Y ....
,'. I.......... ...' ...._...... _._.._.._..: V.a/No........ .. _
Otherdrowngs(pleaseinicote,
.. .'.. -.......,......_.._. ....._ ..........
Designcolc:ul.lions (Pleasespecificallyindicate) ,
j
"'T"__ -,.--T-I-____--
notbegivenwith budgetoryoffersand
thecuslomerand0110'nolethat . I . -'..
eklforpreapartiollofdrowings, . '-- ...-.........
J ___-t-...... ,
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. 1InEormolion No lOis requirod for
__________ I I I
2 .........,wu(:.J au( ull UhtlhlW.s10 befU.Ll,;u t,...:.J nulIvluitGUNK.
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O&\MENTS BY RSM
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