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Name ___________________________________ _________________________________, USVI AP Psychology _________________________________(Date) Mrs. F. Richardson Chapter 7: MC 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE.

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be ________. 1) _______ A) good fits with a rigid classification system B) well-defined with distinct patterns C) easier to learn D) very clear and well-defined E) fuzzy with unclear boundaries 2) An advantage of using an algorithm to solve a problem is that algorithms A) guarantee a correct solution. B) produce functional fixedness. C) require no mental effort. D) are educated guesses based on prior experience. E) are short cut rules of thumb. 2) _______

3) Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating a ________. 3) _______ A) confirmation bias B) convergent thinking C) mindlessness D) stereotype threat E) mental set 4) A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue," through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figured it out," is called ________. 4) _______ A) priming B) transformation C) insight D) a mental set E) brainstorming 5) Another name for prototype is ________. A) algorithm B) image C) model 5) _______ D) thought

E) creativity 6) _______

6) ________ are mental categories for classifying specific people, things, or events.

A) Images B) Concepts C) Mental sets D) Languages E) Heuristics 7) Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking? 7) _______ A) "What is a stapler?" B) "How many uses can you think of for a stapler?" C) "What is the best brand of stapler?" D) "How do you spell stapler?" E) "What does a stapler look like?" 8) Demetria is trying to solve a problem by systematically evaluating all possible solutions until the correct one is found. Demetria is using ________. 8) _______ A) heuristics B) artificial intelligence C) an algorithm D) means end analysis E) subgoals 9) What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it? 9) _______ A) convergent thinking B) representativeness heuristic C) availability heuristic D) attribution bias E) confirmation bias 10) The ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate is called: A) heuristics. B) convergent thinking. C) latent learning. D) creativity. E) insight. 10) ______

11) The familiar spelling rule of thumb, "i before e except after c" is an example of ________. ______ A) a mental set B) functional fixedness C) a mechanical solution D) an algorithm E) a heuristic

11)

12) Don tells Ray he wants to get a new sports car. Ray immediately understands why, because he is familiar with the common characteristics of sports cars and knows what makes them different from

family cars. Ray is using mental categories called ________. A) attributes B) classifications C) concepts D) classes E) patterns

12) ______

13) The cognitive process that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways is ________. 13) ______ A) problem-solving B) thinking C) cognition D) hill climbing E) g factor 14) In a heuristic called ________, a person determines the difference between the current situation and the goal and then tries to reduce that difference by various methods. 14) ______ A) availability heuristic B) mental set C) means-end analysis D) representative heuristic E) rule of linked arms 15) A habitual way of approaching or perceiving a problem that often interferes with finding a correct solution is known as ________. 15) ______ A) habituation B) a mental set C) subordinate concept D) problem solving E) cognition 16) A characteristic of creativity is the ability to use ________ thinking. A) emerging B) convergent C) divergent D) random E) algorithm 16) ______

17) Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as "drawing figures and figuring drawings." In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure, such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call ________. 17) ______ A) logarithms

B) algorithms C) chunking D) convergence E) heuristics 18) Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student? 18) ______ A) People seek only confirming information. B) People tend to make relative comparisons. C) They are using the representativeness heuristic. D) They are using the availability heuristic. E) People usually have clear insights into the behavior of others. 19) Which is the most likely prototype for the concept "vehicle"? 19) ______ A) glider B) bicycle C) scooter D) moped E) car 20) Dogs, books, beautiful, interesting, and dangerous are all examples of ________. A) heuristics B) concepts C) phonemes D) morphemes E) images 20) ______

21) Which one of the following types of thinking involves coming up with many different potential solutions, is less prone to functional fixedness, and is associated with creativity? 21) ______ A) mental set B) pragmatics C) cathartic D) convergent E) divergent 22) In Kosslyn's "imaginary island" study, researchers found that it does take longer to view a mental image that ________. 22) ______ A) contains more animals than plants B) has more items in it C) has more colors in it D) contains living things as compared to nonliving items E) is larger or covers more distance than one that is smaller and more compact 23) PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image, ________. 23) ______ A) the visual cortex is activated during the formation of an image. B) the image is generated by the hypothalamus and sent to the brain C) there is no locus in the brain that can be determined for the generation of visual images D) the image is generated by the thalamus and sent to the brain

E) the image is generated by the retinal ganglion cells and sent to the cortex 24) Cognition is a synonym for ________. A) learning B) perception C) thinking D) intelligence E) conditioning 24) ______

25. When Larina started college, she was certain that she would never smoke marijuana. By the end of her freshman year, however, Larina had used this drug on three different occasions. Larina's experience best illustrates A) the availability heuristic. B) confirmation bias. C) overconfidence. D) the framing effect. 26. After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates A) the belief perseverance phenomenon. B) the availability heuristic. C) insight. D) a mental set. 27. Miss Jan De Jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy. She enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. A tendency to conclude that Jan must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the powerful influence of A) confirmation bias. B) the framing effect. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) the availability heuristic. 28. Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates A) confirmation bias. B) belief perseverance. C) functional fixedness. D) the availability heuristic.

29. A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people's estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the A) confirmation bias. B) representativeness heuristic. C) belief perseverance phenomenon. D) availability heuristic. 30. Jacquelyn suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancy-induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Jacquelyn's conclusion best illustrates the influence of A) confirmation bias. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) functional fixedness. 31. Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates A) the availability heuristic. B) confirmation bias. C) functional fixedness. D) the representativeness heuristic. 32. An unwillingness to give up our beliefs even when the evidence proves us wrong is called A) the representativeness heuristic. B) trial and error. C) belief perseverance. D) confirmation bias. 33. When we use the word automobile to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n) A) mental set. B) heuristic. C) concept. D) algorithm. 34. Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of ________ on problem solving. A) fixation B) heuristics C) framing D) overconfidence 35. Andre first became suspicious of his roommate's honesty when he could not find his wallet. Although Andre later recalled that he had left his wallet in the glove compartment of his own car, his newly formed doubt about his roommate's honesty remained as strong as ever. Andre's irrational suspicion of his roommate best illustrates A) confirmation bias. B) the representativeness heuristic. C) the belief perseverance phenomenon. D) the framing effect. 36. A prototype is a A) mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people. B) step-by-step procedure for solving problems. C) best example of a particular category. D) simple thinking strategy for solving problems efficiently.

37. The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to A) cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited. B) search for information that supports our preconceptions. C) underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are inaccurate. D) judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered. 38. The inability to see a problem from a new perspective is called A) confirmation bias. B) fixation. C) a heuristic. D) the framing effect. 39. The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to A) save time in arriving at solutions to problems. B) yield more accurate solutions to problems. C) minimize the overconfidence phenomenon. D) involve greater reliance on language skills. 40. Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as 75 percent lean than to ground beef described as 25 percent fat. This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by A) the representativeness heuristic. B) confirmation bias. C) the availability heuristic. D) framing. 41. Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent? A) developmental psychology B) biological psychology C) cognitive psychology D) personality psychology 42. On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the effect of A) confirmation bias. B) overconfidence. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) Framing