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INDEX

UNIT-I

3

Lesson 1: Kantha of Bengal

4

Lesson 2: Kasuti of Karnataka

21

Lesson 3: Phulkari of Punjab

37

Lesson 4: Embroideries of Gujarat

56

Practical Exercises

73

UNIT-II

81

Lesson 5: Applique Craft of Orissa

82

Lesson 6: Chikankari of Uttar Pradesh

104

Lesson 7: Chamba Rumal of Himachal Pradesh

128

Lesson 8: Kasida of Kashmir

151

UNIT-III

174

Lesson 9: Traditional Textiles of India

175

UNIT-IV

196

Lesson 10: Printed and Painted Textiles of India 197

Lesson 11: Sanganer and Bhagru Printing

201

Lesson 12: Kalamkari

210

UNIT-V

227

Lesson 13: Ajrakh

228

Lesson 14: Mithila Painting

243

Lesson 15: Patola, Ikat, Pochmpalli and Mashru 258

Lesson 16: Bandhini Work of Rajasthan and Gujarat

 

272

References books

284

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UNIT-I

Lesson 1: Kantha of Bengal Lesson 2: Kasuti of Karnataka Lesson 3: Phulkari of Punjab Lesson 4: Embroideries of Gujarat

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Lesson 1: Kantha of Bengal Objective: After going through this unit you should be able
Lesson 1: Kantha of Bengal
Objective:
After going through this unit you should be able
to ―understand the traditional embroidery of
West Bengal.‖
Structure:
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Styles of Kantha
1.3 Fabric Used
1.4 Stitches Used
1.5 Threads Used
1.6 Motifs Used
1.7 Types of Kantha
1.1 Introduction

The traditional folk art of Bengal is famous as kantha, which means ‗patched cloth‘. The special significance of kantha is quilting.

Kantha is embroidered using worn out textiles that are to be thrown away. It is a treasured art in Bengal where ladies irrespective of their castes, classes and socio economic groups are expert at the embroidery not only depicts the stitches employed but also express the outflow of their creative, resourceful, imaginary and patient craftsman ship.

Kanthas are produced at Hugli, Patna, Satagaon, Jessore, Faridpur , Khulan and other parts of East and West Bengal. Kanthas were domestic and feminine are never prepared for sale. A kantha made by each individual is unique in itself. Each

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woman make new fresh form of art on the fabrics. The ideas themes, scenes and symbols are almost common as they come from similar economical background. Some basic traditional designs are seen in each piece of work.

basic traditional designs are seen in each piece of work. 1.2 Styles of Kantha Two kinds

1.2 Styles of Kantha

Two kinds of style are adopted to produce kantha

a) Old discarded cotton saris or dhotis were piled on top of each other, quilted and embroidered.

b) Discarded cotton bed covers were piled up or folded, quilted and embroidered with pictorial embroidery.

1.3 Fabric Used

Base fabric used

always white cotton, as the saris of the Bengali

in the traditional kantha was

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woman are mostly white and of cotton. Silk was also used at times. Now tussar silk in black, beige, dull orange are used. The colour of the base fabric of a kantha is always neutral black, white, beige, grey, dull brown.

1.4 Stitches Used

Kantha embroidery is widely done by using the running stitch; but stem and satin stitches are also used.

1.5 Threads Used

White cotton threads and sometimes-silk threads are also used. Sometimes the borders of the old saris are stitched around the piece of embroidered kantha. Colours of the threads used are red, black, blue, green, and yellow/ mustard.

around the piece of embroidered kantha. Colours of the threads used are red, black, blue, green,

1.6

Motifs Used

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Portuguese and European traditions have a great influence on the motifs of kantha. The first time the kanthas were commercially manufactured was in 1875 in Patna. The motifs used are rotons, mandala, trees, creepers, foliage, paisleys, animal, human figures, spiral, birds, fish, shell, nutcrackers, mirror comb, umbrella, chariot, palanquin, boats, sceneries, mermaids etc.

There were also scenes from day to day life scenes from the epics, peacock, temple, hukka, jewelery. Come kanthas even had steeds of gods like bull, swan, lion, elephant, Cat and swan. Lotus is the most widely used kantha motif. Some other motifs like thunderbolt and swastik are also used. The spiral represent the eternal life cycle.

appears

identical on both sides face and back of the fabric.

Do

-

rukha

kantha

is

the

one

which

1.7 Types of Kantha

There are different kinds of kanthas named according to its utility. According to Jasleen Dhamija, there are seven types of kantha used as wrapper in winter, for books, valuables, mirrors, combs, wallets, pillow and bed spreads.

Arshilata is used as cover or wrap for mirror, comb and other such toilet articles. It is a narrow rectangular piece of eight inch wide and twelve inch length. It has a wide border and the central motif is taken from the scenes of Krishna leela or Radha Krishna raas. The lotus trees, creepers, spirals inverted triangles, zigzag lines, scrolls are also some of the commonly used motifs.

Bayton, a three feet square piece serves as a wrap for books and other similar valuables. It has a

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central motif, usually the lotus with hundred petals called ‗satadala padma‘. This motif with hundred petals is simply a figure, which does not signify anything precisely. The traditional and folk design of oldest style in Bayton is the Mandala whick symbolizes the unity of all manifestations of life. The core has Satadala Padma with two or three borders on the sides. The other motifs commonly seen are p\water pots, conch shell, kalkas, trees, foliages, flowers, birds, elephants, chariot, human figures etc, sometimes the figure of lord Ganesha and Goddess Saraswati with their steed are also observed. Special motifs on Bayton are worked with w\wan as a book wrapper. In other words, the designs often collaborate and this colourful embroidery is made with yellow, green blue and red coloured threads. This kantha is often carried while travelling and also presented as gift to their kith and kins.

Durjani (Durfani) is also known as Thalia. It is a square piece kantha, covers the wallet, and has a central lotus motif with a elaborated border. The three corners of this piece are drawn together inward to make the tips to touch at the centre and sewn together like an envelop. It will have another open flap to which a string, tussle or decorated thread is either stitched or mechanically fixed which can be wound and tied up when rolled. The other motifs used are various types of foliages, snakes and other objects taken from the natural surroundings.

Lep kantha is relatively a thick quilted wrap padder by more number of sari layers placed on top of each other, to provide warmth during winter season. Lep is also popular as ‗desired covering. Simple geometrical designs are worked with running stitch using coloured threads. The entire Lep piece is given

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simple

embroideries.

Oar (ooar), the kantha serves as a pillow cover. It is rectangular piece whose size is about two feet by one and half feet. Usually simple designs like trees, foliages, creepers, birds or a liner design with longitudinal border constitutes the ground base and decorative border is stitched around its four sides.

The most popular and striking kantha is the Sunjani (Sujni), generally large rectangular piece of three feet by six feet, used as a spread during ceremonial occasion. Its size has provided full scope for the workers to express and exhibit her imaginary, self created design. The rectangular piece is divided into nine equal parts and the motifs are distributed in these equal sized rectangular block. The lotus motif with a whirl in the centre is the commonly used motif in Sujani. The other motifs observed are the scenes from Ramayana, Mahabharat, folk tales, dancing girl, men riding, birds pecking the fruits, prancing movement of the animals, bees sucking the nectar, procession in motion etc. A moderately thick, light weighed Sujani has either two or more borders at the edge to strengthen the layers and to prevent further tearing. The border stitched at the edge to strengthen the layers and to prevent further tearing. The border stitched at the edge of the rectangular piece has geometrical patterns in single colour, while the other is more ornamental and colourful. The cover sometimes has large kalka laid horizontally and separated by Vajra, the thunder bolt or a broad band of circles, lotus in each circle and heart shaped foliage between the circles. Sarfani is also quilt used during ceremonies or functions as a cover or wrap.

a

wavy

rippled

appearance

by

working

Rumal is nothing but a handkerchief and is the smallest among all the kanthas. A square piece having a size about one square foot. Lotus is the core and other motifs embroidered around it. Sometimes plant and animal motifs are also embroidered but invariably has a well decorated border.

around it. Sometimes plant and animal motifs are also embroidered but invariably has a well decorated
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Stepwise execution of a leaf in Kantha Embroidery using simple running stitch Page17
Stepwise execution of a leaf in Kantha Embroidery using simple running stitch Page17
Stepwise execution of a leaf in Kantha Embroidery using simple running stitch Page17
Stepwise execution of a leaf in Kantha Embroidery
using simple running stitch
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Lesson 2: Kasuti of Karnataka Objective: ―To understand the traditional embroidery of Karnataka.‖ Structure: 2.1
Lesson 2: Kasuti of
Karnataka
Objective:
―To understand the traditional embroidery of
Karnataka.‖
Structure:
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fabric Used
2.3 Threads Used
2.4 Stitches Used
2.5 Motifs Used
2.6 Articles Made
2.1 Introduction

Kasuti is world famous embroidery of Karnataka State, earlier known as Mysore State. The motifs and the art speak about the traditions, customs and professions of the people of Karnataka. The age of learning and executing Kasuti was common to both royals, aristocrats and peasant women.

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It is said that the Kasuti resembles the embroidery of Austria, Hungary and Spain. The origin of Kasuti is not known. The word Kasuti can be analysed as 'Kai' meaning hand and 'suti' meaning cotton thread, i.e. a handwork of cotton thread in Kannad, the language of Karnataka.

The lingayats, the follower of cult Shiva, also known as Verrasaivas are expert in this art. Traditionally it is a custom for the bride to possess a black silk saree called the 'Chandrakali Sari' with Kasuti work on it.

The embroidery of Kasuti was taught to children, neighbours, daughters by the older ladies in the family and was done on saris and blouses. The motifs and stitches were sometimes tried out on a piece of white cotton cloth which was preserved as a model.

Other centres of production are Bilaspur, Dharwar Belgam and Jamakhandi districts.

2.2 Fabric Used

Fine silk fabric of the sarees was used earlier in addition to this, canvas or fine matty is used now. The base colour is dark, usually black or dark blue.

2.3 Threads Used

Traditionally the thread was drawn from the tassels of the pallav of the saris, to make the design appear flat, rich and gorgeous, DCM, Anchor, Kohinoor. Cotton threads are used. The colours most frequently used are red, orange, purple, green- yellow and blue. The commonly used combinations are red-blue, red-yellow, red-white, blue-orange and green-yellow. Bright contrasts are used to make a bold and clear design.

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2.4 Stitches Used

Page 23 2.4 Stitches Used Stitches in Kasuti are always vertical, horizontal and diagonal. The main

Stitches in Kasuti are always vertical, horizontal and diagonal. The main speciality of this embroidery is that never the design is traced in the material to be embroidered and the embroidery starts without knotting thread but with a tiny back stitch. The stitches are simple, minute, intricate and pretty. Kasuti is done always by counting the threads. The four types of stitches are, Gavanti, Murgi, Negi and Menthi. Different patterns and motifs are worked in different stitches but some have mixed stitches. The number of threads on the material forms a unit, two to six threads for fine and coarse work respectively. However, the unit should remain constant till the design is completed.

'Gavanti' is the most simple and common stitch, derived from the Kannada word 'Gantu' means 'knot'. It is a double running stitch, in which the first running stitchs is filled in by the second running stitch on the same line. The second running stitch works exactly opposite to the first one. Gavanthi

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may be worked in horizontal, vertical or diagonal directions.

'Murgi' is a zigzag running stitch which appears like steps of a ladder or staircase. It is same as gavanthi stitch but works in a stepwise manner. The work in both gavanthi and murgi stitches is neat and tidy, where the design appears same on right and wrong side of the material. However, the stitches should be of uniform size. The distance between two stitches is nothing but the length of each stitch. Smallest motifs like square, triangle, hexagonal, ladders, flower are to be practiced so that the elaborate designs can be worked. A large geometric design is produced by grouping the tiny designs on regular intervals and sequences. 'Negi' is another stitch in Kasuti. 'Negi' in Kannada means 'to weave' i.e. the design with Negi design has an overall effect of a woven design. Negi is nothing but ordinary running or darning stitch. It is worked in long and short straight lines or floats and therefore, the design does not appear identical on either sides of the cloth. Menthi' is the fourth type of stitch which means the ordinary cross stitch. In Karnataka 'Menthi' means fenugreek seed but however, people of Karnataka identify the cross stitch as 'menthi' only. This cross stitch is usually appears heavy as is used for filling purpose. This stitch requires more length of thread than the other three stitches. Similar to Negi, even this stitch does not give same appearance on either sides of the Cloth.

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2.5

Motifs Used

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The motifs used in Kasuti embroidery ranged from mythological and architectural to the beautiful flora and fauna, i.e., gopuras, palanquine, chariot, shiva- linga, bull (Nandi), tiger, lamp stand, crown of Shiva (Shivana Basinga), swastika, sun, surya mukhi, conchshell, asanas, Rama's cradle, snake (Naga devta), elephant, horse, tulsi vrundavan, Hanuman etc. Apart from steeds of Shiva and Laxmi, squirrel, parrot, sparrow, peacock, cock, duck pigeon, swan, deer, are also seen. Various types of foliages creepers, flowers are however, used in this embroidery. The main ones are lotus, chrysanthemum, jasmine, rui-phool (cotton flower), cashew nut (Kalka), grapes, kevada, kalawar, diamond, badam, berseed, black bead, maggihua, marigold, coconut flower, sparrows eye, rudraksha, tulsi leaf, brinjal seed, cardamum, chess square, flower pot, etc.

brinjal seed, cardamum, chess square, flower pot, etc . 2.6 Articles Made In olden days Kasuti

2.6 Articles Made

In olden days Kasuti was done on Ilkal silk sari or Ilkal type village sari having broad pallav, called 'tope-teni' and simple border with plain body. In

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order to add colour and beauty to the sari, small Kasuti motifs were worked in the pallav region and many times the borders in negi and murgi stitches were also worked in. However, this simple handloom sari was made appear gorgeous by Kasuti embroidery. The choli worn along with the sari is known as 'khan', on which Kasuti was done with the matching colour, motifs and borders of the sari. The women folk used to decorate the Kunchagi kulai (bonnets), used for children other women's regional costume was embroidered. But now Kasuti is also done on the household linen like, kerchiefs, bed covers, sofa covers, cushion covers curtains, shopping bags, carpets (Jute), plain saris of silk, cotton or synthetics, salwar suits, yolkes, cuffs, collars, belts, pockets, dupattas, caps, and used as trimming for children's garments.

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Areas of Production - Kasuti Embroidery

Page 28 Areas of Production - Kasuti Embroidery 1. Mysore 2. Bijapur 3. Dharwad

1. Mysore

2. Bijapur

3. Dharwad

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Lesson 3: Phulkari of Punjab Objective: ―To understand the traditional embroidery of Punjab.‖ Structure: 3.1
Lesson 3: Phulkari of Punjab
Objective:
―To understand the traditional embroidery of
Punjab.‖
Structure:
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classification of Phulkaris
3.3 Fabric Used
3.4 Threads Used
3.5 Stitches Used
3.6 Technique Used
3.1 Introduction

Phulkari is the traditional embroidery of the land of Punjab. It is the land of energetic

and vibrant people, colours and dances.

The exact history and origin of phulkari in not known. It is in Wari Shah ‗Heer‘ and excellent social document that the word phlukari appears for the first time.

Banabhatta in his book Harshachartra (7C BC) describes the wedding of Rajyashree and talks of some people engaged in decorating the hems of the garments from the wring side of the fabric (phulkari is executed from the wrong side of the fabrics).

It is also said that the word phulkari came from Iran, where gulkari resembling phulkari was prevalent. It is thought that the art was brought to India by the gujjar nomads of central Asia.

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Phulkari is composed of 2 words ‗phul‘ means floral and ‗kari‘ means work. When the whole fabric is so embroidered that no part of the base fabric is visible, it is called ‗Bagh‘ meaning a garden on the fabric, making base fabric visible at certain areas.

fabric is visible, it is called ‗Bagh‘ meaning a garden on the fabric, making base fabric
Phulkari Bagh Page39

Phulkari

Bagh Page39
Bagh
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Page 41 West Punjab, India, late 19th century floss silk on hand spun, hand woven cotton

West Punjab, India, late 19th century floss silk on hand spun, hand woven cotton 135 x 275 cms.

Areas of production of phulkaris were Peshawar, Jehlum, Rawalpindi, hazara all now in Pakistan; as well as Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ambala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot and Kapurthala.

There was a considerable difference between Hindu/ Muslim

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1. Base fabric

Red or White

Black

2. Colours of

White,

Green,

threads used.

orange,

magenta,

gold, brown,

lemon

red,

purple,

yellow and

crimson

some time

3. Patterns

white.

Horal

designs,

Strictly

human

horal

arrival

patterns.

figures

Uses

- Phulkaris were never prepared for sale

- Each piece became an heirloom and was passed from generation to generation.

- It remained a domestic and feminine art made out of love. This was specially true for the wedding phulkaris which retained their original designs.

- All festive occasions, weddings and child birth were commemorated with a phulkari.

- Holy scriptures were kept wrapped in phulkaris.

- It was used as offering to temples and mazars.

3.2 Classification of Phulkaris

Phulkaris are classified on the basis of their design and application.

1.

Wedding Phulkaris:

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These phulkaris form and irrespirable part of the brides trousseau. Each ceremony was associated with meaning of particular bagh.

a. Chope: Chope is embroidered by the maternal grandmother for the girl. Stitch used in the chope is double running stitch; the colour of the thread used is yellow and the fabric used is red khaddar large triangles are embroidered on the edges along the length. Chope is identical on the both sides of the fabric and is held on the head during the ‗chura‘ ceremony.

b. Suber: This is worn during the ‗phera‘ ceremony during the wedding, The base of the super is red khaddar and is embroidered using green and yellow thread. There are fine flowers on the suber; one on each corner and one in the outer. Each flower is 6 petalled.

c. Vari- Da- Bagh: This is given to the bride by the groom‘s mother after wedding. The base fabric is red, is embroidered with golden yellow and green threads. The motifs on vari- da- bagh one unconnected concentric square or lozenges with a plant in the innermost square. This is a bagh and the ground fabric is not visible.

2. Religious Phulkaris

This phulkari is called the ‗Darshan Dwar‘ meaning ‗Devine Door‘. It has religious motifs like the walls of the temple and the people doing ‗parikarma‘. This was used to make offering to the temples. The base of the phulkari was red with yellow thread used for

embroidery.

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Page 44 3.2.1 Classification of Phukaris According to Motifs Phulkari being a domestic feminine got its

3.2.1 Classification of Phukaris According to Motifs

Phulkari being a domestic feminine got its inspiration from the day to day scene and objects around the women.

1. Inspiration drawn from

the

kitchen

gave

‗mirchi‘(chilli),

‗belan‘

(rolling

pin),

‗kaniki‘

(wheat) and dhania bagh.

2. Floral motifs used to embroider baghs were of surajmukhi, gulkerian.

3. Bird and animal motifs were ‗mor‘, ‗tota‘ and serpents, peacock motifs gave rise to ‗moran di phulkari‘.

patang, jewellery,

woman drawing water, woman churning

4. Daily life objects

were

buttermilk.

5. Sun, moon and lightening were used

to

embroider suraj bagh, chand bagh and bijli bagh.

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3.2.2 Other Phulkaris

1. Sarpallo was used to draw a veil. It had a triangular motif in the centre in such a way that the base of the triangle. Such a may that the base of the triangle tell on the forehead and the apex point at the nape.

2. Nilok had a blue background. Embroidery was alone with yellow and red silk thread. It was used for the young girls to learn embroidery.

3. Tilpatra was dotted all over to give to the servents on auspicious occasions.

4. Shishadar phulkari and geometrical designs with mirrors embroidered alongwith the designs.

5. Sainchi phulkaris: Sainchi comes from the word 'Sangha' meaning together. This phulkari had motifs of routine daily life, prized possessions like jewellery, animals, pets, games (chess) embroidered together. This phulkari had motifs of routine dailylife, prized possessions like motifs of routine daily life, prized possessions like jewellery, animals, pets, games (chess) embroidered together.

6. Bhawan Bagh' had fifty two squares embroidered on it. Each squared a different motif inside it. The motifs were always geometrical.

7. Phulkari with a black background was worn during mourning. Simple motifs in yellow and red were embroidered on it.

8. Thirma - Phulkari done on white khadder given to a hindu bride by her parents.

3.3

Fabric Used

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Khaddar (a coarse, loose weave cotton fabric) was used as the base fabric for almost all phulkaris and baghs. In Rawalpindi and Hazara (now in Pakistan) phulkari embroidery was done on very lightweight fabric resembling cambric. These phulkaris were called Halwan.

3.4 Threads Used

These phulkaris were called Halwan. 3.4 Threads Used Dyed untwisted silk threads called 'Pat' were used.

Dyed untwisted silk threads called 'Pat' were used. Sometimes black and white cotton threads called 'bandi' were used.

3.5

Stitches Used

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Darning stitch, chope, running, herringbone run and back, buttonhole, stem and chain stitches were used.

run and back, buttonhole, stem and chain stitches were used. 3.6 Technique Used - The base

3.6 Technique Used

- The base fabric i.e. the khaddar was woven by the village weaver. This fabric was of narrow widths. To make large widths phulakaris the women used to join 2 or 3 widths together. The joints were neatly and expertly done in herring bone stitch.

- Darning stitch was executed from the wrong side of the fabric. The length of the stitch ranged

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from ¼ of an inch to one inch. The motifs were always symmetrical.

- The untwisted silk thread shown at different angles giving it an exotic appearance. A small buti in black was embroidered at times or the motif was slightly distorted to wand off the evil. This was called the nazar buti.

Areas of Production - Phulkari

1. Peshawar

2. Sialkot 5. Amritsar 8. Rohtak

3. Jehhum 6. Faridkot

4. Rawalpindi

7. Jalandhar

of Production - Phulkari 1. Peshawar 2. Sialkot 5. Amritsar 8. Rohtak 3. Jehhum 6. Faridkot
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Lesson 4: Embroideries of Gujarat Objective: ―To understand the traditional embroidery of Gujarat.” Structure:
Lesson 4: Embroideries of
Gujarat
Objective:
―To understand the traditional embroidery of
Gujarat.”
Structure:
4.1 Importance of embroidery in Gujarat
4.2 Classification of Embroidery
4.3 Styles of Domestic Embroidery:
4.4 Moti - Bharat
4.5 Kutch Style

The western state of Gujarat is an arid region with patches of small fields, bushes and acasia (kikkar) trees. Because of the drill tones of nature, the people of this region have a deep seated need for colour in their daily lives, which reflects in their clothes, houses and animal trappings.

This area has always been blessed with busy ports of Surat, Broach, Cambay, Mandir and Kandla. Because of this reason it has strong links for centuries with the middle east, Arabian guld, Red sea, Egypt, Africa and thus remained an important centre for embroidery.

Today, Kutch, Saurashtra, North Gujarat, Thar Parkar district of Sind (in Pakistan) are the world‘s richest source of folk embroidery.

4.1 Importance of embroidery in Gujarat

Gujarat is a state where many groups and subgroups stay together in each village. The embroidery style, stitches, colours used identify the group or subgroup and the relationship between them. Embroidery is a leisure activity to be enjoyed in groups and helps them to socialize and unite.

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4.2 Classification of Embroidery

I. Professional Embroideries

a) Mochi Embroidery: The Gujarati Embroidery tradition was maintained for many years by the mochi embroiderers of Kutch and Saurashtra, who worked for the court and for the merchant and land owning castes.

- The embroiderers were traditionally cobblers and leather workers

- Embroidery is done in fine chain stitch using silk thread.

were traditionally cobblers and leather workers - Embroidery is done in fine chain stitch using silk

- The device used to embroider is an ―ari‖. This is a fine awl which has a notch incised to form a hook.

- The fabric used is satin, usually in dark colours, with black being the favourite.

- The motifs embroidered are buttis (flowers, drived from Persian and Mughal influence). Often with parrots perched on them, figures of women call putli, elephants and saddled horses.

- Centers for embroidery are Bhuj, the capital of Kutch and parts of Saurashtra.

- Articles embroidered are ghagra, cholis (bodices), sari borders, children‘s chablas and torans. They also embroidered the traditional pichhavai hangings for temples, illustrating Lord Krishna.

b) Chinai Embroidery: In the late 19th Century and early 20th Century, there was a community of Chinies embroiderers living in Surat, who produced work that was chinies in design and technique. Their embroidery was known as ―Chinai‖.

- The embroidery was done with either fine silk floss or tightly spun 2 ply silk thread.

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- Multicolours were used on a white or sometimes coloured silk background.

- Very fine chain and stem stitch is done with a needle.

- Motifs embroidered are birds and flowers in interconnected forms.

- Articles made are shawls, saris, cholis and long narrow border strips.

- These were the favourite of

the rich

Parsee

community and are also designs.

known

as

parsee

II. Domestic Embroideries

Domestic embroideries are prevalent in Kutch, Saurashtra and Western Rajasthan, and the adjoining province of Sind in Pakistan. The inhabitants of these places, reflect a cultural diversity that has resulted from the influx of people over the centuries through Iran and Central Asia.

- The display of embroidery takes place at weddings and religious celebrations.

- Distinctive embroidered clothese are worn as a proud batch of caste and cultural identity. Caste and social status is indicated by the colours and materials used.

- The merchant communities often work on silk where as the farming and pastoral castes usually use cotton and wool.

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4.3 Styles of Domestic Embroidery:

The styles follow rules recognized and strictly

observed throughout a given group. For the embroiderer, the style that she uses is understood as a community.

Embroidery style of a particular community

evolves over generations and reflects the cultural and historical influences.

(a) Sindi Style

- This style is prevalent in the Thar Parpar and adjoining districts of Sind and in western Rajasthan districts of Barmer and Jaisalmer.

- Their work is of two types :

i. Profusely embroidered floral and disguised bird designs mostly on a red background supplemented by mirrors and beaded popoms.

ii.

Couched metal and thread background.

work on

a black

-

The main feature is the lavish application of mirrors. The main types done are chain stitch, Abhla bharat, Heer Bharat and the interlacing stitch of Sindi taropa.

-

Chain stitch is similar to that of Kutch but is done with a white thread and is accompanied with lots of mirrors.

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- Heer bharat is the embroidery done using the untwisted silk thread called the heer in red, white, greed and yellow.

- Base fabric used is cotton of white or indigo colour. The stitches used are elongated darning stitch, which are worked according to the warp or weft of the fabric, chain stitch and herring bone stitch. The motifs used are geometric, borders, eight pointed star patterns and regular treatment of triangles and lozenges, mirrors are used where the designs intersect.

- Abhla Bharat is the use of mirrors on a dark background to produce a glittering effect. The rest of the embroidery is completed with stem or herring bone stitch using silken floss.

- Sindi Taropa

Sindi Taropa commonly known as interlacing stitch practiced at Sindh, Kutch and Kathiawar. In Sindhi Taropa, the movement of the needle and thread is very important, does not bring any newness in the texture but can simply be said that an impression of the ingenuity of the women folk. Interlacing stitch involves two steps of embroidering, where in the first step, the long threads are stitched into the base of the cloth to form base structure or skeleton and in the second step, the thread is interloped through the basic structure or skeleton in reverse direction. The design is composed of small squares, lozenges, chevrons, discs, sometimes interspersed with flowers, birds, animals, etc. According to Jasleen Dhamija, ‗Sindi Taropa‘ was prevalent in Germany but it is really not known whether the Germans have introduced it into India or vice versa.

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4.4

Moti-Bharat

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Gujarat in famous for the bead work or moti Bharat. The beads are not stitched to a background but they are stitched together with a needle and thread. The background is of white beads with various patterns created using coloured beads. She articles made are stiff and nonpriable and thus used for torans, wall hangings, bags, purses, toys.

4.5 Kutch Style

This is practiced by Rabari shepherds, kaubi farming castes, and Ahir herding castes.

(a) Ahir Bharat:

The word Ahir may be derived from the Sanskrit word ‗Abhira‘ meaning milk man.

- The base material used was hand spun, hand woven coarse khaddar. At present the embroidery is done on silk or satin.

- Threads used are untwisted silk floss or twisted silken thread. Colourful threads are used on dark base.

- Stitch used is the chain stitch.

- Motifs used are birds, flowers, creepers, foliages, parrots, peacock, bulbul, dancing doll, karanphool (the flower shaped earring).

- Articles made are choli, pyjamas, jackets, bonnets, caps and other children‘s garments.

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(b) Kanbi Bharat:

Kanbis are basically the cultivators; the Kanbi women engage themselves in this beautiful craft.

-

The thread used is of cotton of yellow, orange, green, white and purple colours.

-

Basic stitches employed are darning for outlining and herring bone for filling.

-

The designs in kanbi bharat have a distinct Persian influence and specific ones are sunflower, kevda and the cactus flower, parrots, peacocks, foliages and creepers are also present.

-

Articles made are covers for animals, conical covers for their horns, embroidered veils and muzzles. Other household articles like covers for wooden boxes, pataras, blankets, quits are commonly made.

(c)

Rabari Work:

Rabaris belong

to

the tribe of

the giri region

of

Gujarat.

Their

embroidery

is

impressive

and

attractive.

- Fabric used is hand woven hand spun khaddar or khadi material which is usually maroon in colour. The rabaris use patches of fabric of different shapes and sizes to produce a bold effect against a plain background. Sometimes patches of patola, satins, bandhini and printed cottons are also taken.

- Embroidery is done with double crossstitch with bird and floral motifs on the borders of the articles.

- The threads used are white, yellow, green and red made of cotton.

- The motifs used are action motifs such as galloping horse, roaring lion, hopping deer; sometimes composite animals like Gajasimha (half elephant and half lion), kinnara (half human and half horse), a swan with 2 heads.

- Articles made are chaklas, torans, bhitiya (wall hangings, cushion covers for divans and bolsters covers).

- Articles made are chaklas, torans, bhitiya (wall hangings, cushion covers for divans and bolsters covers).
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Classification of Gujarat Embroidery

Embroidery of Gujarat

Professional

 

Embroidery

Domestic Embroidery

 

Sindi

Kutch

Mochi Bharat

Style

Style

Chanai Work

Heer

Ahir

Bharat

Bharat

 

Abla

Kaubi

 

Bharat

Bharat

 

Sindi

Rabari

 

Taropa

Work

 

Moti

 
 

Bharat

 

Areas of Production of Gujarat

  Bharat   Areas of Production of Gujarat Areas of Production of Gujarat Embroideries 1. Thar

Areas of Production of Gujarat Embroideries

1. Thar Parpar,

2. Barmer,

3. Jaisalmer,

4. Kutch

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Motif of the Sindi Style of Embroidery

Motif of the Sindi Style of Embroidery Page71
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Motif of the Ahir, Kanbi, Rakari of Embroidery

Page 72 Motif of the Ahir, Kanbi, Rakari of Embroidery
Practical Exercises
Practical Exercises

Each student is required to maintain a research file. This file will have fifty (50) motifs of each embroidery. The motifs will be neatly drawn in pencil. Each motif will be drawn in a square of 3‖ x

3‖.

The students will then pick out motifs and make design compositions. There will be five (5) design compositions for each embroidery, made on 8‖ by 8‖ of ivory sheet. For each composition the student has to use three or more motifs of the traditional embroi-dery. The placement of the motifs can be done in the following ways to make different compositions.

One design composition will be selected by the teacher, painted and then embroidered using traditional colors.

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The students are required to maintain the compositions and samples in a file/folder.

Each student is required to make 2 end products.

The student can select this from the list of end products or think of his/her creative product.

One end product has to be a combination of any 2 embroideries.list of end products or think of his/her creative product. Second end product has to be

Second end product has to be purely based on one embroidery.end product has to be a combination of any 2 embroideries. The traditional motifs can be

The traditional motifs can be stylised, trendy colours can be used; beads, rope, dori, sequence, can be used to enhance the work.

The layout or the placement of motifs on the end product, techniques, colours and embellishments have to be approved by the teacher before the final execution on the end product.

The motifs on the end product need not be necessarily embroidered. They can be painted, machined embroidered or printed.

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List of end Products that can be made by the students

1. Study Table Accessories Paper Weight, Table

Lamp, Card Holder, Pencil Stand, Photo Frame, Soft

Board Frame, Book Rest.

2. Kitchen Articles Aprons, Mittens, Pot Holders,

Mats, Napkins, Napkins Holder, Coasters.

3. Decorative Articles Lamps, Furniture Articles,

Cushion Covers, Bags, Shoes, Belts, Jewellery Articles, Tiles, Blinds.

4. Bathroom

Holder, Towel Ring, Set of Hand Towels, Mirrors.

Accessories

Soap

Case,

Brush

5. The student can think of any other innovative

product and make it.

6. Wall Panels, rugs, partitions.

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Summary:

The special significance of kantha is quilting. Running stitch is the main stitch of kantha embroidery and cotton and silk threads are used for it. Portuguese and European tradition have a great influence on the motifs of kantha. Lotus is the most widely used kantha embroidery. There are different kinds of kanthas named according to its utility like:Arshilata,Bayton,Durjani,Lep,Sujani,Oor,Rumal etc.

Kasuti is the traditional embroidery of Karnataka. Main stitches of kasuti are Gavanti, Murgi, Negi, and Menthi. The motifs used in kasuti embroidery ranged from mythological and architectural to the beautiful flora and fauna.

Traditional embroidery of Punjab is known as phulkari.when the whole fabric is so embroidered that no part of the base fabric is visible,is called Bagh. Darning stitch, chope, Buttonhole, Stem, Herringbone, Running and Chain stitch is used for phulkari

Kutch is the traditional embroidery of gujrat.this embroidery is classified in 2 categories:

Proffesional and Domestic embroidery. The motifs used are buttis (flowers derived from Persian and mughal influence) parrots, figures of women called putli, elephant, birds, creepers, pecock, bulbul etc. The stitches used are chain stitch, mirror work, herringbone, double cross stitch etc.

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Review points:

Kantha is the traditional embroidery of West- Bengal. Which means patched cloth.Page 77 Review points: Base fabric used in kantha was always cotton.silk was also used at

Base fabric used in kantha was always cotton.silk was also used at times.embroidery of West- Bengal. Which means patched cloth. Main stitch of kantha is running stitch but

Main stitch of kantha is running stitch but satin and stem stitches are also used.in kantha was always cotton.silk was also used at times. White cotton threads and sometimes silk

White cotton threads and sometimes silk threads are also used for kantha embroidery.is running stitch but satin and stem stitches are also used. According to utility there is

According to utility there is different types of kanthas like: Bayton, Durjani, Lep, Oor, Arshilata, Sujani, Rumal etc.sometimes silk threads are also used for kantha embroidery. Fine silk,canvas or matty is used for

Fine silk,canvas or matty is used for kasuti.Bayton, Durjani, Lep, Oor, Arshilata, Sujani, Rumal etc. always Stitches in kasuti are vertical,horizontal and

always

etc. Fine silk,canvas or matty is used for kasuti. always Stitches in kasuti are vertical,horizontal and

Stitches

in

kasuti

are

vertical,horizontal and diagonal.

Phulkari

isPhulkari

the traditional embroidery of

Punjab .

Phulkari is the traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope

Phulkari

is the traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber
is the traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber

a.Wedding phulkari

b.Religious phulkari.

traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber c.vari-da-bagh
traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber c.vari-da-bagh
traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber c.vari-da-bagh
traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber c.vari-da-bagh
traditional embroidery of Punjab . Phulkari a.Wedding phulkari b.Religious phulkari. a.Chope b.suber c.vari-da-bagh

a.Chope

b.suber

c.vari-da-bagh

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3.Untwisted silk threads called pat is used for phulkari.Page 78 Kutch embroidery is the famous embroidery of gujrat and gujrat is the world‘s richest

Kutch embroidery is the famous embroidery of gujrat and gujrat is the world‘s richest source of Folk embroidery. gujrat and gujrat is the world‘s richest source of Folk embroidery.

gujrat is the world‘s richest source of Folk embroidery. Terminal questions: 1. What is meant by

Terminal questions:

1. What is meant by kantha

and

is

the

traditional folk art of which place?

2. Art of which place?

3. What are the motifs used for kantha?

4. Name the different types of kantha?

5. What are the base fabrics used for kantha and what are their colours?

6. What are the areas of production of kantha?

7. Name the articles made using the kasuti embroidery?

8.

Name the mythological and the architectural motifs used in kasuti?

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9. What

combinations made in the kasuti embroidery?

10.What is the difference between bagh and phulkari?

11.What are the stitches used in Phulkari?

12.What are Darshan Dwar and Bawan Bagh?

13.Classify the Gujarat embroideries using a flow chart.

14.What is the importance of embroidery in Gujarat?

it

15.What is

most popular colour

is

the

chinai embroidery and why is

called so?

16.What is the characteristic of Sindi Style of embroidery and what are its types?

17.What are the different types of embroidery done in the Kutch style?

Intext Questions:

1. Explain the different types of Kantha detail?

in

2. Explain in detail the stitches used for Kasuti embroidery.

3. What are the different types of phulkaris? Explain in detail.

4. What is Gujrat embroidery? Write the classification of gujrat embroidery in detail.

5. Explain Kutch-style in detail?

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Key words:

1. Manifest: Easily noticed, obvious.

2. Whirl:

3. Notch V shaped or circular cut in an edge or surface.

4. Incised to cut into a design.

5. Influx - a lot of people arriving somewhere.

6. Profusely in large amount.

7. Lozenges a four sided figure like a diamond shape and has 2 opposite angles more than 90 degree and other 2 less than 90 degree.

8. Ingenuity - the ability to invent things.

Assignments:

Students have to make 50 motifs of Kantha embroidery in the Researh file.8. Ingenuity - the ability to invent things. Assignments: Students have to make the painted and

Students have to make the painted and embroidered sample of kantha embroidery.to make 50 motifs of Kantha embroidery in the Researh file. Students have to make 50

Students have to make 50 motifs of each embroidery in the Researh file.the painted and embroidered sample of kantha embroidery. Students have to make the painted and embroidered

Students have to make the painted and embroidered sample of phulkari and kasuti embroidery.to make 50 motifs of each embroidery in the Researh file. Students have to make 50

Students have to make 50 motifs of gujrat embroidery in the research file.and embroidered sample of phulkari and kasuti embroidery. Make painted and emroiderd sample of Kutch embroidey

Make painted and emroiderd sample of Kutch embroidey and make a sample of Moti Bharat also. Size should be 8‖x8‖. also. Size should be 8‖x8‖.

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UNIT-II

Lesson 5: Applique Craft of Orissa Lesson 6: Chikankari of Uttar Pradesh Lesson 7: Chamba Rumal of Himachal Pradesh Lesson 8: Kasida of Kashmir

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Lesson 5: Applique Craft of Orissa Objective: ―To understand the traditional embroidery of Orissa.‖ Structure:
Lesson 5: Applique Craft of
Orissa
Objective:
―To understand the traditional embroidery of
Orissa.‖
Structure:
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Fabric Used
5.3 Threads and Stitches Used
5.4 Motifs Used
5.5 Production
5.1 Introduction

Orissa is situated in the eastern part of the country. The world famous traditional craft of this state is the appliqué craft, a French term exploring about the technology of applying patches of colourful fabric pieces on a base fabric .The row edges are finished with a definite mode of stitchery.

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This is carried out in and around the Puri district, with Pipli as its main centre. It is also called Pipli work.Gangam and Baudh districts also carry out this craft.

work.Gangam and Baudh districts also carry out this craft. Pipli is the capital of applique craft

Pipli is the capital of applique craft in Orissa. Most of the work sold on the street stalls of Pipli is produced for a growing tourist market; however supurb craftwork is still produced and available if you have the time to look around.

The people of Orissa are religious and God fearing. The applique craft of Puri is connected with religious festivals and processions. It is done by the Darji Community. The articles produced traditionally were for the Lord Jagannath Yatra. These were canopies, umbrellas, banners, coverings of dummy horses and cows. Today other articles such as bedspreads cushion covers, bags, garden and sea shore umbrellas and lampshades are made. Many times the applique is combined with embroidery.

5.2

Fabric Used

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The base material has to be strong enough to take the weight of the applique pieces. The fabric used is always cotton usually in dark colours like royal blue, turquoise blue and black. The materials used for the applique is also cotton in bright colours. White is also used for appliques.

Today white and cream base colours are also used.

5.3 Thread and Stitches Used

The appliques are attached to the base fabric by using chain stitch (usually done in white or yellow) and invisible hemming. The threads used are twisted cotton threads. If motifs are embroidered along with the applique, chain stitches are used.base colours are also used. 5.3 Thread and Stitches Used Blanket or buttonhole stitch is used

Blanket or buttonhole stitch is used to finish the fabric from all around and attach mirrors.along with the applique, chain stitches are used. Ruching stitch is used to gather up a

Ruching stitch is used to gather up a strip of cloth to make an applique motifto finish the fabric from all around and attach mirrors. stitch Rumming is sometimes used on

stitchRumming

Rumming

is

sometimes

used

on

the

borders.

The stitches are known by some local names such asRumming is sometimes used on the borders. Chicken for chain stitch. Ganthi for blanket stitch. Taropa

Chicken for chain stitch.borders. The stitches are known by some local names such as Ganthi for blanket stitch. Taropa

Ganthi for blanket stitch.are known by some local names such as Chicken for chain stitch. Taropa for invisible hemming.

Taropa for invisible hemming.are known by some local names such as Chicken for chain stitch. Ganthi for blanket stitch.

Bakhia for running stitch.are known by some local names such as Chicken for chain stitch. Ganthi for blanket stitch.

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5.4 Motifs Used

The craft of Orissa is mainly connected with religious festivals and processions, the motifs picked up are from actual life, modified stylized forms, nature, animals and plant kingdom, and of course geometrical as per the shapes of the article. The commodity used motifs are ,lotus, duck, peacock, elephant, swan, parrot, fish, lion, betel leaf, bela leaf, creeper, tree, (gachha), sun (Surya), moon (Chandra), and rahu (the demon that swallows sun and the moon during eclipses).

moon (Chandra), and rahu (the demon that swallows sun and the moon during eclipses). A colourful
moon (Chandra), and rahu (the demon that swallows sun and the moon during eclipses). A colourful

A colourful display of Applique

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5.5 Production

1. Selection of the design is the first step involved, followed by cutting the motifs from the selected appliques material. However, specially prepared motifs are made separately.

2. These motifs are then placed on the base cloth in predetermined layout and sequence.

3. The raw edges of the cut motifs are neatly and evenly turned in and sewn on to the base or sometimes embroidered without turning the raw edges.

4. The layout of the motifs varies according to the size and articles to be prepared since the shape varies for each article, Canopy is a square piece, umbrella is circular, trasa is somewhat circular, having a small pointed part of the circumference as neck. The motifs are encircled with number of borders, inside and outside, many times it even reaches the edges of the ground fabric For example the square or circular motif, which later is bound by several borders of different widths.

5. The size of applique piece varies from one metre to a very small size of 1.5 cms. The small pieces are for fine decorations and borders whereas the large pieces of geometrical pieces are used as central motifs for canopies and so on. The natural and stylized motifs in the design through medium size either reduced or enlarged according to the size of the piece. Sometimes the figured motifs are padded to bring about embossed effect and make them more naturalistic. The local market for these products is limited. The Government is trying to make an effort to enter the international market by improving the products and establishing cooperative societies.

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Applique end-products

Applique wall-hanging PAppliqué jhallar Page92
Applique wall-hanging
PAppliqué jhallar
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Page 93
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Page 94 Applique Jhallar
Page 94 Applique Jhallar

Applique Jhallar

Areas of Production for Orissa Applique

Areas of Production for Orissa Applique 1. Pipli 2. Gangam 3. Bandh Page95

1. Pipli

2. Gangam

3. Bandh

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Lesson 6: Chikankari of Uttar Pradesh Objective: Understand the traditional embroideries of Uttar pradesh Learn
Lesson 6: Chikankari of
Uttar Pradesh
Objective:
Understand the traditional embroideries of
Uttar pradesh
Learn the stitches of Chikankari
Structure:
6.1 History of Chikankari
6.2 Fabric Used
6.3 Thread Used
6.4 Motifs
6.5 Stitches Used
6.6 Production
6.7 Metal Work of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is a land of overwhelming contrasts, where extremes are normality. The Ganges dominates the state, emerging from the foothills of the Himalayas to the last expanse of plains, passing though he holy city of the Varanasi.

Uttar Pradesh is famous for its finely woven Brocades metal work and the delicate chikan work also called white work.

Lucknow the capital of Uttar Pradesh is famous for

this work. Lucknow

name as Avadh. In 1775 it began to attract craftsmen, artists and musicians, who were patronised by the court. One of the crafts that

city with its earlier

is

an old

Page105

developing during this time was the Chikankari a kind of white work.

6.1 History of Chikankari

Chikankari a kind of white work. 6.1 History of Chikankari Chikankari work is thought to have
Chikankari a kind of white work. 6.1 History of Chikankari Chikankari work is thought to have

Chikankari work is thought to have organized in Bengal and practiced in Dhaka and Calcutta. The Jamdani weaving and European white work must have been influential in giving rise to this work.

From 1850 onwards a very fine, white on white on Jamdani was produced in Tanda, near Faizabad, to the East of the Lucknow. It is said that this marked the beginning of Chikankari work in Lucknow.

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‗Chikan‘ means ―to raise‖ and ‗kari‘ means ―work The name ‗chikan‘ seems to have been derived from the Persian word, either ‗Chikan‘, ‗Chikin‘ or ‗Chikeen‘. It means a kind of cloth wrought with needlework. Although it originated as a court craft, today it is a practiced tradition and an important commercial activity.

Chikan work has a very light, gossamer like quality. This makes it very suitable for the seemingly hot climate of the northern plain region. It can be assumed that Chikankari, using sheer fabrics evolved as a logical answer to the problem of keeping cool and also providing adornment and beauty to one‘s person or in the surroundings. it is thought that Noor Jehan got inspired by the Turkish Architecture (seen in Taj Mahal) and produced this raised effect on white fabric with white threads to show the carvings and trellis on the marbel. Chikankari is thought to be her personal creation.

6.2 Fabric Used

Traditionally very fine cotton, or muslin was used, generally white in color. Now all kinds sheer fabrics like organdy, chiffons, georgettes, silk, jute are also used. The colours used are all pastel colors of pink, blue, peach, pistagreen. Black is also used as the ground color.

6.3 Thread Used

White untwisted cotton or sometimes twisted silk threads were used.

6.4

Motifs

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Strictly floral motifs and paisleys are used. This embroidery is done by the Muslim workers; thus no animal and human figures.

by the Muslim workers; thus no animal and human figures. 6.5 Stitches Used Six basic stitches

6.5 Stitches Used

Six basic stitches are used. Some work from the right and others from the wrong side of the fabric.

1. Taipchi: Running stitch worked on the right side of the fabric. It is occasionally done within parallel rows to fill petals and leaves in a motif, called ghaspatti. Sometimes taipchi is used to make the bel buti all over the fabric. This is the simplest chikan stitch and often serves as a basis for further ssssembellishment. It resembles jamdani and is considered the cheapest and the quickest stitch.

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a) Pechni: Taipchi is sometime used as a base for working other variations and pechni is one of them. Here the taipchi is covered by entwining the thread over it in a regular manner to provide the effect of something like a lever spring and is always done on the right side on the cloth.

b) Pashni: Taipchi is worked to outline a motif and then covered with minute vertical satin stitches over about two threads and is used for fine finish on the inside of badla.

2. Bakhia:

is

often referred to as shadow work. It is of two

types:

It

is

the most common stitch and

(a) Ulta Bakhia: The floats lie on the reverse of

the fabric underneath the motif. The transparent

muslin becomes opaque and provides a beautiful effect of light and shade.

(b) Sidhi Bakhia: Satin stitch with criss-crossing

of individual threads. The floats of thread lie

on the surface of the fabric. This is used to fill

the forms and there is no light or shade effect.

3. Katao: Khatao, khatava or katava is cutwork or appliqué - more a technique than a stitch. Rampur and Aligarh have special work when the applique is done using invisible hemming. All the patches are cut and folded to form lozenges.

A single lozenge works out as leaf and 4 to 6 are

put together to form a flower. Stem stitch is used to embroider stems.

4.

Gitti: A combination of buttonhole and long satin stitch, usually used to make a wheel-like motif. Button hole used for small circular flowers.

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5. Jangira: Chain stitch usually used as outlines in combination with a line of pechni or thick taipchi.

The bolder or knottier stitches include the following:

6. Murri: A very minute satin stitch in which a knot is formed over already outlined taipchi stitches.

a knot is formed over already outlined taipchi stitches. 7. Phanda: It is a smaller shortened

7. Phanda: It is a smaller shortened form of murri. The knots are spherical and very small, not pear shaped as in murri. This is a difficult stitch and requires very good craftsmanship.

8. Jaalis: The jaalis or trellises that are created in chikankari are a unique speciality of this craft. The holes are made by manipulation of the needle without cutting or drawing of thread. The threads of the fabric are teased apart to make neat regular holes or jaalis. In other centres where jaalis are done, the threads have to be

drawn out. In chikankari, this is not the case. Names of jaali techniques suggest the place where they originated from --- Madrasi jaali or Bengali jaali ---- or possibly the place of demand for that particular jaali. The basic manner in which jaalis are created is by pushing aside wrap and weft threads in a fashion that minute openings are made in the cloth. Shape of openings and the stitches used distinguish one jaali from another.

6.6 Production

The commercial chikankari work is organized and carried out by men. Men and women both carry out the embroidery work. The designs are block printed on the fabric. Temporary colors like geru in water or ultramarine blue (neel) in kerosene are used for block printing the designs. After the embroidery is done, the products are washed, starched and ironed.

The articles produced are sarees, salwar kurtas, dupattas, shirts, bed and table linen. Lots of variations are produced today. Chikankari work in done along with sequins, and beads on brightly coloured fabrics, to suit the modern taste.

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6.7 Metal Work of Uttar Pradesh

Banaras and Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh are famous for metal weaving and embroidery. The metal wire kalabattun or zari as it is popularly called was a finally drawn silver wire with of plating gold. To cut down the cost, a copper wire was plated with gold. Cheap immitations of zari are nowadays available; a synthetic golden or silver thread is wrapped over a core of cotton thread.

Lucknow‘s zardoshi and kamdani are the most popular. Different types of materials used are:

are the most popular. Different types of materials used are: Zardosi (a) Salma – Very thin

Zardosi

(a) Salma Very thin twisted metal wire.

(b)Zari Threads with gold or silver coating.

(c) Gajai a cicular thin stift wire used for outline.

(d)Tilli/Sitara Sequins.

(e)

Mukaish/Badla Thin small metal sheet which is pressed into the fabric and folded.

(f)

Moti Beads (golden, silver or white) are used along with the work to fill up designs or empty spaces.

Salma and Gajai Moti Moti Page112

Salma and Gajai Moti

Moti Page112
Moti
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Sitara Zari Page113

Sitara

Zari Page113
Zari
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Page 114 Mukaish/Badla Moti

Mukaish/Badla

Page 114 Mukaish/Badla Moti

Moti

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Area of Production - Chikankari

Page 115 Area of Production - Chikankari 1. Lucknow

1. Lucknow

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Kalka (Kair Motif) Page120
Kalka (Kair Motif)
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Summary:

The world famous traditional craft of Orissa is known as appliqué craft. In this art row edges are finished with a definite mode of stitchery. The threads used are twisted cotton threads. Stitches used for appliqué are: Chain stitch, invisible hemming, Blanket stitch, Running stitch, Ruching stitch etc.

Chikankari is the traditional embroidery of Uttar Pradesh. It is also known as White work. IT is done on very fine cotton and main stitches used are:

Bukhia, Katao, Murri, Taipchi, Buttonhole and Jali work.

Revision points:

Traditional craft of orissa is called ‗Applique craft‘.Murri, Taipchi, Buttonhole and Jali work. Revision points: Pipli, in puri dist. Is its main center

Pipli, in puri dist. Is its main center so it is also called pipli work?Traditional craft of orissa is called ‗Applique craft‘. Fabric used is always cotton in dark colours.

Fabric used is always cotton in dark colours.dist. Is its main center so it is also called pipli work? The appliqués are attached

The appliqués are attached to the base fabric by using chain stitch and invisible hemming.pipli work? Fabric used is always cotton in dark colours. Motifs are picked up from actual

Motifs are picked up from actual life, modified stylized forms, nature, animals and plant kingdome.the base fabric by using chain stitch and invisible hemming. Uttar Pradesh is famous for its

Uttar Pradesh is famous for its finely Woven Brocades, metal work and delicate chikan work .modified stylized forms, nature, animals and plant kingdome. Traditionally very fine cotton or muslin was used,

Traditionally very fine cotton or muslin was used, generally white in colour and white cotton (untwisted) or sometimes twisted silk threads were used.finely Woven Brocades, metal work and delicate chikan work . Strictly Floral motifs and paisleys are

Strictly Floral motifs and paisleys are used for chikankari.colour and white cotton (untwisted) or sometimes twisted silk threads were used. Metal work of U.P.

Metal work of U.P. is also very famous.(untwisted) or sometimes twisted silk threads were used. Strictly Floral motifs and paisleys are used for

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In text Questions:

1. What are the different steps involved in the production of Appliques of Orissa?

2. What is Applique? What are the threads and stitches used for Orissa Applique?

3. What kind of fabric is used for the base material of Orissa Applique?

4. What are the threads and stitches used Orissa Applique?

5. What are the different steps involved in the production of Appliques of Orissa?

6. What are the motifs and colours used for Orissa Appliqués?

7. What are the different thoughts of origin for Chikankari Embroidery?

for

8. What

for

are

the

different

fabrics

used

chikankari?

9. Why are there no human or animal figures in chikankari?

10.What

different

are

the

stitches

used

for

Chikankari?

11.What are the articles produced in Chikankari?

12.What are the different types of materials used for the metal work of Uttar Pradesh?

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Terminal Questions:

1. What are kind of fabric is used for the basic material of Orissa Applique?

Orissa

2. The

motifs

and

colours

used

for

Appliques?

3. What are the different stitches used for Chikankari ? Explain.

4. What are the different thoughts of origin for Chikankari embroidery?

5. What are the different fabrics used for Chikankari

?

6. Why are there no human or animal figures in Chikankari ?

7. What are the articles produced in Chikankari ?

8. What are the different types of materials used for the metal work of Uttar Pradesh?

Assignments:

Students have to make 50 motifs of each embroidery in research file.used for the metal work of Uttar Pradesh? Assignments: Students have to make the painted and

Students have to make the painted and embroidered sample of Appliquehave to make 50 motifs of each embroidery in research file. Students have to make painted

Students have to make painted and embroidered sample of Chikankari.have to make the painted and embroidered sample of Applique Key Words: 1. Trellis narrow pieces

Key Words:

1. Trellis

narrow

pieces of wood that cross each other,used to support.

A light

frame made of long

2. Immitation Easy to copy with same effect.

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Lesson 7: Chamba Rumal of Himachal Pradesh Objective: To understand the traditional embroidery of Himachal
Lesson 7: Chamba Rumal of
Himachal Pradesh
Objective:
To understand the traditional embroidery of
Himachal Pradesh - Chamba Rumal.
Structure:
7.1 Fabric Used
7.2 Threads Used
7.3 Stitches Used
7.4 Motifs used
7.5 Transfer of Design of Fabric
7.6 Main Themes in the Embroidery

Himachal, the term is derived from Sanskrit where ‗Him‘ means snow and ‗Achal‘ means lap, which depicts that the state has abundant snowfall during the winter. Himachal was ruled by brave and chivalrous Ranas and Thakurs.

The existence of this embroidery goes back to the 15 th Century. Buddhist literature mentions that embroidery was practiced in Pathankot, Chamba and other neighbouring remote villages like Basoni, Nurpur, Kangra, Kullu and Mandi. The embroidery depicted a fine, delicate, perfect manual work called needle miniatures of Himachal or ‗Pahari Rumal‘.

A legend says that a ‗rumal‘ (handkerchief), was embroidered by Bebe Nanki, sister of Guru Nanak Dev (14691539), and presented to him during his

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wedding in late 15 th Century. This rumal had a cream colour base with beautiful human figures, evergreen trees and colourful blossoms. It is still preserved in the Gurudwara of Gurdaspur.

In Jatoka tales, a mention was made about these beautiful embroidery done in Pathankot, Chamba and other surrounding places. During 1009 A.D. the Kangra fort was captured by Gazani Mohammed who looted all the splendid textiles of Himachal Pradesh. The Romans describe the embroidery of Chamba as ‗needle painting‘. The facial expressions of the figures are vivid and lively and the bodies are full of movement as it developed a style of its own.

In Chamba it is said that during 1750s Umed Singh was a great lover of art, and his patronity continued with Raja Jit Singh, during 1800. It was probably during this era, the Pahari craft flourished in this state. Since then Himachal embroidery is famous as ‗Chamba‘.

7.1 Fabric Used

Traditionally the ground fabric used was two types of unbleached cotton cloth, first being the light weight, fine, delicate, cambric like, semitransparent, manufactured at Sialkot (presently in Pakistan), Amritsar and Ludhiana. Second type being handspun, handwoven coarser, relatively heavier khaddar. In later period the unbleached cotton material was replaced by mill made cotton cloth. However, cream or white coloured Tassar Silk material was also commonly used for making rumals. Today, according to the taste, demand fashion trend and availability the ground fabric employed being terycot, organdie, linen, poplin and muslin of either white or light colour.

7.2

Threads Used

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The threads used for embroidery were untwisted pat, which gave rich effect against dull rustic cotton ground. It produced an impression of smooth, glossy, gorgeous surface enrichment. However, the infinite shades and tints of bright, brilliant and contrasting colours were used. Most commonly used colours are red, yellow, green, blue, crimson and purple. Blue colour is always used for Krishna, whenever he is bear chested and crimson for feet. Red, Blue and white colours are used for Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara respectively. Gopis in vivid colours or yellow and green or dark pink or crimson combination. The outline of the motif is always worked with black. At present, the embroidery is done with twisted silk or chiffon threads. Pat has been replaced because of its low strength and difficulty in handling.

7.3 Stitches Used

Embroidery is done with double satin stitch done in both right and wrong side, where the effect is reversible. It is done so finely that not only the background is hardly visible but very difficult to identify the right side, since the work is never started with a knot but with a back stitch and the threads never been joined by knots. It was also observed that in some of the old wall hangings, chain stitch was used for both filling and outlining, in which case right and wrong side of the work was clearly identified. However, chain stitch was not practiced on rumals. Gujjar women used darning, sometimes even herringbome and satin stitches.

7.4

Motifs used

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Motifs, in Himachal embroidery consists of symbolic animals like leaping tigers, running goats, cantering horses, fleeting rams, jumping deer, along with cows, calves, horses, elephants, snakes; bird motifs comprised of peacock, parrot, used may be as symbolic or purely as decorative. Sometimes these motifs are used in single to fill up the empty places. Single bird signified a sad, solitary one waiting for the male, a couple symbolized union of two souls.

Rumals comprised of elliptical frame work, having two to three inches of floral bodies on all the four sides. Center of the rumal has creeper motif guldasta in the corners, pointing either towards the centre or towards the corner. Sometimes the complete rumal has the motifs of animals, birds, trees, creeper and foliages giving an impression of Bagh, moreover, the cyprus tree is also widely used. It is also observed that many musical instruments such as flute, Tambura, Drums (Dholaks), Veena, Sitar, Tabala are used in the art. Muslim Gujjar women used geometrical motifs, included triangle, squares, diamonds, rectangle, hexagonals and circles. However, most of the figures and motifs were simplified, i.e., the body of human figure is cone shape with a face and the elephant appeared like a rectangular, box moving steadily with a lotus on the trunk.

7.5 Transfer of Design of Fabric

Hand drawing or free style mode was used for outlining the motif, carried out exclusively by women. These women drew figures of their own creations. Earlier charcoal was used to trace the outlines, but oil method is used. Oil method consists of rubbing cotton wool dipped in blue dye (neel) and

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kerosene oil on design sheets which are perforated. The kerosene seeps on to the fabric and thus transfers the design.

7.6 Main Themes in the Embroidery

There is a great influence of Mythology on the themes of paintings and embroidery. Along with the themes of Bhagawat Purana, Krishna Leela and Mahabharat, it is observed that Raga Ragini and Baramasa are also used abundantly, which is an influence of Vaishanva cult. The dancing figures appeared so vivid that they are rarely in motion. It is to say that Krishna in all his various forms and characters occupied the central figure of much of Himachal embroidery.

The scene of Rasa Lila is another common theme where the blue bodied Krishna leads the gopies in circular dance posture. The Rumals display other folk styles like marriage of Krishna and Rukmini, Vishnu in a lotus, Ganesh, Vishnu-Laxmi, Pahari women playing musician instruments, men smoking hukka, the pipe and so on.

1. Rasmandala

Here the centre of the theme depicts Lord Vishnu sitting in the Padma, the lotus has four arms, each holding a padma, a Gada (lotus bud), a Shankh (conch shell) and his weapon, the Sudarshan Chakra. However, the figures were disproportionate and many times the human figures have bird like faces. The other empty part of the rumal is covered with floral and guldasta motifs, except the corners which had human figures (Gopies) playing Dholak.

2.

Kaliya Damana

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Krishna killing the horrified kaliya kalinga sarpa (serpent), who lived in Jamuna river.

3. Samundra Manthana

The ocean was churned by Devas (Gods) and Asuras (Demons) using a serpent, Vasuki as rope and mountain Meru as the churning rod. Both nectar and poison were the products of Samundra Manthana. However, many more things emerged out of the ocean due to the vigorous elaborate churning. And this scene of Samundra Manthana has been taken as a motif of embroidery of rumal and wall hanging. Since, this being an elaborate scene, the motifs is divided into several panels embroidered individually and later joined all of them together. This miniature style has some what proportionate human figures, exhibiting delineated forms. A largest motif of Samudra Manthana was eight feet wide and two feet long.

4. Rukmini Harana

The elopement of Rukmini and her marriage is the gist of the theme. It is an elaborate theme, embroidered on rumal depicting the various ceremonial activities performed on one part and preparation of Rukmini‘s wedding on the other. The scene exhibits, Rukmini grooming and decking up for her wedding, women engaged in various activities, musicians playing music, Sahelies (friends) of Rukmini busy in carrying out various chores, Rukmini praying, Lord Krishna taking Rukmini in his chariot, couple sitting in front of the vedi, the place where marriage rites performed, priest enchanting the mantras and performing marriage rites. Barat, the procession of marriage,

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involving royal animals like, saddled horse, elephants, drum beaters, musicians playing Ransingha and so on. However these scenes were more emphasised and beautified by use of various flowers, foliages, birds and fruits, may be in between to fill the empty gaps or as borders.

5. Battle of Kurukshetra

Mahabharat is one of the great epics of India and many themes of this epic is chosen for the embroidery. However, the most commonly found ones are the battle of Kurukshetra and exile of the Pandavas. This battle is elaborately depicted on a five feet wide and one and a half feet long panel of base material. Pandavas occupy the left hand side of the panel along with Lord Krishna on his chariot, Kauravas on the right hand side and Abhimanyu is placed in centre of the panel, showing the picture of being caught in the Chakravihu.

6. Raga Ragini

Raga, the tune of song and Ragini, the mode of song expressing the base for songs sung in a minimum of six versions. The Pahari painters were greatly influenced by the Vaishnavas, the Kshina cult, during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and adopted Ragmala (Sangeeta Mala) theme. The popular Raga Ragini themes are Raga megha, Raga hindola, Raga vasanta, Raga todi, Raga bhairavi and so on. The themes expressed the mode, mood, time, day, season, month during which the particular Raga is being sung.

7.

Minjar Mela Jalus

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‗Minjar‘ the tassels, ‗Mela‘ the fair, and ‗Jalus‘ the procession, depicts the procession during the Mela. Minjar Mela is very famous festival of the ‗Chamba‘ where the people of sacrifice Minja in the river Ravi; to dive away the evil spirits and pray for their prosperity.

8. The Gujjar Theme

The Muslim gujjar women usually carried out embroidery locally, taking all the motifs from nature expect, human and bird figures. However, it has the resemblance of Phulkari of Punjab. An elaborate gujjar work is divided into number of penels of either square or rectangular for convenience, treated as an important segment having geometrical motifs. However, the most important and common elliptical floral framework does not exist.

A large number of household textile articles are prepared of Chamba embroidery. And the most common is the rumal, almost synonymous with the work, whose size ranged from twenty to thirty five inches. Wall hanging with various themes from Mahabharat, Purana ranged from two to feet rectangular shapes. Sometimes even cholis are embroidered.

Chamba rumal are versatile in their utility, used as a cover while offering gifts in the Mandir, the temple, either to deity or priest called ―Eathaparu‖; an immensely decorated oval or circular rumal hung behind the statue of deity is ―Chhabru‖; a rectangular or oblong wall hanging draped behind the idol in the temples is ―Chandoa‖ are now becoming rare. Though rumals are no longer used

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as covers, it is customary for the girl to possess at least a rumal in the trousseau. Rumals were also used to cover the gifts that were the exchanged during weddings.

Unlike Punjabi girls being expertised in Phulkari in their early adolescencehood, girls of Himachal do start learning this art at an early teens and of course their skill in handicraft was one of the measuring sticks in selecting the bride and judging her ability as a house wife during matrimonial negotiations. Even now, it is a custom of Chamba girls to prepare a rumal, exhibiting her art and skill and a way of maintaining the traditional custom of Chamba families.

prepare a rumal, exhibiting her art and skill and a way of maintaining the traditional custom

Ras-lila

Rasmandala Page137

Rasmandala

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Das Avtar, Chamba Rumal, c 19th century A.D. Indian Ludo Page138

Das Avtar, Chamba Rumal, c 19th century A.D.

Indian Ludo Page138
Indian Ludo
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"Gaddi-Gaddan" Page139

"Gaddi-Gaddan"

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Area of Production of Chamba Rumal

Page 143 Area of Production of Chamba Rumal

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Lesson 8: Kasida of Kashmir Objective: ―To understand the traditional embroidery of Jammu and Kashmir.‖
Lesson 8: Kasida of Kashmir
Objective:
―To understand the traditional embroidery of
Jammu and Kashmir.‖
Structure:
8.1 History of the Kashmir Shawl
8.2 Technique Used
8.3 Types of Woven Shawls
8.4 Evolution of Embroidered Shawls
8.5 Floor Coverings of Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is the Northern most state in India. The locality is embedded with enchanting and beautiful flora and fauna, lakes, hills and streams all around. This has inspired many writers, poets, artists and craftsmen.

A legend reveals that a semitic tribe ―kash‖ including Herbews, Arabic Jews, inhabited Kashmir much before 541 AD. This might be one of the reason for the title Kashmir.

8.1 History of the Kashmir Shawl

The shawl industry in Kashmir was introduced by ZairUlAbidin, the ruler from 14201470 A.D. It appears that he was taken into captivity at Samarkand (Persia). He got interested in the various crafts going on there. When he returned to India, he sent people in search of talented craftsmen. Thus the shawl weavers from Persia were brought to India.

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Reference to the kashmir shawl is made in AinIAkbari by Abdul Fazal where he says that the Emperor Akbar was a keen admirer of the shawl. It is Akbar who is responsible for introducing a new type of shawl called the ‗Doushala‘ meaning twin shawl.

The demand for shawls increased during the mughal times. By the 18 th century they were being exported to Europe, where it became a fashionable wrap by the elite.

By the end of 19 th century the shawl industry declined due to many reasons. Cheap versions of exquisite woven shawls of kashmir were being now made on the Jacquard loom in Europe.

8.2 Technique Used

Traditional woven shawls of Kashmir are called ―Kanihama‖ or ―kanihar‖ or ―Kani‖ or ―jamavar‖ shawls.

These were made by a labourers and a slow process of weaving 2/2 twill tapestry weave. The raw material used was the fleece of a wild goat called capra hircus. This fleece locally called ―pashm‖; another raw material called ‗toosh‘ was used, which is the hair of dead chiru antelopoe. This gave rise to Pashmina and Shatoosh shawls respectively, the latter being very rare and more expensive shawl. [Note : The chiru antelope is on the list of endangered species and is thus illegal to process toosh.]

8.3

Types of Woven Shawls

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1. Pashmina Shawls : Majority of the Kashmir shawls are made from the fleece of capra hircus.

2. Doshala : Two identical shawls stitched together with their wrong sides facing each other, so that when dropped over the shoulder, the wrong side was not visible.

3. Dorookha : Double sided work in which there is no wrong or right side.

4. Kasba Shawl: Square in shape and produced on amount of European demand.

5. Jamavar Shawls : Woven wholly of wool or some cotton mixed, but the floral designs and brocaded parts are generally in the silk or pashm wool.

8.4 Evolution of Embroidered Shawls:

An Armenian named Khawafa Yusuf came to Kashmir from Constantinople in 1803 to purchase shawls. He found that the price of the shawl was exhorbitant and that there was heavy taxation on the looms. He got the idea of producing a shawl with the help of a ‗Rafoogar‘. The Rafoogars used to actually stitch up 2 shawls of smaller width with tiny stitches. These tiny stitches were so fine that it was difficult to make out the joint. Thus with the help of a rafoogar, the jamavar pattern was copied in embroidery on a plain woven shawl. The cost of the shawl was much less as they were exempted from the taxes imposed upon the loom shawls. These shawls came to be known as Amli Shawls.

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To begin with, the purpose of embroidery was to imitate the designs of woven shawls; but later the embroiderers created their own style.

Process: The plain shawl is placed on a smooth flat surface and rubbed with a piece of polished agate [Type of stone] till it becomes perfectly even. The design is drawn on a paper and outlines are pierced with a needle. Charcoal powder is rubbed on the paper. It perforates through the holes to transfer the design on to the fabric.

The design is them outlines with ‗kalam‘ the pen.

Fabric Used:

The base fabric used for embroidery is pashmina either in its natural colours of beige to offwhite or dyed in dark colours of maroon, navy blue, dark green, peach and orange. Silkpashmina or pashminawool blends are also used.

Threads Used:

Fine, single strands of silk and cotton threads are used for fine embroidery. Wool is also used for embroidering. Threads of white, green, purple, blue, yellow, black, crimson, searlet colours are used. Inexpensive artificial silk (rayon) thread is also used.

Stitches Used:

Stitches commonly used in the Kashmir embroidery are chain stitch, darning stitch, stem stitch and sometimes a knot stitch called doori.

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Kasida has 3 main styles of needle work.

a) Sozni and Rezkari: Done on shawls and long dresses. Very intricate work with its main stitches as stem, Rumanian and satin stitches.

b) Ari Work: This is also called Zalakdozi which is done with the help of an ‗ari‘ or rook. Floral designs are worked in concentric rings in chain stitch.

c) Kashmiri

Couching:

metallic and nonmetallic threads.

This

is

Motifs used:

done

in

both

The designs in the embroideries are evenly balanced. Animal and human figures are not seen in the Kashmiri embroidery, because of the muslim influence. Motifs used are parrot, woodpecker, canary, kingfisher, iris, lotus, lily, saffron, gopis, plums, cherries, almonds and apple. The chinar or the maple leaf is considered to be an important design. Another important motif is the tear drop or the cone motif. This motif has been found as early as the Babylonian civilization and is believed to have represented the growing shoot of the all nourishing date palm. It is he symbol of the tree of life, one of the oldest and most powerful of all motifs; and is symbolic of growth. It was a popular element of the Persian design designs and is thus seen in the Kashmiri shawls. It is also called the almond mango or the paisley motif.

The embroidered shawls are known by different names, depending on the area where the shawl is embroidered.

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a) Kashida Border design which runs all along the length of the shawl on both sides.

b) Phala Embroidery is done both ends of the article, popularly known as pallu.

c) Tangir or Zanjir is the border done with chain stitch.

d) Kunj buta is the cluster of flowers in a corner.

e) Buta is the generic name for a floral design.

When buttas are in two rows its called dokad; in five rows its called sehkad; in more than five rows its called Tukadar. Matan Bagh consists of floral sprays.

8.5 Floor Coverings of Kashmir:

Numbdha : It is a piece of pressed felt made either out of woollen or a woolcotton blend. Wool fibers, usually of a poor quality are washed and pressed for felting. These are then dried, cut to desired shape and embroidered. Shape of the Numbdha can be square, oval, round, or rectangular. Chain stitch is done in bright colours with the woolen yarn. The base of the numbdha makes a warm, colourful and inexpensive floor covering.

Gabba: It is an inexpensive floor covering prepared from torn woolen shawls and blankets. This is a household craft and done the members of the family. Old pieces of blankets are stitched up, and backing is done with waste cotton cloth; these are then washed and dyed. Gabbas are of two types (a) Embroidered, where bold and vivid embroidery is done mostly in woolen yarn using chain stitch (b) Appliquéd, where pieces of dyed blankets, cut out in designs are appliqued using the button hole stitch. This is sometimes interspersed with embroidery.

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The ready gabba has bright flashes of design on a dark and somber background.

Tapestry Work: is another kind of Kashmiri embroidery where Dasuta the canvas cloth is embroidered using a blunt tapestry needle.

The material is stretched on a wooden frame with the tracing kept along its side. The woolen thread is used to embroider the design with a whip stitch by counting the threads. It is a labourious work and takes nearly a month and a half to complete a carpet of 3‖ x 5‖. Tapestry work is popularly done in Srinagar and Anantnag.

Other articles produced are bed covers, teacosy covers, cushions covers, sarees, fabric lengths and stoles.

Kasida is a cottage industry. This commercial art is done by the men folk (reason why no domestic articles are seen as motifs, as in phulkari) and is passed on from father to the son. Boys in the family about seven to eight years learn simple stitches and master the art by providing the cloth and design. The craftsmen have a choice over threads and colour combinations. Kashmir embroidery not only provides employment and livelihood to thousands of people but it depicts the rich century old tradition and heritage of India.

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Areas of Production

Page 159 Areas of Production Areas of Production – Kasida of Kashmir 1. Srinagar 2. Anantnag

Areas of Production Kasida of Kashmir

1. Srinagar

2. Anantnag

3. Jammu

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Motifs for Kashmiri Sozni & Rezkari

Page 160 Motifs for Kashmiri Sozni & Rezkari

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Motifs for Kashmiri Sozni & Rezkari

Page 161 Motifs for Kashmiri Sozni & Rezkari

Kashmiri

Kashmiri Page162
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Kashmiri

Page 163 Kashmiri

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Summary:

The world famous traditional craft of Orissa is known as appliqué craft. In this art row edges are finished with a definite mode of stitchery. The threads used are twisted cotton threads. Stitches used for appliqué are: Chain stitch, invisible hemming, Blanket stitch, Running stitch, Ruching stitch etc.

Chikankari is the traditional embroidery of Uttar Pradesh. It is also known as White work. IT is done on very fine cotton and main stitches used are:

Bukhia, Katao, Murri, Taipchi, Buttonhole and Jali work.

Chamba embroidery depicted a fine, delicate, perfect manual work called needle miniatures of himachal or ‗pahari rumal‘. It is also known as ‗needle painting‘. Traditionally unbleached cotton and hand woven khaddar is used for chamba rumal. Untwisted silk threads used for embroidery, which gave rich effect against dull rustic cotton background. Main stitches used are : Double chain stitch, Darning stitch and sometimes herringbone and satin stitches are also used. Motifs of chamba embroidery are influenced by Indian Mythology.

Traditional embroidey of Kashmir is known as kasida.Origanally kasida embroidey done on kashmiri shawls, these shawls are known as kanihama/jamavar shawls.these shawls were made by 2/2 twill tapestry weave. Main types of woven shawls are : Pashmina shawls, Do-shala, Do-rookha, kosba shawls, Jamavar shawls.

The base fabric used for embroidery is pashmina and fine, sigle strands of silk and cotton threads are used for kashida embroidery main stitches used in kashmiri embroidery are chain stitch, darning stitch, stem stitch and sometimes a knot stitch called doori. The designs in the embroideries are evenly

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balanced. Animal and human figures are not seen in the Kashmiri embroidery, because of the muslim influence. Motifs used are parrot, woodpecker, canary, kingfisher, iris, lotus, lily, saffron, gopis, plums, cherries, almonds and apple. The chinar or the maple leaf is considered to be an important design.

Revision points:

Traditional craft of orissa is called ‗Applique craft‘.is considered to be an important design. Revision points: Pipli, in puri dist. Is its main

Pipli, in puri dist. Is its main center so it is also called pipli work?Traditional craft of orissa is called ‗Applique craft‘. Fabric used is always cotton in dark colours.

Fabric used is always cotton in dark colours.dist. Is its main center so it is also called pipli work? The appliqués are attached

The appliqués are attached to the base fabric by using chain stitch and invisible hemming.pipli work? Fabric used is always cotton in dark colours. from actual life, modified stylized forms,

from actual life,

modified stylized forms, nature, animals and plant kingdome.

Motifs are pickedmodified stylized forms, nature, animals and plant kingdome. up Uttar Pradesh is famous for its finely

up

Uttar Pradesh is famous for its finely Woven Brocades, metal work and delicate chikan work .nature, animals and plant kingdome. Motifs are picked up Traditionally very fine cotton or muslin was

Traditionally very fine cotton or muslin was used, generally white in colour and white cotton (untwisted) or sometimes twisted silk threads were used.finely Woven Brocades, metal work and delicate chikan work . Strictly Floral motifs and paisleys are

Strictly Floral motifs and paisleys are used for chikankari.(untwisted) or sometimes twisted silk threads were used. Metal work of U.P. is also very famous.

Metal work of U.P. is also very famous.Strictly Floral motifs and paisleys are used for chikankari. Chamba Rumal is the famous embroidery of

Chamba Rumal is the famous embroidery of Himachal Pradesh.used for chikankari. Metal work of U.P. is also very famous. Traditionally unbleached cotton and hand

Traditionally unbleached cotton and hand woven Khadder is used for chamba emb.used for chikankari. Metal work of U.P. is also very famous. Chamba Rumal is the famous

Page169

The threads used for chamba embroidery is untwisted silk thread.Page 169 There is a great influence of Mythology on the themes of chamba Rumal. Double

There is a great influence of Mythology on the themes of chamba Rumal.threads used for chamba embroidery is untwisted silk thread. Double satin stitch is mainly used for

Double satin stitch is mainly used for chamba embroiderygreat influence of Mythology on the themes of chamba Rumal. Traditional woven shawls of Kashmir are

Traditional woven shawls of Kashmir are called ―kanihama‖ or ―jamavar‖ shawls. called ―kanihama‖ or ―jamavar‖ shawls.

wereThese

These

made

by

2/2

twill taestry

weave.

Types of woven shawls are : Pashmina shawls, Do-shala, Do-Rukaha, Kosaba shawl, Jamavar shawls.These made by 2/2 twill taestry weave. Base fabric used for embroidery is Pashmina in natural

Base fabric used for embroidery is Pashmina in natural colours or dyed in dark colours.shawls, Do-shala, Do-Rukaha, Kosaba shawl, Jamavar shawls. Kasida has 3 main styles of needle work o

Kasida has 3 main styles of needle workis Pashmina in natural colours or dyed in dark colours. o Sozni and Rezkari o Ari

o

Sozni and Rezkari

o

Ari Work

o

Kashmiri Couching

Animal and Human figures are not used in kashmiri embroidery because of muslim influence.and Rezkari o Ari Work o Kashmiri Couching Tapestry work is also a kind of kashmiri

Tapestry work is also a kind of kashmiri embroidery where Dasuta the canvas cloth is embroidered using a blunt tapestry needle.are not used in kashmiri embroidery because of muslim influence. Numbhda and Gabba are the floor

Numbhda and Gabba are the floor coverings of Kashmir.work is also a kind of kashmiri embroidery where Dasuta the canvas cloth is embroidered using

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Terminal Questions:

1. What are kind of fabric is used for the basic material of Orissa Applique?

2. The

Orissa

motifs

and

colours

used

for

Appliques?

3. What are the different stitches used for Chikankari ? Explain.

4. What are the different thoughts of origin for Chikankari embroidery?

5. What

for

are

the

different

fabrics

used

Chikankari ?

6. Why are there no human or animal figures in Chikankari ?

7. What are the articles produced in Chikankari ?

8. What are the different types of materials used for the metal work of Uttar Pradesh ?

9. What are the threads and their colors for embroidering Chamba rumals ?

10.What are the base fabric and the stitches used ?

11.What are the motifs used ?

12.How is the design transferred on the fabric ?

13.What are the motifs of Kasida embroidery ?

14.What

Kashmir

are

the different

types

of

shawls ?

15.Explain the evolution of embroidered shawls.

16.What are Numbdha and Gabba ?

17.Why is

the cone motif important to

the

embroiderers ? What else is it referred to

(different names) ?

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18.What are the different styles of needlework in Kashmir?

Intext questions:

1. What kind of fabric is used for the base material of Orissa Applique?

2. What are the threads and stitches used for Orissa Applique?

3. What are the different steps involved in the production of Appliques of Orissa?

4. What are the motifs Orissa Appliques?

and

colors used for

5. What are the different thoughts of origin for Chikankari Embroidery?

6. What

are

the

chikankari?

different

fabrics

used

for

7. Why are there no human or animal figures in chikankari?

8. What

are

the

Chikankari?

different

stitches

used

for

9. What are the articles produced in Chikankari?

10.What are the different types of materials used for the metal work of Uttar Pradesh?

11.What are the threads and their colors used for embroidering Chamba rumals?

12.What are the base fabric and the stitches used?

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13.What are the motifs used?

14.How is the design transferred on the fabric?

15.Name the main themes of embroidery in Chamba rumals.

16.What are the motifs of Kasida embroidery?

17.What

are

shawls?

the different

types

of

Kashmir

18.Explain the evolution of embroidered shawls.

Assignments:

Students have to make 50 motifs of each embroidery in research file.18.Explain the evolution of embroidered shawls. Assignments: Students have to make the painted and embroidered sample

Students have to make the painted and embroidered sample of Appliquehave to make 50 motifs of each embroidery in research file. Students have to make painted

Students have to make painted and embroidered sample of Chikankari .have to make the painted and embroidered sample of Applique Students have to make 50 motifs

Students have to make 50 motifs of both the embroideries in the research file.have to make painted and embroidered sample of Chikankari . Make painted and emroiderd sample of

Make painted and emroiderd sample of chamba rumal and chikankari. Size should besample of Chikankari . Students have to make 50 motifs of both the embroideries in the

8‖x8‖.

Page173

Key Words:

Trellis – A light frame made of long narrow pieces of wood that cross each other,used A light frame made of long narrow pieces of wood that cross each other,used to support.

Immitation – Easy to copy with same effect. Easy to copy with same effect.

Influential – To have an effect. To have an effect.

of

Dominate – To influence. To influence.

Polite,

control or

have

a

lot

Dominate – To influence. Polite, control or have a lot Chivalrous – kind, honoered, respectable. Vivid

Chivalrous

kind,

honoered,

respectable.

Vivid – Clear, very bright. Clear, very bright.

Solitary – Alone Alone

Foliage – Leaves Leaves

Delineated – To describe, draw or explain in detail. To describe, draw or explain in detail.

Elopement – To run away with someone in order to marry. To run away with someone in order to marry.

Gist - summaryElopement – To run away with someone in order to marry. Semitic – Connected with a

Semitic– Connected with a family of

Connected

with

a

family

of

languages.

 

Captivity – The state of being prisoner. The state of being prisoner.

kept as

a

Exquisite – extremely beautiful or carefully made. extremely beautiful or carefully made.

Exorbitant – Too much ,too high. Too much ,too high.

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UNIT-III

Lesson 9: Traditional Textiles of India

Page175

Lesson 9: Traditional Textiles of India Objectives: To learn about the different famous traditional sarees
Lesson 9: Traditional
Textiles of India
Objectives:
To learn about the different famous traditional
sarees of India.
To learn about their different kinds, their
manufacture, their motifs & colours.
The areas of their production.
Structure:
9.1 Brocades of Benaras
9.2 Baluchar Brocade Saris
9.3 Jamdani Sais
9.4 Center of Production
Introduction:

India has a rich cultural heritage of tradition, art, music, literature, sculpture and textiles. This exhibit unity in diversity through variegated charms of festivals, rituals, music costume and languages.

India is famous world wide for its magnificent workmanship, exhibited in the beautiful hand spun, and hand woven, dyed, printed and embroidered textiles.

Page176

9.1 Brocades of Benaras

Benaras is also known as Kashi or Varanasi and is one of the oldest inhabited places of the world. Alaipura is traditionally the district of Vara nasi where the famous brocades are woven. Today they are woven in another parts of Vara nasi also.

Today they are woven in another parts of Vara nasi also. Brocades are textiles woven with

Brocades are textiles woven with the warp and weft threads of different colours and often different materials-The Benaras brocades are woven in silk and metal threads.

The saris and fabric up to 6-10 meters are usually woven.

The weavers are Muslims and are known as ‗Kari gars‘. Their workshops are called ‗karkhanas‘.

The zari thread is known as ‗kalabattun‘ which is made of finely drown gold or silver metals in yarns wound round a silk/cotton thread core.

Traditionally, the design of the brocade was first worked out on paper. An expert

Page177

called‘naksha bandha‘ rendered the design into cotton threads or a ‗naksh‘-a thread device that performs the same function as a jacquard. Today the jacquard loom has replaced the use of the naksha.

The brocades of Benaras are divided into 3 types.

1. Opaque Zari brocades:

a) Kinkhab: heavy brocades with more Zari visible

than the silk. It is woven with a coarse but durable silk known as ― mukta‖ which is heavy enough to take brocading with gold or silver. Kinkhab was often used for furnishing and rearly for clothing. It was a proper trading article in the local market and was also exported to Europe.

article in the local market and was also exported to Europe. b) Bafta: A silk and

b) Bafta: A silk and zari work brocade with less then

50% of zari. The zari is used as a supplementary weft in both kinkhab and bafta brocades.

2.

Amru brocades:

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It is brocade without any metal thread work. The supplementary weft woven for the design is silk and not zari. One distinct type of Amru brocade is ‗ Tanchoi‘. This is a densly patterned heavy fabric. Many times the ‗pallu‘ and ‗borders‘ of a tanchoi sari are highlighted with zari. Fabric for other uses is made without zari.

The tanchoi brocades originated in china. It is believed that in the 19thC three Parsi brothers called the Choi brothers learnt this art from the Chinese settled in Surat (Gujrat). Hence the name 'Tan' meaning 'three' choi.

3. Abrawans:

ransparent silk or organza is woven with or without zari.All over patterns are woven with a supplementary weft. The weft floats on the backside of the fabric are cut off after the weaving is complete. For this reason the a brawns are also called ‗cut brocades‘.

Another kind is the Tissue brocade. The warp is silk and the weft is zari. This fabric gives a metallic sheen.

The motifs used for brocaded fabrics are paisleys, peacocks and horal patterns. The borders of the sarees have a narrow fringe like pattern on the outer edges. This is called the 'Jhalar' meaning frill.

The delicate designs of the past were replaced at the end of the 19C by patterns taken from the Victorian era.

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The Benarasi Saris are deep coloured, laden with gold thread and form popular attire for the wealthy Indian brides.

Centres of production

Apart

from

Benaras,

brocades

are

woven

at

Ahmedabad, Surat,

Paithan,

Hyderabad

and

Murshidabad.

Silk Industry of Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram in Tamilnadu is a famous temple around 50 Km south of Chennai. Kanchipuram as the city is called, produces silks of superb texture, colour and lustre.

called, produces silks of superb texture, colour and lustre. Zari threads are also used for brocading.

Zari threads are also used for brocading.

The main items of production are silk sarees with brocade borders called the kanchipuram or kangivaram or the kornad sarees. Silk yordage is also produced.

Page180

Sarees-kornad or kanchipuram borders are 4‖-16‖ wide. These are woven separately in silk. Two narrow bands of supplementary warp patterning are woven within 3 cm of each border edge.

warp patterning are woven within 3 cm of each border edge. The field or body of

The field or body of the sari is woven in checks, stripes or is kept plain. The edges are woven in saw tooth design, pointing towards the centre of the field. This saw tooth design signifies the temple top or the kalash. The end piece or the pallu is made by tying or twisting a new set of warps usually the same colour as the borders. The extra warp of the field is then cut off from the wrong side. This technique of joining the end piece is called "petni" The end piece is decorated with supplementary warp or weft. The borders are then attached to the finished field and end piece by the inter lock weft technique.

warp or weft. The borders are then attached to the finished field and end piece by

Page181

The motifs used are floral (tiny patterns or creeping vines for border design), elephants, peacocks, double headed eagles and the kalash or the Khumba motif.

The colours are loud and bright combinations like Darkblue and magenta, parrot green and black, turquoise blue and orange., green and mustard are some of the favourite colour combination of the local population.

Paithani Sarees

Paithan

Maharashtra.

is

a

village

near

Aurangabad

in

Sarees Paithan Maharashtra. is a village near Aurangabad in The borders are prepared separately and are

The borders are prepared separately and are of 2 types:

1.

Totally zari border with a different coloured silk pattern.

Page182

2. A zari design on a silk border.

The field or the body: Earlier the field was made of fine muslin having all over zari patterns but now silk is used to prepare the field.

zari patterns but now silk is used to prepare the field. The end piece: silk warps

The end piece: silk warps usually the same colour as the borders are tied or twisted to the warps of the field (same as kanchipuram). The warps of the field are then cut off from the wrong side. The end piece has a weft zari to form the designs.

The borders are attached using the interlock weft technique.

The motifs used are intertwining leaves and flowers, parrots, peacocks and even horses. Paisleys are rarely used.

The colours used are bright combinations like yellow-red and orange-green. The maharastrian bride traditionally wears a green paithini saree.

bride traditionally wears a green paithini saree. The sarees, which are 9 meters long, are called

The sarees, which are 9 meters long, are called the Navwari sarees and the ones, which are 5 meters long, are called pachwari

9.2 Baluchar Brocade Saris

Old undivided Bengal had ancient textile traditions, of skilled weaving. This includes the jamdanis of Dhaka and the Baluchar brocade saris of Murshidabad.

Page183
Page183

Page184

The brocades never contain zari.

The borders are woven with supplementary warp or weft.

The motifs used in the borders are floral and paisleys.

The field is scattered with ‗buti‘motifs.

The

a

end

piece

is

decorated

using

supplementary weft.

– The a end piece is decorated using supplementary weft. The motifs used for the end

The motifs used for the end piece are large paisleys, human figures, hunting scenes and scenes from the epics. The motifs are placed in separate boxes. Which represent architecture.

The colour combinations used are-

a) Base colour of the sari is dark and the colour of weft which forms designs is light e.g. black sari with beige or dull orange designs.

b) The base is of light colour beige with dark designs of any one of the colours-green, red, black.

c) These saris always have only two colours.

9.3 Jamdani Saris

Dhaka, now is Bangladesh is famous for producing one of the finest muslins. These were referred to as ‗air‘ or ‗mist‘ ‗by the English. Dhaka is famous for producing the finest and most expensive muslin saris called Jamdani Saris.

The borders are very narrow-1-1 ½ inches and are made by placing different coloured yarns in the warp.

Page185
Page185

The borders are also sometimes 3-4‖ wide with some decoration on them.

The field is scattered with small buti designs.

The end piece has 2 or 3 rows of motifs woven on it.

The

Jamdani

saris

are

woven

using

a

distinctive.Discontinuous

supplementary

weft

technique

Two weavers sit side by side on a simple handloom. Each motif is woven separately by hand using individual spools of threads called Tilis. The supplementary weft is cut off when the motif is complete. This produces an opaque pattern against a transparent back ground.

Page186
Page186

Before partition these were woven in Tangail, now in East Bengal. The West Bengal Jamdanis are also called Tangail Jamdanis because they use the typical motifs of Tangail;

The motifs are strictly floral and geometrical. In terms of colour and design the Jamdanis fall into 6 categories;

1. Natural unbleached base with bleached white cotton thread motifs.

2. Pastel coloured grounds with white motifs.

3. Dark coloured grounds (black/blue/maroon) with white motifs.

4. Any of the above base with coloured motifs.

5. Any of the above bases with zari motifs.

The Jamdanis are believed to have given rise to the chikankani embroidery.

Page187
Page187

Page188

9.4 Center of Production

Benaras Brocades.

Kanjivaram/Kanchipuram saree

Paithini saree

Baluchar Saree

Jamdani Saree

– Paithini saree – Baluchar Saree – Jamdani Saree 1. Aurangabad (Paithaini Saree) 2. Kanchipuram 3.

1. Aurangabad (Paithaini Saree)

2. Kanchipuram

3. Dhaka (Jamdani Saree)

4. Murshidabad-(Baluchar Saree)

5. Benaras

Jamdani Motifs

Jamdani Motifs Page189
Page189
Page189
Page190
Page190
Page190

Page191

Page 191 Kanchipuram Saree Border Balachaur Saree Motifs

Kanchipuram Saree Border

Page 191 Kanchipuram Saree Border Balachaur Saree Motifs

Balachaur Saree Motifs

Balachaur Saree Motifs

Balachaur Saree Motifs Amru Brocades Page192

Amru Brocades

Page192
Page192

Page193

Summary:

The prestige of Indian textiles lies in the intricately woven and rich sarees of silk and muslins.

Of all the Indian handicrafts, textiles form a class by themselves over which the rest of the world went into ecstasies from time memorial.

The hand-spun and hand-woven traditional fabrics of India have justly been famous and much desired throughout the world.

India‘s ‗fabric of dreams‘ is, of course, Banarsi Brocade, known as khinkhab. With its interweaving of coloured silk and golden thread, to form the most attractive floral designs, the brocades are wihtout doubt India‘s most gorgeous and most fascinating silken fabrics.

The brocades of India have an ancient lineage. The Indian khinkhab is literally a ‗cloth of gold‘.

Revision points:

1. Banaras Brocades are the famous Banarasi silk sarees.

2. Brocades work is

weaving done with metal threads like gold and silver.

embroidery

work

or

3. Kinkhab sarees are where more of gold or silver is visible than silk.

4. Tanchois are brocade sarees with extra silk thread. There is no metal work.

5. Kanchipuram are South silk sarees from Tamil Nadu.

6. They

colour contrasts like dark blue/magenta,

are

in

loud

blue/orange, green/mustard, etc.

Page194

7. Paithani

sarees

are

Maharashtra.

from

Aurangabad

in

8. Baluchani sarees are from Murshidabad.

9. There is no zari work in these sarees.

10.These sarees are in two colours and have epic scenes and mythological characters depicted on them.

11.Jamdani sarees are from Dhaka from Bengal.

12.They have opaque patterns on transparent background.

Intext questions:

Fill In The Blanks:

1. Paithani

sarees

sre

produced

in

2. The

real

gold

brocade

is

called

3. is the technique of joining the field and pallu of sarees with an extra set of warp yarns.

epics

4. Scenes

from

are

shown

in

sarees.

5. Paithani sarres that are 9m long are called sarees.

Jamdani

6. sarees

were

referred

to

as

or

by the

English.

7. The jamdanis are believed to have given rise

to

embroidery.

 

Dhaka

8. sarees

are

commonly

known

as

sarees.

Page195

Key words:

Kalabattun- finely drawn gold or silver thread wound around silk or cotton thread. - finely drawn gold or silver thread wound around silk or cotton thread.

Kinkhab- sarees totally covered with gold or silver thread and less of silk is visible. - sarees totally covered with gold or silver thread and less of silk is visible.

Bafta- sarees where 50% silk and 50% zari is visible. - sarees where 50% silk and 50% zari is visible.

Tanchoi- brocade sarees with no metal work. Supplementary weft thread is used. - brocade sarees with no metal work. Supplementary weft thread is used.

Abrawans- these are cut brocades. - these are cut brocades.

Tissue brocade- the warp is silk and weft is zari. Therefore, it has a metallic sheen. - the warp is silk and weft is zari. Therefore, it has a metallic sheen.

Petni- the field and pallu of Kanchipuram sarees are joined by tying or twisting new - the field and pallu of Kanchipuram sarees are joined by tying or twisting new set of warps as borders. They are then cut from wrong side.

Pachwari sarees- it is a 5m long paithani saree. - it is a 5m long paithani saree.

long paithani

Navwari sarees- it is saree. - it is saree.

a

9m

Page196

UNIT-IV

Lesson 10: Printed and Painted Textiles of India

Lesson 11: Sanganer & Bhagru Printing

Lesson 12: Kalamkari

Page197

Lesson 10: Printed and Painted Textiles of India Objectives: To be able to discuss the
Lesson 10: Printed and
Painted Textiles of India
Objectives:
To be able to discuss the questions based on-
Sources of natural dyes.
What are mordants and what are their
uses.
What are the different styles of printing?
Structure:
10.1 Sources of natural dyes
10.2 Styles of printing
10.3 Method of application of indigo dye

Introduction:

Traditionally dyeing and printing in India was done using vegetable dyes only. These are dyes obtained from different parts of plants.

10.1 Sources of natural dyes

1. Red:

The substance which gives a red dye is

called alizarin. The common source of alizarin

lies in the

a) Roots of the madder plant, Rubia tinctoria and its relative Rubia munjista.

Page198

b) Roots

of

the

plants

of

mordina

species-

known as ‗al‘,‘ach‘ and surangi.

c) Roots of oldenlandia umbellate (commonly known as ―chay‖.

of oldenlandia umbellate (commonly known as ―chay‖. 2. Yellow : known condiment-turmeric (uremic longa), yields

2. Yellow:

known

condiment-turmeric (uremic longa), yields a substance called curcumas which gives a sharp yellow colour.(b) Flowers of the myrobalan tree known as Harar.c) flowers of the safflower(carthanus tinctorious) yield a bright yellow dye most suitable for silk.

a)

Rhizomes

of

a

well

flowers of the safflower(carthanus tinctorious) yield a bright yellow dye most suitable for silk. a) Rhizomes

Page199

3. Blue:

leaves

tinctoria.

of

the

indigo

plant‖Indigofera

4. Green: Achieved by coating blue own yellow dyed fabric.

5. Black: alizarin (red dye) is mixed with iron fillings and molasses-this ferment and gives a dark shade of Blackish maroon.

Mordants: For a fabric to accept natural dyes. Mordanting has to be done, or else the fabric is unable to absorb dyes. Mordants are intermediary substances which help the fabric to accept the dye and ensure fast dyeing. It is derived from the Latin word‖mordere‖ which means ‗to bite‘. The mordant bites the fibre in combination with the dyestuff to fix the colour.

Mordants are metallic salts like aluminium, tin, copper, alum, chrome, salt, vinegar, and caustic soda. By using different salts with the same dye, one can achieve different colours e.g. iron gives black with alizarin and alum gives red.

Natural dyes are classified into:

a) Substantive dyes: These do not need a mordant to fix the colour to the fabric e.g. indigo.

b) Adjective dyes: Those that need a mordant for fixation e.g. alizarin.

10.2

Styles of printing:

Page200

1. Direct Style:

applied

The prepared dye pigment is

e.g.

directly

Sanganer printing.

on

the

prepared

fabric

2. Resist Style: In order to resist the dye, the design areas on the prepared cloth are printed with improvable substances like wax, gum, rice paste, mud, resin or starch. The fabric is then dyed. The printed areas, & resist the dye to form designs e.g. Bhagru printing.

3. Mordant Resist Styles: The fabric is prepared and mordanted. The dye is painted or printed on this fabric. The areas, which come in contact with the dye, will show colour and thus form the design.

Another way is to point or print the mordant and then immerse the fabric in the dye bath. The printed areas will show colour and thus form the design. E.g. Ajrakh and kalam kari.

10.3 Method of application of indigo dye:

The leaves of the indigo plant are immersed in water for 4-5 days. To this water, salt is added. This gives a solution called indigo white. The fabric is dipped in indigo white, which turns blue on oxidation with the atmosphere. Repeated dipping into indigo white, darkens the blue colour. This dyeing is fast but tends to rules of on use.

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Lesson 11: Sanganer and Bhagru Printing Objectives: To learn about Sanganer and Bhagru printing- their
Lesson 11: Sanganer and
Bhagru Printing
Objectives:
To learn about Sanganer and Bhagru printing-
their process, printing pastes, motifs & names of
blocks.
Structure:
11.1 Sanganeri printing
11.2 Bhagru Printing
Introduction

Sanganer and bhagru are on the out spirit of Jaipur, the capital city of Rajasthan. Both cities now produce much block printed cloth for the export fashion trade. Bagru is a small village, located at a distance of 30 kms from Jaipur, on Jaipur-Ajmer road. They originally produced textiles for the local market. Sanganer fabrics were more sophisticated; Bhagru products were aimed mostly at the local rural women. The designs in both places reflect the Persian influences.

Page202

Page 202 In both the Sanganer and Bagru prints, the colors are picked carefully. Each has

In both the Sanganer and Bagru prints, the colors are picked carefully. Each has a separate significance. For instance, red is the color of love, yellow of spring, indigo of Lord Krishna, and saffron of the yogi (seer). The wooden blocks that are used are made of teak wood. And traditionally, vegetable dyes made of madder, pomegranate rind, indigo, and turmeric are used. These have now been largely replaced by chemical dyes. Often, the fabric is dyed before it is printed.

11.1 Sanganeri Printing:

The block printed textiles of Sanganer became famous in the 16 th and 17 th centuries in Europe, when the East India Company began to export them in bulk. Today, there are over 154 block printing units in Sanganer, and these employ around 20,000 people. There are around 3000 families engaged in this Rajasthani craft.

The block prints of Sanganer are mostly executed on a white or off-white background, using screen printers or wooden blocks. They are colorful patterns of sunflowers, roses, geometric designs. Sanganer prints are known for their fine and

intricate detailing. The artists of this region in Rajasthan use both vegetable and chemical dyes for their creations. Often, they employ the technique of calico printing. In this, the outlines are first printed; only after that, are the colors filled in. These designs are then repeated in diagonal rows. The doo-rookhi style of printing is also popular in Sanganer. This is printing done on both sides of the fabric.

This is a direct style of printing

1. Preparation the fabric:

<