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Open Solaris Operating System

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Open Solaris Operating System

Acknowledgment

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Open Solaris Operating System

Workload Matrix

Sa Su Ti Th

Introduction To Open Solaris X


Kernel Overview X
Installation And Configuration X X X X
User Interface X
Customizing User Interface X X
Working With Open Solaris X X
Secondary Storage Management X
Networking X
Recovery And Security Strategies X
Standard Support X X

Sa - Samith Sadanayake

Su - Sudantha Sulochana

Ti - Tilani Nisansala

Th - Thilini Dilhari

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Open Solaris Operating System

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT .............................................................................................2

WORKLOAD MATRIX...............................................................................................3

INTRODUCTION TO OPEN SOLARIS ....................................................................5

KERNEL OVERVIEW..............................................................................................12

INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION ..............................................................23

USER INTERFACE.................................................................................................36

CUSTOMIZING USER INTERFACE.......................................................................40

WORKING WITH OPEN SOLARIS........................................................................43

SECONDARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT............................................................48

NETWORKING........................................................................................................52

RECOVERY AND SECURITY STRATEGIES.........................................................56

STANDARD SUPPORT .........................................................................................60

REFERENCE...........................................................................................................64

MINUTES OF MEETING.........................................................................................65

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Open Solaris Operating System

Introduction to Open Solaris


Introduction
The Open Solaris Operating System is a research operating system by Sun
Microsystems which is based on Solaris. Open Solaris Os in a Free/Libre Open
Source Software (FLOSS) Operating system which is License under GNU Public
License which can be distributed freely over the world community.

Figure 1 – Open Solaris Logo

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Open Solaris Operating System

Open Solaris is an operating system which accords a platform for building


and running applications. It has built-in features that help to build, debug and
deploy new applications faster. It's is an operating system (OS), an open source
project licensed under CDDL, and a community.

There is a huge demand for Open Solaris today, because it has a large number of
features that are not found in other OSs, such as Time Slider, ZFS as the default
file system, enhanced Image Packaging System (IPS), COMSTAR, Trace enabled
packages for extreme operability and performance tuning, D-Light, etc. Open
Solaris is the best to develop the applications the future generations will need, it is
high performing and extremely reliable.

Figure 2 - Open Solaris Idle Screen

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Open Solaris Operating System

Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems Inc., (NASDAQ: JAVA) develops the technologies that power
the global marketplace. Guided by a singular vision -- "The Network is the
Computer" -- Sun drives network participation through shared innovation,
community development and open source leadership.

Figure 3 - Sun Microsystems Logo

Employees: 33,423 worldwide.

Fiscal Year 2008 Revenues: $13.880 billion.

Locations: Sun conducts business in more than 100 countries around the globe.

Sun Microsystems Inc... (2008). Company Profile. Available:


http://www.sun.com/aboutsun/company/index.jsp. Last accessed 30 Dec 2008.

In addition to OpenSolaris, Sun contributes to a range of open source projects,


including MySQL, NetBeans, GlassFish, OpenOffice.org, OpenJDK, java.net, and
many others.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Open Solaris Features

• GNOME Desktop 2.24

They have introduced a new version of a GNOME which provides hundreds of bug
fixes and user requested improvements. Even though they failed to fulfill everything
they have achieve most of the user requests in the new version which they have
released on October 2008

• View changes to your files over time

With the usage of ZFS file system, it’s automatically snapshot our files at the
regular intervals. Therefore it will help us to view files and recover those.

• Plug and Print

They has been released with a new print manager which helps to manage
the printer used for the daily basis. Locally attached USB printers has been
added with the CUPS Support planned for the future release.

• Safer browsing with Firefox 3

With the fastest, secure and customized best Firefox leased with all the
features.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Figure 4 - Mozilla Firefox under Open Solaris

• Desktop search

By the use of Tracker, it can search quickly and easily for the files we saved
before. Also no needed to keep a track of the files where we saved. By
using tracker, it will search for it by just giving only a one word in that file or
the artist of the song.

Figure 5 - Desktop Search

• Be productive with Open Office.org 3

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Open Solaris Operating System

This is the latest open source office package leased, which stored
data for the international standard and also we can open and modify this
file with any other office package.

Figure 6 - Open Office Logo

• Collaborate with Gobby

It allows us to add multiple uses to a single chat and multi documents to a


single session. Also allow uses to be added to our session, can choose a
color by themselves and start sharing.

• Download torrents with transmission

This feature is a newly added to open Solaris. This is an easy to use Bit
Torrent client.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Advantages of Open Solaris

ZFS- Zettabyte File System

ZFS has been developed to meet the increasing needs of a general purpose file
system. It helps to solve numerous problems that can crop up: losing of important
files, corruption • of data etc.

Virtualization

The feature virtualization provides advanced functions and increases the rate of
utilization by putting together multiple applications to make it one system.

Networking

Open Solaris provides, without having to modify the applications, high performance
networking.

IPS- image Packaging System

IPS is the new package management system which is network based. It has the
ability of installing new software and receiving updates from other network package
storehouses.

Automated Install

This is a new enterprise technology which provides support for network and local
installations of Open Solaris 2008.11. Here one installation specification can be
applied to multiple systems.

New Repositories=New Software


This structure helps you to freely contribute your software and showcase your
innovation to worldwide audience. There are many more repositories providing a
large amount of software in an accessible manner.

Desktop
All the newest and the best features of the GNOME community, along with some
superb graphical features such as the Compiz window manager, or Avant task bar
are included in Open Solaris.

Power Management
The new Open Solaris 2008.11 brings the first few platforms to support, suspend
and resume to RAM and is convenient for mobile users and quite important for
those who are concerned about energy consumption.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Kernel Overview
Process Management
Introduction

Early days computers were single tasking and the user interface was very simple.
So the processes that the computer at that time had to process were very little.
Because of this reason in those computer systems there were no such task called
process management.
But day by day technology had been developed farther and the area that uses
computers had become wider. So the amount of tasks that had to accomplish by
the computer system was increased. To fulfill this need a kernel task called
Process Management was added in to the computer systems. To get the maximum
utilization of the Central Processing System (CPU) computer system specialists
developed more and more advanced algorithms to manage the processes.

When UNIX began to play a huge role in the field, the computer systems hardware
and software technology had become height and most of the control had done by
software. Then the task of managing the processes was completely done by the
kernel. As Solaris uses the same Linux kernel and it is based on UNIX, Linux also
uses an advanced process management methodology.

When we talk about the process management, first of all we have to talk about the
word “process”.

The Process

In the book “Operating System Principals”, Galvin (2006) says that a process
means a program on execution. It is not only code of a program but also the
relevant data and resources that relative to the execution of the process. And he
also said that an executable file is not a process, the only way it become a process
is when it loaded well in to the memory. So we can get an idea that for a single
program, there can be more processes. So in a multi user operating system like
Solaris, as even a single use can use many instants of the same program, a
particular program may have thousands of processes.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Process State

As a process is something that happens, so it must have a current state. As Galvin


(2006) mentioned, for a process there are five states.

• NEW
• READY
• RUNNING
• BLOCK
• TERMINATED

At a given moment each process must have a state from those five. The relation
ships between those states can be graphically displayed using a diagram called
Process State Diagram.

Figure 7 - Process State Diagram


Source: Operating System Principals, Galvin 2006

When a new process implement by a program, it is sent to a queue called Ready


Queue. Then the process waits until the process at the ‘running’ state get interrupts
or request for IO and then the dispatcher dispatch the process to the CPU to
execute it. Then that process execute by the CPU until it receives an interrupt
signal or the process request for IO. If it is IO then the process state changes to
‘blocked’ and after the IO or event completed the process is sent back to the ready
queue. If the process was interrupted then it directly goes back to the ready queue.

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Open Solaris Operating System

After the process finished it terminate it self or an error occurs the process
will be terminated by the process manager.

Process Control Block

When we tack a process there are some characteristics that hold various values.
So the system stores these data in a special data structure called Process Control
Block. As Galvin mentions (2006), there are 9 major data fields in this data block.
They are,
• Pointer to parent process
• Pointer area to child process
• Process state
• Program counter
• Register save area
• Memory limits
• Priority information
• Accounting information
• Pointer to files and other IO resources

Pointer to parent process


The address of the parent process.

Pointer area to child process


If there are any child processes, then the process manager adds those addresses
to here.

Process state
Process state can be one of those five given in the last page. It can be new, ready,
running, blocked or terminated.

Program counter
This holds the value of the next instruction to execute in the program.

CPU registers
These are the addresses of the registers used by the process

Memory limits
This includes the value of the maximum limit of memory that the process can take.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Priority information
When scheduling the processes (we will talk about this later), we are assigning a
value that represents how valuable the process is. As the number get bigger
except 0, the priority of the process gains up. So this is a value of type integer.

Accounting information
This section holds the values for CPU time, real time, account numbers and
process numbers that identify the process. Most of the pre-emptive algorithms
need this as CPU time is an impotent resource.

Pointer to files and other IO resources


Most of the processes need more resources than memory and CPU like disk to
access files, keyboard for manual input etc…

At the point that a new process created by a program, the process manager stores
that processes PCB in the memory. And every time the process changes its state
and the values process manager updates this information and restore it in the
memory.

Threads
When a program runs more than one process at a time we call it a multi threaded
program. So as Galvin (2006) says in his book, a thread can be called as a
process. And also most of the new programs are able to multi thread the single
process.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Process Scheduling

Today’s computers are multi programmed and the CPU is the main resource we
have, to get the maximum of it, at any given time there must be a process running
in the CPU. To fulfill this need, there are some algorithms to schedule the
processes. And this task is done by a special kernel program called Process
Scheduler. As Solaris considered as one of the most advances operating systems
in the world, it also using the best ways to schedule the processes using many run
levels.

Galvin (2006) in his book well describes, to get the maximum utilization of the CPU
at the same time doing the job that needed by the process the scheduler uses
many queues. The main queues it uses are;
Ready queue
Job queue
Device queues

Except those 3 types there are some other queues that are not considered in this
level.

Job queue
This queue includes all the available processes in the system. It’s just a list and not
dedicated to a particular task.

Ready queue
Remember the process state diagram. This queue is the queue that contains the
information about processes that is in “Ready” state.

Device queue
When a process requested to access a device, then the process is sent to a
separate queue, with is the queue that belongs to the device. As there are so many
physical and logical devices there are so many device queues.

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Open Solaris Operating System

CPU Scheduling

There are 2 main ways to schedule this processes.

1. Pre-emptive
2. None pre-emptive

Pre-emptive
In this method processes are interrupted before it is completed. It means if the
given time or an IO request happened, process scheduler terminate the program
and start the next process. Then the previous process is sent to device queue or
ready queue.

None pre-emptive
In this method processes are executed until it request for an IO or terminates it
self. If it was terminated for IO then it is sent to a device queue.

Scheduling Algorithms
As Galvin (2006) describe in his book, there are 3 none pre-emptive process
scheduling algorithms and 3 pre-emptive algorithms. They are;

1. First Come First Serve


2. Shortest Job First
3. Priority Scheduling
4. Round Robin
5. Multi Level Queue
6. Multi Level Feed-back Queue

First Come First Serve


This is the simplest way to manage processes. In this algorithm ready queue are
as same as job queue. So all the processes in the queue have same opportunity to
get the CPU. But unfortunately the job that must be done by the process scheduler,
the goal of the scheduler is not happening here. It is not utilize the CPU to its
maximum.

Shortest Job First


By using this algorithm, the total waiting time can be minimized. But if a more
important process is there but it takes more time, it has to wait until the shortest
jobs are done.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Priority Scheduling
In this algorithm, at the new state of the process, it is assigned a value that
represents its priority. When arranging the ready queue from job queue, it arrange
as 0, ∞ to 1.

Round Robin
This is the most fair and widely used algorithm to manage processes. In here a
single process has been given a particular time and after that time it pre-empted
and the next process in the ready queue has been given the CPU.

Multi Level Queue


This is a combination all previous scheduling algorithms.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Memory Management
Overview

Memory Management is one of a main function that’s done by the kernel. As


Memory is a quit valuable resource, to get the maximum use of it, a good
management of the memory is a must. Why because as computer systems
became more and more complicated, the number of processes that used by the
system are get increased. Then the memory became more limited for a particular
task. If the system is able to manage the memory to get the maximum use of it,
then it will be able to do more processes at a given time as well. To fulfill this need
the system developed to a level that manages memory in a high level way.

Older days and even today in some systems like embedded systems, they use
overlays to manage the memory. But it is a primary method of managing the
memory.

As Solaris improved they switch to a modern memory management


methodologies.

When Solaris boot up, the kernel binary loads to the memory and some kernel
modules are loaded by hotplug system.

Figure 8 - Physical memory usage of kernel, kernel modules and user applications.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Addressing Physical Memory


Every register in the physical memory has an address. To read or write a value to
that register when the program gives the logical memory address it is converted to
the physical addresses and execute the command. So the computer program
cannot understand physical addresses it is done by the memory management unit
it self.

Shared Components
To reduce the repetition loading of the same program, systems uses shared
libraries. So those components may load only once to use hundreds of times.

Swapping
Solaris uses a special partition as swap. When a memory block is not needed to a
particular time period, the memory manager (in here swapper) copy that memory
block to the swap partition and release the memory. And when the memory needed
back, it copies the memory block back to the main memory.

Figure 9 - Relationship between SWAP partition and RAM

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Open Solaris Operating System

Deadlock Managment
Overview

In modern computers, there are so many processes running in a limited resourced


environment. As one process many needs more than one resources at a time,
there is a huge competition between those processes to get the resources.

Figure 10 - How do a deadlock occur

In this example process 1 has taken tape drive and without releasing it, the
process request to access scanner. But the scanner has been taken by process 2.
Now the problem is that, without releasing the scanner process 2 requests for tape
drive and keyboard. At the same time process two has taken the keyboard and
without releasing it the process requests for tape drive. So none of those three
processes can fulfill there resources requirements. A situation like this is called a
deadlock.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Deadlock Handling

To get rid from situations like this computer system uses 3 methods.
They are;

1. Running a service using some protocols that prevents the ability to get a
deadlock.
2. Let the deadlock happen and then clean then mess.
3. Ignore deadlocks as they never occur.

Most operating systems are using the 3rd method to handle the deadlocks, but in
Open Solaris there are some methods to get rid from a deadlock. When a deadlock
occurs, it terminates the process with the low priority. And the processes that
cannot be terminated because it courses other processes and services, are
isolated without giving resources and let it be there as running. So it is called
freeze process. At this point user has to exit from the system to use the same
program that uses the freeze process.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Installation and Configuration

Before Installation
Before Installing Open Solaris OS to the System. Review the System
Requirements and Limitations described in the open Solaris documentation .this
will help users to avoid errors and loss of data.

Figure 11 - Open Solaris Media

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Open Solaris Operating System

System Requirements

Open Solaris OS Needs Following Minimum System Requiments to run Smoothly


.More System Recoures will help Open Solaris to do tasks fast and more Effiently.

Requirement Description

Memory 512 MB minimum (This minimum has not been tested


extensively yet.)
Disk space Recommended size is at least 10 GB.

Multiboot capability If User installing OpenSolaris on a system that will have


more than one OS, use the fdisk command or a third-party
partitioning tool to create a new partition or to make
adjustments to preexisting partitions

Table 1 – System Requirements

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008 ). System Requirements. Available: http://opensolaris.org/os/project.


Last accessed 30 Dec 2008.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Installation Steps

The Installation of Open Solaris OS can done in few Simple Steps. Novice Users
can Select Graphical User Installation and Expert Users and Select Command line
Installation

Graphical User Installation will take the user step by step like a wizard, collecting
data which need for the installation.

Basic Steps

• Boot the Live CD

• Load the Setup

• Partition the disk

• Setup Time Zone

• Setup Language Settings

• Setup User Settings

• Finalize the Installation

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Open Solaris Operating System

Booting the Live CD


The LiveCD enables you to try the OS before installation.

Insert the Open Solaris Live CD the Optical Drive and Boot the System. The boot
loader GNU GRUB menu will load. This Small software is Responsible for loading
and Transferring.

Grand Unified Bootloader, (GNU GRUB) is Used in most Linux based Operating
systems for providing a user a multi-boot Environment with more than one
Operating system.

Figure 12 – GNU GRUB menu

Select you Option from the GNU GRUB menu .Expert Users can select Open
Solaris Text Console to boot Open Solaris with Text Commands.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Figure 13 – Language Selection

User can Select over more than 41 languages in Open Solaris.

Languages supported by Open Solaris.

Primary languages are: Chinese – Simplified, Chinese – Traditional, English,


French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese – Brazil, Russian,
Spanish, and Swedish

Full language Support: All Primary Languages, Albanian, Arabic, Bulgarian,


Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi,
Hungarian, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Latvian, Macedonian, Maltese, Norwegian
Bokmål, Norwegian Nynorsk, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak,
Slovenian, Thai, Turkish

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008 ). System Requirements. Available: http://opensolaris.org/os/project.


Last accessed 30 Dec 2008.

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Open Solaris Operating System

When the Live Image is Loaded to the System. The Open Solaris Desktop will
Appear .In the desktop Click on the “Install Open Solaris” Icon to Load the
Installion Setup.

Figure 14 – Open Solaris Installation Icon

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Open Solaris Operating System

Partitioning the disk


Disk Partitioning is an important step in Operating system Intallation.Partitioning
software will create Serpate divisions in Hard disk Drive to store data efficiently.

Figure 15 – Disk Partitioning Window

In Open Solaris Partitioning Setup ,users can either partition the disk or use the
whole disk for Open Solaris Installtion.Open Solaris OS Useses a File System
Named ZFS to Store Data.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Time zone, date, and time settings.

Figure 16 – Time Zone Settings Window

User Can Select Time Zone,Date,Time Settings .

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Open Solaris Operating System

Language and locale Settings

Figure 17 – Language Settings Window

This Step Allows User to Select the Locale for Set the Default Language support
and data formats.

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Open Solaris Operating System

User settings
In This Step user Can Enter Login Details to the Open Solaris Operating System.
Root (System Administrator) Password. User Account Name and Password,
Computer Name and etc.

Figure 18 – User Settings window

User can define any name for the Computer that he installs Open Solaris OS.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Confirm installation specifications

Figure 19 – Confirm installation Window

As the Last Step User can review the Installation settings.Hit the Install Buttton to
install open solaris.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Installation Process

When User Confirm the Inserted data Installation will begin .Open Solaris
Installation Program will prepare the Hard Disk Drive and will Copy the Open
Solaris System Files to the Hard Disk Drive. This may take about an Hour to
Complete the Process.

Figure 20 – Installation Process

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Open Solaris Operating System

After the Installation

Wait for the installation process to finish and Computer will Restart Automatically
The system will restart and you’ll see the Open Solaris Booting Screen.

Figure 21 – Open Solaris Boot Screen

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Open Solaris Operating System

User Interface
Introduction to GUI

Graphical User Interface needs applications to interact with users. It can create a
medium for people to interact with applications to make available attractive user
interfaces.

Open Solaris has a Very Beautiful Graphical User Interface based on GNOME
Desktop System.

Figure 22 – GNOME Desktop

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Open Solaris Operating System

Introduction GNOME
The GNOME Platform features, user interface controls to an API for drawing high-
quality graphics to the screen. And graphics technology in GNOME helps you to
create constant, instinctive and aesthetically satisfying applications.

GNOME is…………..

Free

GNOME is free software which is devoted to giving developers and users the
maximum level of their desktops, software and data.

Usable

Usability is about creating software which is easy for everyone to use.

Accessible

GNOME is desktop for any Unix platform.

International

GNOME is urban, old and documented in many languages.

Developer-friendly

Developers are using several languages with GNOME. Ex: C, Python, Perl etc.

Organized

GNOME strives to be an organized community.

Supported

GNOME is supported by the top companies like IBM, Sun, Red Hat etc.

A community

GNOME is a world wide community for people to generally have fun together.

“The GNOME Desktop system based on GTK Tool Kit”

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Open Solaris Operating System

GTK
GTK is a Widget Tool kit for Creating Graphical user interfaces. GTK is mainly
crated by C programming Language. The GNOME Desktop system based on GTK
Tool Kit.

Figure 23 – GTK Logo

Most of the Open Solaris applications based on GTK Environment.


Some Common applications are follows:

AbiWord Word processor


Evolution Mailer
Inkscape SVG Vector graphics editor
Vmware Player Virtual Machine
Ekiga H.323/SIP VoIP softphone
GIMP Raster HDR graphics editor

Table 2 –Some Solaris Applications

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Open Solaris Operating System

Features of GTK

• Stability
GTK has been Developed for over 10 years and deliverd users facinating
features and great perfromace.GTTK is supported by a Developers from
Red Hat,Novell,Imendio

• Cross Platform
GTK Runtime envorioment not only runs under Open Solaris is runs under
Linux,Windows,Mac OS X .. etc

• Language Bindings
GTK Sourse Code is Avalaible in Many Progarmming Languages which
make application development attractive

• Mobile
GNOME Mobile & Embedded has invold in mobile Application development

• Accommodating
GTK Provide number of great features for developers today. Like “Look and
feel,Theme Support,Thread safe,”

• Interfaces

GTK+ has a comprehensive collection of core widgets which include:

• Windows (normal window or dialog, about and assistant dialogs)


• Buttons and toggles (check buttons, radio buttons, toggle buttons and
link buttons)
• Numerical (horizontal or vertical scales and spin buttons) and text data
entry (with or without completion)
• Multi-line text editor
• Tree, list and icon grid viewer (with customizable renderers and
model/view separation)
• Combo box (with or without an entry

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Open Solaris Operating System

Customizing User Interface

Colors and Themes

Figure 24 - Appearace Preferences Window

Changing the Open Solaris Desktop Theme

Theme settings are configured from the Appearance Preferences screen accessed
from the System->Preferences->Appearance menu option. When the screen
appears make sure the Themes tab is selected so that the dialog appears as
follows.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Downloading and Installing a Theme

Open Solaris is installed with numerous theme options; this represents a small
division of themes that are available online.

These themes could download through theme sub-category like Icons, Window
Border etc.

As an example in installing a new Window Border theme, on the right hand side of
the GNOME Art website click on the Window Border link beneath Desktop
Themes. This will filter the list of themes so that only Window Border themes are
displayed. Scroll down the list and click on a theme that is not currently available
on your Open Solaris installation (for this example we will use the “MegaGrip”
theme). After downloading the theme the desktop icon will appears.

Creating a Custom Theme Package

These themes are now used to create a new desktop theme or to customize an
existing theme.

In this example we will create a custom theme which includes our new Window
Border design. Click on the Custom theme in the Appearance and on the
Customize... button. In the resulting Customize Theme dialog select the Window
Border tab so that the list of available window border themes appears.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Display Resolution

Figure 25 - Screen Resolution Prefences Window

1. Right-click on the desktop.

A drop-down menu appears.

2. Select Screen Resolution

The Screen Resolution dialog box appears.

Specify the desired settings and click OK.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Working with Open Solaris


Basic Applications
There are some basic Programs comes with Open Solaris Operating system which
help users to Manage and do their work easily .All these applications are Free to
use as Open Source software.

Figure 26 - Mozilla Firefox and Pidign

Application Name Use of Application Publisher


Mozilla Firefox Browse internet Mozilla Coperation

Mozilla Thunderbird E-mail and RSS Client Mozilla Coperation


Pidgin Multi-Protocol Instant Pidgin Community
Messaging
Open Office Office Suite Sun Microsystems
Table 3 –Some Solaris Applications

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Open Solaris Operating System

System Utilities
There are some System Utilities come with Open Solaris which helps Users to
keep the System well Maintained and the Check the System Status

The System Utilities can be found at Applications > System Tools

Figure 27 - System Tools in Open Solaris

System Utility Use of Utility


Device Driver Utility View the Status of Device Drivers and
Problems
Disk Usage Analyzer View the Disk Status of Hard Disk Drives

System Log Viewer View System Error Logs

Performance Monitor Monitor usage of CPU,Disk,Memory

New Login in a Window Login in to a New Session without Login


off
Table 4 –Some Solaris System Tools

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Open Solaris Operating System

Image Packaging system (IPS)


IPS (Image Packing System) used by the Open Solaris Operating System to install
tools for Crating Web applocations,drivers and GNOME applications to the system.

IPS(Image Packaging system) Enables users to Install ,Remove, Manage


Packages on users System and it also helps to Manage Boot Environments

The OpenSolaris Image Packaging System provides necessary updates from a


wide range of Sun and other repositories. Developers can distribute your
application through your own package repository, so you reach new markets
quickly and offer updates easily.

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). OpenSolaris Operating System. USA: Sun Microsystems, Inc.. 1-2.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Package Manager
The Package Manager is the Graphical User Interface for the Image Packaging
system (IPS)

The Package Manager can be found at System > Administration > Package
Manager.

Figure 28 - Opening Package Manager

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Open Solaris Operating System

Figure 29- Package Manager

The Package Manager Help users to

 Search and install Packages


 Uninstall a Package
 Add a Repository
 Manage Boot Environments

Network Repository

The Package Manager can interacts with a network Repository Install new
Packages to the system

http://pkg.opensolaris.org is the default repository for Open Solaris

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Open Solaris Operating System

Secondary Storage Management


Introduction
Storage Capabilities in Open Solaris made Easy for Users from Simple File
Sharing, file systems, data services, volume managers, storage services and many
other features.

ZFS- Zettabyte File System


ZFS is a File System Developed by Sun Microsystems for the Open Solaris
OS.ZFS File System has Exiting new Features. ZFS File System will used in Mac
OS X near future.

Figure 30 - ZFS File System Overview

ZFS is a new kind of file system that provides simple administration,


transactional semantics, end-to-end data integrity, and immense scalability.
ZFS is not an incremental improvement to existing technology; it is a
fundamentally new approach to data management. We've blown away 20
years of obsolete assumptions, eliminated complexity at the source, and
created a storage system that's actually a pleasure to use.

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). ZFS. Available: http://opensolaris.org/os/community/zfs/. Last


accessed 31 Dec 2008

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Open Solaris Operating System

ZFS Features

• Pooled Storage Model

• Always consistent on disk

• Protection from data corruption

• Live data scrubbing

• Instantaneous snapshots and clones

• Fast native backup and restore

• Highly scalable

• Built in compression

• Simplified administration model

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). ZFS. Available: http://opensolaris.org/os/community/zfs/. Last


accessed 31 Dec 2008.

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Open Solaris Operating System

ZFS Benchmarks

This graph shows write performance of a 512Mb file.

Figure 31 - Write Performance of a 512Mb file

As the above Graph you can see that ZFS File system has a quite high file Write
performance.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Comparison between ZFS and LVM

LVM( logical volume manager) Used in Other Operating system which is based on
Linux Kernel.As This Chart We Can Imagine the ZFS File System has more
features than other Ordinary Linux File systems.

Figure 32 - Comparison between ZFS and LVM

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Open Solaris Operating System

Networking
Overview
The Open Solaris Operating System has well configured Networking system which
helps users to have a great networking Experience

In the new release of Open Solaris there is an option called Network-Auto-Magic


(NWAM) which automatically connection to users available networks when the
system starts.

Figure 33 - Toster Message about Network

When your system is connected to a wireless network, the following NWAM


Manager Status Icon for the wireless connection is displayed in the upper right
corner of your desktop.

Figure 34 - "Network Connected " Icon

If the system starts without network media connected to the wired interface port,
NWAM disables the wired interface. Then, NWAM searches for wireless, or WiFi,
networks in the system's current physical location. If a wireless network is found,
NWAM attempts to connect to that network through the system's wireless
interface, for example, ath or iwk.
When a wireless interface becomes active, you receive a message similar to the
following.

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). Automatic Network Configuration. Available: http://wikis.sun.com.


Last accessed 28 Dec 2008.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Network Settings

Figure 35 - Network Settings Window

Supported Network types

• Dialup Connections
• DSL Broadband
• Satellite Broadband
• Wireless Broadband(WiFi)
• Wireless Broadband (WiMAX)
• Symmetric Broadband
• Local Area Networks

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Open Solaris Operating System

Networking Features

• Enhanced TCP/IP, UDP/IP, SSL, and packet forwarding performance —


highly efficient, optimized stack greatly enhances network throughput while
reducing the load on the CPU

• Leverages CoolThreads™ technology for increased throughput and optimal


performance with Sun’s multithreaded 10-Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) network
devices

• Network virtualization through IP instances enables a discrete network stack


for each virtualized OS instance

• IPv6 — next-generation protocol provides increased address space, end-to-


end security, and autoconfiguration features

• IP Multipathing — high availability of net-work connectivity and services


through end-to-end redundancy

• Support for Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), Session


Initiation Protocol (SIP), Multicast Listener Discovery (MLDv2), Open
Shortest Path First (OSPFv2), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4)

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2007). Solaris™ 10 OS Networking. USA: Sun Microsystems, Inc.. 2.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Testing a Modem Connection


A simple way to test your modem is to send it some simple commands using terminal
emulator:

# tip /dev/term/0
connected
atz
OK
ati
Manufacturer: NOVATEL WIRELESS INCORPORATED
Model: CDMA MERLIN V620
Revision: M6500C-BBIRD-40304.135 [MAR 11 2005 14:00:00]
ESN: 0x5B123456
+GCAP: +CIS707-A, CIS-856, +MS, +ES, +DS, +FCLASS

OK
at+csq
99, 99

OK
atdt#777
CONNECT

Characters in bold font are user input, the rest is modem output. at+csq shows
signal strength on this particular modem. Dialing #777 usually gets you on the
service provider's network - if the modem returns "NO CARRIER", it could mean
weak signal or refused connection from the network.

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). Automatic Network Configuration. Available: http://wikis.sun.com.


Last accessed 28 Dec 2008.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Recovery and Security Strategies


Data Backup and Recovery

With out any hesitations Open Solaris can easily Recover Users data. there are lot
of 3rd party software’s which runs under Open Solaris OS.

Some Features of Open Solaris Data Recovery Software’s:

• Recover lost data from corrupt super block


• File recovery after damage in Inode structures
• Provides Unix data recovery after partition table errors and cases of deleted,
damage, re partitioned or missing partitions
• Volume recovery after corruption in Volume Table of Contents (VTOC)
• File and Folder recovery after damages in Block Group Descriptor
• Solaris Data Recovery Software provides recovery after errors in Cylinder
group
• Restore data after OLT table is damaged
• Data loss after FSCK is not able to repair system data structures.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Security Strategies

Secure Passwords

Open Solaris Needs more Secure passwords with mixed or Capital Letters and
simple letters. Password Length should be more than 8 characters.

Example : mY sOn gAyAn iS 3e YeaRs oLd

Figure 36 - Open Solaris Login Window

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Open Solaris Operating System

Antivirus and Malware Protection

There are few antivirus products which runs under open Solaris.
Example : Symantec, Trendmicro.

Clam Antivirus is a one of Open Source antivirus software that can be runs under
Open Solaris.

Figure 37 - ClamAV Logo

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Open Solaris Operating System

D Trace
This is a new facility for Solaris10, which was introduced to allow visibility into
system performance. There has never been this ability before. It can be run on
Solaris or Open Solaris.

Figure 38 - Overview of D Trace

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Open Solaris Operating System

Standard Support
Introduction
Open Solaris OS offers numerous ways to support the users. Solaris Help System
offers number of ways to find answers user’s questions.

Integrated Help System

The Open Solaris Help System is based on GNOME Yelp Help Browser which will
be described later.

FAQ System
Open Solaris FAQ can be found at http://opensolaris.org/os/about/faq/, which users
can take help for common problems

Web Based Support


Open Solaris OS Have 2 Web Sites to Support Users:

Basic Product Features


http://www.opensolaris.com

Technical and Advanced Users


http://www.opensolaris.org

Online Community
https://forums.opensolaris.com

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Open Solaris Operating System

Open Solaris Help System

Figure 39 - Yelp Help Browser

The Yelp Help Browser application helps to view records about GNOME and other
apparatus through several formats, include HTML help pages, doc book files, man
pages and info pages.

This browser is an international browser. And it has upheld to view documents in


many languages and these documents must be limited to a small area or
translated for every language and installed properly. So then the Yelp Help
Browser can be view them.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Open Solaris Online Community


The Open Solaris Community is Online Based Community Which Users can take
Help from Solaris Technical Experts at Sun Microsystems.

Figure 40 - Open Solaris Online Community

https://forums.opensolaris.com

Figure 41 - Open Solaris Techo Experts

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Open Solaris Operating System

Appendix

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Open Solaris Operating System

Reference

Peter Baer Galvin (2006). Operating System Principles. 7th ed. India: John Wiley &
Sons. P39 - 392

Sun Microsystems Inc... (2008). Company Profile. Available:


http://www.sun.com/aboutsun/company/index.jsp. Last accessed 30 Dec 2008

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). ZFS. Available:


http://opensolaris.org/os/community/zfs/. Last accessed 31 Dec 2008

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (2008). Open Solaris Operating System. USA: Sun
Microsystems, Inc.. 1-2.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Minutes of meeting
Date: 29th November 2008
Venue: APIIT Sri Lanka, Colombo.
Meeting Number: 1
Members attended:

Name of the member CB Number Attendance


Samith Sadanayake (CB003217) Present
Sudantha Sulochana (CB003198) Present

Tilani Nisansala (CB003240) Present

Thilini Dilhari (CB002386) Present

Minutes:

Study Area Description


1. Introduction of the members. We discussed our IT skills and got to
know each other

2. Read Case Study. We read the case study thoroughly


noting down important points

3. Go through the Case Study. We all discussed preliminary points of


the given scenario.

4. Future Proceedings. Here we discuss our future proceedings


and made our time schedule.

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Open Solaris Operating System

Date: 1th December 2008


Venue: APIIT Sri Lanka, Colombo.
Meeting Number: 2
Members attended:

Name of the member CB Number Attendance


Samith Sadanayake (CB003217) Present
Sudantha Sulochana (CB003198) Present

Tilani Nisansala (CB003240) Present

Thilini Dilhari (CB002386) Present

Minutes:

Study Area Description


Installation of Open Solaris We Discussed about the installation
and Details
Decide The Work Load Matrix We Decided the Work Load Matrix of
The Member Groups
Presentation Made some slides which will aid for the
presentation of Open Solaris.

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