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A General Summary of Aristotle's Appeals . . .

The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion (referred to as appeals) into three categories: Ethos, Pathos, Logos.

Logos: The Greek word logos is the !asis for the "nglish word logic. This will !e the most important persuasive techni#ue for the essay we are writing, and Aristotle's favorite. $ogos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect, the general meaning of %logical argument.% &emem!er what 'onty (ython taught us: an argument is an )intellectual process.* "veryday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, !ut academic arguments rely more on logos. These arguments will depend on the logical chains of reasoning supporting all claims. +n other words, $ogos is another term for the effective use of claims, evidence, and warrant. Ethos: "thos is the Greek word for ,character,- and is related to the "nglish word )ethics.* "thos refers to the trustworthiness and credi!ility of the speaker.writer/ ethos comes with perceived intelligence, responsi!ility, and sincerity. "thos is an effective persuasive strategy !ecause when we !elieve that the speaker is credi!le and is concerned for what is !est for us, we are more willing to listen to what s.he has to say. 0hen we trust others, we are more easily convinced !y them. 1n the other hand, if we think that others are lying to us or attempting to manipulate us for their selfish gain, we put our defenses up and are more resistant to persuasion. 2anye 0est is utterly devoid of "thos. The most effective way to esta!lish trustworthiness in your persuasive letter is to show concern for others (consider this when you select your topic)/ the !est way to develop credi!ility is to !ecome an e3pert on your topic through e3tensive research.reflection, and to pay close attention to correct writing conventions. Pathos: (athos is related to the words pathetic , sympathy and empathy. 0henever you accept a claim !ased on how it makes you feel without fully analy4ing the rationale !ehind the claim, you are acting on pathos. They may !e any emotions: love, fear, patriotism, guilt, hate or 5oy. A ma5ority of arguments in the popular press are heavily dependent on pathetic appeals. The more people react without full consideration for the 067, the more effective an argument can !e. Although the pathetic appeal can !e manipulative, it is the cornerstone of moving people to action. 'any arguments are a!le to persuade people logically, !ut the apathetic audience may not follow through on the call to action. Appeals to pathos touch a nerve

and compel people to not only listen, !ut to also take the ne3t step and act in the world.