Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

# file:///Users/mihaelamurariu/Desktop/Culegere Schneider alg...

## CAPITOLUL 20. MATRICE

20.1. S se rezolve sistemele matriceale:
1 2

a) X + 2 Y =
3 4
1 3
;
X 2Y =
5 7
1 2

b) 2 X 3 Y =
3 4
1 1
;
3 X 2Y =
2 3
1 3

c) X 3 Y =
2 1
1 1
;
2 X + 6Y =
2 0
1 2

d) 2 X Y =
3 0
1 1
;
3 X 4Y =
2 3

## 20.2. S se rezolve sistemele matriceale:

1 2 7

a) X + 3 Y = 2 1 3

3 0 5
1 1 2

X 2 Y = 3 1 5 ;

1 2 1
1 2 7

b) X Y = 1 3 5

3 1 7

1 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56

## file:///Users/mihaelamurariu/Desktop/Culegere Schneider alg...

1 2 3

X + 2 Y = 1 3 10;

5 2 7
1 2 7

c) 2 X 3 Y = 3 5 9

2 1 3
3 1 5

X + Y = 1 2 7;

3 1 3
1 3 5

d) X Y = 7 9 11

1 5 9
3 5 7

X + Y = 9 11 1.

3 5 7

## 20.3. S se rezolve sistemele:

2 0 3 1
=

a) X + Y
0 2 2 0
0 2
3 2
+Y =
;
X
2 0
1 0
1 2
2 3
Y =

b) X +
3 4
3 4
1 0
2 5
+Y =
.
X
0 2
0 2

x 0
care au proprietatea XA = AX, unde:
20.4. S se determine matricile X de forma
0 y
1
a) A =
0
1
b) A =
0

2 sur 9

0
;
3
1
;
2

23/09/13 03:56

1 0
;
c) A =
0 3
1 2
.
d) A =
3 4

1
a) A =
0
1
b) A =
1
1
c) A =
0
1
d) A =
0

1
;
1
0
;
1
2
;
3
1
.
1

1 1
1
X = X
a)
0 1
0
1 1
1
X = X
b)
2 1
0
1 0
2
X + X
c)
2 1
0
1 2
1
X X
d)
3 4
2
1 1
1
X + tX
e)
2 0
1

1
;
1
2
;
3
0 3 3
=
;
2 8 11
1 2 2
=
;
0 1 7
1 2 3
=
.
0 4 3

0 1
;
a) X 2 =
1 0
1 1
;
b) X 2 =
1 1

3 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56

3 4
;
c) X 2 =
8 11
3 1
;
d) X 2 =
0 4
1 0
;
e) X 2 =
4 1
1 1
;
f) X 2 =
1 2
0 2
;
g) X 2 =
2 0
1 2
.
h) X 2 =
4 1

0 1
;
a) X 4 =
1 0
4 0
;
b) X 4 =
0 4
1 0
;
c) X 4 =
8 1
2 3
;
d) X 4 =
3 5
3 1
;
e) X 4 =
0 4
1 3
.
f) X 4 =
6 2

## 20.9. S se rezolve sistemul:

2 2

X+Y =
2 2
XY = Y 2
tiind c matricea X este inversabil.

4 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56

## 20.10. S se rezolve sistemul:

0 2

X 2 + XY =
2 0
0 2
,
Y 2 + XY =
2 0
tiind c X + Y este inversabil.

## 20.11. S se rezolve sistemul matricial:

AY BX = C

,
BX AY = C
unde A, B, C, X, Y sunt matrici ptrate, iar A + B i A B sunt matrici nesingulare.

2
a) A =
0
0
b) A =
1
0
c) A =
2
1
d) A =
0
1
e) A =
0
1
f) A =
0
1
g) A =
0
1
h) A =
0

0
;
3
1
;
0
2
;
0
0
;
3
1
;
1
1
;
2
2
;
3
2
.
1

5 sur 9

M 2 ():

M 2 ():

23/09/13 03:56

3 1
2 2
;
a) A =

1 3
2 2

2 2
2
2
;
b) A =

2 2
2

1 3
2
2
.
c) A =

3 1
2
2

1
a) A =
0
a
b) A =
0
0
c) A =
a
a
d) A =
b

M 2 ():

a
;
1
0
;
b
a
;
0
0
.
a

M 3 ():

1 0 1

a) A = 0 0 0;

1 0 1
1 1 0

b) A = 0 1 1;

0 0 1
1 1 1

c) A = 1 1 1;

1 1 1

6 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56

0 0 0

d) A = 1 0 1;

0 0 1
0 1 2

e) A = 0 0 1;

0 0 0
1 1 1

f) A = 0 1 1;

0 0 1
1 0 0

g) A = 1 1 0;

1 1 0
1 1 1

h) A = 1 1 1;

1 1 1
1 1 2

i) A = 0 1 1;

0 0 1
0 a 0

j) A = b 0 b;

0 a 0
a 0 0

k) A = a b 0;

a a a
a a a

l) A = a a a.

a a a

## 20.16. Pentru orice dou matrici ptrate de ordinul 3 ( A, B

S se arate c oricare ar fi A, B, C M 3 avem:

## a) [[A, B], C ] + [[B, C ], A] + [[C, A], B] = 0;

b) Dac notm cu DA (B) = [A, B], s se arate c:
DA (BC ) = DA (CB) + [DA (B), C ] + [B, DA (C)];
c) Calculndu-se suma elementelor de pe diagonala principal a lui [A, B], s se arate c [A, B U
], n care U este matricea unitate.

7 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56

## file:///Users/mihaelamurariu/Desktop/Culegere Schneider alg...

a b
o matrice singular (a, b, c, d ) diferit de O3 . S se arate c exist
20.17. Fie A =
c d
o funcie f : 4 astfel nct A n = f (a, b, c, d, n) A pentru orice n .

20.18. Fie A, B, C matrici ptratice de ordinul 2 astfel nct: A 2 = BC, B 2 = CA, C 2 = AB.
a) S se arate c A 3 = B 3 = C 3 ;
b) Dai exemple de matrici A, B, C diferite care satisfac condiiile din ipotez.

a b
de numere reale astfel nct a 2 + b 2 < 1. S se arate c
20.19. Fie matricea A =
b a
an bn
, unde irurile (an )n * i (bn )n * sunt
puterile A n , n 1, sunt de forma: A n =
bn an
convergente la 0.

a b
, unde a, b, c
20.20. Fie mulimea matricilor: M = {
c 0
= AB s se arate c AB = BA.

}. Dac A, B

M i dac A + B

1 b c
0 0 0

0 0 1
0 0 k
ABA = kA.

1 1 0

0 0 1
1 an bn

0 0 1

8 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56

## file:///Users/mihaelamurariu/Desktop/Culegere Schneider alg...

a1 a2 2 b1 b2
=
. S se arate c, dac a1 , a2 , a3 ,
20.23. Fie n M 2 () egalitatea matricial
a3 a4
b3 b4
a4 sunt n progresie aritmetic, atunci i b2 b1 , b3 b2 , b4 b3 sunt tot n progresie
aritmetic.

2 0
.
20.24. Se consider matricea A =
0 3
a) S se calculeze A n ;
b) S se determine B = n

k=1

1 0 0
0 1 1
a b b

## 20.25. Fie matricile: I = 0 1 0 , A = 1 0 1 i M = b a b , unde a i b sunt numere

0 0 1
1 1 0
b b a
reale.
a) S se calculeze A 2 i s se arate c: A 2 = A + 2I.
b) S se arate c A n = un A + vn I, n i s se gseasc relaiile de recuren ce sunt verificate de
an i bn .
c) Folosind relaiile de la punctul b), s se verifice c:
un = 1 [2 n + (1) n 1 ].
3

## d) tiind c, n general, det(A B) = detA detB (A i B matrici ptratice) s se calculeze detM n .

[Salt la cuprins]

9 sur 9

23/09/13 03:56