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Occupational Health and Safety

In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most




Submitted to
Mr. M. Shaukat Malik

Submitted by
Zahid Hussain MBC-08-09
Nishan-e-Zahra MBC-08-12
M. Zuhair Altaf MBC-08-36
Usman Aslam MBC-08-46

Institute of Management Sciences

(City Campus)

Occupational Health and Safety

Bahauddin Zakariya University


In the name of Allah

the most merciful, the most

Occupational Health and Safety

Table of Contents

 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Preface
 Abstract
 Aim of study
 Literature Review
 Introduction
 Components of health and safety program
 Health services
 Occupational Safety
 Review of research articles
 Measures and Analysis
 Defining scales
 Measuring responses
 Graphical Analysis
 The Best Company
 Conclusion
 Special Thanks
 Copy of Questionnaire

Occupational Health and Safety

We dedicate this report to our

Loving Parents


Beloved Teachers

Occupational Health and Safety

One is the first the
Almighty ALLAH whose
blessings are above each
and every thing which
make us able to present
our tiny effort. All prays to
(PBUH) who is the reason
for creation of the universe
and whose kindness came
to my heart.

On the successful
completion of our report,
we wish to express our
gratitude and heart worthy
acknowledgement to the
gentlemen whose inspiration
helped us in the
completion of this report.
We feel utmost pride in
Occupational Health and Safety

Practical studies are important part of MBA program. Students
are trained to cope up with the different problems faced in different
fields. Therefore, students are assigned reports on the different topics.

Human Resource management is one of the most important courses of

MBA, in which there is explanation of all business strategies related to
management of people in the organizations.

We have this honor that we were given a chance to update our

theoretical as well as practical knowledge, which will be of great help
in our future practical life. In this report we have visited Allahwasaya
Textile Mills, Mahmood Textile Mills, and Colony Textile Mills.

We made our best efforts to present facts about Occupational Health &
Safety in an organized manner and to make analysis with the help of

Occupational Health and Safety

best suitable information. However, any deficiency found in this report

is due to nature of human being. Your criticism will be most beneficial
to us for learning.

There are great concerns about occupational health
and safety in Pakistan. According to Pakistan’s Factory Act, 1934,
all companies are required to have an occupational health and
safety management system. This academic study investigated
the effects of implementing or improving occupational health and
safety management on the work environment, health and safety
behavior and health of workers in small and medium sized
companies. A prospective cohort study, using self-administered
questionnaires, was performed among the managers and blue-
collar workers in three textile Mills, Allahwasaya textile Mills ltd,
Mahmood textile Mills ltd and Colony textile Mills ltd. workers
and managers were are asked to participate in this study. The
effects are measured by workers’ own evaluation of their work
environment and other activities. The workers in companies with
improved health and safety management from baseline to
follow-up reported increased satisfaction with the health and
safety activities at work; improved support from management
and colleagues; improved health-related support and control;
and increased participation in health and safety activities.

Aim of Study
The aim or objective of this prospective and academic study is to
investigate the effects of implementing or improving occupational health

Occupational Health and Safety

and safety management in small and medium-sized companies so for this

we have visited the three following organizations:

1. Allahwasaya Textile Mills ltd.

2. Mahmood Textile Mills ltd.
3. Colony Textile Mills ltd.

Literature review


Employee health and safety are of concern, both to the

employer and to the employee. The benefits of employee health and
safety programs in terms of time, money, and productivity can be
extremely substantial.

Pakistan, at present, like many developing countries of the

world, does not have comprehensive occupational health and safety laws.
The incidence of injuries and illnesses is probably very high in Pakistan
because thousands of workers are routinely exposed to hazardous
chemicals and many more work in hazardous industries. However, there is
no reliable data on occupational safety and health injuries and illnesses
because a majority of accidents are not reported to the regulatory
agencies. The Regulatory agencies do not have an effective enforcement
policy or strict requirements for reporting injuries an illness a workplaces.

An overview of current laws/regulations related to

occupational safety and health shows that there are several laws on the
book, such as Factories Act, 1934: Provincial Factories Rules; Hazardous
occupations Rules, 1963; Mines Act, 1923; West Pakistan Shops and
Establishments Ordinance, 1969; Provincial Employees Social Security
Ordinance, 1965; Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 and Cock
Laborers, 1934.

Occupational Health and Safety

The current regulations are, however, fragmented and there

is no single comprehensive piece of legislation dealing with occupational
safety and health. There is no formal legislative process for setting up new
standards, codes of practice and occupational exposure limits. Whatever
exists on the book is frequently hampered with repeated martial laws. The
current outdated Factories Act, 1934, requires only a very basic level of
safety and health measure. There are no guidelines for minimum
qualifications or employment of health and safety professionals in the

Components of Health and safety program

The contents of the Occupational health and safety program

could be included under the elements discussed below.

1. Objectives and policies

2. Top-management support
3. Organization.
4. Establishing responsibility for safety
5. Engineering
6. Job safety analysis
7. Analysis of accidents
8. Education and training
9. Enforcement
10. Healthful work environment
11. Adequate medical treatment
12. Rehabilitation

1. Objectives and Policies

When top management decides that it wants to take steps to
obtain a safe organization, it must determine just how far it wants to go
and what it wants to accomplish. Does it want to have a company that
ranks with the best in its industry in terms of low injury frequency and
severity? Or does it simply want a safety effort that will reduce workers’
compensation costs to a tolerable level. Is it willing to invest sufficient
money to achieve a really no hazardous plant?

2. Top Management Support

Occupational Health and Safety

Top management sets the safety objectives and policies in

the first place; and how top management chooses to support and
implement its own policies is crucial to the effectiveness of these policies.
The single most important element in the success or failure of any
companywide program, whether it is safety, training, research or
maintenance, is the emphasis given to that program by top management.

3. Organization
The organizational arrangements that are created are
conditioned by the size of the firm and the nature of its safety problems. In
small firms, a full-time safety director is justified; the assignment may be
given to the personnel director, to the plant superintendent, or to the head
of industrial engineering. In medium sized firms, a company usually
employs a full time safety specialist. He is the part of the personnel
department. Large corporations, especially those in hazardous industries,
will employ a whole staff of safety engineers, safety inspectors, and
industrial hygienists.

4. Establishing Responsibility for Safety

Some industrialists think that with the appointment of a
safety director they can “wash their hands” of all responsibility for safety
and get on with their main business of obtaining high production, low
costs, and adequate quality. Nothing could be further form the truth. The
only way to achieve and maintain a safe plant is to place responsibility of
safety on equal status with responsibility for production, cost control,
quality, and profit making.

The basic responsibility for injury prevention rests with line

management and safe director serves as an innovator, organizer, creator,
advisor, teacher, analyzer, investigator, stimulator, and a prodder. He must
organize the safety program throughout the plant, collect accident data,
investigate accidents, help develop engineering applications, conduct
safety training and information meetings for management personnel,
analyze jobs to develop safe working procedures, and prepare
instructional material for use by foremen in conducting meetings with their
employees. The staff safety director rarely has line authority to order
supervisors and workers to take a particular action in regard to safety.

5. Engineering

Occupational Health and Safety

Proper engineering to remove work hazards is fundamental

to any organized safety efforts. Today technology
has advanced to the point where many hazardous
conditions have simply been designed out of the
equipment and processes and most of the
remaining ones have been adequately guarded.
The first way of engineering for safety is simply to
eliminate the hazard from the machine, process, or
structure. If it is not feasible to carry out a basic
redesign of the production process to eliminate the
hazard, then the next stage is to design and install a guard to prevent
workers from coming in contact with moving parts or point of operation
elements. In the last, it is not possible to eliminate the hazard or to guard
the equipment itself, it may be possible to have the workers wear and use
protective clothing and equipment.

6. Job-Safety Analysis
Job-safety analysis is very useful for hazard elimination and
for designing safe work methods. By such study the safety engineer may
note that a change in workplace layout, in the operating controls of the
machine, or in work procedures may eliminate or reduce the possibility of
injury to the operator.

7. Analysis of Accidents
Every accident that results in a personal injury, or could have
resulted in a serious injury, whether it is simply a first-aid case or a more
serious disabling one, must be investigated by the injured employee’s
supervisor to ascertain the cause and to determine what specific remedies
are required to avoid a recurrence.

8. Education and Training

Safety education for all levels of management and for
employees is a vital ingredient for any successful safety program. Top and
middle management require education in the fundamentals of safety and
the need for an effective accidents, both human and dollar costs, must be
brought to the attention of line management. Top management does not
need to concern itself with the detailed mechanics of accident prevention,
but it must acquire sufficient awareness of safety fundamentals.

Occupational Health and Safety

The safety director and his staff must undertake to provide

extensive education and training for first line supervisors. At employee
level there are two principal objectives: (1) to develop safety
consciousness and favorable attitudes toward safety and (2) to achieve
safe work performance from each employee in the job. To achieve these
goals, a number of things must be done.

9. Enforcement
Primary responsibility for enforcement of standard operating
procedures and safety rules lies with the first-line supervisor. When he or
she observes employees who are not performing their jobs in the
approved manner he or she calls this to their attention and corrects them.
With adequate indoctrination and training there should seldom be need for
punitive measures for violation of safety regulations. However, when
individuals deliberately refuse to cooperate, then they need to be
disciplined as they would for other rule violations.

10. Healthful Work Environment

The objective of environment control is the prevention of
occupational disease. The possible causative agents in the plant
environment (dusts, fumes, toxic chemicals, noise, etc.) must first be
identified. Then corrective action must be taken. There are many
corrective methods that may be used. The best, from a worker health
standpoint, is usually to eliminate or contain the agent at its source.
Equipment and processes can be reengineered to cut down noise,
eliminate leaks, or reduce vibration.

11. Adequate Medical Treatment

Every establishment should have
adequate facilities and trained personnel for
rendering first aid to injured employees. The small
company should have a clean, adequately equipped
first-aid room. The larger establishments have need
for the full-time services of an industrial nurse and a

12. Rehabilitation
If an employee has suffered a serious temporary disabling
injury or a permanent disability, it behooves the employer and the workers’
compensation insurance company to exercise every effort to rehabilitate

Occupational Health and Safety

that unfortunate individual. This includes helping him learn how to care for
daily needs of living, learn how to acquire useful job skills.

Health Services
A comprehensive company health program will include the following

1. Ventilation
Workplaces need to be adequately
ventilated. Fresh, clean air should be drawn from
a source outside the workplace, uncontaminated
by discharges from flues, chimneys or other
process outlets, and be circulated thorough the

Ventilation should also remove and

dilute warm, humid air and provide air movement
which gives a sense of freshness without causing
a draught. If the workplace contains process or
heating equipment or other sources of dust, fumes
or vapors, more fresh air will be needed to provide
adequate ventilation.

Windows or other openings may

provide sufficient ventilation but, where
necessary, mechanical ventilation systems should
be provided and regularly maintained.

2. Work in hot or cold environments

The risk to the health of workers increases as conditions
move further away from those generally accepted as comfortable. Risk of
heat stress arises, for example, from working in high air temperatures,
exposure to high thermal radiation or high levels of humidity, such as
those found in foundries, glass works and laundries. Cold stress may
arise, for example, from working in cold stores, food preparation areas and
in the open air during winter.

Action arising from assessment may include:

Occupational Health and Safety

• Introducing engineering measures to control the thermal

effects in a workplace environment.
• Restriction of exposure by, for example, rearranging tasks to
build in rest periods or other breaks from work.
• Medical pre-selection of employees to ensure that they are
fit to work in these environments;
• Use of suitable personal protection clothing.
• Acclimatization of workers to the environment in which they
work, particularly for hot environments;
• Training in the precautions to be taken; and
• Supervision, to ensure that precautions identified by the
assessment are taken.

3. Lighting
Lighting should be sufficient to enable
people to work and move about safely. If necessary,
local lighting should be provided at individual work
stations and at places of particular risk such as crossing
points on traffic routes. Lighting and light fittings should
not create any hazard.

Automatic emergency lighting, powered by an

independent source, should be provided where sudden
loss of light would create a risk.

4. Cleanliness and waste materials

Every workplace and the furniture, furnishings and fittings
should be kept clean and it should be possible to keep the surfaces of
floors, walls and ceilings clean. Cleaning and the removal of waste should
be carried out as necessary by an effective method. Waste should be
stored in suitable receptacles.

5. Room dimensions and space

Workrooms should have enough free space to allow people
to move about with ease. The volume of the room when empty should be
divided by the number of people normally working in it.

6. Workstations and seating

Occupational Health and Safety

Workstations should be suitable for the people using them

and for the work they do. People should be able to leave workstations
swiftly in an emergency. If work can or must be done sitting, seats which
are suitable for the people using them and for the work they do should be
provided. Seating should give adequate support for the lower back;
footrests should be provided for workers who cannot place their feet flat
on the floor.

7. Medical Treatment
A professional staff of physicians and
nurses should be there for providing proper first-aid
treatment for occupational injuries and diseases.
Serious cases are referred to private practice
physicians and hospitals. Adequate facilities are also
provided for emergency care of work injuries and for
conducting pre employment and periodic medical

Occupational safety

An accident is an unexpected occurrence that interrupts the
regular progress of an activity. In effect it is any unplanned or uncalled for
break or deviation from the expected. It is a negative or unfortunate event.

Cost of accidents
Accidents are very expensive to the employer. Accidents
costs are classified into two categories. First are the insured costs. The
insured cost is the money paid for doctor and hospital bills, for weekly
benefits while the injured employees are absent from the work, and for
any scheduled payments due to death, accidental dismemberment, or
permanent disability. This cost is apparent and is net by the insurance

Occupational Health and Safety

The second type of cost is uninsured costs. Some authorities

call it indirect costs of accidents. These costs are not apparent to top
management unless it assigns somebody to conduct a specific research
project to isolate them. These include lost time of injured worker, lost time
of fellow employees who render aid to the injured person, time spent by
supervisory personnel to assist the injured person and to investigate the
cause of accident, lost production, possible damaged material or
equipment, and administrative expenses to process paperwork connected
with the accident.

Causes of Accident
Accident causes can be classified into two major categories;

1. Unsafe Conditions

This include as follows.

• Inadequate mechanical guarding.
• Defective condition of equipment or tools, for
example, worn electrical insulation, cracked ladder,
split drive belt.
• Unsafe design or construction, for example, pressure
vessel that is too weak.
• Hazardous atmosphere, for example, toxic
substances in air, poor ventilation.
• Inadequate or improper personal protective

2. Unsafe acts

This include as follows.

• Failure to follow established safe-working procedures.
• Taking an unsafe position, such as under a
suspended load.
• Failure to use designated protective clothing.
• Removing safety devices or making them inoperative.

Prevention of accidents
In practice, accident can be prevented by two basic

• Reducing unsafe conditions

Occupational Health and Safety

• Reducing unsafe acts

1. Reducing unsafe conditions

Reducing unsafe conditions is always an employer’s first line
of defense. Safety engineers should design jobs so as to remove or
reduce physical hazards. In addition, supervisors and managers play a
role in reducing unsafe conditions.

Employers increasingly use computerized tools to design

safer equipment. For example, Designsafe facilitates hazard analysis, risk
assessment, and the identification of safety control options.

Sometimes the solution for eliminating an unsafe condition is

obvious, and sometimes it’s more subtle. For example, slips and falls at
work are often the result of debris or slippery floor.

Getting employees to wear personal protective equipment

can be a famously difficult chore. In addition to providing reliable barrier
protection and durability, protective clothing should fir properly; be easy to
care for, maintain, and repair; be flexible and lightweight; provide comfort
and reduce heat stress; have rugged construction; be relatively easy to
put on and take off; and be easy to clean, dispose of and recycle.

2. Reducing unsafe acts

Unsafe acts can be reduced through different types of

(a) Reducing unsafe acts by emphasizing safety:

It is the supervisor’s responsibility to set the tone so

subordinates want to work safely. This involves more than talking up
safety, ensuring that workers wipe up spills, or enforcing safety rules. It’s
also necessary to show by both word and deed that safety is crucial. For
example, supervisors should:

• Praise employees when they choose safe behaviors

• Listen when employees offer safety suggestions,
concerns, or complaints
• Be a good example by following every safety rule an
• Visit plant areas regularly
• Maintain open safety communications

Occupational Health and Safety

(b)Reducing unsafe acts through selection and placement

Screening is another way to reduce unsafe acts. Here, the

manager’s aim is to isolate the trait that might predict accidents on the job
in question, and then screen candidates for this trait.

Also, ask a few safety-related questions during the selection

interview, for example, “What would you do if you saw another employee
working in an unsafe way?”

(c) Reducing unsafe acts through training

Safety training is another way to reduce unsafe acts,

especially for new employee. You should instruct them in safe practices
and procedures, warn them of potential hazards, and work in developing a
safety- conscious attitude.

(d)Reducing unsafe acts through motivation

Posters: Employers use

various tools to motivate
workers to work more safely.
Safety posters are one. In
one study, their use
apparently increased safe
behavior by more than 20%.
However, posters are no
substitute for a
comprehensive safety

Incentive programs: Incentive

programs have also been
successful at reducing
workplace injuries. It includes giving employees recognition awards for
attending safety meetings, for identifying hazards, or for demonstrating
their safety at work.

Positive reinforcement programs: Positive reinforcement programs are

also improved safety at work. The safety program includes positive
reinforcement and training. The firm set and communicated a reasonable
goal (in terms of observed incidents performed safely). A training phase is
next where employees receive safety information.

Occupational Health and Safety

(e) Reducing unsafe acts through behavior-based safety

Behavior-based safety means identifying the worker

behaviors that contribute to accidents and then training workers to avoid
these behaviors.

(f) Reducing unsafe acts through employee participation

There are two solid reasons for

participation of employees in designing the
safety program. First, those actually doing the
jobs are often management’s best source of
ideas about what the potential problems are
and how to solve them. Second, it is generally
easier to get employee to accept and
enthusiastically follow the safety program when
they’ve had a hand in designing it.

(g) Reducing unsafe acts through audits and inspections

Programs for reducing unsafe acts are no substitute for

eliminating hazards. Routinely inspect all premises for possible safety and
health problems. Investigate all accidents and near misses. Have a
system in place for letting employee notify managers about hazards.

Review of research articles

Research article # 1
As discussed by the Kieran “The safety movement has been
driven in some countries by the instances of major health care failures.
These failures are defined as breakdown in health care services or

Occupational Health and Safety

provision that does substantial harm to people.” Natures of major failures

• Longstanding problems
• Well-known but not handled
• Cause of immense harm
• Lack of management system
• Repeated incidences

These failures are known and deliberately ignored. The harm

caused these can be immense and may result in huge malpractice claims
by individuals. Some problems occur again and again and can be brought
to light. First, an egregious event may force organization to face up to the
problem and to act. Second, a staff member may raise his or her concerns
within and outside the organization. Such while-blowers may expose to
victimization, disciplinary action or even dismissal. Third persistent
complaint or the group of complains sufficiently motivate to make the
system or the authorities take notice of their concerns. Fourth, media
attention often contributes to the discovery of major failures.

Research article # 2
The research study shows that there is a positive correlation
between implementing and improving occupational health and safety
(H&S) management and worker’s satisfaction. The garage level
management may affect both individual workers’ subjective work
environment and the workers of each garage’s shared work environment.
Internal control implies informing the workers about hazards and the
improvements to which they are entitled. A change in internal control is
positively correlated with a change in workers’ satisfaction with
psychosocial factors, H&S-related behaviour and musculoskeletal pain.
Internal control applies best in larger companies because smaller
companies do no have a comprehensive internal control as larger
companies. It may seem that the smallest companies are more reluctant
to implement internal control, perhaps because of reduced competence
and motivation. A company while implementing H&S management system
should consider the size and needs of the company. The positively
changing the occupational health and safety management i.e. internal
control in companies may positively change worker’s satisfaction with the
health and safety activities, psychological work environment and health-
related behaviour.

Research article # 3

Occupational Health and Safety

Occupational health and safety management system

(OSHMS) has improved working conditions. Similar concepts of OSHMS
are applied in different countries and industries. As the discrepancies are
obvious so different national strategies OSHMS are taken in Asian
countries. There are four different kinds of national approaches. (a)
Mandatory OSHMS (b) Nationally applied OSHMS standards (c)
Promotion of National OSHMS Models (d) Encouragement of voluntary
occupational health and safety management. Any OSHMS should consist
of elements for (a) occupational health and safety inputs (b) Systematic
risk assessment and control (c) Continual improvement. The adoption of
OSHMS procedures is more in large enterprises. This is helped by public
attention to occupational health and safety and by the new national
policies encouraging voluntary OSHMS as a part of employer duties. The
recent progress in risk analysis and self–regulatory measures through
information and training services also contribute to the spreading adoption
of OSHMS. In action-oriented risk management, we need to adapt
practical procedures for identifying the relevant workplace conditions and
making improvements on step-by-step basis. Practical assessment tools
must be developed that can facilitate the assessment of existing risks. For
future, we must know the means of enabling employer and employees to
act locally, conducting baseline performance evaluation, setting locally
policies and goals, and promoting participation at all levels. We also need
to know incidents and cause investigation, preceded with continual
improvement and succeed in management review.

Measures and Analysis

Defining Scales
For measuring purposes, the Likert scale is used in which
the respondents indicate their attitudes by checking how strongly they
agree or disagree with the carefully constructed statements that range
from very positive to very negative toward the attitudinal object. Maximum
six degree is used for this and these weights to different options are given

For question no. 1, 4, 7, 16, 17, 19, 21

Yes No
(1) (0)

Occupational Health and Safety

For question no. 2, 5, 8, 12, 13, 14, 18, 22

All arrangements just sufficient few arrangements No arrangement
Practiced but
Strongly practiced weakly practiced No practice at all
not strongly
Very much aware Enough aware Less aware Not aware at all
Very much Just enough Less No arrangement
Weekly Monthly Yearly No review
Much consultation Not much Less consultation No consultation

Once in a week Once in a month Once in a year Never

Mostly are No arrangement
All are guarded Few are guarded
(3) (2) (1) (0)

For question no.10, 20, 25

Strongly Strongly
Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied
(4) (3) (2) (1) (0)

For question no. 15

Never Rarely Yearly Monthly Weekly Daily

(6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1)

Measuring Responses
Understanding: (a)*b means that total b numbers of respondents of a
particular organization responded a.
For example: In question no. 10, its mentioned (4)*4+ (3)*2+ (2)*1=24. Its
means that four persons are strongly satisfied, two are satisfied and only
one remains the neutral. The number in the brackets shows response as
mentioned in measuring scales. So by adding all we get the total desired

Occupational Health and Safety

Allahwasaya Textile Mills Mahmood Textile Mills Colony Textile Mills
1 (0)*7=0 (0)*7=0 (0)*7=0
2 (3)*2+(2)*2+(1)*3=13 (3)*3+(2)*3+(1)*1=16 (3)*3+(2)*2+(1)*2=15
All of the employees
should be health insured Maintain healthy
Free treatment is given to
3 and they should be environment for all the
all workers.
properly examined by the employees.
competent doctors.
4 (0)*7=0 (0)*7=0 (0)*7=0
5 (3)*1+(2)*4+(1)*2=13 (3)*3+(2)*3+(1)*1=16 (3)*3+(2)*1+(1)*3=14
6 Skill training & protection Skill training Skill training
7 (1)*7=7 (0)*7=0 (0)*7=0
8 (3)*2+(2)*2+(1)*3=13 (3)*4+(2)*1+(1)*2=16 (3)*3+(2)*2+(1)*2=15
Different skilled workers
Workers undergo 3 to 6 In training, Workers are
(skilled, semi skilled, non
9 months training and H & S told about the methods of
skilled) are given different
is the part of that. Health and safety.
types of H& S trainings.
10 (4)*4+(3)*2+(2)*1=24 (4)*2+(3)*3+(2)*2=21 (4)*1+(3)*3+(2)*3=19
First aid, transport given, First aid for minor, shifted First aid is given, and
shifted to hospital to hospital for major taken to hospital.
12 (3)*3+(2)*1+(1)*3=14 (3)*3+(2)*2+(1)*2=15 (3)*4+(2)*1+(1)*2=19
13 (2)*0+(1)*7=7 (2)*7+(1)*0=14 (2)*7+(1)*0=14
14 (3)*1+(2)*5+(1)*1=14 (3)*3+(2)*2+(1)*2=15 (3)*2+(2)*1+(1)*4=12
(6)*1+(5)*2+(4)*3+(3)*1=3 (6)*1+(5)*4+(4)*2+(3)*0=3
15 1 4 (6)*1+(5)*3+(4)*3+(3)*0=33
16 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7
17 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7
18 (3)*7=21 (3)*7=21 (3)*7=21
19 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7
20 (4)*5+(3)*2+(2)*1=28 (4)*2+(3)*3+(2)*2=21 (4)*4+(3)*3+(2)*0=25
21 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7 (1)*7=7
22 (3)*1+(2)*3+(1)*3=12 (3)*3+(2)*3+(1)*1=16 (3)*2+(2)*2+(1)*3=13
23 0.1Millsion 0.1Millsion 0.1Millsion
Special & mechanical Special & mechanical
24 Special exhaust
exhaust exhaust
25 (4)*3+(3)*3+(2)*1=21 (4)*3+(3)*4+(2)*0=24 (4)*3+(3)*2+(2)*2=22
Total 246 257 250

Occupational Health and Safety

Graphical Analysis

Q No. 2,8

13, 30% Textile Mills
15, 34%
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
16, 36% Mills

Interpretation: Mahmood textile Mills is leading in questions 2 and 8 which

are related to arrangements and extent to which respondents are aware
about the Health and safety.

Q No.5

14, 33% 13, 30% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
16, 37% Mills

Interpretation: Mahmood Textile Mills is leading in question 5 relating to

the extent to health and safety policy is in practice.
Q No.10

19, 30% Textile Mills
24, 37%
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile Mills
21, 33%

Interpretation: Allahwasaya Textile Mills is leading in question which is

related to satisfaction of health and safety training.

Occupational Health and Safety

Q No.12

14, 29% Textile Mills
19, 40% Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
15, 31% Mills

Interpretation: Colony textile Mills is leading in the question related to the

arrangement for reporting of accidents and ill-health.
Q No.13

7, 20%
Textile Mills
14, 40% Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
14, 40%

Interpretation: Mahmood Textile Mills and Colony textile Mills are both
having same but greater score than Allahwasaya Textile Mills in question
relating to the frequency of monitoring of health and safety measures.

Q No.14

12, 29% 14, 34% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
15, 37% Mills

Interpretation: Mahmood Textile Mills consults more about health and

safety issues from the employees.

Occupational Health and Safety

Q No.15

33, 34% 31, 32% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
34, 34% Mills

Interpretation: From the figure, it’s clear that accidents take place less in
the Mahmood Textile Mills.

Q No.20

25, 34% Textile Mills
28, 38%
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
21, 28% Mills

Interpretation: This graph shows that the employees of Allahwasaya

Textile Mills are more satisfied than others.

Q No.22

13, 32% 12, 29% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
16, 39% Mills

Interpretation: The question was related to the guarding of dangerous

parts of machines and Mahmood Textile Mills gains the most.

Occupational Health and Safety

Q No.25

22, 33% 21, 31% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
24, 36% Mills

Interpretation: The workers of Mahmood Textile Mills showed more

satisfaction relating to the overall health and safety program.

Q No.16,17,18,19,21

33.3% 33.3% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
33.3% Mills

Interpretation: The questions were related to medical and first-aid facility,

no smoking signs, testing of fire alarm system, proper storage of
flammable liquids, handing employee complaints. The all companies gain
the same score.

Total score

250, 33.2% 246, 32.7% Textile Mills
Mehmood Textile
Colony Textile
257, 34% Mills

Interpretation: Mahmood Textile Mills is leading in the overall or total

score. The employees or the workers of Mahmood Textile Mills are more
satisfied and valued more. So by adding all responses Mahmood Textile
Mills is leading.

Occupational Health and Safety

The Best Company

From the whole analysis from the graphics and statical data,
it is obvious that Mahmood Textile Mills is the leading company. Mahmood
Textile Mills total scored 257 while Colony textile Mills and Allahwasaya
Textile Mills scored 250 and 247 respectively. Mahmood Textile Mills
performed well in the areas arrangements about health and safety, the
extent to health and safety policy is in practice, awareness about health
and safety measure, consultation with employees, frequency of accidents,
guarding of dangerous parts of machines and overall satisfaction of health
and safety program.

“There is a positive correlation between implementing and
improving occupational health and safety management and worker’s
satisfaction” as narrated by S. Torp and B.E. Moen so we can conclude
from the given figures, data and results that the company which performed
well has been well in implementing health and safety management and as
a result the workers of that organization showed more satisfaction. The
good internal control also gives and edge to the company and increases
the efficiency and satisfaction level of workers. “A change in internal
control is positively correlated with a change in workers’ satisfaction” is
also narrated by the S. Torp and B.E.

Special Thanks
Allahwasaya Textile Mills

Muhammad Imran
Colony textile mills

Occupational Health and Safety

Asif Afridi
Mahmood Textile Mills

Copy of Questionnaire

Occupational Health & Safety

Name: _________________

Contact: _______________________

Working As:
Manager or Officer Worker

Years have been spent in company:

Less than one year 1-5 years 5-10 years More than 15 years

1. Do you have any separate Health and safety department?

Yes No

2. How much arrangements are made for Health and Safety at work?

All arrangements just sufficient few arrangements No arrangements

3. What is Health and safety policy of your Company?


4. Is there any Health and Safety policy statement displayed?

Yes No

5. How much Health and safety policy is in practice?

Strongly practiced Practiced but not strongly weakly practiced No

practice at all

6. Which Health and safety prevention measures do you adopt?

Education Skill training Protection Regulation enforcement

Occupational Health and Safety

7. Do you keep any record of any workplace injury and illness?

Yes No

8. To what extent you are aware of Health and Safety measures?

Very much aware Enough aware Less aware Not aware at all

9. Briefly explain about types of Health and Safety training given to workers?

10. How much are you satisfied with safety training given to the employees at work?

Strongly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Strongly


11. What measures are taken in the case of an accident?


12. How much effective arrangements are there for identification, investigation, notification
and reporting of accident and ill-health of employees?

Very much Just enough Less No arrangement

13. How much frequently does your organization periodically monitor or review and audit
the Health and Safety measures?

Weekly Monthly Yearly No review

14. How much consultation is made with employees on issues about Health and Safety?

Much consultation Not much Less consultation No consultation

15. How frequently do the accidents and incidents take place due to Health and Safety

Never Rarely Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly

16. Do you have any medical and first-aid facility near by?

Yes No

17. Are NO SMOKING signs posted where needed?

Yes No

18. Is the fire alarm system tested regularly?

Once in a week Once in a month Once in a year Never

Occupational Health and Safety

19. Are all flammable liquids that are kept in proper storage container?

Yes No

20. How much you are satisfied with arrangements made for grounding the metallic cables
and conduit systems?

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Strongly


21. Do you have a procedure for handling employee complaints regarding Health and safety?

Yes No

22. How much are all machines or operations that expose operators or other employees to
rotating parts, pinch parts, flying chips, particles, or sparks adequately guarded?

All are guarded Mostly are guarded Few are guarded No


23. How much budget is allocated on Health and safety program?

(Please Specify) __________________

24. What are the ventilation control measures you adopt?

Local exhaust Special exhaust Mechanical or general exhaust


25. How much are you satisfied with the overall Health and safety program?

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied