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Phonics for English

Reading, Spelling and Writing Express


Orton-Spalding Method Based Phonetic Arts Program from YesPhonics

by Pauline M. Adamson

www.yesphonics.com

Dedicated to Cheyenne

Our Super Star

Developed by Pauline M. Adamson (Gram) Edited by Verlynn D. Adamson (Dad) and Cheyenne Joseph Adamson (Son) Illustrated by Verlynn D. Adamson and Cheyenne Joseph Adamson
Copyright 2004-2012, Pauline M. Adamson All rights reserved. Second Edition Unless otherwise specified, no part of this book may be reproduced without the written permission of the publisher.

Published by YesPhonics PO Box 8651 Missoula, MT 59802 Phone & Fax 1.800.481.0668 yesphonics@yesphonics.com www.yesphonics.com Made in the United States of America ISBN 0-9763673-0-0

Phonics for English

Table of Contents
Introduction ...........................................................................................................5 Scope ..........................................................................................................................8 How to Use the Sequence ................................................................................17 Sequence ..................................................................................................................20 Teaching Materials Directory
......................................................................28

How to Teach Manuscript Writing .................................................29 How to Teach Cursive Writing .........................................................35 How to Teach the YesPhonics Program ..................................37 Phonogram Sound Sequences and Captions List ...................41 How to Teach Spelling ..........................................................................44 How to Teach Word Markings ..........................................................48 Spelling Rules Chart .............................................................................49 Spelling Rules for the First Sound of Vowels ...........................50 Syllables and Suffixes De-Mystified .........................................51

Lesson Plans and Worksheets Directory: 1-28 ............................ 52 1: Consonants and Vowels ................................................... 2: Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart ..................... 3: Syllables............................................................................. 4: Sentence............................................................................. Original Sentence Paragraph 5: Silent Final Es .................................................................. 6: Nouns ................................................................................. Adjectives 7: Four Ways a Single Vowel Can Say A, E, I, Y=I, O, U .. 8: Verbs .................................................................................. 53 55 57 59

61 63 65 67

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Table of Contents

Phonics for English

Pronouns Prepositions 9: F, L and S Doubling Rule ................................................ 10: TI, SI and CI Says /SH/ .................................................. 11: I and Y Say E .................................................................. 12: Plurals: Suffixes S, ES ................................................. 13: C and G Before E, I or Y................................................. 14: Homonyms and Homographs......................................... 15: Es Dropping Rule ............................................................ 16: Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes .......................................................... 17: Six Spellings of ER ......................................................... 18: ED Past Tense Endings .............................................. 19: Rule 2-1-1 Accent ............................................................ 20: I and O Followed by Two Consonants........................... 21: L Dismiss Rule ................................................................ Compound Words 22: OUGH Wild Phonogram Team ................................... 23: Ys Exchange Rule .......................................................... 24: Contractions Reference Chart ....................................... 25: Comparative Words Reference Chart ........................... 26: IE or EI Question ............................................................ 27: Other Phonograms .......................................................... 28: Word Analysis: Root with Rules Application ...............

69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 108

Prefixes & Suffixes List ................................................................. 109 Extended Ayres Spelling Words Sections Directory ................... 111 Resources ........................................................................................ 190 Appendix A: Phonogram Pages 1-72 (Reproducible Masters) .... 191 Appendix B: Worksheets 1-28 (Reproducible Masters) .............. 228 Three-line Manuscript Writing Paper (Reproducible)....... 259

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Introduction

Phonics for English

Introduction
This YesPhonics learning system is based on the work of four brilliant, revolutionary educators. The Spalding Method forms the base of the Phonics for English learning system. The 72 Orton Phonograms are the cornerstone of the curriculum. The course is based on Romalda Spaldings multi-sensory approach, 29 spelling rules and word markings; the Ayres spelling list; and Jean Ziers concept of phonogram illustrations with sound sequence keyword captions.

Dr. Samuel Orton


Dr. Orton isolated the most used phonograms that represent the common spelling patterns of English. They are the primary codes for speaking, spelling, reading and writing English. A phonogram is a letter or a set combination of letters that represent one or more single sounds in a word. The English alphabet is a sound/symbol system; it has 26 letters that say the 45 single sounds heard in English speech. The phonograms consist of the 26 alphabet letters, and 46 set combinations (teams) of letters (multi-letters) with two to four letters each. Each phonogram has one to six sounds. The phonograms are the phonics platform all students of English need in order to reach their highest potential. The phonograms sound sequence should be rehearsed until the phonogram stands out as a sound in the printed word .

Leonard Ayres
Dr. Ayres was a successful teacher and researcher who lived from 1879-1946. He served as a school administrator and director of the Department of Education and Statistician for the Russell Sage Foundation. Dr. Ayres searched out the 1,000 words most commonly used everyday in the English language. These words were derived from numerous tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty, marking off the points at which each successive grade could use the spelling list.

Romalda Spalding
Ms. Spalding was an elementary teacher, and a student of Dr. Orton. She discovered that her special education students, using Ortons methods, w ere learning to read better than her other students. Using Ortons methods and phonograms, an extended Ayres spelling list, 29 simple spelling rules, word markings and other innovations, Spalding developed the highly successful multi-sensory, systematic, intensive, explicit, direct phonetic language arts method designed for all students; known as the Spalding Method. This method is set forth in the teachers textbook The Writing Road to Reading (1957 -2003). This text requires training in order to teach the material.

Jean Zier
A long-time Spalding Method teacher and curriculum director in an award winning rural public school, Ms. Zier developed, integrated and school-tested the concept of illustrations with keyword captions. These depict the sound sequence of the phonogram, which Ms. Zier taught to her first and second grade students.

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Introduction

Phonics for English


The phonograms illustration and keyword caption is an easily learned memory device. The keywords in the caption depict the phonograms sound sequence. For fast, accurate and fluent reading, it is vital to know the phonograms sounds in the order of use frequency. The first sound of the phonogram is the most often used. The second sound is used less often, and so forth, as the third through sixth sounds diminish in use frequency.

Research on the Orton-Spalding Method

Labeled Students and Incarcerated Juveniles


In 1986, the Gallegos Elementary school in Tucson, AZ had 623 students with 46 percent of the intermediate students in special education, most of them classified as learning disabled. After using Romalda Spaldings The Writing Road to Reading for one year, only four students remained in the special education section. After a two-year study of the causes of imprisonment of juveniles, Michael S. Brunner concluded that the cause was sustained frustration from the inability to learn to read in public schools. His recommendation: teach a complete multi-sensory phonetic reading method, such as the Spalding Method.

University of Delaware
Dr. Sylvia Farnham-Diggory, cognitive psychologist at the University of Delaware, reviews ways in which principles of cognitive science are applied to the design of instructional methods for beginning readers in her textbook, Cognitive Processes in Education (1992). After reviewing over 100 methods described in Dr. Robert Aukermans book, Approaches to Beginning Reading, Dr. Farnham-Diggory states: I wish I could say that there are many published curriculums which embody the principles that have just been described. Sadly, there are not. I have found only one, which we have adapted for use in the Reading Study Center at the University of Delaware. We did find one published program that was extremely helpful, in part because of its practical guidance, and in part because of its theoretical insights, which were well ahead of their time. The program was developed in the 1920s, but not published until the 1950s, by Romalda Spalding, The Writing Road to Reading. Spalding was a student of a famous neurologist named Samuel Orton, who specialized in what are called learning disabilities, especially in the study of remedial treatment of a severe reading disorder called dyslexia. Although Ortons approach is over 60 -years-old, it is still surprisingly sound neurologically. He foresaw many principles of contemporary neuropsychology that awaited new technology to be verifiable. He also saw, logically, how a brain must be instructed. Spalding had discovered that using Ortons methods, her disabled students were learning to read better than her normal students. So, she adapted Ortons methods, adding some innovations of her own, for all students. In her book, Schooling (1990), Dr. Sylvia Farnham-Diggory states: Spaldings most remarkable contribution is her invention of the marking system that enables children to connect spelling rules to reading. The marking system is the bridge that connects spelling to reading. After a few hours of practice, children find themselves

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Introduction

Phonics for English


spontaneously marking, mentally, words they see on street signs, buildings, and so on. They see these words in their marked form. They are developing, in effect, a coded sight vocabulary. They are not merely recognizing words by sight, but are at the same time recognizing what parts of them embody generalizable rules. This provides the student with guidelines for reading by analogy.

About YesPhonics
In 1990, I was introduced to Romalda Spaldings textbook for teachers, The Writing Road to Reading. I attended a 30-hour course to understand how to teach it. I was teaching the phonograms to my grandson, Cheyenne, when he entered Mrs. Jean Ziers firs t grade class in mid-term. He knew about half of the 72 phonograms. His new classmates knew all of them. He was very worried and requested my help to catch up. I visited his teacher. She told me not to worry because he would know all of the phonograms very shortly and he did! Cheyennes first school production was a coloring book of phonogram illustrations with sound sequence captions. It was wonderful! It was the key to easily and quickly learn these essential elements of an outstanding, proven phonetic method. After receiving this highly successful public school tested addition to the Spalding Method, I was compelled to research and develop programs for both experienced and inexperienced teachers, tutors and parents. The program can be followed step-by-step through a sequence without previous training that allows the teacher to learn along with the student. By third grade, Cheyenne read everything. He may not have known the meanings, but he could pronounce almost any word. Best wishes to you and your students. Sincerely,

Pauline M. Adamson

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Introduction

Phonics for English

Scope
The scope gives an overview of the teaching material and method of teaching the program. The order for teaching the program is given step-by-step through the sequence.

1. Designed for All Teachers


This program is an English resource that is designed for the experienced and inexperienced teacher, tutor or parent. The program needs no prior training to teach phonemic awareness, speech, reading, writing, spelling, spelling rules, beginning grammar, word analysis and word markings. The program is taught step-by-step through the sequence; it coordinates the how and when of presentation and integrates the subjects to be taught.

Just start! The teacher learns along with the student!


The scope gives the overall method of instruction. The sequence gives the step-by-step order for teaching. Manuscript writing is taught with the alphabet letter phonograms. The 72 Orton Phonograms are taught using: o Phonogram Flash Cards o Phonics Codes for English Phonogram Flash Card Media o Phonogram Sheets, Illustrated Keyword Captions/Color Handouts The 28 lesson plans (Teachers Manual) and the 28 worksheets (reproducible masters) to teach the spelling rules in conjunction with the phonograms and spelling word list.

2. Program for All Levels & Grades: K-College and Others


This school and homeschool course is sequenced for Levels 1-3 (grades K to first-third). This program is used for all ages and reading levels. The teaching instructions are necessarily written for classes of beginners, whether in Kindergarten or first grade. Older students beginning with this method, regardless of their training in lower grades, need this same teaching method and practice, as do children just entering school; although the older student will likely proceed faster. All learners profit quickly with this program.

3. Beginners Read in Five Weeks


The phonograms are taught first and fast, integrated with spelling words and spelling rules. In the first five weeks, the students learn 56 phonograms and the first 150 words of the Ayres spelling list of the 1,000 most commonly used words, taught in the order of use frequency. The students write sentences using words from their spelling notebooks and read them aloud. Potential reading abilities now include hundreds of words that make up the same spelling patterns. All students can quickly grasp these essentials and apply them to any reading context and start reading literature from the library of their age-interest that educates and develops a love of reading.

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Scope 8

Phonics for English


The ability, along with the desire to read well-written books that expand the students horizons and knowledge of life, is one of the major goals of language teaching.

4. English: Sound/Symbol/Rules System


The sound/symbol relationships and spelling rules that should be taught with the phonograms and spelling words are highly relevant because those that do not know them cannot learn to spell except by whole-word memorization. About 10 percent of students have enough photographic memory to do quite well with memorization of whole words. Around 30 percent lack this visual ability, and another 50 percent cannot perform this task well. The failure to teach English as a sound/symbol/rules system causes sustained frustration, slow thought, low self-esteem and failure for at least 60 percent of English writers and readers.

5. Spell and Write to Read


Auditory processing skills can be more precisely and efficiently taught through spelling rather than randomly taught through implicit phonics applied to pronouncing words for reading. Phonics for reading alone give only approximate pronunciations for many words. Early learning of correct spelling patterns (while avoiding programming of misinformation, such as invented spelling) allows elementary students to write with increased prec ision and creativity. As a result, they can then read at their interest and speaking vocabulary levels; enjoying quality literature with its obvious benefits.

6. Read to Learn

Explicit
The phonograms and spelling words are taught explicitly with a multi-sensory approach of seeing, hearing, saying and writing them from dictation. Explicit phonics moves from the smallest parts to the whole. Students first learn the phonograms (letters and set combinations of letters, called multi-letters) and their sounds. They then build and recombine them into syllables and words.

Systematic
This method is a complete sequential teaching method that unclutters and unifies English language arts.

Direct
This method is direct with an exact dictated dialogue for the phonograms and spelling words. The students use only paper and pencil and their minds. The mental work required of the students in applying their knowledge of the phonograms and spelling rules in writing from dictation builds a study habit of great value.

Multi-Sensory
When a multi-sensory approach of seeing, hearing, saying and writing the phonograms and spelling words from dictation is used, then all students will learn whether they are a more auditory, visual or kinesthetic learner.

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Scope

Phonics for English


A multi-sensory method has a synergistic effect of addressing the stronger learning mode while reinforcing the weakest; it is effective for beginning, remedial and advanced students. All students can quickly grasp these essentials and apply them to any reading context and learn to read interesting literature.

8. Single Sounds, Blends and Word Families

Single Sounds
All of the phonograms (26 alphabet letters and 46 multi-letter teams) say single voiced sounds. Reading (blending or decoding) is the saying of a single voiced sound in rapid succession. When the phonograms are taught, there is simply no need to teach the single voiced sounds of hundreds of blends and word families.

Blends
Blends are two or more phonograms blended together, each letter retains its own sound value (br=/b/+/r/). In this method, blending is learned in spelling and reading.

Word Families
Recitation of short vowel words (at, bat, cat, hat) and long vowel words (make, bake, cake) is a fragmented and incomplete process of learning to read. These spelling patterns are quickly and easily learned with the phonograms, spelling words and spelling rules.

9. Whole Language, Implicit Phonics, Text Clues, Picture Guessing and Invented Spelling

Whole Language, Implicit Phonics, Text Clues and Picture Guessing


This is the most widely used form of reading instruction used in schools today; it moves from the whole to the smallest parts. Three hundred words a year are taught as a whole. The student must make her best guess as to what the word is by its shape, beginning and ending letters, and any context clues from the rest of the sentence or accompanying picture (a horse is not a pony).

Implicit Phonics
Implicit phonics break down from the whole to the part. Many current programs labeled systematic conceptualized phonics, balanced, embedded phonics, literature based and integrated language arts in fact use implicit phonics.

Invented Spelling
Accurate spelling is the road to reading. It corresponds to printed material and is critical to the reading process. Incorrect spelling practice wires the brain wrong and tends to be permanent; it is strongly associated with reading disability.

10. Sessions
Sessions should be daily (school days) for school and homeschool students. For individual tutoring, ideally there should be three, one-hour sessions each week. The tutor should engage a students helper a parent, an older sibling, or a friend to help with homework.

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Scope 10

Phonics for English 11. Read Storybooks


Read appropriate storybooks of interest to the student of any age. This will peak their interest, enhance vocabulary, expose them to proper voice inflection and phrasing, model articulate English speech, and open a window to the marvels revealed in books.

12. Manuscript and Cursive Writing


Manuscript writing is taught in the beginning with the single-letter phonograms. Cursive (connected) writing is taught in the second grade/level.

13. Sound Keys


Pronounce all of the names of the letters that are written alone: s (es). Pronounce all of the sounds of the letters (phonograms) that are written within the slashes: /s/ (sss).

14. Phonograms
A phonogram is either one letter or a set combination of letters (multi-letters) which represent one or more single voiced sounds in a word. This program teaches the 72 Orton Phonograms. The phonograms are prese nted with the flash cards and/or phonograms sheet and videos. The face of each flash card has one big, bold, black phonogram to show to the student. The back of each card has the phonogram, the phonograms sounds with keywords, the phonograms sound sequence and dialogue, and the phonograms illustration of its keyword sound sequence caption memory device. Some phonograms have the same sound in every word in which they appear. Others have several sounds, and deciding which sound to use is one of the skills needed for reading (decoding) English. Notice the four phonograms in the word school: /s/-/ch/-/oo/-/l/. The s has two sounds, this is its first sound: /s/. The ch has three sounds, this is its second sound: /k/. The oo has three sounds, this is its first sound /oo/. The l has one sound. The sounds of the phonogram are in the order of their frequency of use. For instance: the sound sequence of the phonogram a is: //-//-/ah/. The first sound is used about 70 percent of the time, so the // is listed first. The second sound, // (letter name) is used almost 25 percent of the time. The third sound is used the least often, and is therefore listed last. When the student tries the first sound in a word, she will most often be right. If the first sound doesnt work, then she should try the second sound, and the third sound last. For this reason, it is important to teach the sounds in the order of use frequency. The name of the phonogram is its sound sequence and dialogue. The sequence of its sounds and some spelling rules are used to identify the phonogram in dictation.

15. Teach Sounds, Not Letter Names


Teach only the sound sequences of the alphabet letters. The names of the letters are not important at this time, but the sounds are. Learning the names of the letters first, before learning the sounds, confuses children. First, we want the students to link the sounds of speech with the symbols used for spelling the words. This lowers the learning load for the students and speeds them on their way to reading.

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Scope

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Phonics for English


After the phonograms (letters a-z) are learned, the letter names are taught in preparation for teaching and learning the lesson plans and worksheets with the spelling words and spelling rules.

16. Short and Long Vowels


The first sound of a vowel letter is called short. The second sound, which says its letter name, is called long. When speaking to the student, avoid using the term name of the letter or short or long, instead use the sound(s) itself. This is more direct.

17. Phonics Instruction First and Fast


Phonetic instruction should be first and fast. Total mastery is not necessary before moving onto the spelling words. Memory research has verified the efficiency of teaching all of the sounds of the phonogram at one time, rather than in layers. When the phonogram sounds are introduced together, the brain can store the information in one place for easy retrieval. Present the phonograms quickly. For the average student, teach the first 56 within the first five weeks, and all 72 within the first 11 weeks. This method starts with a rapid presentation of the phonics codes of the English language. The student need to see phonics in operation. Only with repetition over a period of time will these concepts be retained. (All students should work at their capacity.) When the tools of learning are mastered, the path to learning is completely open.

18. Phonogram Sheets, Illustrated Phonogram Sound Sequence Keyword Captions for Coloring and Handouts
Knowing the 72 phonograms and their sounds in sequence is vital for quick and accurate reading (decoding). The phonograms illustration and keyword caption is an easily learned memory device. The keywords in the caption depict the phonograms sounds in use frequency. This innovative addition to this method is truly a remarkable way to easily and quickly learn and remember the most difficult part of this method. Many phonograms have the same sound with differing use sequences. Compare the phonograms ie and ei: The sound sequence for ie is //-//, the caption is piece of pie. The sound sequence for ei is //-//, the caption is their leisure. Also, consider the sound sequence of the phonogram oo: /oo/-/oo/-//. Its easy to remember with the illustration and caption foolish crook at the door. The phonogram o: /ah/-//-//-/oo/ has some of the same sounds; its caption is Ox over? Love to! By coloring or painting the phonograms illustration of its keyword sound sequence caption, the student creates a work of art, by this act they make the phonogram their own. This is a powerful memory device. The illustrations are praised and displayed, or made into family treasure books. A wall chart may be constructed of the completed illustrations.

19. Original Art


Later, the students may illustrate their own versions of the phonograms keyword sound sequence caption with original art. This reinforces the meaning of the words in the caption.

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Scope 12

Phonics for English


Dont confuse the mind with other captions for the illustrations. See: Dialogue for

Phonogram Sheets, Illustrated Keyword Captions for Coloring and Handouts

20. Spelling
This program uses the Ayres spelling list of the 1,000 most commonly used words in the English language, taught in the order of use frequency. Included are extensions of root words with their derivatives, similar spellings, comparative words, homonyms and homographs. The teacher is instructed to add extensions according to the learning level/grade one, two or three. The students learn to construct literate English sentences by using high frequency words (not only low frequency words in categories or of the phonograms/letters being learned). From the beginning, the student constructs oral and written sentences using the spelling words from their spelling notebook. The students first reading in context experience is to read aloud the sentences that they have written. Teaching the list of the 1,000 most commonly used words explains most spelling problems in the language. The spelling words are the building blocks of the language. The first 100 spelling words make up 30 percent of all that we read or write. The student needs to learn to write these words without needing to pause, analyze or think. The spelling words are taught in syllables and are referenced in the spelling rules. The spelling rules are not taught in isolation, but are taught by examples in the spelling lesson with the lesson plans and worksheets. Phonetically taught spelling is the key to successful reading instruction. When the logic of the language is clearly taught, students spell their way to reading. In the spelling lessons, the students obtain the basic knowledge of how written language works, at the completion of the spelling list (usually by the end of third grade) the student can read (decode/pronounce) the longest of unfamiliar words syllable-by-syllable. At this point, students are able to read anything in their comprehension vocabulary of about 30,000 words. (Compare this to the 900 words third-graders are able to read using the whole language method!) Most phonics methods neglect spelling and do not teach the saying and writing of the sounds of the phonograms before, and well ahead of trying to read. The spelling words are first seen by the students as they write them from dictation. Dictation is the key to using the brain for spelling. With this method, you will need to teach the word only once, instead of repetitious copying. The words are not copied! Applying the phonograms, phonogram-by-phonogram, sound-by-sound, syllable-by-syllable along with the spelling rules through written dictated spelling is a very efficient way to teach

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Scope

13

Phonics for English


accurate spelling for fluent reading. Correct spelling corresponds directly to book print for reading.

21. Spelling Notebook


A composition lined notebook, with 3/8 inch spacing and divided columns is included in your program for your convenience. It is used for spelling words, sentences and paragraphs. The spelling words are then used for construction of sentences and paragraphs, and to search for words when completing the worksheets. The Spelling Notebook is a permanent record and is a treasure of an accomplishment.

22. Spelling Rules Chart


The Spelling Rules Chart is a teachers reference. The spelling rules are taught by application (not written) with the spelling words in the spelling notebook, lesson plans and worksheets through the sequence, p. 49

23. Word Clearing


This activity should only commence after the students are reading and have a solid phonetic foundation. It should not interfere with dictation of the spelling word list. These words may be used as spelling extensions for elementary students and for older and remedial students. To practice word clearing, chose reading material slightly above the students reading ability. Have the student read aloud. When a word is unclear (he hesitates or stumbles), the student looks up the word in the dictionary and uses it to write sentences. Have students word clear with a friend, taking turns reading aloud and listening.

24. Word Markings


This method uses word markings, using numbers, underlining and identification marks, to identify which of the phonograms sound s is being used and indicating the spelling rule. This promotes thinking and reinforces correct spelling; it is a bridge that connects spelling to reading. See: How to Teach Word Markings

25. Sequence, Spelling Notebook, Lesson Plans and worksheets


The prepared lesson plans teach the worksheets. They are taught in conjunction with phonograms, spelling words, and spelling rules. The teaching order of how and when is coordinated through the sequence. The various parts of them are taught by the corresponding sequence numbers. Some lesson plans and worksheets are visited several times to teach their continuing parts.

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Scope 14

Phonics for English


Each level/grade begins with new worksheets. The students continue the spelling list from level/grade to level/grade, so the worksheets have words entered from the basic words to the higher levels/grades. When the spelling list is complete (usually at the end of third level/grade) upper grades and other students can benefit from using the worksheets with any spelling word list or words found in reading and word searches.

26. Phonics Codes for English Illustrated Phonograms DVD and CD


The 72 phonograms are shown and called by number. The sound sequence and dialogue of the phonogram is said twice. The student may Sound -A-Long with the speaker the second time. The keyword caption is said once. Preview the DVD and CD to give the students phonemic awareness by seeing, hearing and saying the 45 sounds heard in English speech before seriously learning the symbols. Elementary and ESL students may use the DVD or CD for review and drill. Middle school, remedial and self-learning students may use them for presentation of the phonograms and drill. The phonogram pages and worksheets may be copied for students to use with the DVD or CD, and for future study.

27. Teaching the Levels, Grades and Others

Level One: K-First Grade, Remedial and Other


Follow the program through the sequence.

Levels Two and Three: Second and Third Grade, Review, Remedial and Other
If the students have not been taught this method, it is necessary to give them the first and second level/grade work. This may be done more rapidly than with beginning students. The Sound-A-Long DVD and CD may be used with copies of the phonogram pages and Appendix A to learn or review the phonograms, and for future study. All students start at the beginning of Level One, Spelling Sections A-N, to learn or review the words and record them in their spelling notebook, for use when later completing the worksheets. This is the foundation on which to continue adding spelling words from Spelling Sections O-Z. The sequence is followed. Spelling words and rules are taught with the lesson plans and worksheets through the level/grade spelling sections. The teacher dictates or calls out the words from the spelling list for the student to write and mark in their spelling notebooks. Students write sentences and short paragraphs. Chalkboard paragraphs are read aloud and corrected by the class. Much literature from the library is read aloud in groups or at home.

Other Students: Fourth Grade through College/Adults and Self-Learners


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Scope
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Phonics for English


To accelerate reading, it may be desirable to teach all the phonograms first, very quickly. The 72 phonograms may be presented and drilled with the Phonics Codes for English (Sound-A-Long) Illustrated Phonograms DVD or CD, and copies of the phonogram pages and Appendix A. Show the media through each session until the phonograms are learned. Start at the beginning of the program and progress through it at the students pace, using the sequence for teaching the spelling word and rules with the spelling notebook, lesson plans and worksheets. Spelling Sections A-N (Level One) is used to construct the worksheets. This is the foundation on which to continue adding words from Spelling Sections O-Z. Library books are read aloud in groups or at home.

ESL: Write and Spell to Read and Speak


All English language learners need the same phonetic word building skills. English as a second language students must know the 45 single sounds heard in English speech. They must have knowledge of the common spelling patterns of the 72 Orton Phonograms that teach the systematic and predictable relationships between the letters of the written language and the individual sounds of the spoken language. The way to learn English: 1. Write the sounds of the phonograms. 2. Spell the 1,000 most frequently used English words in syllables with word building phonograms and spelling rules. 3. Read English words syllable-by-syllable. 4. Speak English by reading aloud. The Sound-A-Long DVD and CD are remarkable tools for learning to read, spell, write and speak English. After the initial introduction to the phonograms, show the media through each session until the phonograms stand out as a sound in a printed word.

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Scope 16

Phonics for English

How to Use the Sequence


Including a Preview of Sequences 1-6
This program is designed to be taught or learned through the sequence. The sequence is the guide for daily, weekly and by-the-grade teaching and learning for the YesPhonics program. The sequence guides the program step-by-step, coordinates the presentation of the subjects and integrates the teaching order of the phonograms, spelling words, spelling rules and beginning grammar with the lesson plans and worksheets. The lesson plans and worksheets are not taught in order, as in 1-2-3, etc. They may be used more than once through the sequence and spelling words list.

Get Organized
Review, prepare and practice the material to be presented in Sequences 1-3 as follows:

Sequence 1: Daily, Read Storybooks Aloud


Select an age-appropriate interesting story or chapter book that is above the reading level of the students.

Sequence 2: Manuscript Writing


Review: How to Teach Manuscript Writing


Copy the Reproducible Masters three-line writing paper. Practice the seven strokes used in manuscript writing and the circle (o) on the paper using the Dialogue to Teach the Circle and Circle Points 1-4. Practice writing the single-letter phonograms (alphabet letters) to be taught the first day (circle letters are taught first) using the Dialogues for Manuscript Writing (letters).

In the beginning, only lower case letters are taught. The capital letters are taught as they are needed. This prevents intermixing of lower and upper case letters.

Note: How to write the alphabet letters (a-z) is taught with their phonogram (1-26), p. 29

Sequence 3: Phonogram Flash Cards and Color Handouts


Re-sequence the Flash Cards (1-26) a-z to teach the circle letters first. (If needed, make Flash Cards from copies of the phonogram pages.) Copy the Phonogram Sheets (Reproducible Masters Packet or phonogram pages) on single-sides, cut in half for the students use for the first week or longer. Re-sequence the Phonogram Sheets to match the Flash Cards. Determine how many phonograms are to be taught each day usually two to four. Allow time for elementary students to color the phonogram illustrations. Older students enjoy this exercise using markers or paints. Use this activity as a time for the students to mentally practice and anchor the sound sequence of the phonogram

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How to Use the Sequence 17

Phonics for English


and rehearse the caption that depicts the order of use frequency. The 26 single-letter phonograms (1-26, a-z) will take 13 days to teach (two/day), or seven days to teach (four/day).

Review: How to Teach Flash Cards and Phonogram Sheets Practice: Dialogue for Single-Letter Phonograms Practice: Dialogue for Phonogram Pages
Practice the sound sequences of the phonograms to be used the first day; its not necessary for the teacher to know the sounds in sequence at this time, as they will have the cards available.

Note: How to write the alphabet letters (a-z) is taught with their phonogram (1-26), p. 29. Copies of three-line writing paper are needed for students to practice on, p. 31 and 259

Phingo! Phonetic Bingo Game


The completion of the single-letter phonograms is a good place to play Phingo!, and a fun way to drill the phonogram sound sequences. When decoding (reading), in order to quickly choose the correct sound, the student must know the sound in sequence without hesitation. The first sound is tried and is most often correct, then the second sound, etc.

Begin the class! Teach Sequences 1-3

Sequence 4: Teach the Alphabet Letter Names and Numerals (0-9)


Skip this sequence if the student knows the names by sight of the lower case letters in alphabetical order. The name of the phonogram (letter) is its sound sequence and is used at all times during dictation when instructing the students. The names of the alphabet letters are needed later for discussion, dictionary and telephone use, etc. To teach the names, sequence the flash cards in alphabetical order, or use a copy of the lower case letters.

Sequence 5: Vowels and Consonants


Lesson Plan/Worksheet Part 1 (LW-1)
Copy Lesson Plan/Worksheet Part 1 (LW-1) from the reproducible masters

Review: Lesson Plan and Worksheets Directions


Review how to teach the lesson plan and how the student should complete the worksheet for both parts 1 and 2. Note that only part 1 is taught in Sequence 5; part 2 will be taught in Sequence 14. Most of the lesson plans/worksheets are revisited more than once in the Spelling Sections A-N (Level One, K-first grade) and again in Sections M-Z (Levels Two and Three, second-fourth grade) of the spelling list.

Sequence Listed on Lesson Plans/Worksheets/Spelling Word List: The sequence that is relevant to the material being presented is listed on the lesson plans and throughout the spelling word list. The Lesson Plan/Worksheet (LW) is also listed in the spelling word list as a reminder to teach it at the same time.

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How to Use the Sequence

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Phonics for English

Sequence 6: Spelling Words (Sections A-B) and Multi-Letter Phonogram


Flash Cards and Color/Handout Phonogram Sheets sh-ch
Determine the number of spelling words to be taught daily and spread the 14 phonograms (27-41) through the 26 spelling words in Spelling Sections A-B. Twenty to 40 words are taught each week, 30 words per week are assigned to the average first grader.

Note: All learners (K-college/self-learners) complete the spelling list and worksheet to build a solid phonetic foundation.

Practice: Dialogue for Multi-Letter Phonograms Review: How to Teach Spelling


Purchase and prepare the spelling notebooks. If you are unable to find 3/8 inch spaced spiral notebooks, make copies of the three-line, 3/8 inch writing master document and place the sheets in a loose-leaf notebook.

Practice: Dialogue for One-Syllable Spelling Words Review: Spelling Words Sections Directions Review: Spelling Words List Explanations Review: Spelling Section A (Sequence 6) and Spelling Section B (Sequence 6)

Example: Spelling Rules Integrated with Spelling Words, Lesson Plans and Worksheets

Sequence 12: Spelling Words Section E and LW-5


Part 1: Silent Final Es, at time (Rule 7)
Go to: Sequence 12 (see the above information) Go to: Spelling Word List Section E and find the above information listed again. Beginning at the word time you are to teach (Rule 7) Silent Final E words, Part 1 of (LW) Lesson Plan/Worksheet 5. Go to: Lesson Plan 5 with worksheet that has filled in as a guide. The lesson plan has explanations of rules, markings and other information for teaching the Silent Final E word. Teach (dictate) form the Spelling Word List the Silent Final E Words using their dialogues for the students to write in Part 1 of their worksheets. Part 2 will be taught in Sequence 22.

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How to Use the Sequence 19

Phonics for English

Sequence
The sequence gives the step-by-step order for teaching the program. Just start!

Terminology

Phonogram Flash Cards Color/Handout (HO)


Phonogram sheet reproducible masters.

LW: Lesson Plan/Worksheets


Refers to both the teachers lesson plans in the manual and the student worksheets.

Worksheets
These reproducible masters are given to the students as they are needed. They are not taught in order (1-2-3); they are taught through the sequence numbers with the phonograms, spelling words and spelling rules. They may be visited more than once during the levels/grades. After the first introduction, they are kept in a loose-leaf notebook for further use and reference.

Spelling Notebook
The teacher dictates the spelling words for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks. The spelling notebook is the permanent record; it is used to construct sentences, read words and sentences, search for words for the worksheets and to write derivatives with its root word. Each level/grade uses a new spelling notebook.

Construct Worksheets
Each level and/or grade constructs new worksheets, starting from the beginning of Level One, Spelling Sections A-N. This is the foundation on which to build. The students then continue through all of the spelling sections, adding words to the worksheets until they have completed the words for their level/grade, p. 228. The spelling words are written on the worksheets when specified by a sequence number, not after each spelling lesson. As the spelling words increase in difficulty for each level/grade, the worksheets reflect this in their final composition.

1. Daily: Read Storybook Aloud 2. Manuscript Writing


Copy the writing paper. Teaching Materials: pp. 28-36 How to Teach Manuscript Writing Dialogues to Teach the Circle and Circle Points 1-4

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Phonics for English


Dialogues for Manuscript Writing How to write the alphabet letters is taught with the phonograms.

3. Phonogram Flash Cards and Color/HO 1-26 (a-z)


Introduce two to four phonograms each session using the Phonogram Flash Cards and Teaching Materials: pp. 37-40 How to Teach Phonogram Flash Cards and Phonogram Sheets, Illustrated Keyword

Captions for Coloring and Handouts with Dialogues Dialogue for Dictating the Phonograms Dialogue for Single-Letter Phonograms Dialogue for Phonogram Sheets (Color/HO) Manuscript Writing Materials

Collect the Color/HO to make books. Review all of the previously taught phonograms at the beginning of each session. Dont wait for the total mastery of the phonograms or exact manuscript writing before moving onto spelling and the multi-letter phonograms.

4. Teach the Alphabet Letter Names and Numerals (0-9), p. 32 5. LW-1, Part 1: Vowels and Consonants
Give the student the worksheet as it is introduced. They are kept in a notebook for further use. Twenty to forty spelling words are taught each week. Thirty words a week are assigned to the average first grader.

6. Spelling Words, Sections A and B Multi-Letter Phonogram Flash Cards and

Color/HO 27-41 (sh-ch)


Teaching Materials: Dialogue for Multi-Letter Phonograms, p. 40 How to Teach Spelling, p. 44 Dialogue for One-Syllable Spelling Words, p. 45 At the end of each spelling lesson, the students and teacher recite oral sentences using each word and read the words in their spelling notebooks aloud. Review all of the phonograms each session.

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Sequence 21

Phonics for English 7. Spelling Words, Section C Multi-Letter Phonogram Flash Cards and Color/HO 42-50

(ng-oe)
Teach concurrently. The students will make oral sentences using each word from the spelling lesson and read words in their spelling notebooks. Review all of the phonograms each session.

8. Multi-Letter Phonogram Flash Cards and Color/HO 51-56 (er-our)


Introduce the /er/ phonograms and Color/HO in one session. LW-17: Six Spellings of ER, students enter phonograms er-our Review all of the phonograms each session. Periodically test the phonograms. Students read the words in their spelling notebooks every session.

9. LW-2: Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart


Dictate the phonograms 27-56 (sh-our) from the lesson plan for the students to write on their worksheet.

10. Spelling Words, Section D


Concurrently with dictating the spelling words for the students to write in their spelling notebooks, the students make oral sentences using each word from the spelling lesson and reading the words in their spelling notebooks in different orders. Review all of the phonograms. LW-3: Syllables, at over

11. LW-4: Sentence


The students will write three sentences each session using words from their spelling notebooks.

12. Spelling Words, Section E


The students will make oral sentences for each word in the spelling lesson and write sentences using words from their spelling notebooks. LW-5, Part 1: Silent Final Es, at time

13. Spelling Words, Section F


The students will compose sentences using words from their spelling notebooks and read them aloud to the class. This is their first reading in context. Continue to review all of the phonograms each session.

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Phonics for English 14. LW-1, Part 2: Vowels Keywords 15. Spelling Words, Section G
Concurrently with teaching the spelling words and oral sentences, have the students write sentences using the words from their spelling notebooks. Review all of the phonograms each session.

16. LW-6, Part 1: Nouns


Introduce Beginning Grammar.

17. LW-4: Original Sentence 18. Spelling Words, Section H


Concurrently with teaching the spelling word and oral sentences, have the students write two or three original sentences in their spelling notebooks and read the words in their spelling notebooks. Review phonograms each session. LW-11: I and Y Say SE, at baby Unstressed Syllables, at about (Use: Dialogue for Think to Spell , p. 47) LW-12, Part 1: Plurals, Suffix s, at cat, cats

19. LW-7: Four Ways a Vowel Can Say A, E, I, O, U 20. LW-8: Verbs 21: Read Storybooks with Vocabulary-Rich Literature
At the completion of Section H, beginners should start reading easy books. The students should read interesting literature to accommodate their expanding speech and vocabulary interests.

22. Spelling Words, Section I: Multi-Letter Phonogram Flash Cards and Color/HO 57-72 (ey-gu)
Teach concurrently. Students write two to three original sentences in their spelling notebooks. Each session, the students read spelling words in different orders from their spelling notebooks. LW-5, Part 2: Silent Final Es, at gave Continue to review all of the phonograms. The value of instantly knowing the phonograms sound in sequence simply cannot be overstated. Games are an excellent way to relieve the boredom of review.

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Sequence 23

Phonics for English 23. LW-8: Pronouns 24. LW-2, Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart
Dictate the phonograms 57-72 (ey-gu) from the lesson plan for the students to write them on their worksheets to complete this chart.

25. Spelling Words, Section J


Concurrently with teaching the spelling words, students make oral sentences using each word in the spelling lesson, write two or three original sentences and read the spelling word in their spelling notebooks. Review phonograms. LW-9: F, L, S Doubling Rule, at off LW-10: SH, TI, SI, CI Say /SH/, at ship

26. LW-8: Prepositions 27. 1-72 Phonogram Review and Original Art
Review the phonograms concurrently with teaching the program. The students illustrate their versions of the captions with original art. Illustrating and coloring phonogram captions can be done anytime. This causes the student to think about the meaning of the words in the caption and reinforces the sound sequences of the phonograms. Do not confuse the mind by changing or practicing other captions. Collect the art to make books. As time permits and on a continuing basis, teach the spelling words concurrently with original art, reading books and writing original sentences.

28. Testing the Phonograms


Periodically, test the 72 phonograms use 30 at a time. Call out the sound sequence and dialogue, the students will write it and dictate it back for the teacher to write on the board. Phonogram review is concluded for the level/grade when the student is 100 percent correct three times.

29. Spelling Words, Section K


Concurrently with teaching the spelling words and oral sentences, have the students write original sentences and add suffixes to root words; the students will write the derivative with its root word in the spelling notebook.

LW-13: C and G Before E, I, Y, at cent, gem LW-12, Part 2: Plurals, Suffixes, change F to V, add es, at wife LW-14: Homonyms and Homographs, at boor LW-15: Es Dropping Rule, at come, coming

30. LW-6, Part 2: Nouns, Adjectives

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Phonics for English 31. LW-4: Paragraph 32. LW-16: Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes Learning Reference Chart 33. Spelling Words, Section L
Concurrently with the spelling words and oral sentences, have the students write original sentences and paragraphs in their spelling notebooks. LW-12, Part 3: Plurals, Suffixes es, at hero, heroes LW-17: Six Spellings of ER, at her LW-18: ED, Past Tense Ending, at land, landed

34. Spelling Words, Section M


Concurrently with the spelling words and oral sentences, have the students write original sentences and paragraphs in their spelling notebooks.

LW-20: I and O Followed by Two Consonants, at mind LW-19: Rule 2-1-1 Accent Learning Reference Chart, at begin LW-3: Syllables, at pretty LW-22: OUGH Wild Phonogram Team, at bought

35. Spelling Words, Section N


Concurrently with the spelling words and oral sentences, have the students write original sentences and paragraphs in their spelling notebooks. Prefixes and Suffixes: At various times, assign three prefixes and three suffixes for the students to search their spelling notebooks for words to which they may be added. The students should write the derivative with its root word in their spelling notebooks. See:

Prefixes and Suffixes List, p. 109


LW-21: L Dismiss Rule, at also LW-21: Compound Words, at something LW-23: Ys Exchange Rule, at copy LW-26: IE or EI Question, at piece

36. LW-15: Es Dropping Rule


LW-24 Contractions Reference Chart LW-25 Comparative Words Reference Chart Section N is usually the last spelling section for Level One, K-first grade. The spelling list may be extended as needed with derivatives of root words in the spelling notebooks, from reading, word clearing or other spelling lists.

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Sequence 25

Phonics for English 37. Worksheet Completion for Spelling Sections A-N, Level One
Kindergarten, First Grade, Remedial and Other Students Complete the worksheets for reference, as is appropriate. Find words by searching the spelling notebooks, from reading material, by doing word searches or other sources. All of the worksheets will not be completed by the beginning students, the teacher may fill in parts of them for future reference. Level Two, Second Grade, Review, Remedial and Other Students All students use new spelling notebooks and worksheets. Begin at Level One teach the basic words in Spelling Sections A-N that are used to build the foundation that is needed to continue adding the spelling words from Sections O-R in the spelling notebooks and on the worksheets.

38. Cursive Writing, Level Two, Second Grade


Teach connected writing only after the student can print (write) well in manuscript, usually, after the new year in the second grade. The words that are added to the spelling notebook and worksheets at that time should be in cursive writing.

39. Spelling Words, Sections O and P


Periodically search these sections in the spelling notebooks for words that can be added to the worksheets. LW-10: SH, TI, SI, CI, Says /SH/, Section O, at quest LW-27: Other Phonograms, Section P, at beau

40. LW-28: Word Analysis


Teach this study concurrently with Spelling Sections O-Z. Search the spelling notebook; use more worksheets. This activity will greatly enlarge the understanding of words.

41. Spelling Words, Section Q


Continue teaching the worksheets, adding words from Section Q or other sources. Review and test the phonograms.

42. Extended Writing Paragraphs and Stories


Need a program.

43. Greek and Latin Roots


English from the Roots Up, by Lundquist, and ABCs and All Their Tricks by M. Bishop.

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Phonics for English 44. Spelling Words, Section R


Continue teaching the worksheets, adding words for Section R or other sources. Review and test the phonograms. Section R is usually the last spelling section for Level Two/second grade. The spelling list may be extended with derivatives of root words that are in the spelling notebooks, from reading material, word clearing or other spelling word lists.

45. Worksheet Completion for Spelling Section O-R


Level Two, Second Grade, Review, Remedial and Other Students Complete the worksheets for future reference by searching for words in the spelling notebooks and other sources. Level Three, Third Grade, Review, Remedial and Other Students All students use new spelling notebooks and worksheets. Begin at Level One teach Spelling Section A-Ns basic words that are used to build the foundation that is needed to continue adding the spelling words from Sections S-Z in the spelling notebooks and on the worksheets.

46. Spelling, Sections S-Z


Level Three, Third Grade The students continue writing these words in their spelling notebooks and adding them to their worksheets. Continue with the activities listed above. The spelling list may be extended as needed with derivatives of root words in the spelling notebooks, with words from current reading material, word clearing activities or other spelling word lists.

47. Worksheet Completion for Spelling Section S-Z


Level Three, Third Grade, Review, Remedial and Other Students Complete the worksheets for future reference by searching for words in the spelling notebooks, reading material, word searches or other sources.

All students that have not previously studied this method need to start at the beginning of
the program.

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Sequence 27

Phonics for English

Teaching Materials Directory How to Teach Manuscript Writing ................................29 Dialogue to Teach the Circle and Circle Points 1-4 ......30 Alphabet Letters and Circle Points Marked .................32 Capital Letters, Punctuation, and Numerals Dialogues for Manuscript Writing .................................33 How to Teach Cursive Writing .......................................35 Cursive Capital Letters ..................................................36 How to Teach the YesPhonics Program .....................37 Dialogue for Dictating Phonograms Dialogue for Single Letter Phonograms ........................38 Dialogue for Phonogram Sheets Coloring & Handout ..39 Dialogue for Multi-Letter Phonograms .........................40 Phonogram Sound Sequences and Captions List .........41 How to Teach Spelling ....................................................44 Think to Spell Spelling Rule 29 ..............................................................45 Vowels in Unstressed Syllables Dialogue for One-Syllable Spelling Words Students Dictate New Words .........................................46 Dialogue for Spelling in Syllables Dialogue for Think to Spell ............................................47 How to Teach Word Markings ........................................48 Spelling Rules Chart .......................................................49 Spelling Rules for the First Sound of Vowels ................50 Syllables & Suffixes De-Mystified ...............................51

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Teaching Materials
Manuscript Writing

Letter Formation
Letter formation is very precise. Two motifs are the basis for all of the letters: circles and straight lines.

Phonograms a-z
Teach manuscript writing with the phonograms a-z (1-26). Teach only lowercase letters. Teach the capital letters as they are needed. This is less confusing and eliminates the problem of interspersing lowercase and capital letters. Use: Dialogues for Manuscript

Writing

Beginners and Reversals


Teach the circle letters first to beginners and students with reversal tendencies. Sequence the alphabet letter flash cards as follows: a, c, d, f, g, o, s, qu, b, e, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.

Always Supervise
Supervise writing until the letters and numbers are formed exactly. Beginners learn to write from left to right, in the direction that we read. Practice writing the single letters close together across the page, as in writing a story with a space before and after the multiletter phonograms. Fill the page with margins on both sides. Teach good habits from the beginning. Very young students may skip lines until they can write neatly on all of the lines. Do not write on the back of the paper.

Backward Retracing
Do not allow backward retracing other than when it is in the dialogue for forming the letter. Do not allow the scattering of letters or numbers over a paper, as this can be the unintentional, incorrect practice of making them backward or upside down. Also, dont allow the coloring of letters or numbers, as the intermixing of colored letters or number can be confusing because color dominates form.

Lined Paper
Use only lined paper with 3/8 inch spaces and a dotted mid-line. The student should use 3/8 inch spacing without the mid-line as soon as they develop the fine motor skills to write within the correct space. Using wider lines becomes drawing.

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Phonics for English

Pencil and Eraser


Use a good #2 pencil. Remove the eraser during practice session, X all mistakes (this will cause the student to think before writing). Hold the pencil like a dart, without too firm of a grip. Seat the student feet flat and elbows level with the writing surface.

Mistakes
Let no mistake stand! If letters are made incorrectly, they are also pictured incorrectly. This is a serious cause of failure in both writing and reading. Always supervise the writing until the letter is made exact. Correct the writing patterns of both child and adult with manuscript writing. This will make the brain connection to printed material. Cursive (connected) writing should not be taught to beginning or remedial students; it can be taught or used later.

Dialogue to Teach the Circle and Circle Points 1-4


Explain: top line, mid-line, and baseline. Finger and pencil trace around the circle using the dialogue below. Say to the students as they follow the directions: Begin at point 1. Go up around the circle, touching the mid-line. Go around the circle past points 2 and 3. Go on around the circle, touching the baseline. Go on up and around the circle, past point 4. Go on up around the circle to point 1. Practice the 7 strokes used in manuscript writing:

Beginners start with finger tracing the circle through the dialogue: top line

mid-line

Single letters sit close together with a space before and after the multi-letters.

base line

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Teaching Material

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Phonics for English Alphabet Letters and Circle Points Marked

Capital Letters, Punctuation Marks and Numerals


Teach as needed.

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Phonics for English Letter Formation


Teach the circle letters first. Sequence the alphabet letters as follows: a, c, d, f, g, o, s, qu, b, e, h, I, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.

a: Begin at 1, circle to
1, go down to the baseline.

qu: Begin at 1, circle to


1. Go down below the baseline almost to the mid-line, put on a flag (see u).

c: Begin at 1, circle
around to 4 and stop.

b: Begin almost at the


top line, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle around to 3.

d: Begin at 1, circle
around to 1, go on up almost to the top line, retrace to the baseline.

e: Begin at 2, go
straight across to 1, circle to 4.

f: Begin on the upper


circle 1, circle to 2, go down to the baseline, lift the pencil, cross.

h: Begin almost at the


top line, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline.

g: Begin at 1, circle
around to 1, go down to the lower circle 4, circle to 3.

i: Begin at the mid-line,


go down to the baseline, lift pencil, dot.

o: Begin at 1, circle to
1.

j: Begin at the mid-line,


go down below the baseline to the lower 4, circle to 3, lift pencil, dot.

s: Begin at 1, circle to
2, slide over to 4, circle to 3.

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Phonics for English

k: Begin almost at the


top line, go down to the baseline, lift pencil, begin at the mid-line, slant in to touch the first line, slant out to the baseline.

u: Begin at the midline, go down to 3, circle to 4, go up to the midline, retrace to the baseline.

l: Begin almost at the


top line, go down to the baseline.

v: Begin at the midline, slant to the baseline, slant up to the mid-line.

m: Begin at the midline, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline.

w: Write a double v. x: Begin at the midline, slant to the baseline, lift pencil, begin at the mid-line, slant back across the first line to the baseline.

n: Begin at the midline, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline.

p: Begin at the midline, go down below the baseline almost to the lower mid-line, retrace to 2, circle to 3.

y: Begin at the midline, go down to 3, circle to 4, go up to the midline, retrace to 4 and continue down to the lower 4, circle to 3.

z: Begin at the midr: Begin at the midline, go down to the base line, retrace to 2, circle to 1. line, go across the midline, slant to the baseline, go across the baseline.

t: Begin almost at the


top line, go down to the baseline, lift pencil, cross.

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Phonics for English How to Teach Cursive Writing


The lowercase letters of connected writing should be taught only after the students can print (write) well in manuscript. This can be after the New Year for second grade school students or for Level Two students as they are ready. All of the letters within a word in cursive writing are connected. The connected lines from the end of one letter to the beginning of the next letter consist of five different kinds: The upswing goes from the baseline up to the beginning of the letter and may be short or tall. The overswing goes from the baseline up and curves over to begin at 1 on the circle. The dip is a short ending to the letters b, o, v, and w. When connecting these to the circle letters that begin at 1, use a combination of the dip and the overswing to 1 on the circle.

The Alphabet in Cursive

Most cursive letters are fundamentally the same as manuscript letters. Only the connectors need to be added. Letters b, e , f, k, r, s, and z are considerably different and need more attention.

Vertical lines that begin at the top are drawn straight down. Any letters that go below the baseline and curve back up cross at the underside of the baseline, at the point where the down line crossed the baseline. At the beginning of a word, the circle letters a, c, g, o and q still begin at the circle point 1, but in a word, they will have an overswing from the previous letter.

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Phonics for English


To practice using the cursive stroke to connect letters, give the students a typed line of letters; have them connect the letters as in cursive writing. The letters below are in Arial, 20 pt, with a space between each letter:

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
After the students have practiced using the type-written letters, they should write the manuscript letters and write over them with the cursive connecting lines and other changes in e, r, s, w and z.

Once cursive has begun, dont allow the students to use manuscript writing.

Cursive Capital Letters


Cursive capital letters are taught as they are used. Beginning points for cursive capital letters: Begin at circle point 1: A, C, E, O and Qu Begin at the baseline: G, S, I and J Begin below the top line: All other letters begin at the top

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Phonics for English How to Teach the YesPhonics Program


You will learn to teach:

Phonogram Flash Cards Phonogram Sheets Illustrated Keyword Captions for Coloring Handouts with Dialogues

Elementary: Teach two to six phonograms each session (school day). Other Students: Teach according to the students ability. See: Scope 2: Program for All

Levels/Grades, K-College/Other, p. 8 and Scope 27: Teaching the Levels and Grades and Others, p. 15
Teach manuscript writing with the phonograms. Teach the circle letters first to beginners and students with reversal tendencies. Copy the coloring/handout sheets, alphabet letters 1-26 (a-z), on single-sides, cut them in half and sequence the Phonogram Flash Cards as below: a, c, d, f, g, o, s, qu, b, e, h, I, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, u, v, w, x, y, z

See: Dialogue for Manuscript Writing, pp. 33-34


Multi-Sensory Method: Teach the phonograms and their keyword captions directly by using the multi-sensory method of seeing, hearing and saying the phonograms sound sequence and dialogue aloud while writing it from dictation. The teacher demonstrates writing the phonogram (covers or erases) and dictates the phonograms sound sequence and dialogue for the student to write the letter (phonogram). Practice writing the phonogram several times until it is well learned. See: Dialogue for

Single-Letter Phonograms, p. 38
Teach the keyword caption (coloring/handout) right after or along with the phonogram. See:

Dialogue for Phonogram Sheets, Illustrated Keyword Captions for Coloring and Handouts, p. 39
Sound Keys: Pronounce the names of the letters written alone: s (es). Pronounce the sounds of the letters written within the slashes /s/ (sss). To prevent the uh (buh, cush, duh, puh) sounds in consonant letters, hold your breath as the sound is said.

Dialogue for Dictating Phonograms

Define Phonograms
Say to the students, the alphabet has 26 letters that say 45 sounds that we hear in English speech. Each of the letters says one or more sounds. The letters also form teams these

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Phonics for English


are called multi-letters that say one or more sound. Both the single-letters and the multiletters are called phonograms. The definition of a phonogram is a letter or a set combination of letters which represent one or more single voiced sounds in a word. We are going to learn the 72 phonograms by their sounds, not by their letter names. If you already know the letter names, thats great! If you dont we will learn them later.

Phonogram Flash Cards


Use the phonogram card as a flash card. The big bold black letters(s) on the face of the card is the phonogram to show the students. From the back of the card: SAY ALL of the sound sequences and dialogue between the black lines under the title. Here is an example of the phonogram ow: _______________________________
Teacher says-student repeats

/ow/-// that we may use at the end of English words. _______________________________

Saying all of the dialogue each time is important because its the phonograms identification. The beginning students may not understand all of it, but thats okay. No
explanation is needed at this time.

Note: The words in parentheses at the top of the phonogram card are the sound keys, they are not taught to the students except in the keyword caption.

Dialogue for Single-Letter Phonograms


Dont forget the sound sequence and dialogue is the name of the phonogram.
T stands for teacher, and S stands for students. Follow this dialogue: T: Shows the phonogram card a and says, We call this phonogram the //-//-/ah/, say the //-//-/ah/. S: Say aloud and together: //-//-/ah/. T: The phonogram //-//-/ah/ has three sounds, depending on the word in which it is used. The // is the most often used sound. The // is the second most used sound, and the /ah/ is the least used sound. Lets repeat the sounds of the //-//-/ah/ together. S: Say aloud and together: //-//-/ah/.

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Phonics for English


T: The teacher says and writes, This is how we write //-//-/ah/. Begin at 1, circle to 1, go down to the baseline

a a

. Now, tell me how to write //-//-/ah/.

S: Say aloud and together: Begin at 1, circle to 1, go down to the baseline. T: (Teacher writes you write it. S: //-//-/ah/ and write covers or erases it.) The teacher says, Say the //-//-/ah/ as

T: Is your //-//-/ah/ the same as mine? Yes, you are doing fine!

Dialogue for Phonogram Sheets Coloring & Handouts


The illustration with its phonogram sound sequence keyword caption is taught after its phonogram. For beginners, the caption is to be understood orally. No spelling or writing! Give the students a copy of the coloring/handout sheet. The teacher says, This is a picture that you may color (or other appropriate information). On the bottom, it says have a ball this will help us remember the sounds of the phonogram. Each of the words has a sound like one of the sounds in the / /-//-/ah/. Listen as I say each word, and then tell me the sound that you hear. T: The teacher slowly blends the sounds of the keyword have and says, /h/...///v/. S: Say aloud and together: Yes, I heard the first //! T: Thats correct! The teacher then says the keyword a, //. S: Say aloud and together: I heard the word that says //. T: The teacher says with enthusiasm, Yes, very good! and then slowly blends the word ball, /b//ah//l/. S: Say aloud and together, Yes its the third sound, /ah/. T: The teacher is delighted, Wonderful! Lets say the keyword caption of //-//-/ah/ together. T&S: Have a ball.

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Phonics for English Dialogue for Multi-Letter Phonograms


T: The teacher shows the sh #27, and says This is phonogram /sh/ used at the begin ning of a word, and at the end of the syllable, but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending ship. S: The students repeat aloud and together, /sh/ used at the beginning T: The teacher writes the phonogram sh and covers or erases it. S: (The students do not copy.) Repeat /sh/ used at the .... as they write

sh. The students

dictate the phonogram back as the teacher writes it. (The teacher and students compare their phonograms.) T: The teacher says, We underline the multi-letter phonograms, underlining causes us to see the letters as a single sound. T&S: The teacher and students underline

sh.

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Phonics for English Phonogram Sound Sequences and Keyword Captions List
1. a //-//-/ah/ 2. b /b/ 3. c /k/-/s/ 4. d /d/ 5. e //-// 6. f /f/ 7. g /g/-/j/ 8. h /h/ 9. i //-//-// 10. j /j/ 11. k /k/ tall-letter /k/ 12. l /l/ 13. m /m/ 14. n /n/ 15. o /ah/-//-//-/oo/ 16. p /p/ 17. qu /kw/
Always write q with u.

have a ball bumblebee 2 cat in the city daddys dragon 2 help me funny face 2 goat and giraffe hug 2 3 its a giant radio jumping jack king lollipop mammoth noon 2 3 4 Ox over? Love to! puppies queen roadrunner 2 Susie teeter-totter 2 3 ducks use output valentine wiggle worm x-ray a fox 2 3 your gypsy can fly quickly zebra at the zoo

18. r /r/ 19. s /s/-/z/ 20. t /t/ 21. u //-//-/oo/ 22. v /v/ 23. w /w/ 24. x /ks/ 25. y /y/-//-//-// 26. z /z/

27. sh /sh/ used at the beginning of a word (she), at the end of a syllable (fish es), but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one (nation), except for the ending ship she fishes for friendship 28. ee // double ee always says // 29. th /th/-/th/ three of them play sailboat play sailboat cowboy show
2 2

peek

30. ay // 2-letter // that we may use at the end of English words 31. ai // 2-letter // that we may not use at the end of English words 32. ow /ow/-// that we may use at the end of English words

33. ou /ow/-//-/oo/-// that we may not use at the end of English words 2 3 4 Say with action: /ow/-//-/oo/-//, /ow/ (sound), // (soul), /oo/ (youth), // (trouble) 34. aw /aw/ that we may use at the end of English words auto law

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Phonics for English


35. au /au/ that we may not use at the end of English words 36. ew /oo/-// that we may use at the end of English words 37. ui /oo/-// that we may not use at the end of English words 38. oy /oy/ that we may use at the end of English words 39. oi /oi/ that we may not use at the end of English words 40. oo /oo/-/oo/-// 41. ch /ch/-/k/-/sh/ foolish crook at the door /ch/-/k/-/sh/ said gradually faster, it resembles a train
(a nasal sound)
2 3 2 3

auto law brew a few fruit juice noisy boy noisy boy
2 2

42. ng /ng/ used at the end of a word or syllable 43. ea //-//-// 44. ar /ar/ the /ar/ of car

sing a long song eating bread is great car


2 3

45. ck /k/ 2-letter /k/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says //-//-//-//-// prick a pickle 46. ed /ed/-/d/-/t/ past tense ending 47. or /or/ 48. wh /wh/ (blow a feather off your palm) spotted, starred, striped form a sword whisper to whale toad on a boat tiptoe
2 3

49. oa // 2-letter // that we may not use at the end of English words 50. oe // 2-letter // that we may use at the end of English words 51. er /er/ the /er/ of 52. ir /er/ the /er/ of 53. ur /er/ the /er/ of 54. wor /er/ the /er/ of 55. ear /er/ the /er/ of 56. our /er/ the /er/ of

her first nurse works (The wor = /w/-/or/, in most other words w before or makes or say /er/.) early journey they have the honey their leisure eight freight cars piece of pie
2 2 2

57. ey //-// that we may use at the end of English words 58. ei //-// that we may not use at the end of English words 59. eigh // 4-letter // 60. ie //-//

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Phonics for English


61. igh // 3-letter // 62. kn /n/ 2-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of a root word night light knights knockout

63. gn /n/ 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning and at the end of a root word gnat sign 64. wr /r/ 2-letter /r/ used only at the beginning of a root word 65. ph /f/ 2-letter /f/ photograph dont write wrong

66. dge /j/ 3-letter /j/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says //-//-//-//-// hodge-podge 67. tch /ch/ 3-letter /ch/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says //-//-//-//-// pitcher 68. ti /sh/ tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable nation 69. si /sh/-/zh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable 2 mansion excursion 70. ci /sh/ short-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable special social 71. ough //- /oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/ 2 3 4 5 // (dough), /oo/ (through), /uff/ (tough), /off/ (trough), /aw/ (sought), 6 /ow/ (bough) Learn in pairs 72. gu /g/ of guilty guy

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Phonics for English

How to Teach Spelling


Spelling Notebook: A notebook with 3/8 inch lined paper and vertical column dividers has been included in the program and is used for the Spelling Notebook. Make a light red pencil line in the center for students that have not developed the fine motor skills to write within the correct space. Spelling Practice: Copy the three-line paper master. The students write the spelling words from dictation on a practice paper, across left to right in the direction that we read. Dictate for Spelling Notebook: Dictate the words for the students to write in columns in their spelling notebooks. The vertical column divider acts as a guide for the second column. Each section is titled and has its own page(s). The back of the page is not used. Carefully erase and correct any errors. Spelling words are written in syllables. The students mark their spelling words. Call Out: After the words are written in the notebooks, call out the words for the students to write on practice paper. The students should practice any problem words by dictating to themselves. Dictation Time: Dictation time is well spent; it eliminates the need for repetitious copying of spelling words. Permanent Record: The spelling notebook is a permanent record. It is used to make sentences, paragraphs, and to help construct the worksheets. At the beginning of each level/grade, the students start a new notebook and begin with Spelling Section A and go through their level/grade sections. See the Word: The students see the word as they write it. The word is not copied. The word is sounded aloud and written. The teacher pronounces the word and makes a sentence. The teacher repeats the word and dictates the word phonogram-by-phonogram, sound-by-sound, and syllable-by-syllable. The students repeat the word aloud and say each sound of the word/syllable that they hear as they write the word. After the spelling lesson is complete, the class makes sentences using each of the spelling words.

Think to Spell
Worldwide English Spellings are relatively uniform, whereas speech is very diverse. We use Think to Spell as a memory device, the word should be sounded and spelled the way it is written; then say it the way that your culture says it. A common example that uses Think to Spell is been it is pronounced the way it is written in British speech, but is pronounced bin in American speech.

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Phonics for English

Spelling Rule 29
Rule 29: Double consonants within multi-syllable words should both be sounded for spelling. Examples: hap py; writ ten; sup pose; ar rest.

Vowels in Unstressed Syllables


In the rhythm of speech, vowels in unstressed syllables are often muffled and sound like /uh/. This is called schwa and is shown in the dictionary as an upside down/backward e. The vowel sounds in non-accented (schwa) syllables should be stressed and taught as they are written. Unless we think the vowel as it is written, spelling will not be accurate. Bot h the teacher and the students must practice precise pronunciation of each sound/syllable written in spelling. In the word about the a is unstressed, and we say /uh/bout. In spelling, the word is written in syllables bout. The a is pronounced and written // (its second sound) at the end of a syllable (Rule 4). In the word account the a is unstressed and we say /uh/count. In spelling , the word is written in syllables ac count. The a is pronounced and written with its first sound // because it is followed by a consonant in the same syllable. Both cs are sounded. Some other examples of unstressed vowels that say /uh/ are: ago, agent, pencil, atom. The schwa sound for u is the same as the stressed vowel. The schwa sound for o is so prevalent that it has been added as the third sound of the sound sequence. /ah/ //oo/. Reading Tip: Teach the student that if none of the vowel sounds work in a word, they should try the schwa vowel sound /uh/.

Dialogue for One-Syllable Spelling Words


T: The teacher pronounces the word and makes a sentence. The teachers says, Me, please bring me the book. The teacher dictates the word phonogram -by-phonogram. The teacher says, me, /m/-///, me. S: Say aloud and together, /m/ and write m. The students say, ///, and write e, me. T: Dictate the word back to me. S: The teacher writes the word me on the board as the students dictate the word aloud together. The students say, me, /m/-///, me. T: The teacher says, Lets check the spelling of our words. S: The students check/correct their words.

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Phonics for English


T: Are they the same? me Yes! Wonderful! Lets underline the e because it says /e/ at the end of a syllable. No explanation is needed about syllables, just say the rule, syllables will be taught later on. The teacher and students underline me. After the spelling lesson is complete, the student with the teacher, will make sentences using each word.

Students Dictate New Words


Soon the student may dictate a new word by its sounds. When more than one phonogram may be used, the teacher listens carefully and prompts. For example, in the word pick as the students are sounding and writing the phonograms, the teacher prompts on the sound of /k/. The teacher says, we use the two-letter /k/ at the end of a word after a single vowel that says //. The students will know to use the ck.

Note: Later in spelling, the entire phonogram dialogue does not need to be used to identify the phonogram. The students will soon learn that two -letter /k/ means to use the ck.

Dialogue for Spelling in Syllables


T: The teacher says, We will write the word over. Lets say the word // ver and clap on each syllable. How many syllables do you hear in the word // ver? S: Say aloud and together, There are two syllables in the word // ver. T: The teacher makes a sentence and says, // ver, I saw the ox jump over the fence. The teacher dictates the word and says // ver, the first syllable says //, /ah///oo/. The rule is: The vowel o usually says // at the end of a syllable. Leave a space between syllables. The second syllable says ver, /v/-/er/, the /er/ of her. Say the rule and dictate the word aloud to yourself as you write it. S: The students dictate the word and say and write, // ver, the first syllable is o, /ah///oo/, (students write o). The rule is: The vowel o usually says // at the end of a syllable. Leave a space. The second syllable says ver, /v/ (students write v ) -/er/, the /er/ of her (students write er and pronounce the word o

ver.)

T: Dictate the word o ver back to me as I write it on the chalkboard. The teacher writes the word syllable-by-syllable as the students dictate it. The teacher says, Lets mark our words. We underline the o . Why? S: Say aloud and together, the o says // at the end of a syllable. T: We underline the /er/ of her. Why? S: Say aloud and together, the /er/ of her is a multi-letter phonogram.

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Phonics for English


T: The teacher says, Lets compare the spelling and markings of our words. they the same? Yes! You are doing fine! The students make sentences using the word over.

o ver are

Dialogue for Think to Spell


T: We will spell the word about, /uh/ bout. The teacher pronounces the word and makes a sentence. About, I saw about 10 ducks on the pond. The teacher explains, In the rhythm of speech a vowel that is an unstressed syllable is often muffled and sounds like /uh/. This is called schwa. The vowel // is schwa in the word about. In Think to Spell, we stress the vowel to say // at the end of a syllable. T&S: The teacher asks, How many syllables are in the word // bout? The students answer aloud together. T&S: The teacher says, Sound out aloud and write the word // bout syllable-by-syllable. The students say aloud, // bout, the first syllable is // (sounds) //-//-/ah/, leave a space (writes a). The students say aloud, the second syllable is bout (sounds) /b/ (writes b). Sounds /ou/, etc. T&S: The teacher prompts, We use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of an English word. The students say, /ow//oo// not used at the end of an English word (writes ou). Sounds t (writes t). a

bout.

T&S: The teacher says, Pronounce the word about (/uh/ bout) as we do in our normal speech. The students pronounce /uh/bout aloud and together. The teacher says, Dictate the word // bout as I write it on the board. The students dictate and the teacher writes a

bout.

T: Lets mark the word // bout. We underline the //. Why? S: The a says // at the end of a syllable. T: We underline the /ow//oo//. Why? S: The /ow//oo// is a multi-letter phonogram. The teacher and students underline their words a

bout.

T: Lets check the spelling and markings of our words and make sentences using the word /uh/ bout. The students check their words and compose sentences. The teacher says, Excellent! You are doing good work!

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Phonics for English How to Teach Word Markings


Marking words causes students to analyze the word and respond with a kinesthetic action that reinforces the correct spelling. Level One, K-First Grade: The teacher tells the students which phonograms and words to mark and says the rules for the markings. Levels Two and Three, Second-Third Grade and Others: The teacher may ask the students which phonograms and words to mark and have them say the rules. Syllables: Rules generally apply to words in syllables.

Single Underline
1. Multi-letter phonograms (eight) 2. Single vowels at the end of a syllable that say: //-//-//-//-// (y=), (a corn, me, pi lot, my, o ver, u nit) x 3. The c, g, u, v before Silent Final Es (once3, barge3, true2, have2)

Double Underline
1. Silent letters (walk, lit tle4) 2. To emphasize the Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes (hop ping) and the Rule 2-1-1 Accent (begin ning)

Bridge
A bridge is drawn from a vowel that says its second sound (letter name) over the consonant to the Silent Final E (cane, job 1).

Numbers
1. Above a phonogram to show which sounds, other than the first sound, is used (bread, 3 3 2 great, ball, honey). 2. Except: Rule 2 (cent), Rule 3 (gym), Rule 4 (me), Rule 7 (make), Rule 19 (find, old). 3. Number 1 above a phonogram that may be mistaken for another phonogram 1 1 (very, sorry). 4. Number 2 above a single vowel that says its second sound and is not covered by any 2 2 rules (ancient, control). 5. To show the Silent Final E numbers, Rule 7 (blue2, have2, dance3, large3, lit tle4, are5). x 6. An x over a phonogram when it makes a different sound than usual (of).
2

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Phonics for English Spelling Rules Chart


1. 2. 3. 4. Q: Write q with u, the u is not a vowel here (queen). 3 2 C: The c says /s/ before e, i, or y (cent, ci ty, cy cle4). G: The g may say /j/ before e, i, or y (gem, gi raffe, gym). A, E, O, U: the a, e, o, u usually say //-//-//-// at the end of a syllable (la zy, me, go, u nit). 2 5. I & Y: The i and y may say // at the end of a syllable (si lent, cy cle4) but usually say // (in ci dent, cy cli cal). The unaccented suffix y may say // at the end of a word 3 3 (ba by, dad dy). The i at the end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the 3 3 next syllable may say /e/ (ra di o, me di a). 2 6. Y not I: The y, not the i, is used at the end of English words (try). English words do not end in i, j, u or v. 7. Silent Final Es: They have at least five functions in English: 1) The final silent e is added to let the vowel say its second sound (letter name): take, Pete, time, type, hope, cute, clothe, bathe. 2) English words do not end in u or v (true2, love2) 3) In words like dance3, and large3 the e makes the c say /s/ and the g says /j/. 4) Part of the le suffix (lit tle4). Every syllable has a vowel. 3 5) Odd Job E: dye5, are5, come5. Any not listed above. 8. WOR: The phonogram or may say /er/ after the w (works). 9. IE or EI: We use the ie most often. We use the ie to say // (piece3), as a suffix 2 4 2 (mov ie), to say // (pie). We use the ei to say // (their), to say // after c (de ceive2), 2 and in other words (lei sure). 10. SH: The /sh/ is used at the beginning of a word (she), at the end of a syllable/word (fish/fish es), but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one (na tion), X except for the ending ship (friendship). 11. TI, SI, CI: The ti, si, ci say /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one 1 (na tion, man sion, spe cial). 2 12/13. SI: The si may say /sh/ (man sion) or /zh/ (excur sion). The si says /sh/ when the preceding syllable ends with s (ses sion) and when the root word has an s (manse/man sion). 14. Rule 1-1-1 Suffix: With a one syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix (hop/hop ping). 15. Rule 2-1-1 Accent: With a two or more syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable (for got/for got/ten). 16. Es Dropping Rule (silent final Es are dropped): When adding a vowel suffix to a root word (hope/hoping). The e is retained in root words with c or g before e, the e can only be dropped if the suffix begins with e, i, y (to let c say /s/, no tic ing) and g say /j/ (chang ing). In suffixes that begin with another vowel, the e is retained (no tice2 a

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Phonics for English


ble4, change3 a ble4). The e is retained in words that lose their root word character (dye5/dye5 ing). The e is retained with a consonant suffix (lone ly). 17. F, L, S: At the end of one-syllable words, following a single vowel, f, l, s are usually doubled off (off, ball, miss). 18. AY: Root words do not end in the letter a saying // except for the article a. The ay is used most often (play). 19. I & O: Vowels i and o may say // and // when followed by two consonants (find, cold). 20. S, X & Suffix es: To make most nouns plural, add s. The s never follows x. Words ending in s (dress es), x (box es), z (buzz es), ch (teach es), sh (bush es), tch (catch es) or the sound /j/ dge (bridg es) form their plural by adding es. Some words change f to v and end with es (wiv es). Words ending in y after a consonant form their plurals by changing the y to i and adding es (pup pies). See: Rule 24 21/22. L, Dismiss: The words all, full and till are written with one l when added to 3 3 another syllable (al ways, care ful, un til). 23. DGE, TCH: The dge and tch may be used only after a single vowel that says its first sound //-//-//-//-//. dge: badge, edge, bridge, lodge, fudge; tch: patch, sketch, stitch, notch, crutch. 24. Ys Suffixes: The single vowel y (not phonograms ay, ey or oy) changes to i when 2 2 2 3 2 adding a suffix (try/tried, pup py/pup pies) unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing /try 3 ing, -ish/ba by ish). 25. CK: The ck may be used at the end of a root word, after a single vowel that says / ///-//-//-// (back, peck, pick, pock et, truck). 26. Caps: Capitalize words that are the individual name or title of a person, place or thing/idea. 27. Z & S: The z, never s, is used to say /z/ at the beginning of a root word (zebra, zoo). 28. ED: The ed says /d/ and /t/ as the past tense ending of any root word that does not 2 2 end in the sound /d/ (killed) or /t/ (liked). When the ed says /ed/ after words ending with 3 d (land/land ed) or t (act/act ed) they form another syllable. 29. Double Consonants: Within multi-syllable words should both be sounded for spelling 3 (mam moth).

Spelling Rules for the First Sound Vowels


Vowels A, E, I, Y, O, U: The first sound of a vowel is called short. The term short is not used when speaking to the student, use the sound as it is more direct. Vowel Y: The first sound /y/ is a consonant. The //// sounds are vowels; they are marked: 1. // When the vowel is written within a syllable and is followed by a consonant, it says its first sound, as in: trap, ten, fish, gym, dog, just. 2. // When the vowel begins a word and has a consonant after it in the same syllable, it says its first sound, as in: act, end, it, on, up.

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Phonics for English


3. // The y at the beginning of a word is a consonant, as in yellow.

Syllables and Suffixes De-Mystified


It is important to understand that most syllables begin with consonants. Only a few main idea words begin with vowels. Consider the word conductor; prefix con, root duct, suffix or. The suffix or begins with a vowel, but it is not a syllable in its own right. It becomes a syllable by borrowing a consonant from the end of the root duct and becomes, con duc tor. Suffixes beginning with i followed by another vowel are even more striking, in the word production with the suffix ion, the t from the root duct goes off with the suffix ion and is converted in the process in a /sh/ sound, pro duc tion (-ial, par tial). Most of our suffixes begin with vowels; they routinely become syllables by removing the consonant from the end of the root word to which they are added, forming a final syllable beginning with a consonant. An understanding of this is very helpful when learning the consonant doubling Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes, where by the Ps must be doubled in words like hop/hop ping and left single in words like hope/ hoping and jump/ jumping. All the student needs to understand is the simple rule that in two-syllable words, it takes two consonants between vowels to show that the first vowel says its first sound, and one consonant between vowels to show that the first vowel says its second sound (letter name).

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets


1: Consonants and Vowels .............................................................................. 2: Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart ................................................ 3: Syllables ....................................................................................................... 4: Sentence ....................................................................................................... Original Sentence Paragraph 5: Silent Final Es ............................................................................................. 6: Nouns ........................................................................................................... Adjectives 7: Four Ways a Single Vowel Can Say A, E, I, Y=I, O, U ............................ 8: Verbs............................................................................................................. Pronouns Prepositions 9: F, L and S Doubling Rule .......................................................................... 10: TI, SI and CI Says /SH/............................................................................. 11: I and Y Say E ............................................................................................. 12: Plurals: Suffixes S, ES ............................................................................ 13: C and G Before E, I or Y ........................................................................... 14: Homonyms and Homographs ................................................................... 15: Es Dropping Rule ...................................................................................... 16: Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes .................................................................................... 17: Six Spellings of ER .................................................................................... 18: ED Past Tense Endings ......................................................................... 19: Rule 2-1-1 Accent....................................................................................... 20: I and O Followed by Two Consonants ..................................................... 21: L Dismiss Rule........................................................................................... Compound Words 22: OUGH Wild Phonogram Team .............................................................. 23: Ys Exchange Rule ..................................................................................... 24: Contractions Reference Chart .................................................................. 25: Comparative Words Reference Chart ...................................................... 26: IE or EI Question ...................................................................................... 27: Other Phonograms .................................................................................... 28: Word Analysis: Root with Rules Application .......................................... 53 55 57 59

61 63 65 67

69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 108

Prefixes and Suffixes List ..................................................................................... 109 Extended Ayers Spelling Words Sections Directory ........................................... 110

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 1
Sequence 5

Part 1: Consonants and Vowels


Dictate the consonant letters by their sound sequences from the lesson plan for the
students to write across their worksheets. Leave a space the size of the o between the single-letter and multi-letter phonogram. Part 1

b c d f g h j k l m n p qu r s t v w x y z
Dictate the vowel letters, for the students to write in the left (vertical) column, Part 1, on
their worksheets. Part 1 a e i y o u Part 2 have2 help its gyp sy ox ducks a me gi 3 ant fly 3 o ver use
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

ball

ra di o quick ly love2 out put


3 3 3

to

Vowel Y: The first sound /y/ of the letter y is a consonant and the //// are vowel sounds. They are marked //-//-//.

Sequence 14

Part 2: Vowels Keywords (Captions)


Review the vowels from Part 1. Review syllables from Lesson Plan/Worksheet 3. Dictate the key words, Part 2, for the vowels (captions) form the lesson plan for the
students to write in syllables on their worksheets. They should underline the vowels and mark the words.

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Phonics for English

Consonants and Vowels

Consonants
Part 2

Vowels
Part 1 Part 2

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 2 Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart


Sequence 9

Phonograms 27-56 (sh-our)


Dictate the multi-letter phonograms 27-56 (sh-our) from the lesson plan for the students to write on their worksheets. Direct the students to write in the number of sounds that each phonogram says if it is more than one. sh oi er ee oo ir th ch ur ay ng wor ai ea ear ow ar our ou ck aw ed au or ew wh ui oa oy oe

Sequence 24

Phonograms 57-72 (ey-gu):


Have the students enter the multi-letter phonogram 57-72 (ey-gu) onto their worksheets following the same pattern as above. ey si ei ci eigh ough ie gu igh kn gn wr ph dge tch ti

This completes this Reference Chart.

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55

Phonics for English

Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

56

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 3 Syllables


Sequence 10
A syllable is a vowel sound and all of the consonants that are pronounced along with it. Every syllable is a word bite spoken with each mouth opening. Pronounce some multi syllable words, when the concept is clear, by clapping (with the students) on each syllable. Dictate the word o ver from Section D, for the students to write in their spelling notebooks and in the number two space on their worksheet. See: Dialogue for Spelling in Syllables, p.

46

Section 34
Longer words are made by joining syllables together. Most words have only one root. The exception is compound words that have two roots joined for a specific meaning, while all the other syllables are prefixes or suffixes. Dictate the words from the Spelling List in Section M, at prt ty for the student to write and mark on their worksheet. Search the spelling notebook and other sources for words that may be added.

Division of Syllables
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Single vowel (first sound) after the consonant. Single vowel (letter name, second sound) after the vowel. Two vowels sounded separately. Compound words, between roots. After prefixes, before suffixes. Multi-letter phonograms remain together. prt ty o ver 1 re al rail road 3 re cov er 3 2 moth er
3

Three Kinds of Syllables


Root: The root supplies the words basic meaning. The root contains the central idea of t he word. A one-syllable word is a root with nothing added. Prefix: The prefix is added before the root to alter its meaning. Suffix: The suffix is added after the root to alter its meaning: See: Compound Words, p. 93 Prefix/root: Root/suffix: Prefix/root/suffix: en joy 4 joy ous en joy ment

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57

Phonics for English

Division of Syllables
A syllable is a vowel sound and all of the consonants that are pronounced along with it. Every syllable must have a vowel. The following is usually the way words are divided into syllables: 1. Single vowel (1st sound) after the consonant: 2. Single vowel (2nd sound) after the vowel: 3. Two vowels sounded separately: 4. Compound words, between roots: 5. After prefixes, before suffixes: 6. Multi-letter phonograms remain together:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Three Kinds of Syllables


Root: The root is the syllable which supplies the words basic meaning. Prefix: The prefix is a syllable added before the root to alter its meaning. Suffix: The suffix is a syllable added after the root to alter its meaning. Prefix/root: Root/suffix: Prefix/root/suffix:

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

58

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 4
Sequence 11

Sentence
A sentence is a complete thought; words put together that make sense. The students have been constructing oral sentences. This step of writing sentences using words from their spelling notebooks is the prelude to writing original sentences. Discuss the standard form. Say, A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark. Teach the capital letters and punctuation marks as they are used. Discuss the two parts of a sentence: naming and telling. Search the spelling notebooks for words to make sentences. After the sentences are constructed, the teacher will call out the words for the stu dents to write in their spelling notebooks. The students will then read their sentences aloud.

Sequence 17

Original Sentence
Students will now write two or three original sentences each session. Assist the students with new words, only the part they cannot do. At various times, the students will write original sentences on their worksheets for a reference. Generally, write sentences in the spelling notebook.

Sequence 31

Paragraph
Review sentence, say: A sentence is a complete thought. A paragraph is a grou p of related thoughts. Format: A paragraph consists of several sentences about a single subject. The first sentence is usually the topic sentence. Indent the first five spaces. Pre-Writing Exercise: Choose an opening statement such as, Cooking dinner is fun. Ask the students to name three things that are fun about cooking dinner. For Level One (K-first grade), write down the words or phrases that they name. For Levels Two and Three (second/third grade), the students should write their own thoughts. After listing these ideas, help them group the ideas together in related ways. Rough Draft: The rough draft is made to organize the thoughts and to correct spelling and grammar. Each student writes their original paragraph on their worksheet.

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59

Phonics for English

Sentence and Paragraph


Sentence
Sentence: Words put together that make sense. Standard form: A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark. Two parts of a sentence: Naming and Telling

Students Original Sentences:


_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Paragraph
A paragraph consists of several sentences about a single subject. The first sentence (topic sentence) usually explains the subject.

Students Original Paragraph:


_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

60

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 5 Silent Final Es


Sequence 12
Teach the rules as the words are dictated for Part 1 from the spelling list in Section E. Have students write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets.

Explanations for Rule 7 Silent Final Es in English, 1-5, Part 1:


1. time: The silent final e is added to let the vowel say its second sound (letter name): take, Pete, time, type, hope, cute. (Some silent e words have two consonants between the e and the vowel, as in clothe.) Draw a bridge from the vowel over the consonant to the e (job 1). If more than one rule applies, as in the word five (job 2) mark only job 1. 2. blue2, have2: English words do not end in u or v. The silent e keeps the word from ending in u or v. Underline the u or v to show why the silent e is needed (job 2). 3. dance3, large3: The silent e lets the c say /s/ and the g say /j/. We use the ge at the end of English words; they do not end in j. Underline the c and g to show that they are affected (job 3). 4. lit tle4: Part of the le suffix. Every syllable must have a vowel. The l is not underlined, as it may be used at the end of English words and is not otherwise affected (job 4). 5. are5: Odd job e, any reason not covered above. Categories for job 5 are: 1 3 To lengthen main idea words (dye5, where5, gone5, come5). To identify words, such as please5 (pleas), freeze5 (frees).

Sequence 22

Silent Final Es, Part 2


Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section I: gave2 a like for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebook and worksheet. The students will search the spelling notebooks to complete Part 2. Part 3 will be completed in the Worksheet Completion Sequences for all levels.

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61

Phonics for English

Silent Final Es
The Silent Final Es have at least five functions in English: 1. time: The silent final e is added to let the vowel say its letter name (job 1). 2. blue2, have2: English words do not end in u or v (job 2). 3. dance3, large3: The c says /s/ because of the e (job 3). The g says /j/ because of the e (job 3). 4. lit tle4: Every syllable must have a vowel.(job 4). 5. are5: Odd Job e, any reason not covered above (job 5).

Part 3: Add Silent Final e words from the spelling notebooks.


_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

62

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 6
Sequence 16

Nouns, Part 1
A noun is a word that is the name of a person, place or thing/idea (boy, water, Paris and truth are all nouns). The students will search their spelling notebooks and each one will make a list of their nouns. Dictate the 12 nouns from the spelling list/lesson plan for the students to write on their worksheets. Ask students to identify each word as a person, place or a thing/idea by writing and marking them in the indicated column. Person man boy 3 2 moth er child Place 2 school street land sea Thing/Idea time hand ring 2 book

Ask the students to see if they can find these 12 nouns in their list of nouns. In levels two and three, more nouns will be added to the worksheet.

Sequence 30

Nouns, Part 2
From the spelling notebooks, Spelling Section K, the students will search for nouns and write them on their worksheets to complete this category on this Reference Chart. In levels two and three more nouns will be added to the worksheet either by periodical searches or in Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47. More worksheets may be used.

Sequence 30

Adjectives
An adjective describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives answer questions about nouns. Which? How many? What kind? How much? Levels one, two and three will search their spelling notebooks for adjectives that describe the nouns on their worksheets and write them in the adjective columns before the nouns.

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63

Phonics for English

Nouns and Adjectives


A noun is a person, place or thing/idea. Adjectives answer questions about nouns: Which? Why? What kind? How much? Adjective Person Adjective Place

Adjective

Thing/Idea

Adjective

Thing/Idea

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Lesson Plans and Worksheets

64

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 7 Four Ways a Single Sound Can Say A, E, I, Y, O, U


Sequence 19
The purpose of this worksheet is to review/learn rules 4, 5, 6, 7 and 19. Teacher explains, We will now learn four ways th at vowels can say their second sound, the names of their letters //-//-//-//-// and the y that says //. Explain the rules, rule numbers are not taught. Dictate the words from the spelling list, following Section H for the students to write and mark on their worksheets. After that is completed, search the spelling notebooks for other words. R-4: Vowels a, e, o, u usually say //-//-//-// at the end of a syllable. 3 ba by me o ver u nit R-5: The i and y may say // at the end of a syllable, but usually says //. R-6: The y, not the i, is used at the end of English words. 2 2 pi lot my R-19: Vowels i and o may say // and // when followed by two consonants. child cold R-7: Silent Final Es: 1. The silent e lets the vowel say its letter name (job 1). 2 make Pete time type hope 2. English words do not end in u (job 2). Blue2

cute

All students will complete this worksheet for a Reference Chart in Worksheet Completion, Level One, Sequence 37; Level Two, Sequence 45; Level Three, Sequence 47.

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65

Phonics for English

Four Ways a Single Vowel Can Say its Letter Name

/a/-/e/-/i/-/y/-/o/-/u/
The a, e, o, u usually say //-//-//-// at the end of a syllable.

The i and y may say /i/ at the end of a syllable. The y, not i, is used at the end of an English word.

The i and o may say /i/ and /o/ when followed by two consonants.

Silent Final e: The silent e lets the vowel say its letter name (job 1).

English words do not end in u (job 2).

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66

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 8
Sequence 20

Verbs
A verb expresses action or a state of being. Most verbs are action verbs. From the lesson plan, call out the first seven action verbs. Action verbs: go see run time make say come 5
3

Students write and mark them in the left column on their worksheets. Search the spelling notebooks for verbs to complete the action verbs: live2 tell kill ask ran get led call play 3 love2 eat lay sit eats bring

Sometimes the action verbs need helpers. Call out the helping verbs for the students to 2 4 write and mark in their column: has do can will have2 had must Call out the being verbs for students to write and mark in their column: is
2

am

be

are5

was

3 2

The students will write sentences using the verbs and words from their spelling notebooks or other sources.

Sequence 23

Pronouns
A pronoun takes the place of a noun. There are subject pronouns (the one doing) and object pronouns (the one receiving). Call out the subject pronouns: I you he she it we they and the object pronouns: me you him her it us them , for the students to write and mark them on their worksheets. The students will write sentences using the pronouns and words from their spelling notebooks or other sources.

Sequence 26

Prepositions
A preposition shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word. Call 2 4 3 X 4 out the prepositions: at by on o ver in to up a bout of for in to out af ter for the students to write and mark them on their worksheets. The students will write sentences using the prepositions and words from their spelling notebooks or other sources.

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67

Phonics for English

Verbs Pronouns Prepositions


Verb: A verb expresses action or a state of being. They are: action, helping and being. Most verbs are action verbs. Pronoun: A pronoun takes the place of a noun. They are: subject and object. Preposition: A preposition shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word.

pronouns-subject

pronouns-object

prepositions

prepositions

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68

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 9
Sequence 25

F, L and S Doubling Rule


R-17: At the end of one-syllable words, following a single vowel, f, l and s are usually doubled (off, ball, miss). You have been teaching this rule with the spelling words. The purpose of this chart is to reinforce the rule. Spelling Section J: Dictate the word off from Section J for the students to write in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheet. The students will then search their spelling notebooks in Spelling Sections A-I for single vowel words with endings of ff, ll and ss. The teacher will call out these words for the students to write and mark on their worksheets. After these words are completed, the other words from Section J may also be written in the spelling notebooks and on the worksheets. Other Words: Say, At the end of one-syllable words following a single vowel, f, l and s are usually doubled. Occasionally, some letters are doubled this way.

Dictate the words from Section J: add odd egg buzz for the students to write and mark
in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets in the other column. Levels two and three may occasionally add these words to the worksheets that are found in their spelling notebooks and during the Worksheet Completions Sequences 45 and 47.

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69

Phonics for English

F, L and S Doubling Rule


At the end of one-syllable words, following a single vowel, f, l and s are usually doubled. ff ll ss other

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70

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 10 SH, TI, SI and CI Say /SH/


Sequence 25
R-10: The phonogram sh says /sh/. The sh is used at the beginning of a word, at the end of a syllable (or word), but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending ship. Dictate the words from Spelling Section J: ship she fish for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks, and in the sh column of their worksheet. Completion of the sh words will begin the Worksheet Completion Sequence 37.

Sequence 39
See: Syllables and Suffixes De-Mystified, p. 51, for a better understanding of the ti, si and ci phonograms.
R-ll: The phonograms ti (na tion), si (man sion), ci (spe cial) say /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. R-12/13: The si may say /sh/ (man sion) or /zh/ (excur sion). The si says /sh/ when the preceding syllable ends with s (ses sion) and when the root word has an s (manse/man sion).
2 1

Level Two
Dictate the words from Spelling Section O for the student to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and in the appropriate columns on their worksheets. quest 3 ques tion na tion
3

ob ject 3 ob jec tion man sion 2 3 ex cur sion


3

e lect 3 e lec tion spe cial


1

di rect 3 di rec tion

Levels Two and Three Other ti, si and ci words will be found in Spelling Sections O-Z and may be occasionally entered in the appropriate columns and at the completion of each level in the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.

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71

Phonics for English

SH, TI, SI and CI Say /SH/


The ti, si and ci say /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. The si may say /sh/ or /zh/. The si says /sh/ when the preceding syllable ends with s and when the root word has an s. sh ti si

ci

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72

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 11 I and Y Say E


Accents around the English speaking world vary. Students need to understand the interchangeable relationship between the i and y. English words do not end in i. We use the y as a stand-in vowel.

Sequence 18

Suffix Y Says E
Until recently, most dictionaries classified the unaccented suffix y as // (first sound). Currently, American language dictionaries consider it to be / / sound (second sound, letter name). Many programs using this method have added // (letter name) as the third sound to phonograms i and y. The y in question is always unaccented at the end of words like: lady, happy, pretty, envy, hobby, angry, dirty, hurry, icy, baggy, victory. R-5: The unaccented suffix y may say // at the end of a word.

Dictate the words ba by du ty from Spelling Section H for the students to write and mark
in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheet. The teacher prompts at suffix y and says Use the /y/-//-//-//. The students search the spelling notebooks for words to add to their worksheets.

I Says E
R-5: When the phonogram i comes before another vowel, it does not usually form a team (multi-letter phonogram) with the second vowel. Instead, the i is at the end of one syllable, and the other vowel begins its own syllable. If the i is part of a suffix, it is unstressed, and it sounds like y in funny.

Dictate the word ra di o from Spelling Section H for the students to write and mark in their
spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. These words are not found in level one spelling sections. Other words, such as: me di a, pe ri od, pa tri ot, fur i ous, var i ous, ra di us, me di um, may be dictated for levels two and three in the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.
3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3

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73

Phonics for English

I & Y Say E
The unaccented suffix y may say // at the end of a word.

The i at the end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the next syllable may say / /.

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74

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 12 Plurals: Suffixes S and ES


Sequence 18
R-20, Plurals, Suffix s, Part 1: To make most nouns plural, add an s. The most common way to make a noun plural is by just adding an s.

Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section H for the students to write and mark in
their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. cat cats dog dogs tree trees ap ple4 ap ple4s

Students search their spelling notebook for words that may have the suffix s added; the derivatives will be written with its root word.

Sequence 29
R-20, Plurals, Suffix es, Part 2: Change F to V; add es. Words often end with an /f/ sound. In some words when an ending is added, the /f/ sound is changed to a /v/ sound (wife/wives). In other words we dont change the sounds or the spelling (cliffs, roofs).

Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section K for the students to write and mark in
their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. wife wives
2

half

halve2s

Words may be added in Worksheet Completion Sequences 37, 45 and 47.

Sequence 33
R-20, Plurals, Suffix es, Part 3: To make words plural that end in an o, s, x, z, ch, sh, tch or the sound of /j/ (dge), add es.

Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section L for the students to write and mark in
their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. hero-he roes 2 march-march es
2

press-press-es 2 dash-dash es

fox-fox es 2 watch-watch es

quiz-quiz zes 2 ridge-ridg es

Other words in the spelling notebook may have the suffix es added; write the derivative with its root word. Add words in Worksheet Completion Sequences 37, 45 and 47.

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75

Phonics for English

Plurals: Suffixes -S and ES


Part 1
To make a noun plural, add s.

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76

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 13 C and G before E, I or Y


Sequence 29
R-2: The c says /s/ before e, i or y (city, cent, cycle). The c usually says /k/ (can, cold, come).

Make a list or chart of words that say both the /k/ and /s/ sounds; some words have both sounds. Pronounce the words and have the students identify the /k/ or the /s/ sound(s) in the words. Discuss the rule; which of the letters e, i or y lets the word say the /s/ sound. Examples: cent, city, cycle, celery, cut, candy, cymbal, cinnamon, cat, cross, climb, cypress, cyclone.

Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section K for the student to write and mark in
their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. cent R-3: cit y
3

cy cle4

The g may say /j/ before e, i or y (gem, giant, gyp). The g doesnt always say /j/ before e, i or y (get, girl). Otherwise, the g says /g/ (good, got, gold).

Make a chart of words that say both the /g/ and /j/ sounds; some words have both sounds. Pronounce the words and have the students identify the /g/ or /j/ sound(s) that they hear. Discuss the rule when the word says the /j/ sound. Examples: get, game, giant, gym, gentle, gypsy, gem, dog, hungry, gyp, ginger, gigantic, gift, girl, give, ragged, together, age, suggest, orange. Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section K for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. gem gi ant
2

gyp

Many of these words belong to Silent Final E (job 3): The silent e lets the c say /s/ and the g say /j/. We use the ge at the end of English words; they do not end in j. Search the spelling notebooks or any source for the c and g words for all the categories to add to the worksheets. Words may also be added in the Worksheet Completion Sequences 37, 45, and 47.

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77

Phonics for English

C and G before E, I or Y
c usually says /k/andg usually says /g/

g says /g/ before e, i and y

c says /s/ before e, i and y ..g may say /j/ before e, i and y

c says /s/ before Silent Final e (ce)

g says /j/ before Silent Final e (ge)

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78

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 14 Homonyms and Homographs


Sequence 29

Homonyms
Homonyms are words that sound alike, but have different meanings and usually different spellings. Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section K for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. boor
3

bore

Homographs
Homographs are words that have the same spelling as another word, but have a different meaning and are sometimes pronounced differently. Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section K for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. lead lead
2

led (homonym)

Students will search their spelling notebooks or any source for more homonyms and homographs to add to their worksheets. These words may be added in Worksheet Completion Sequences for Level One: 37; Level Two: 45; and Level Three: 47.

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79

Phonics for English

Homonyms and Homographs


Homonyms
Homonyms are words that sound alike, but have different meanings and usually a different spelling.

Homographs
Homographs are words that have the same spelling as another word, but have a different meaning and sometimes are pronounced differently.

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80

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 15 Es Dropping Rule


R-16, Silent Final e words are written: Drop the e when adding a vowel suffix. The e is retained in root words with a c or g before the e; the e can only be dropped if the suffix begins with e, i, or y (to let the c say /s/ and g say /j/). If the suffix begins with any other vowel, the e is retained. In words that would lose their root word character, the e is retained. The e is retained for consistent suffixes.

Sequence 29
Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section K for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. Silent Final e words are written without the e when adding a vowel suffix. come5
3

com ing

ease5

eas y

The students will search their spelling notebook for Silent Final e words that may have a vowel suffix added to them. Write the word and its derivative on the worksheet; write the derivative with its root in the spelling notebooks.

Sequence 36
Dictate the words from the spelling list after Section N for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. When adding a vowel suffix to root words with a c or g before the Silent Final e, the e can only be dropped if the suffix begins with e, i, or y. no tice3 no tic ing If the suffix begins with any vowel (not e, i, or y) the e must be retained. change3 change3 a ble4 In words that would lose their root word character, the e is retained. 2 2 dye5 dye5 ing When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant, the e is retained. 3 lone lone ly The students search for words in their spelling notebooks and choose a suffix for each of them and write the word and its derivative on their worksheets; write the derivative with its root in the spelling notebook. Level two and three students may occasionally add words to their worksheet and in the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.

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81

Phonics for English

Es Dropping Rule
Silent Final e words are written without the e when adding a vowel suffix.

When adding a vowel suffix to root words with a c or g before the Silent Final e, the e can only be dropped if the suffix begins with e, i, or y.

If the suffix begins with any other vowel (not e, i, or y) the e must be retained.

When adding a vowel suffix to Silent Final e words that would lose their root word character, the e is retained.

When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant, the e is retained.

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82

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 16 Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes Learning Reference Chart


Sequence 32
R-14, Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes: With a one syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix. Dictate the root words for the first column for the students to write and mark. Discuss and dictate the suffixes and derivatives for each word to be written. run shop red get big mud bit drug -er -ed -ish -ing -est -y -en -ist run ner 3 shop ped red dish get ting big gest 3 mud dy bit ten drug gist

Dictate the root words. Discuss and dictate the suffixes and derivatives. The x is composed of two consonant sounds /ks/, the last consonant is not doubled when adding a vowel suffix: box fix -es -ing
2

box es fix ing

Dictate the root words. Discuss and dictate the suffixes and derivatives. The last consonant is not doubled when adding a consonant suffix. dog man -s -ly dog s man ly

The students search the spelling notebooks for Rule 1-1-1 words to which suffixes may be added. Write the word and derivative on the worksheets; write the derivative with its root in the spelling notebooks. More worksheets or the Word Analysis Worksheet 28 may be used. Words may be added in the Worksheet Completion Sequences for Level One: 37; Level Two: 45; and Level Three: 47.

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83

Phonics for English

Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes Learning Reference Chart


With a 1 syllable word ending in 1 vowel and 1 consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix.

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84

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 17 Six Spellings of ER


Sequence 8

Phonograms 51-56 (er-our)


After teaching the er, ir, ur, wor, ear and our phonograms, dictate the phonograms from the lesson plan for the students to write on their worksheets and in their spelling notebooks.

Sequence 33
Dictate each of the phonograms keywords for their caption from the spelling list in Section L for the students to write and mark under its phonogram on their worksheets. her first nurse5 works 3 ear ly 2 jour ney the /er/ of her the /er/ of first the /er/ of nurse5 the /er/ of works 3 the /er/ of early 2 the /er/ of journey

Search the spelling notebooks in reverse for all of the er words to be dictated for the students to write on their worksheets. The /er/ of her is the most often used phonogram in English. Choose root words (when available) rather than suffixes as in farm er for this column.

Margaret Bishop (ABCs and All Their Tricks) analyzed 20,000 words and found 2,063 /er/, 247 /ur/, 114 /ir/, 51 /wor/, 49 /our/ and 31 /ear/ root words.
In Worksheet Completion 37, 45 and 47, dictate the our words from the lesson plan for the students to complete their Reference Charts. cour age nour ish glam our court e ous
4

ad journ

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Phonics for English

Six Spellings of ER

wor

wor

ear

our

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 18 ED Past Tense Endings


Sequence 33
R-28, ED: The ed says /d/ and /t/ as the past tense ending of any root word that does not end 2 3 in the sound /d/ (killed) or /t/ (liked). When the ed says /ed/ after words ending with d (land/land ed) or t (act/act ed), they form another syllable. Words that end in d form another syllable when suffix ed is added. (end ed, add ed, band ed, word ed, head ed, mind ed) Words that end in t form another syllable when the suffix ed is added. (plant ed, post ed, rest ed, part ed, print ed, start ed, light ed) Words say /d/ when the suffix ed is added if the final letter is b, g, j, l, m, n, ng, r, th, v, z, or zh. 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (formed, buzzed, aged, called, billed, filled, mailed, burned, cleared, spelled, clothed) Words say /t/ when the suffix ed is added if the final letter is: ch, f, k, p, s, sh, or th. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (missed, backed, helped, worked, hoped, glassed, camped, passed, tracked, watched, 3 3 3 3 dashed, pushed, walked, wished)

Dictate the words from the spelling list in Section L for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. land land ed form formed
2

push pushed

Students will search the spelling notebooks for words that may have the suffix ed added and write and mark them with root words in the spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. Words may be added in the Worksheet Completion Sequences for Level One: 37; Level Two: 45; or Level Three: 47.

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Phonics for English

ED Past Tense Endings


The ed says /d/ and /t/ as the past tense ending of any root word that does not end in the sound /d/ (killed) or /t/ (liked). When the ed says /ed/ after words ending with d (land/land ed) or t (act/act ed), they form another syllable. words say /ed/ words say /d/ words say /t/

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 19 Rule 2-1-1 Accent Learning Reference Chart


Sequence 34
R-15, Rule 2-1-1 Accent: With a two or more syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix, IF the accent is on the last syllable.

How to Identify the Accented Syllable


1. Prefixes and suffixes are not accented. 2. The root word is usually the accented syllable. 3. The vowel sound of the accented syllable is usually more true to sound, not schwa (con trol). 4. The second syllable, Silent Final e le4 suffix, is not accented. 5. Use the dictionary. From the spelling list in Section M, for Rule 2-1-1 Accent Learning Reference Chart, dictate all of the accented root words in the first column. Discuss and add the vowel suffixes and derivatives to be written and marked on the worksheets. Continue in the same manner with the unaccented words, vowel suffixes and derivatives and the accent word with a consonant suffix and derivative. (These words may also be added to the spelling notebooks.) be gin ad mit ac quit oc cur for got trans mit re gret com mit ex cel -ing -ed -al -ence3 -en -er -ed -ee -ent be gin ning ad mit ted ac quit tal oc cur rence3 for got ten trans mit ter re gret ted com mit tee ex cel lent

2nd syllable not accented with a vowel suffix: en ter -ing en ter ing trav el -er trav el er 2+ syllables with a consonant suffix: 3 3 com mit -ment com mit ment Search the spelling notebooks or other sources for more Rule 2-1-1 accent words in the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.

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Phonics for English

Rule 2-1-1 Accent Learning Reference Chart


With a 2 or more syllable word ending in 1 vowel and 1 consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable.

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90

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 20 I and O Followed by Two Consonants


Sequence 34
R-19, Vowels I and O: The vowels i and o may say // and // when followed by two consonants. (We say may because they may not.) You have taught this rule in Sequence 19: Four Ways a Vowel Can Say A, E, I, O, U (LW7). You have been teaching the rule with the spelling words. The purpose of this chart is to expand and reinforce this rule. From the spelling list in Section M, dictate these words for the students to write in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. mind hold

The students will then search to find these words in their spelling notebooks or other sources. Dictate the words they find for them to write on their worksheets.

Example Words
Clues, look for words ending in: -ind, -ign, -ild, -imb The i may say // when followed by two consonants: find, kind, mind, be hind, sign, de sign, re sign, child, mild, climb Clues, look for words ending in: -old, -olt, -olk, -ost, -oth The o may say // when followed by two consonants: old, told, gold, roll, hold, bold, scold, colt, bolt, yolk, folk, most, host, post, ghost, both To reinforce this rule, level two and three may occasionally search their spelling notebooks for words to add to their worksheets. At Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47, the students will search their spelling notebooks or other sources for more words to complete their worksheets.

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91

Phonics for English

I and O Followed by Two Consonants


-ind, -ign, -ild, -imb

-old, -olt, -olk, -ost, -oth

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Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 21 L Dismissal Rule


Sequence 35
R-21/2, L Dismiss: The words all, full and till are written with one l when added to another syllable. From the spelling list in Spelling Section N, dictate the following words for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. al so
3

al most

al ways

hope ful

cup ful

un til

all right

all wrong

Discuss: All right and all wrong are two separate words and they are not compound words. (However, alright is found in the American dictionary.) The students will search their spelling notebooks and other sources for words that may have these prefixes or suffixes added to them. Dictate the words they find for them to write and mark with their root words in the spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. Level two and three students may occasionally search their spelling notebooks and in Worksheet Completions Sequence 45 and 47 to add more of these words to their worksheets. Examples: al though, al ready, al to geth er, will ful, thank ful, for get ful, hope ful, rest ful, 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 help ful, fruit ful, care ful, fear ful, watch ful, truth ful, re gret ful, e vent ful, use ful, 5 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 thought ful, mourn ful, waste ful, du ti ful, wrong ful, beau ti ful, aw ful
3 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 3 3 3

Compound Words
Compound words: Combine two or more root words to alter their meaning. Dictate the word some5thing from Section N for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and on their worksheets. The students will then search their spelling notebooks or other sources for various root words that may be combined. Dictate the words to be written and marked on their worksheets.
3

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L Dismiss Rule
The words all, full and till are written with one l when they are added to another syllable. all full

till

All right and all wrong are separate words; they are not compound words.

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 22 OUGH Wild Phonogram Team


Sequence 34
The phonogram ough is a team that represents many different sounds. Students should be advised to sound the consonants of the word accurately and allow the context to suggest the appropriate vowel sound. Learn in pairs: // (dough) /oo/ (through) 3 4 /uff/ (tough) /off/ (trough) 5 6 /aw/ (sought) /ow/ (bough)
5 5 2

From the spelling list in Section M dictate the words bought brought for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and worksheets. The students will fill in the ough in the blanks to complete the story. The students may mark the ough words in the story. This is the entire list of words containing the ough phonogram. though drought bough rough although roughen slough (oo) thoroughbred dough wrought thought bought besought thoughtful slough (uff) brought fought thorough enough doughnut thoughtless forethought borough furlough ought toughen tough throughout overwrought afterthought thoroughgoing through cough sought doughty bethought

thoroughfare

Levels two and three: In Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47 give the students a copy of these ough words to mark. This will be a study of their construction.

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95

Phonics for English

OUGH Wild Phonogram Team

Enter and mark the ough phonograms. Draw a picture.

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96

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 23 Ys Exchange Rule


Sequence 35
R-24, Ys Suffixes: The single vowel y (not the phonogram ay, ey, oy) changes to i when adding a suffix (try/tried), unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing, -ish). The y is a stand-in vowel for i, the stand-in is no longer needed. These words with a single vowel y are found in Spelling Section L, M, and N. Teach this chart to level one with the words copy, try, cry in Section N. cop y try cry ear ly bod y ar my prt ty read y car ry sor ry his to ry stud y
3 3 1 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3

cop ies tries cries ear li er bod i ly ar mies prt ti er read i er car ri er sor ri er his tor ic stud ies
2 1 1 2 2 3 2 2

cop ied tried cried ear li est bod ies


2 2 2 2 2

cop y ing try ing cry ing ear li ness


2 2

prt ti est read i est car ried sor ri est his to ri an stud ied
2 1 1 2 2

prt ti ly read i ness car riage sor ri ness his tor i cal stud y ing
3 1 1 2

prt ty ing read y ing car ry ing sor ri ly his tor i cal ly
3 1 3 1 3 2 3

Levels two and three: Periodically add more of these words or words from Sections O-Z to this worksheet and in Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47. ay: pay, pay ing, pay a ble4, pay ee, pay er; play, play er, play ing ey: mon ey, mon eys or mon ies oy: de stroy, de stroy er, de stroy ed, de stroy ing
2 2

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Ys Exchange Rule
The single vowel y (not the phonograms ay, ey, oy) changes to i when adding a suffix, unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing, -ish).

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Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 24 Contractions Reference Chart


Sequence 36
This is a reference chart for contractions. The students need to know contractions. Show the students some examples: teach the apostrophe, show the students how and where to write it. Say, The apostrophe takes the place of omitted letters. Help the students write the words, from the spelling list after Section N or from the lesson plan on their worksheets. Work from the words to the contractions and back from the contractions to the words.

Contractions Reference Chart


do not = dont does not = doesnt did not = didnt will not = wont can not = cant is not = isnt was not = wasnt were not = werent has not = hasnt have not = havent had not = hadnt I am = Im he is = hes it is = its you are = youre they are = theyre are not = arent I have = Ive you have = youve we have = weve they have = theyve I would = Id you would = youd we would = wed I will = Ill he will = hell you will = youll we will = well they will = theyll who is = whos what is = whats where is = wheres here is = heres there is = theres

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Contractions Reference Chart


word contraction word contraction

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Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 25 Comparative Words Reference Chart


Sequence 36
This reference chart involves more grammar than spelling. It is provided because students need to know how to form and when to use degrees of adjectives. Dictate the words from the spelling list after Section N or from the lesson plan for the students to write on their worksheets.

Comparative Words Reference Chart


big low old kind hot true2 long eas y hap py good bad great
3 2 3 3 2

big ger low er old er kind er hot ter tru er long er eas i er hap pi er bet ter worse5 great er
3 2

big gest low est old est kind est hot test tru est long est eas i est hap pi est best worst great est
3 2

Levels two and three: Occasionally students may search their spelling notebooks and in the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47 for words to add to this reference chart.

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101

Phonics for English

Comparative Words Reference Chart

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 26 IE or EI Question


R-9, IE or EI: We use the ie most often. We use the ie to say // (piece3), as a suffix (movie), 2 2 to say // (pie). We use the ei to say /a/ (their), to say /e/ after c (deceive2) and in other words 2 x (leisure).

Sequence 35
From the spelling list in Section N, dictate the words for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and worksheets. piece3 pie
2

friend

mov ie

their

leisure

2X

ceil ing

feist y

for eign

The students will search their spelling notebooks or outside reading material for the ie and ei words that may be dictated for them to write and mark on their worksheets. (Note: words with eigh are not ei words.) The ie says //: chief, field, thief, priest, shield, niece3, grief, fierce3, yield, tier, wield, shriek, 4 pierce3, be lieve2, re lief, (unstressed /uh/, mis chie vous) The ie says // (suffix): brown ie, col lie, prair ie, cool ie, eer ie, lad die, las sie, gen ie, rev er ie, cal or ie, cad die, bir die, me nag er ie The ie says //: lie, tie, die, un tie, neck tie, mag pie (Except: ie says //, friend; ie says // X sieve2.) The ei says //: veil, heir, reign, beige3, heir ess, hei nous, skein sheik, sur veil lance3, rein deer The ei says //: ei ther, nei ther, seize5, weir, weird The ei says // after c: ceil ing, re ceipt, de ceive2, per ceive2, re ceive2 The ei says //: feist y, stein, seis mo graph, ka lei do scope The ei says /uh/ (schwa) in unstressed syllables: for eign, sov er eign, for feit, coun ter feit At the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47, dictate more of the ie and ei words to fill in this worksheet for a reference chart.
X X X X X 3 X X X 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 X

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IE or EI Question
We use the ie most of the time. ie says // ie says //

except: ie says // and //

ie suffixes

We use the ei less often.

ei says // after c

ei says //

ei is schwa, says /uh/ (unstressed syllable)

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Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 27 Other Phonograms


A phonogram is either one letter or a set combination of letters that represent one or more voiced sounds in a given word.

Sequence 39
From the spelling list in Section P, dictate the following words for the students to write and mark in their spelling notebooks and worksheets. beau beau ty beau ti ful daugh ter naugh ty x 2 2 taught laugh laugh ter ghost peo ple4 Level three: Spelling Section U (noted in the spelling list) scene
3 scen er y 2 3 3 3

sci ence3

2 2 2 scis sors

de scend

de scent

Level three: Spelling Section W (noted in the spelling list) cor dial cor dial ly
3

sol dier

eu /oo/-//: neu tral, ma neu ver, Eu rope, pneu mo ni a, li eu ten ant, rheu mat ic 2 2 qu /k/: bou quet, mos qui to, an tique2, con quer 3 3 3 gh /g/: ghast ly, ghost, ghet to, ghoul, ghoul ish 3 rh /r/: rhyme, rhy thm, rhyp so dy, rhine stone, rhu barb aigh /a/: straight pn /n/: pneu mat ic, pneu mo nia ps /s/: psalm, pseu do, psy che, psy chot ic x /z/: xy lo phone, xe rox, xe non mb /m/: lamb, thumb, plumb er, climb mn /m/: col umn, sol emn, hymn, au tumn 2 eo //-//: leop ard, peo ple4 3 yr /r/: syr up, lyr ic, mar tyr, pyr a mid, tyr an ny Levels two and three: Occasionally students may search their spelling notebooks or other sources to add the other phonograms to this chart. In the Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47, more words for these phonograms may be dictated from the lesson plan for the students to write and mark on their worksheets.

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Phonics for English

Other Phonograms
A phonogram is either one letter or a set combination of letters that represent one or more voiced sounds in a given word.

Work on other phonograms in Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.

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106

Phonics for English

Other Phonograms

di /j/

Work on Other Phonograms in Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.

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107

Phonics for English

Lesson Plan/Worksheet: 28 Word Analysis: Root Words with Rules Application


Root + Prefix Root + Suffix Es Dropping Ys Exchange

Rule 1-1-1

Rule 2-1-1

L Dismiss

EI Words

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Phonics for English

Prefixes and Suffixes List


Prefixes antibidisexhemiinintermicromonononparaperiprepostresemisubsupertranstriununderuniVowel Suffixes -able -age -al -ance -ancy -ant -ar -arium -ation -ary -ed -ee -er -en -ence -ency -ent -es -ess -est -ible -ice -ie Vowel Suffixes -ing -ior -ish -ist -ity -or -ory -ous -ure -ive -y Consonant Suffixes -dom -ful -fy -hood -less -ly -ment -ness -s -tion -ward

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words


Table of Contents
Level One .....................................................................................................................112 Spelling Word Sections A-N Level Two ....................................................................................................................161 Spelling Word Sections O-R Level Three ..................................................................................................................180 Spelling Words Sections S-Z

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Extended Ayres Spelling Word List Explanations


R: Rules: The rules are taught in the sequences with the lesson plans and worksheets. When an R is listed with a word, say the rule and dictate the word to write in the spelling notebooks. (Rule numbers are not taught.) LW: Teachers Lesson Plan and Students Worksheet: The LW is taught in the sequences. Sequences in the Spelling List: The spelling words are not entered onto the worksheets at the end of each spelling lesson. When the sequence appears in the spelling list , use the lesson plan in the Teachers Manual and worksheet (reproducible master) with the indicated (section) word(s) coordinated with the sequence number that is listed on the lesson plan. Some lesson plans and worksheets are used in more than one sequence. Some words are duplicated in the spelling list for clarification with derivatives. TTS: Think to Spell: See: Dialogue for Think to Spell Explanations for the Teacher: Rules, Lesson Plan/Worksheet (LW) numbers, dictation tips and markings are to be given when the sound(s) may be used in more than one phonogram. Repetitive information not noted. Student Sees the Word: The student sees the word as they write it from dictation. The words are written in syllables and are marked. Students Sound Out: The teacher pronounces the word. The student always say (sound out aloud) the words and syllables as they write them.

Abbreviations in Spelling List


LW=Lesson Plan/Worksheet CW=Compound Word HH=Homonym/Homograph EW=English Word/s R= Rule

Divisions
Level one: Kindergarten, first grade and all other students Level two: Second grade and all other students Level three: Third grade and all other students

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Level One (Sections A-N)


Kindergarten Sections A-G First Grade Sections A-N Others Sections A-N for K-Adult, Review and Remedial Sequence 5: LW-1, Part 1, Vowels and Consonants Section A (Sequence 6)
me do and go at on a is she can see ran run R-10 LW-10
2 4

R-4 LW-7

Use the /// that may say // at the end of the syllable. Explanation of syllables is not needed. Use the /ah///oo/. Use the ///ah/.

R-4 LW-7

Use the /ah///oo/. The o says // at the end of the syllable. Use the ///ah/. Use the /ah///oo/.

R-4 LW-7

The a says // at the end of the syllable, in reading the unaccented (schwa) /uh/ is usually said. Use the //// and the /s/z/. Use the /sh/ at the beginning of a word and the e that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the ///ah/. Use the double ee. Use the ///ah/. Use the ///oo/.

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Section B (Sequence 6)
the in so no now man ten tan tin ton bed top he R-4 LW-7 R-4 LW-7 R-4 LW-7
2

R-4 LW-7

Use the /th/-/th/ and the ///. TTS: Say // at the end of the syllable. In reading, say /uh/. Use the ////. Use the /s/z/ and the /ah///oo/. The // says // at the end of a syllable. Use the /ah///oo/. The o says // at the end of the syllable. Use the /ow/-// that we may use at the end of EW. Use the ///ah/. Use the ///. Use the ///ah/. Use the ////. Use the /ah///oo/. TTS: Accent the o and say /ah/. Use the ///. Use the /ah///oo/. Use the /// that says // at the end of the syllable.

Section C (Sequence 7)
you will we an my 2
2 3

Use the /ow//oo// that we may not use at the end of EW. You and thou are two of the few words that end in u. R-17 LW-9 R-4 LW-7 At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, the l is doubled. TTS: Say both ls. Use the /// that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the ///ah/. R-6 LW-7 Use the /y////. The y not the i is used at the end of EW.

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Phonics for English

up last not us am good old bad red of (ov)


3X 2

Use the ///oo/. Use the ///ah/ and the /s/z/. Use the s not the c, R-2 shows that c would say /k/. Use the /ah///oo/. Use the ///oo/ and the /s/z/. Use the ///ah/. Use the /oo/oo//. R-19 LW-20 The o says // when followed by two consonants. Use the ///ah/. Use the ///. Not phonetic. The x shows a different sound.

Sequence 8: LW-17, Six Spellings of ER


er ir ur wor ear our

Sequence 9: LW-2, Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart


sh oi er ee oo ir th ch ur ay ng wor ai ea ear ow ar our ou ck aw ed au or ew wh ui oa oy oe

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Section D (Sequence 10)
be but this must R-17 LW-9
2

R-4 LW-7

Use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the ///oo/. Use the /th/th/, the //// and the /s/z/. Use the ///oo/ and the /s/z/. Use the ///ah/. The sound of a may be altered before the l. At the end of one-syllable words, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: Say both ls. Use the /ow//oo// that we may not use at the end of EW. You is the root of your. Use the /ow//oo// that we may not use at the end of EW.

all

your out

Sequence 10: LW-3, Syllables


Use Dialogue for Spelling in Syllables o ver in to may to day him look did
2 4 4

CW LW-21 R-18 R-18 CW-LW-21

In in, use the ////. In to, use the /ah///oo/. Root words do not end in the letter a saying // except for the article a. The 2-letter /a/ that we may use at the end of EW is used most often. In to, use the /ah///oo/. In day, use the 2-letter /a/ that we may use at the end of EW. Use the ////. Use the /oo/oo//. Use the ////.

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Sequence 11: LW-4, Sentence
had six book
2

Use the ///ah/. Use the //// and the /ks/, the x has two sounds. Use the /oo/oo//.

Section E (Sequence 12) Sequence 12: LW-5, Part 1, R-7, Silent Final Es
1. time Students say the sounds for time. Use the //// and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Students say the sounds for have. Use the ///ah/, and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v. English words do not end in v (job 2). Students say the sounds for blue. Use the ///oo/ and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in u. English words do not end in u (job 2). Students say the sounds for dance. Use the ///ah/, the /k/s/ and the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Students say the sounds for large. Say, Use the /ar/ of car, the /g/j/ and the silent e that lets the g say /j/ (job 3). Students say the sounds of the syllables for lit tle. In lit, use the ////. In tle, sound the /t/ and use the le suffix, every syllable must have a vowel (job 4). Students say the sounds for are. Use the /ar/ of car and the silent ///. Odd job e, any reason not covered above (job 5).

2. have2

2. blue2

3. dance3

3. large3

4. lit tle4

5. are5

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Phonics for English


Use the /oy/ that we may use at the end of EW. The y, not the i, is used at the end of EW. Use the /y////. The y, not the i, is used at the end of EW. Use the ////, the tall-/k/ and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1).

boy by like
2

R-24 R-6 LW-7 R-7 LW-5

Section F (Sequence 13)


make trace school street kill late live live2 let big bag beg bog bug say R-18 R-17 LW-9 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5
2

R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-2, LW-13

Use the ///ah/, the tall-/k/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the ///ah/, the /k/s/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1) and lets the c say /s/ (job 2). Mark only job 1. The word school has four phonograms. Use the /s/z/, the /ch/k/sh/, the /oo/oo// and the /l/. Use the double ee. Use the tall-/k/ and the ////. At the end of a onesyllable word, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: Sound both ls. Use the ///ah/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the //// and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and keeps the word from ending in the v (job 2). Mark only job 1. Use the //// and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in the v (job 2). Use the ///. Use // the first sound of vowel i. Use // the first sound of vowel a. Use // the first sound of vowel e. Use // the first sound of vowel o. Use // the first sound of vowel u. Use 2-letter // that we may use at the end of EW.

www.yesphonics.com

Extended Ayres Spelling Words

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Phonics for English


Sequence 14: LW-1, Part 2, Vowels Keywords
Part 1 a e i y o u Part 2 have2 help its gyp sy ox ducks a 2 me 2 gi ant 2 fly 2 o ver 2 2 use
2

ball ra di o 3 quick ly 3 love2 3 out put

to

Section G (Sequence 15)


moth er come5 hand ring three land cold hot child get ice play see sea R-19 L-20 R-3 LW-13 R-7 LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-18 LW-14 HH R-19 LW-20
3 3 2

LW-17 R-7 LW-5

In moth, use the /ah///oo/ and /th/th/. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the ///ah/. Use the //// and the /ng/. Be sure to say /i/-/ng/. The ng is a nasal sound. Use the /th/th/ and the double ee. Use the ///ah/. Use the /ah///oo/. The o may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the /ah///oo/. Use the /ch/k/sh/ and the ////. The i may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the ///. The g may say /g/ before the e. Use the //// and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Only mark job 1. Use 2-letter // that we use at the end of EW. Use the double ee. Use the ////.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

118

Phonics for English

Sequence 16: LW-6, Part 1, Nouns


Person man boy 3 2 moth er child Place 2 school street land sea Thing/Idea time hand ring 2 book Sound to spell /m//n/. Use the /oy/ used at the end of EW. Use the /ah///oo/ and the /th/th/. Use the /er/ of her. Use the /ch/k/sh/ and i that says // when followed by two consonants.

Use the /s/z/, the /ch/k/sh, the /o o/oo// and the l. Use the /s/z/ and the double ee. Sound to spell /l//n/d/. Use the /s/z/ and the ////.

Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Sound to spell /h//n/d/. Use the //-/ng/. Use the /oo/oo// and the tall-letter /k/.

Sequence 17: LW-4, Original Sentence Section H (Sequence 18)


day eat sit lot box be long door 3 floor
3

R-18

Use 2-letter // that we may use at the end of EW. Use the ////. Use the ////. Use the /ah///oo/. The x says /k/s/.

R-4 LW-7, LW-21

In be, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In long, use the /ah///oo/ and /ng/. Use the /oo/oo//. Use the /oo/oo//.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

119

Phonics for English

yes low soft stand yard bring ask tell law five ball just way home much call long
3 3 2

Use the /// and the /s/z/. Use the /ow// that we may use at the end of EW. The o may also say its first sound /ah/ when followed by two consonants. Use the /s/z/ and the ///ah/. Use the /ar/ of car. Say, //-/ng/. Use the ///ah/, and the /s/z/ and the tall-/k/. R-17 LW-9 Use the ///. At the end of one syllable words, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: sound both ls. Use the /aw/ that we may use at the end of EW. R-7 LW-5 R-17 LW-9 Use the //// and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Mark only job 1. Use the ///ah/. At the end of one syllable words following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: sound out both ls. Use the ///oo/ and the /s/z/. R-18 R-7 LW-5 Use 2-letter // that we use at the end of EW. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the ///oo/ and the /ch/k/sh/. R-17 LW-9 Use the ///ah/. At the end of one syllable words, after a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: sound out both ls. Use the /ah///oo/ and the /ng/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

120

Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Use the /th/th/ and the ///. R-7 LW-5 Use the /ow//oo// that we may not use at the end of EW, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the ////. Use the fourth sound of /ah///oo/. R-26
2

love2 then house5 year to I as send one5 has some5 if how her them oth er led
3 2 2 3 2 x 4 2

The pronoun I is always capitalized. Teach the capital letters as they are needed. Use the ///ah/ and the /s/z/. Use the ///.

R-7 LW-5

One is not phonetic. It is spelled o, n, e. In reading, say won (job 5). Use the ///ah/ and the /s/z/.

R-7 LW-5

Use the /s/z/, the /ah///oo/ and silent e (job 5). Use the ////. Use the /ow// that we use at the end of EW.

LW-17

Use the /er/ of her. Use the /th/th/ and the ///.

LW-17

In oth, use the /ah///oo/ and the /th/th/. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the ///.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

121

Phonics for English

lay ran run men man for well

R-18

Use 2-letter // that we use at the end of EW. Use the ///ah/. Use the ///oo/. Use the ///. Use the ///ah/. Use the /or/, o, r.

R-17 LW-9

Use the ///. At the end of one syllable words, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: sound both ls.

Sequence 18: LW-11, I and Y Say E


ba by
3 3

In ba, use a that says // at the end of a syllable. In by, use the suffix y that says //. In du, use u that says // at the end of a syllable. In ty, use suffix y that says //. Use the //, the i that says // and the // at the end of these syllables.

du ty
3

ra di o

Sequence 18: Unstressed Syllables


Use Dialogue for Think to Spell, p. 44 a bout a go

See Dialogue for Think to Spell.


Stress the vowel a to say // at the end of a syllable. In go, use the o that says // at the end of a syllable. Stress the vowel a to say // at the end of a syllable. In lone, use the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1).

a lone

Sequence 18: LW-12, Part 1, R-20, Plurals, Suffix s


cat cats dog dogs tree trees Use the ///ah/. To make the word plural, add the suffix s. Use the /ah///oo/. To make the word plural, add the suffix s. Use the double ee. To make the word plural, add the suffix s.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

122

Phonics for English


ap ple4 ap ple4s
2

In ap, sound // and /p/. In ple, sound /p/ and use the le suffix (job 4). To make the word plural, add the suffix s.

that was his

Use the /th/th/ and the ///ah/. Use the ///ah/ and the /s/z/. The sound of a may be altered after the w. TTS: Say /ah/. Use the //// and the /s/z/.

Sequence 19: LW-7, Four Ways a Vowel Can Say A, E, I, O, U


ba by me o ver u nit pi lot 2 my child cold make Pete time 2 type hope cute blue2
3

Use // at the end of a syllable. Use suffix y that says //. Use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. Use // at the end of a syllable. Use the /er/ of her. Use the u that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the i that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the y that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the /ch/k/sh/ and the i that says // when followed by two consonants. Use the o that says // when followed by two consonants. Use the e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the e that lets the e say // (job 1). Use the e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the e that lets the y say // (job 1). Use the e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the e that lets the u say // (job 1). Use the e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2).

Sequence 20: LW-8, Verbs


Action Verbs go come5 eat call see live2 sit love2 run kill bring lay time ran tell eats make led ask say play get

Helping Verbs 4 2 has do

can

will

have2

had

must

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

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Phonics for English


Being Verbs 2 is am

be

are5

was

Sequence 21: Read Story Books Section I (Sequence 22)


nine face miss huff puff ride rides R-7, LW-7 R-20, LW-12 R-7 LW-15 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-17 LW-9 Use the //// and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1) and lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Mark only job 1. Use the ////. At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, the s is usually doubled. In TTS sound out both s. Use the ///oo/. At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, the f is usually doubled. TTS: sound out both fs. Use the silent e that lets i say // (job 1). To make the word plural, add the suffix s.

Teach R-25 with the following root words that end in ck. Say The ck (2 -letter /k/) may be used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says its first sound //-//-//-////. sick back peck pock et truck Use the 2-letter /k/ at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says //. Use the 2-letter /k/ after a single vowel that says //. Use the 2-letter /k/ after a single vowel that says //. Use the 2-letter /k/ after a single vowel that says /ah/. Use the 2-letter /k/ after a single vowel that says //

got north white spent R-7 LW-5

Use the /ah///oo/. The word north has three phonograms. Use the /wh/ and silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Blow a feather off your palm with /wh/. Use the ///.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

124

Phonics for English

foot bill blow 2 blows block blocks spring riv er plant cut song sing sang sung win ter stone stones free lake page R-7 LW-5 R-3, LW-13 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-7, LW-5 LW-17 R-7, LW-5 R-20, LW-12 LW-17
2

Use the /oo/oo//. R-17 LW-9 R-20 LW-12 R-25 R-20, LW-12 Use the ////. At the end of one syllable words, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: sound both ls. Use the /ow// that we may use at the end of EW. To make the word plural, add the suffix s. Use the /ah///oo/ and the 2-letter /k/ used only at the end of the word after a single vowel that says /ah/. To make the word plural, add the suffix s. Use the //// and the /ng/; say //-/ng/. In riv, use the ////. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the ///ah/. Use the ///oo/. Use the /ah///oo/ and /ng/. Use the //// and /ng/. Use the ///ah/ and /ng/. Use the ///oo/ and /ng/. In win, use the ////. In ter, use the /er/ of her. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). To make the word plural; use the suffix s. Use the double ee. Use the ///ah/, the tall-/k/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the ///ah/, the /g/j/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1) and the g say /j/ (job 3). Mark only job 1. Use the ////, the /k/s/ and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and the c say /s/ (job 3). Always mark job 1. Use the ///.

nice end

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

125

Phonics for English


R-17 LW-9 Use the ///ah/. At the end of a one syllable word, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: sound both ls. Use the double ee. Use the ///. R-25 R-4, 18 R-4 LW-17 Use the 2-letter /k/ used at the end of the word after a single vowel that says //. TTS: Stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable. In way, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. For spelling, say //way. For reading, say /uh/way. In pa, use the a that says // at the end a syllable. In per, use the /er/ of her. Use the ///oo/. The word each has two phonograms. Use the //// and the /ch/k/sh/. Use the /oo/oo//. Use the ///. R-7 LW-5 R-26, 18 Use the ///ah/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). In Sun, use a capital letter because it is the name of a day and use the ///oo/. In day, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. In Mon, use a capital letter for the name of a day and use the /ah///oo/ (say /ah/). In day, use the 2-letter // that is used at the end of EW. The word show has two phonograms. Use the phonogram that says /sh/ at the beginning of a word and the /ow// used at the end of EW. Use the ////. The i may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the //// and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Use the /oo// that we may use at the end of EW.

fall feet went back a way pa per put each soon yet came Sun day
3

Mon day
2

R-26, 18 R-10 LW-10 R-19 LW-20 R-7, LW-5 R-3, LW-13

show find give2 new


2

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

126

Phonics for English


R-29 LW-17 R-7 LW-5 R-26 LW-17 In let, use the ///. In ter, sound the /t/ and use the /er/ of her. When reading, say the /t/ in the accented syllable let. Use the ///ah/, the tall-/k/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Mr. is an abbreviation for Mister. The Mr. is capitalized when written with the name of a person. In af, use the ///ah/. In ter, use th /er/ of her. Use the /th/th/ and //-/ng/. Blow air when saying what (not watt). Use the /wh/ and the ///ah/. Use the /th/th/ and ///ah/. R-17 LW-9 LW-24 LW-17 R-5, LW-11 R-17 LW-9 Use the ////. At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: Sound both ls. Possessive nouns. Its is a contraction for it is. In ver the e and r are sounded separately. Write a 1 over the e to show that it is not the /er/ of her. In y, use the suffix y that says //. Use the ////. At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, the l is usually doubled. TTS: Sound both ls. The or is spelled o, r. Use the /th/, the ///ah/ and the tall-/k/. Use the ////. Use the /// and the /s/z/. R-19 LW-20 R-19 LW-20 Use the /ah///oo/. The o may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the /ah///oo/. The o may say // when followed by two consonants.

let ter take Mr. Mis ter af ter thing what than still its (his, her) its (it is) ver y
1 3 2 3

fill or thank dear west sold told

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

127

Phonics for English

best form far

Use the /// and the /s/z/. Use the /or/ o, r. Use the /ar/ of car.

Sequence 22: LW-5, Part 2, R-7, Silent Final Es


gave R-7, LW-5 Use the ///ah/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1) and keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Mark only job 1. In a, stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable, say //like. In reading the a is unstressed, say /uh/like. In like, use the ////, the tall-/k/ and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1).

a like

R-4, R-7 LW-5

Sequence 23: LW-8, Pronouns


Subject Pronouns 3 I you Object Pronouns 3 me you he she it we they
2

him

her

it

us

them

Sequence 24: LW-2, Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart


ey ci ei ough eigh gu ie igh kn gn wr ph dge tch ti si

Section J (Sequence 25) Sequence 25: LW-9, R-17, F, L, S Doubling Rule (and Others)
off add odd egg buzz Use the /ah///oo/ and /f/-/f/. Use the ///ah/ and /d/-/d/. Use the /ah///oo/ and /d/-/d/. Use the /// and /g/-/g/. Use the ///oo/ and /z/-/z/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

128

Phonics for English

sev en for get hap py noon sis ter cast card cards south deep in side post town stay grand dark band game R-7 LW-5 R-18 LW-21 CW R-19 LW-20 R-20 LW-12 LW-17
3

In sev, use the ///. In en, use the ///. LW-13, 21 R-29 LW-11 In for, use the /or/ o, r. In get, use the ///. In hap, use the ///ah/. In py, sound the /p/ and use the suffix y that says //. Use the /oo/oo//. In sis, use the /s/z/, the //// and the /s/z/. In ter, use the /er/ of her. Use the ///ah/ and the /s/z/. Use the /ar/ of car. For a plural, add the suffix s. South has three phonograms, use /s/z/, the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW and the /th/th/. Use the double ee. In in, sound to spell //n/. In side, use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the /ah///oo/ and the /s/z/. The o may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the /ow// used at the end of and within EW. Use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. Use the ///ah/. Use the /ar/ of car and tall-/k/. Use the ///ah/. Use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

129

Phonics for English


R-7, LW-5, LW-21 CW R-20 LW-12 In out, use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. In side, use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. For a plural, add the suffix s. Use the /// and the /s/z/. Use the //// and the /s/z/. LW-14 HH Use the /ah///oo/; say /ah/. In reading, say the unaccented vowel (schwa) sound /uh/. Use the ///oo/. Use the ///. Use the /ar/ of car. R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 LW-17 R-7 LW-5 Use the ///ah/, the /k/s/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1) and lets the c say /s/ (job 2). Mark only job 1. In cov, use the /ah///oo/. In er, use the /er/ of her. Say the word fire as one syllable; not fi er. Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Say wire as one syllable; not wi er (job 1). Say tire as one syllable; not ti er (job 1). Use the ///. R-7, LW-5 R-3, LW-13 R-7 LW-5 R-19 LW-20 LW-14 HH LW-21 CW Use the ///ah/, the /g/j/ and e that lets the a say // (job 1) and the g say /j/ (job 3). Only mark job 1. Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the /ah///oo/. The o may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the ////. Use the ////. Use the ///. In can, use the /k/s/ and the ///ah/. In not, use the /ah///oo/.

out side boat boats rest east son sun help hard race cov er fire wire tire left age fine gold read 2 read red can not
3 3

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

130

Phonics for English


Use a capital letter because its the name of a month. Use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

May line train

R-26, 18 R-7 LW-5

Sequence 25: LW-10, R-10, SH, TI, SI, CI, Say /SH/
ship she Use the phonogram that says /sh/ at the beginning of a word. Use the phonogram that says /sh/ at the beginning of a word and the e that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the phonogram that says /sh/ at the end of a word. Use the /aw/ used at the end of EW. Use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. Use the ////. Use the ///ah/. Use the /ow// that may be used within and at the end of EW. Use the /ar/ of car. R-6 LW-7 LW-17 R-3, LW-13, 12 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-4 LW-17 Use the /wh/ and the /y////; say /wh/-//. The letter y, not i, is used at the end of EW. Use the /er/ of first. For a plural, add the suffix s. Use the ///ah/, the /k/s/ and the e that lets the a say // (job 1) and c say /s/ (job 3). Mark only job 1. In re, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In port, use the /or/ o, r. In nev, use the ///. In er, use the /er/ of her.

fish saw pay near want down part why girl girls place re port nev er
2 3

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

131

Phonics for English

found side kind life here car mine word work made ev er y un der most said our more when R-7 LW-5
3

Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. R-7 LW-5 R-19 LW-20 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). The i may say // when followed by two consonants. Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the silent e that lets the e say // (job 1). Use the /ar/ of car. R-7 LW-5 R-8 LW-17 R-8 LW-17 R-7 LW-5 LW-17 R-5, LW-11 LW-17 R-19 LW-20 Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the /er/ of works. The phonogram or may say /er/ after w. The /w/ and /or/ each say a sound. Use the /er/ of works. The phonogram or may say /er/ after w. The /w/ and /or/ each say a sound. Use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). In ev, use the ///. In er, use the /er/ of her. In y, use the suffix y that says //. In un, use the ///oo/. In der, use the /er/ of her. The o may say // when followed by two consonants; use the /s/z/. Exception, not phonetic. Use the /s/z/ and the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. For spelling, say /s//ai/-/d/. For reading, say sed. Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Use the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the /wh/ and sound to spell //n/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

132

Phonics for English

from wind print air room lost a long name hope same glad with R-4 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5

Use the /ah///oo/. Use the ////. Use the ////. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the /oo/oo//. Use the /ah///oo/ and /s/z/. The o may also say /ah/ when followed by two consonants. TTS: Stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable. In long, use the /ah///oo/ and the /ng/. For spelling, say //long. For reading, say /uh/long. Use the ///ah/ and e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the /ah///oo/ and the e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the ///ah/ and the e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the ///ah/. Use the //// and the /th/th/.

Sequence 26: LW-8, Prepositions


at out by on af ter o ver in to up a bout of
3X

for

in to

Sequence 27: Phonogram Review and Original Art Sequence 28: Testing the Phonograms

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

133

Phonics for English


Section K (Sequence 29)
be came broth er rain keep start mail male fe male eye glass par ty up on two they
2 4 3 3 2

R-4, LW-5 R-7, LW-5 CW, LW-21 LW-17

In be, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In came, use the ///ah/ and the e that lets the a say // (job 1). In broth, use the /ah///oo/ and the /th/th/. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the double ee. Use the /ar/ of car.

HH, LW-17 R-7, LW-5 R-4, 7

Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the ///ah/ and e that lets the a say // (job 1) Not phonetic, say the names of the letters e, y, e.

R-17 LW-9 R-5 LW-11 CW LW-21

Use the ///ah/. At the end of a one syllable word following a single vowel, the s is usually doubled. TTS: Sound both s. In par, use the /ar/ of car. In ty, use the suffix y that says //. In up, use the ///oo/. In on, use the the /ah///oo/. Two is not phonetic. For spelling, say /t/w/-/oo/. Use /th/th/ and the /// used at the end of EW.

Write an X above the ou as these words have a slightly different sound than usual. would X could should
X X

Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. TTS: Sound the silent l. Use the /k/s/ and /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. TTS: Sound the silent l. Use the /sh/ that is used at the beginning of a word and the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. TTS: Sound the silent l.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

134

Phonics for English


R-5 LW-11 R-7, LW-5 R-5, LW-11 R-7 LW-5 Sound to write //n/. Use suffix y that says //. Write a 1 above the a to show the first sound. For spelling, say n//. For reading, say n//. One is not phonetic, spell o, n, e. Write an X above the o to show a different sound (job 5). Sound to spell //n/, write a 2 above the o to show the second sound. In ly, use the suffix y that says //. One is the root word of only. Use the /wh/. The e and r are sounded separately, write l above e to show they are not /er/ (job 5).

an y one5 on ly where5
1 2 3 X

Sequence 29: LW-13, R-2/3, C and G Before E, I or Y


R-2: The c says /s/ before e, i or y. Otherwise the c says /k/. cent cit y
3

Use the /k/s/ and the ///. The e lets the c say /s/. In cit, use /k/s/ and ////. The i lets the c say /s/. Use the suffix y that says //. In cy, use /k/s/ and /y////. The y says // at the end of a syllable and lets the c say /s/. In cle, use the /k/s/ and the le4 suffix, every syllable must have a vowel (job 4).

cy cle4

R-3: The g may say /j/ before e, i or y. Otherwise, the g says /g/. gem gi ant
2

Use the /g/j/ and the e that lets the g say /j/. In gi, use /g/j/ and the that is used at the end of a syllable and lets the g say /j/. Sound to spell //n/t/. Use the /g/j/ and /y////, the y lets the g say /j/.

gyp

first week weak sent cent mile

LW-17 LW-14 HH LW-14, HH R-2, LW-13 R-7 LW-5

Use the /er/ of first and the /s/z/. Use the double ee. Use the ////. Use the /s/z/ and the ///. Use the /k/s/ and the e that lets the c say /s/. Use the //// and the e that lets the i say // (job 1).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

135

Phonics for English

seem head e ven with out af ter noon Fri day our hour state R-7 LW-5 R-26 R-4, 6 LW-7 R-4 R-5, LW-11 R-4 R-10 LW-10 R-26, 4, 18
2 2

Use the double ee. Use the ////. R-4 LW-21 CW Use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In ven, use the ///; say ven not vin. In with, use the //// and the /th/th/. In out, use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. In af, use the ///ah/. In ter, use the /er/ of her. In noon, use the /oo/oo//. In Fri, use a capital letter because it is the name of a day and use the i that says // at the end of a syllable. In day, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. Our is the root of hour. TTS: Sound the silent /h/ and use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Use the /s/z/, the ///ah/ and the e that lets the a say // (job 1). In Ju, use a capital letter for the name of a month and the u that says // at the end of a syllable. In ly, use the suffix y that says // at the end of a word. EW do not end in i. In sto, use the /s/z/ and the o that says // at the end of a syllable. In ry, use the suffix y that says //. Use the o that says // at the end of a syllable. In pen, use the ///, say en, not un. Short has three phonograms. Use /sh/ that is used at the beginning of a word and the /or/ o, r. Use //// and the /ch/k/sh/. R-4 R-5, LW-11 In la, use a that says // at the end of a syllable. In dy, use the suffix y that says //.

Ju ly

sto ry o pen short reach la dy


3

Sequence 29: LW-12, Part 3, R-20, Plurals, Suffix es


R-20: Some words change f to v and end with es. wife Use the //// and the e that lets the i say // (job 1).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

136

Phonics for English


wives Wives is the plural of wife, change the f to v and add es. The e lets the i say // (job 1) and keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). An EW does not end in v. Mark only job 1. Use the ///ah/. TTS: Sound the silent 1. Halves is plural for half. Sound the silent l, change f to v and add es. The silent e keeps the word from ending in v. An EW does not end in v (job 2). In bet, use the ///. In ter, sound the /t/ and use the /er/ of her. In wa, use the ///ah/; the sound of a may be altered after the w. In ter, use the /er/ of her. Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Use the /k/s/ and the /ah///oo/. The o may also say /ah/ () when followed by two consonants. R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-17 LW-9 LW-17 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-6 LW-7 R-7 LW-5 R-4, 18 Use the //// and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and the c say /s/ (job 2). Mark only job 1. Use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In come, use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the ///ah/. At the end of a one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the s. TTS: Sound both s. Use the /er/ of nurse. Use the phonogram /or/ o, r, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the /k/s/, the ///ah/ and the silent e that lets a say //. The a and r are not /ar/ (job 1). Use the y that says // at the end of a word, EW do not end in i. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that keep the word from ending in v (job 2). In de, use e that says // at the end of a syllable. In lay, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW.

half halve2s

bet ter wa ter round cost price be come5 class burn horse5 mouse5 care try move2 de lay
4 2 3 3

LW-17 LW-17

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

137

Phonics for English

pound be hind a round camp clear clean poor hurt to night tenth
4

Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. R-4 R-19, LW-9 CW, LW-21 R-4 In be, use e that says // at the end of a syllable. In hind, use the ////. The i may say // when followed by two consonants. TTS: Stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable. In round, use /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. In spelling, say //round. In reading, say /uh/round. Use the /k/s/ and ///ah/. Use the /k/s/ and ////. Use the /k/s/ and ////. Use the /oo/oo//. LW-17 LW-21 Use the /er/ of nurse. In to, sound to write /t/oo/. In night, use 3-letter //. Use the /// and the /th/th/.

Sequence 29: LW-14, Homonyms and Homographs


boor bore lead lead led
2 3

Use the /oo/oo//. Write a 3 above it to show the third sound. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the ////. The first sound is used so it is not marked. Use the ////. Write a 2 above it to show the second sound. Use the ///. The first sound is used so it is not marked.

spell

R-17 LW-9

Use the /s/z/ and ///. At the end of a one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the l. TTS: Sound both ls.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

138

Phonics for English


R-10 LW-10 R-18, 4 CW, LW-21 R-17 LW-9 In fin, use the ////. In ish, sound the // and use the /sh/ that is used at the end of a syllable (word). In may, use 2-letter // used at the end of EW. In be, use the e that is used at the end of a syllable. TTS: Stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable. In cross, use the /k/s/ and the /ah///oo/. At the end of a one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the s, sound both s. For spelling, say //cross. For reading, say /uh/cross. Use the /th/th/, the ///, the /s/z/ and the e lets the e say // (job 1). Use the /th/th/ and e that lets the o say / / (job 1). Use the /er/ of first. Use the /k/s/ and the ///oo/. Use the double ee. Use the ///. R-17 LW-9 Use the ///oo/. At the end of a one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the l. TTS: Sound both ls. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the ///. Use the /s/z/ and ///ah/. Use the 3-letter //. Use the 3-letter //. R-17 LW-9 R-10 LW-10 Use the ///ah/. At the end of a one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the s. TTS: Sound out both s. Use the /sh/ that is used at the beginning of a word and the ///oo/.

fin ish may be

a cross

these those Sir club seen felt full fail set stamp light night pass shut
2

R-7 LW-5 LW-17

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

139

Phonics for English


Sequence 29: LW-15, R-16, Es Dropping Rule
come5 com ing ease5 eas y Use the /k/s/, the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). Write come without the e; add the vowel suffix //-/ng/. Use the ////, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Write ease without the e; add the vowel suffix y that says //.

Sequence 30: LW-6, Part 2, Nouns and Adjectives Sequence 31: LW-4, Paragraph

Sequence 32: LW-16, Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes Learning Reference Chart


R-14: With a one syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix. run shop red get big mud bit drug -er -ed -ish -ing -est -y -en -ist run ner 3 shop ped red dish get ting big gest 3 mud dy bit ten drug gist

The x is composed of two consonant sounds /k/s/, the last consonant is not doubled when adding a vowel suffix. box fix -es -ing
2

box es fix ing

The last consonant is not doubled when adding a consonant suffix. dog man -s -ly dogs man ly

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

140

Phonics for English

Section L (Sequence 33)


black un less warm clothe cloth ing suit a ble4 track go gone5 do 3 done5 fell fight buy stop walk 3 talk 3 balk grant soap
3 1 2 4 3 2 2

R-25 R-17 LW-9

Use 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a word after a single vowel that says //. In un, sound to spell //n/. In less, in a one-syllable word, followed by single vowel, double the s. Use the /ar/ of car.

R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15

Use the /k/s/, the /ah///oo/, the /th/th/ and the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Write clothe without the e; add the vowel suffix -///ng/. Use the /s/z/ and /oo// not used at the end of EW.

R-7 LW-5 R-25 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-17 LW-9

Use the a that says // at the end of a syllable. In ble, use the le suffix (job 4). Use 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a word after a single vowel that says //. Use the // that says // at the end of a syllable. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). Sound to spell /d/oo/ (4th sound of o). Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the ///. At the end of a one-syllable word followed by a single vowel word, double the l. Use the 3-letter //.

R-6 LW-7

TTS: Sound the silent u, the y says // at the end of the syllable. For reading, say by. Use the /s/z/ and the /ah///oo/. Use the ///ah/, sound the silent l, and use the talk/k/. The sound of a may be altered after the w and 3 3 3 before the l. For reading, say wak, tak, bak. Use the ///ah/. Use 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

141

Phonics for English

Sequence 33: LW-12, Part 3, Plurals, Suffixes es


R-20: To make words plural that end in o, s, x, z, ch, tch, or the sound /j/ (dge) add es. he ro 2 he roes press press es fox 2 fox es quiz 2 quiz es march 2 march es dash 2 dash es watch watch es ridge 2 ridg es
2 2

Use the e that says // and the o that says // at the end of a syllable. To make hero plural, add suffix es. Use the ///. At the end of a one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the s. TTS: Sound both s. To make press plural, add suffix es. Use the /ah///oo/ and /k/s/. To make fox plural, add suffix es. The s never follows the x. Write q with u, use the //// and /z/. To make quiz plural, add the suffix es. Use the /ar/ of car and the /ch/k/sh/. To make march plural, add the suffix es. Use the ///ah/ and the /sh/ that is used at the end of a syllable. To make dash plural, add the suffix es. Use the ///ah/ and the 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that usually says //. The sound of a may be altered after w. To make watch plural, add the suffix es. Use the //// and 3-letter /j/ after the single vowel that says //. To make ridge plural, write ridge without the e, add suffix es.

news

R-20 LW-12 R-17 LW-9

Use the /oo// used at the end EW and the suffix s. Use the /s/z/ and ///ah/. At the end of one-syllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the l and sound both of the ls. Use the /ar/ of car. TTS: Say /ar/. Reading: Say /or/.

small war

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

142

Phonics for English


R-23: The tch (/ch/ 3-letter /ch/) may be used only after a single vowel that says its first sound //-//-//-//-//. TTS: Say /t/-/ch/ to keep students from putting t in words like much and which. catch sketch stitch notch clutch Use the /k/s/ and 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that says //. Use the /s/z/, the tall-/k/ and 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that says //. Use /s/z/ and the 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that says //. Use the 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that says /ah/. Use the /k/s/ and 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that says //. R-29 LW-17 LW-17 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-17 LW-9 R-29 LW-17 CW, LW-21 R-5, LW-11 In sum, use the /s/z/ and ///oo/. In mer, sound the /m/ and use the /er/ of her. Use the er of nurse. TTS: Stress a to say // at the end of a syllable. In bove, use the /ah///oo/ and the e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). In ex, use the /// and /ks/. In press, at the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, double the s. TTS: Sound both s. In les, use the /// and the /s/z/. In son, sound the s and use the /ah///oo/. In fa, use the ///ah/. In ther, use the /th/th/ and the /er/ of her. Sound to spell //n/. Use the suffix y that says //. In thing, use the /th/th/ and //-/ng/. Use the 3-letter //. R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-20 LW-12 R-26 R-7, LW-5 In ta, use the // at the end of a syllable. In ble, use the le suffix, every syllable must have a vowel (job 4). Use the ///ah/, sound the silent l, use the tall-/k/ and the /s/z/. In reading, say taks. Capitalize the J. Use the silent e that lets the u say // (job 1).

sum mer turn a bove2


3

ex press les son fa ther an y thing high ta ble4 talks June


3 1 3 3 2 3

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

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Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 HH, LW-14 R-7, LW-5 HH, LW-14 R-7, LW-5 R-26

date right write road rode March next in deed four her self pow er world trip wish 2 wish es be cause5 coun try meet meat an oth er list
3 2 4 3 2

Use the e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the 3-letter //. Use the 2-letter /r/ used at the beginning of a word, and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Capitalize M, use the /ar/ of car and the /ch/k/sh/. Use the /// and the /k/s/.

CW LW-21

Sound to spell //n/. In deed, use the double ee. Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW.

CW LW-21 LW-17 LW-17

In her, use the /er/ of her. In self, use the ///. In pow, use the /ow// used at the end and within EW. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the /er/ of works. The or may say /er/ after w. Use the ////.

R-10, LW-10 LW-12 R-4 R-7, LW-5 CW, LW-21 R-5 LW-11 LW-14 HH LW-17

Use the //// and the /sh/ at the end of a word. To make wish plural, add the suffix es. In be, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In cause, use the /k/s/, the /au/ not used at the end of EW, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). In coun, use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. In try, use the y that says // at the end of a word. Use the double ee. Use the ////. Sound to spell //n/. In oth, use the /ah///oo/, /th/th/. In er, use the suffix /er/ of her. Use the //// and /s/z/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

144

Phonics for English


R-7, LW-5 LW-27 LW-17 In peo, the uncommon phonogram eo says //. In ple, use the le suffix (job 4). In ev, sound to spell //v/. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the ///. LW-17 R-7, LW-5 R-7, LW-13 Use the /ch/k/sh/, the /er/ of nurse and /ch/k/sh/. For spelling say the letters , n, e (job 5). For spelling, say , n, c, e. The silent e lets the c say /s/ (job 3). For reading, say wunce. Use the /ow// used at the beginning, within and at the end of EW. Use the 2-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of a word and the /ow// used at the end of EW. CW, LW-21 R-7, LW-5 R-7 LW-5 In be, use e that says // at the end of a syllable. In fore, use the /ah///oo/ and the e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the /er/ of her, and the silent e (job 5). Use the /wh/, the e and r are sounded separately (not /er/), put a 1 above the e (job 5). Use the /th/th/, the e and r (not /er/), put l above e. Use the /// and the e that let the e say // (job 1). Use the ////. R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 LW-17 flour ground Use the //// and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Use the /k/s/, the /ah///oo/, the /s/z/ and the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). In flow, use the /ow// used at the end of EW. In er, use the /er/ her. Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW.

peo ple4 ev er held church one5 X once3 own know be fore were5 1 where5 there5 here dead leave2 close 2 close flow er
2 2 1 2 2 X

Sequence 33: LW-17, Six Spellings of ER


her first the /er/ of her the /er/ of first Use the /er/ of her. Use the /er/ of first and the /s/z/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

145

Phonics for English


nurse5 works ear ly the /er/ of nurse the /er/ of works the /er/ of early Use the /er/ of of nurse, the /s/z/ and e (job 5). Use the /er/ of works, tall-/k/ and suffix s. Use the /er/ of early and the suffix y that says // at the end of a word. Use the /er/ of journey and the /// used at the end of EW.

jour ney

the /er/ of journey

noth ing such morn ing how ev er shall or der third point with in bod y
3 2

In noth, use the /ah///oo/ and the /th/th/. Use the suffix -//-/ng/. Use the /s/z/ and the /ch/k/sh/. In morn, use the /or/. Use the suffix //-/ng/. CW LW-21 R-10, LW-10 R-17, LW-9 LW-17 LW-17 In how, use the /ow// used at the end of EW. In ev, sound to spell //v/. In er, use the /er/ of her. Use the /sh/ that is used at the beginning of a word and the ///ah/. At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, double the l. TTS: Sound ls. Sound to spell //r/. In der, use the /er/ of her. Use the /th/th/ and the /er/ of first. Use the /oi/ not used at the end of EW. CW LW-21 R-5 LW-11 In with, use //// and /th/th/. Sound to spell //n/. In bod, use the /ah///oo/. Use suffix y that says // at the end of a word.

Sequence 33: LW-18, R-28, ED, Past Tense Ending


land land ed Use the ///ah/. Write land; add the suffix ed.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

146

Phonics for English

form 2 formed push 3 pushed

Use the /or/ , r. Write form, add the suffix ed. Use the ///oo/ and the /sh/ used at the end of a word. Write push, add the suffix ed.

trust

Use the ///oo/ and the /s/z/.

Section M (Sequence 34)


ex tra dress teach be side hap pen col lect file pro vide sight goes does stood
2 3

R-20 R-17 LW-9

In ex, use the /// and /k/s/. TTS: In tra, sound the a that says /ah/. Use the ///. At the end of a one-syllable word following a single vowel, double the s. TTS: Sound both s. Use the //// and the /ch/k/sh/.

R-7, LW-5 CW, LW-21 R-29 R-29 R-7 LW-5 R-4 R-7, LW-5

In be, use e that says // at the end of a syllable. In side, use the /s/z/, and e that lets i says // (job 1). In hap, use the ///ah/. In pen, sound to spell /p//n/; say n, not n. In col, use the /k/s/ and the /ah///oo/. In lect, sound the l, use the /// and say /c/t/ distinctly. Use the e that lets the i say // (job 1). In pro, use the o that says // at the end of a syllable. In vide, use the e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use the /s/z/ and the 3-letter //.

R-20 LW-12 R-20 LW-12

Add the suffix es to go. Add the suffix es to do. Use the /s/z/ and the /oo/oo//.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

147

Phonics for English


Sequence 34: LW-20, R-19, I and O Followed by Two Consonants
mind hold Use the i that says // when followed by two consonants. Use the o that says // when followed by two consonants.

fixed born deal drill ar my in come5 stole tick et ac count driv en steam er moun tain speak past
1 3 3

R-28 LW-18

Use the ////, the /ks/ (x) and the /ed/d/t/. Use the /or/ , r. Use the ////.

R-17 LW-9 R-5 LW-11 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-25 R-29

Use the ////. At the end of a one-syllable word, following a single vowel, double the l. TTS: Sound ls. In ar, use the /ar/ of car. In my, the y says //. Sound to spell /n/. In come, use the /k/s/, the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). Use the /ah///oo/ and e that lets o say // (job 1). In tick, use 2-letter /k/ at the end of a word, after a single vowel that says //. Sound to spell //t/. In ac, for spelling, say // before consonant /k/s/. In count, sound the /k/s/ and use /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. For reading, say /uh/count. In driv, use the ////. Sound to spell //n/.

LW-17

In steam, use the /s/z/ and the ////. In er, use the suffix -/er/ of her. In moun, use /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. In tain, use 2-letter /a/ not used at the end of EW. Use the /s/z/, and the //// and the tall-/k/. Use the ///ah/ and the /s/z/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

148

Phonics for English

might con tract

Use the 3-letter //. In con, use the /ah///oo/. In tract, use the ///ah/; sound the c and t distinctly.

Sequence 34: LW-19, Rule 2-1-1 Accent Learning Reference Chart


R-15: With a two or more syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable. be gin ad mit ac quit oc cur for got trans mit re gret com mit ex cel -ing -ed -al -ence3 -en -er -ed -ee -ent be gin ning ad mit ted ac quit tal oc cur rence3 for got ten trans mit ter re gret ted com mit tee ex cel lent

2nd syllable not accented with a vowel suffix: en ter trav el -ing -er en ter ing trav el er

2+ syllables with a consontant suffix: com mit -ment com mit ment

pay paid

R-18

Use the 2-letter // used at th end of EW. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

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Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 Sound to spell //n/. For a, use a that says // at the end of a syllable. In ble, use the le suffix (job 4).

un a ble4

Sequence 34: LW-3, Syllables


prt ty re al rail road re cov er
3 2 1 3

In prt, use the ///. In ty, sound the t and use the suffix y that says //. In re, the r and e are sounded separately; use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In al, sound the a to say // before the consonant l. In rail, use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. In road, use the 2letter // not used at the end of EW. In re, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In cov, use the /k/s/ and the /ah///oo/. In er, use the /er/ of her. In moth, use the /ah///oo/ and the /th/th/. In er, use the /er/ of her. In the prefix en, sound to spell //n/. In the root word joy, use the /oy/ that we use at the end of EW. Write joy (R-24: oy); add the vowel suffix ous. In ous, use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Write enjoy (R-24: oy); add the consonant suffix ment.

moth er en joy
4

joy ous

en joy ment

Sequence 34: LW-22, OUGH Wild Phonogram Team


bought 5 brought less e vent took true2 a gain R-7 LW-5 R-4
2 5

LW-22 LW-22 R-17 LW-9 R-4

Use the //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. Use the //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. Use the ///. At the end of a one-syllable word following a single vowel, double the s. TTS: Sound both s. Use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In vent, sound to spell /v//n/t/. Use the /oo/oo// and the tall-/k/. Use the ///oo/ and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in u (job 2). Stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable. In gain, use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. For spelling, say //gain. For reading, say /uh/gen.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

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Phonics for English


CW LW-21 R-19 LW-20

in form both month heart un der stand who mem ber great child chil dren build 1 built fol low charge3 says case while re turn of fice3
2 1 3 3

Sound to spell //n/. In form, use the /or/, r. Use the o that says // when followed by two consonants and the /th/th/. Use the /ah///oo/ and the /th/th/. For spelling, sound each phonogram /h/-//-/ar/-/t/. For reading, say hart. The e is silent. Sound to spell //n/. In der, use the /er/ of her. In stand, use the /s/z/ and the ///ah/. For spelling, say /wh/oo/. For reading, say /h/oo/.

LW-17

Sound to spell /m//m/. In ber, use the /er/ of her. Use the ////. Use the /ch/k/sh/ and the i that says / / followed by two consonants. In chil, use the /ch/k/sh/ and ////. In dren, sound to spell /d/r//n/. Often the root in one syllable. To spell, sound /b/-//-//-/l/-/d/; say bild. To spell, sound /b/-//-//-/l/-/t/; say bilt.

R-29 R-7, LW-5 R-3, LW-13 R-18 R-20 LW-12 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-4 LW-17 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13

In fol, use the /ah///oo/. In low, sound the /l/ and use the /ow// used at the end of EW. Use the /ch/k/sh/, the /ar/ of car, the /g/j/ and the silent e that lets the g say /j/ (job 3). Use the /s/z/, the 2-letter // used at the end of EW and the suffix s. For spelling, say says. For reading, say sez. Use the /k/s/, the ///ah/, the /s/z/ and the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the /wh/ and the e that lets the i say //. In re, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. In turn, use the /er/ of nurse. In of, use the /ah///oo/. In fice, sound the /f/, use the //// and the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

151

Phonics for English


Miss miss die 2 died change chang ing mon ey few please5 2 pleas ant pic ture pitch pitch er read y o mit
2 3 2 2 3 2 2

R-26 R-17, LW-9 R-9 LW-26 R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 R-18

Capitalize M. Use the ////. At the end of a onesyllable word, followed by a single vowel, double the s; sound both s. Use the /// (the // of pie). Use the /ch/k/sh/; write the letters a, n, g, e. The silent e let the a say // (job 1) and the g say /j/ (job 3). Mark only job 1. Write change without the e and add the vowel suffix //-/ng/. In mon, use the /ah///oo/. In ey, use the /// that is used at the end of EW. Use the /oo// used at the end of EW.

R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15

Use the ////, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Write please without the e and add the vowel suffix //n/t/. In pic, use the //// and the /k/s/. In ture, use the silent e that lets the u say // (job 1).

R-23 LW-17 R-5 LW-11 R-4

Use the 3-letter /ch/ after a single vowel that says / /. TTS: Say /t/-/ch/. Write pitch and add the suffix of /er/ of her. In read, use the ////. In y, use the suffix y that says // at the end of a word. Use the o that says // at the end of a syllable. In mit, sound to spell /m//t/.

Section N (Sequence 35)


Prefixes and Suffixes: At various times, assign 3 prefixes and 3 suffixes. Then have the students search their spelling notebooks for root words to which they may add derivatives.

See: Prefixes and Suffixes List, p. 109


an y way ex cept ant aunt
1 3

R-18 CW, LW-21

Sound to spell //n/. Use the suffix y that says //. In way, use 2-letter // used at the end of EW. In ex, use the /// and /ks/. In cept, use the /k/s/ and the ///. Sound the phonograms to spell the word //n/t/. Use the /au/ not used at the end of EW. For spelling, say /au/nt. For reading, say ant.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

152

Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-29 In cap, use the /k/s/ and the ///ah/. In ture, use the silent e that lets the u say // (job 1). Use the 2-letter /r/ used at the beginning of a word, and the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Say the letters to spell the word , l, s (job 5). Sound to spell /ah/f/. In fer, sound the /f/ and use the /er/ of her. Use the /ah///oo/. R-29 Sound to spell /s//f/. In fer, sound the /f/ and use the /er/ of her.

cap ture wrote else5 of fer front suf fer


3

R-23: The dge (3-letter /j/) may be used only after a root word after a single vowel that says its first sound, //-//-//-//-//. badge edge bridge lodge fudge Use the 3-letter /j/ after a single vowel that says //. The e lets the g say /j/. Use the 3-letter /j/ after a single vowel that says //. The e lets the g say /j/. Use the 3-letter /j/ after a single vowel that says //. The e lets the g say /j/. Use the 3-letter /j/ after a single vowel that says /ah/. The e lets the g say /j/. Use the 3-letter /j/ after a single vowel that says //. The e lets the g say /j/.

car ry cen ter rule chain death


2

R-5 LW-11

In car, use the /k/s/, the a and r are sounded separately (not /ar/). Mark 1 over the a to show the first sound. In ry, use the suffix y that says //. In cen, use the /k/s/ and the ///. In ter, use the /er/ of her.

R-7, LW-5

Use the e that lets the u say // (job 1). Use the /ch/k/sh/ and the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the //// and the /th/th/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

153

Phonics for English

learn won der tire pair 2 pear check prove2 hear heard in spect write ex pect
4 3

LW-17 LW-17 R-7 LW-5 (two) (eat) R-25 R-7 LW-5 LW-17

Use the /er/ of early. In won, use the /ah///oo/. In der, use the /er/ of her. Say tire in one syllable, not ti er (job 1). Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the ////. Use the /ch/k/sh/, the /// and the 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a word after a single vowel that says //. Use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Use the ////. Use the /er/ of early. Sound to spell //n/. In spect, use the /s/z/, the ///; sound the ct.

R-7 LW-5

Use the 2-letter /r/ used at the beginning of a word, and the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). In ex, use the /// and the /ks/ (x). In pect, use the ///; sound ct.

Sequence 35: LW-21, R-21/22, L Dismiss Rule


al so al most al ways hope ful
3 3 3 3 3

Sound to spell /a/l/. In so, use the /s/z/ and the o that says // at the end of a syllable. Sound to spell /a/l/. In most, use the o that may say // when followed by two consonants and the /s/z/. Sound to spell /a/l/. In ways, use the 2-letter // used as the end of EW and the suffix s. In hope, use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e that lets o say //. Sound to spell /f//l/ (job 1). In cup, use the /k/s/ and the ///oo/. Sound to spell /f//l/ (job 1). Sound to spell //n/. Sound to spell /t//l/.
3 3

cup ful un til

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

154

Phonics for English


all right all wrong
3 3

Sound to spell /a/l/l/. In right, use the 3-letter //. Sound to spell /a/l/l/. In wrong, use the 2-letter /r/ used at the beginning of a word, the /ah///oo/ and the /ng/.
3

Sequence 35: LW-21, Compound Words


some5thing need thus wo man plan young fair fare dol lar eve ning plan broke feel sure least
X 4 2 3

In some, use the /ah///oo/ and the silent e (job 5). In thing, use the /th/th/ and the //-/ng/. Use the double ee. Use the /th/th/, the ///oo/ and the /s/z/. In wo, use the o that says // at the end of a syllable. In man, use the ///ah/. Use the ///ah/. Use the /y////, the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW and the /ng/. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the e that lets a say // (job 1). In dol, use the /ah///oo/. In lar, sound the /l/ and use the /ar/ of car. For spelling, say lar. For reading, say only the l in the accented syllable dol. In eve, use the /// and the e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Sound to spell /n//-/ng/. Use the ///ah/. Use the /ah///oo/, the tall-/k/ and the e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the double ee. R-7 LW-5 The /s/z/ says /sh/; use the e that lets the u say // (job 1). Use the //// and the /s/z/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

155

Phonics for English


R-29 R-20, LW-12 R-26 In sor, the o and r are sounded separately (not /or/). In ry, sound the /r/ and use suffix y says //. Use the /ah///oo/. In teach, use the //// and /ch/k/sh/. In er, use the suffix /er/ of her. R-5 LW-11 CW LW-21 R-7 LW-5 R-26 In stud, use the /s/z/ and the ///oo/. Use the y that says at the end of a word. Sound to spell /h//m/. In self, use /s/z/ and ///. Use the /s/z/ and the u that lets u say // (job 1). Capitalize N and use the o that says // at the end of a syllable. Sound to spell /v//m/. In ber, use the /er/ of her. In sub, use the ///oo/. In ject, use the /// and say ct distinctly. R-26
3

sor ry God teach er stud y him self


2 3

use No vem ber sub ject A pril his to ry cause5 mat ter nor, or thought per son Jan u ar y mean
3 3 5 2

Capitalize A, use the a that says // at the end of a syllable. In pril, use the ////. In his, use the ////. In to, for spelling accent o to say //. In ry, sound the /r/ and use y that says //. Use the /k/s/, the /au/ not used at the end of EW, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Sound to spell /m//t/. In ter, use the /t/ and use the /er/ of her. Use the /o/r/. Explain the meanings.

R-5 LW-11 R-7 LW-5 R-29

LW-22

Use the /th/th/, //- /oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. In per, use the /er/ of her. In son, use the /s/z/ and the /ah///oo/.

R-26, 4 R-5, LW-11

In Jan, capitalize J, use the ///ah/. Use the u that says // at the end of a syllable. In ar, use the /ar/ of car. Use the suffix y that says //. Use the ////.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

156

Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5

vote court hear

Use the e that lets the o say // (job 1). Use the /k/s/ and the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Use the ////.

Sequence 35: LW-23, R-24 (Ys Suffixes) Ys Exchange Rule


cop y 2 cop ies 2 cop ied 3 cop y ing try 2 tries 2 2 tried 2 try ing cry 2 cries 2 2 cried 2 cry ing
2 2 3

Use the /ah///oo/ and suffix y that says //. Write copy, change the y to i; add suffix es. Write copy, change the y to i; add suffix ed. Write copy, add suffix -//-/ng/. The y not the i is used at the end of EW. Write try, change the y to i; add suffix es. Write try, change the y to i; add suffix ed. Write try, add suffix -//-/ng/. The y not the i is used at the end of EW. Write cry, change the y to i; add suffix es. Write cry, change the y to i; add suffix ed. Write cry, add suffix -//-/ng/.

act been fifth yes ter day a mong rea son doc tor
2 3

Use the ///ah/; say the c and t distinctly. Use the double ee. For spelling, say been. For reading, say bin. Use the //// and the /th/th/. R-18 In yes, use the /y ////, the /// and /s/z/. In ter, use the /er/ of her. In day, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. TTS: Stress the a to say //. In mong, use the /ah///oo/ and the /ng/. For spelling, say //mong. For reading, say /uh/mong. In rea, use the ////. In son, use the /ah///oo/. In doc, use the /ah///oo/ and /k/s/. In tor, use and say /or/, not /er/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

157

Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 Use the /s/z/, the ////, the /z/ and the e that lets the i say // (job 1). In doz, use the /ah///oo/ and /z/. Say //n/. R-7 R-16, LW-15 Sound to spell //r/. In gan, sound to spell /g//n/. In ize, use the e that lets the i say // (job 1). Write organize without the e, add suffix -//-/ng/. In cit, use the /k/s/ and ////. Use //. Sound /z//n/. R-26 R-20 LW-12 In De, capitalize the D, use e that says / / at the end of a syllable. In cem, use the /k/s/ and ///. In ber use the /er/ of her. Write tax; add suffix es.

size doz en or gan ize or gan iz ing cit i zen De cem ber tax es
3

Sequence 35: LW-26, R-9 IE or EI Question


piece3 pie friend mov ie their lei sure ceil ing feist y for eign
X X 3 2 X 4 X 2

Use the ///, and the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Use the ///. Use the ///. (Exception: The ie says //.) In mov, /ah///oo/. In ie, use the suffix -///. Use the /th/th/ and ///. In lei, use the ///. In sure, the /s/z/ says /sh/ (job 1). In ceil, use the ///. Use the suffix, -//-/ng/. In feist, use the /// (ei). Some of the ei words say //. In eign, the /// (ei) is schwa, stress it to say //; the gn is 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning and end of a root word.

num ber Oc to ber

Sound to spell /n//m/. In ber, use the /er/ of her. In Oc, capitalize the O, use /k/s/. In to, use the o that says // at end of a syllable. In ber, use /er/ of her.

Sequence 36: LW-15, R-16, Es Dropping Rule

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

158

Phonics for English


no tice3 no tic ing change change a ble4 dye5 2 dye5 ing lone 3 lone ly
2

Use // at the end of a syllable. In tice, use the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Write notice without the e; add suffix -//-/ng/. Use the /ch/k/sh/ and the e that lets the a say // (job 1) and the g says /j/ (job 3). Mark only job 1. Write change and add the suffix a ble4 (job 5). Use the /y//// that says // and the silent e (job 5). Write dye and add the suffix -//-/ng/. Use the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Write lone and add suffix ly.

Sequence 36: LW-24, Contractions Reference Chart


do not = dont does not = doesnt did not = didnt will not = wont can not = cant is not = isnt was not = wasnt were not = werent has not = hasnt have not = havent had not = hadnt I am = Im he is = hes it is = its you are = youre they are = theyre are not = arent I have = Ive you have = youve we have = weve they have = theyve I would = Id you would = youd we would = wed I will = Ill he will = hell you will = youll we will = well they will = theyll who is = whos what is = whats where is = wheres here is = heres there is = theres

Sequence 36: LW-25, Comparative Words Reference Chart


big 2 low old kind hot true2 long 3 eas y big ger 2 low er old er kind er hot ter tru er long er eas i er big gest 2 low est old est kind est hot test tru est long est eas i est

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

159

Phonics for English


hap py 2 good bad 3 great
3

hap pi er bet ter worse5 3 great er

hap pi est best worst 3 great est

Sequence 37: Worksheet Completion


Complete the worksheets for reference, as appropriate. Find words by searching the spelling notebooks, from reading material, word searches or other sources. All of the worksheets may not be completed by beginning students, the teacher may fill in parts of them for future reference.

Spelling Section N is usually the last spelling section for level one, first grade. Extend the spelling list as needed by adding derivatives to root words in the spelling notebooks and from reading material.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

160

Phonics for English

Level Two (Sections O-R)


Second Grade Review Remedial Others Sequence 38: Cursive Writing Section O (Sequence 39)

eight a fraid un cle4 rath er com fort a board jail shed re tire re fuse dis trict re strain R-4 R-10 LW-10 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-4
3 2

Use the 4-letter //. R-4 R-7 LW-5 LW-17 TTS: Stress the a to say //. In fraid, use the 2-letter //. In reading, say /uh/fraid. Job 4. In rath, use /th/th/. Use the /er/ of her.

TTS: Stress the a to say //. In board, use the 2-letter // not used at the end of an English word. In spelling, say //board. In reading, say /uh/board. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the /sh/ used at the beginning of a word. In re, use the e that says // at the end of a syllable. Say tire in one syllable, not ti er (job 1). Use the silent e that lets the u say // (job 1). Say the ct distinctly. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

161

Phonics for English

royal please5 2 2 pleas ure na vy fourth pop u late pop u la tion prop er judge weath er worth con tain fig ure sud den for ty in stead throw per son al
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2

The /oy/ may be used within a word. R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 R-4/5 LW-11 Use the ////, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). Write please without the e and add suffix ure. Use the suffix y that says //. Use the /ow//oo// and /th/th/. R-5, LW-5 R-4, 11, LW-10 LW-17 R-23 LW-17 LW-17 In pop, sound to spell /p/ah/p/. Use // at the end of a syllable. Use silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Write populate without e; add suffix ion. The t joins the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Sound to spell /p/r/ah/p/. Use the /er/ of her. Use the 3-letter /j/. Use the ////, the /th/th/ and the /er/ her. Use the /er/ of works and the /th/th/. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. R-7 LW-5 R-29 R-5 LW-11 Use the silent e that lets the u say // (job 1). Sound the /d/ in both syllables. In for, use the /o/r/. In ty, suffix y says //. Use the ////. Use the /th/th/ and /ow// used at the end of EW. In per, use the /er/ of her.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

162

Phonics for English


R-5 CW, LW-21 Sound //v/. Use the /er/ of her. Suffix y says //. In thing, use the /th/th/ and //-/ng/.

ev er y thing

Sequence 39: LW-10, R-11, SH, TI, SI, CI Say /SH/


quest ques tion
3

Write q with u; sound to spell //s/t/. Write quest; add vowel suffix ion. The t joined the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Sound to spell /ah/b/. In ject, sound the ct distinctly.
3

ob ject ob jec tion

Write object; add vowel suffix ion. The t joins the i to form the tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after first one. Use // at the end of a syllable (R-4). Say ct distinctly.

e lect e lec tion


3

Write elect; add vowel suffix ion. The t joined the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at beginning of any syllable after the first one. In di, the i may say // at the end of a syllable (R-5).

di rect di rec tion


3

Write direct; add vowel suffix ion. In tion, the t joins the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Use // at the end of a syllable. In tion, use tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Sound to spell /m//n/. In sion, use the /sh/-/zh/ (that says /sh/) used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Sound to spell //ks/. In cur, use the /er/ of nurse. In sion, use the /sh/-/zh/ (that say /zh/) used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Sound to spell /s/p//. In cial, use short-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.

na tion

man sion

ex cur sion

2 3

spe cial

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

163

Phonics for English


R-9 LW-26

chief per fect sec ond slide far ther in tend com pan y quit quite qui et none5 knee knock
3 3 3 2 3

Use the /ch/k/sh/ and the /// (piece). Use the /er/ of her. Say the ct distinctly.

R-7 LW-5 LW-17 CW LW-21 R-5 LW-11 R-1, R-5 R-1 R-7, LW-5 R-1 R-7 LW-5

Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). In far, use the /ar/ of car. In ther, use the /th/th/ and the /er/ of her.

Sound /c//m/. Sound /p//n/. Suffix y says //. Write q with u. Write q with u and use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Write q with u. Use the // at the end of a syllable. Job 5. Use the 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning of a word and the double ee. Use the 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning of a word and the 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a word after a single vowel that says /ah/. Use the 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning of a word and the /oo// used at the end of EW. Use the 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning of a word and the /ow// used at the end of EW.

knew know re main ap pear lib er ty


3 1 2

R-4 R-29 R-5 LW-11

Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. TTS: Stress the a to say // before the consonant p. In pear, sound the /p/ and use the ////. Use the /er/ of her. Use suffix y that says //.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

164

Phonics for English


R-4 LW-22

e nough fact board Sep tem ber sta tion at tend be tween pub lic mu sic pic nic friend friend ship po lice3 dur ing through un til mad am true2 tru ly
3 2 X 3 X X 1 3

Use //. Use //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. Say the ct distinctly. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

R-26 R-4 R-11, LW-10 R-29 R-4

Capitalize the S as it is the name of a month. Use the /er/ her. Use // at the end of syllable. Use tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. TTS: Stress the a to say // before the consonant t. Use // at the end of a syllable. Use the double ee. Sound to spell /p//b/. In lic, use the /k/s/. Use // at the end of syllable. In sic, use the /s/z/, the //// and the /k/s/. Sound to spell /p//c/ /n//c/. Exception: The ie says //. Use the /sh/ used at the beginning of a word, at the end of a syllable, but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending ship. TTS: Say, p lece. In dur, the and r are sounded separately, not /ur/. Use the //-/ng/.

R-4

R-9, LW-26 R-10, LW-10 R-2 LW-13

LW-22 R-21/2 LW-21

Use the /th/th/ and //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. Till has one l when added to another syllable.

R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15

Use the silent e that keeps the word from ending in u (job 2). Exception: The silent e is dropped with a consonant suffix. Use the suffix y that says //.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

165

Phonics for English


whole hole ad dress guess re quest raise5 Au gust Tues day struck get ting dont Thurs day
2 X

LW-14 HH R-29 R-17, LW-9 R-17 LW-9 R-4, 1 R-7 LW-5 R-26 R-26, 18 R-25 R-29 R-14, LW-16 LW-24 R-26, 18 LW-17

Use the /wh/ (blow a feather off your hand with /wh/) sound the silent /w/ and use the silent e that lets o say // (job 1). For reading, say hole. Use the silent e that lets the o say //. In ad, sound to spell //d/. In dress, sound the /d/. At the end of one-syllable words, following a single vowel, s is usually doubled. Use the /g/ of guilty guy and rule 17. Use // at the end of a syllable. Write q with u. Use the 2-letter // and the silent e (job 5). Capitalize A, use the /au/ not used at the end of EW. In gust, use the/g/ of guilty guy. In Tues, capitalize T. In day, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. Use the 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says //. With a one syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding the vowel suffix -//-/ng/. Contraction. In Thurs, capitalize the T and use the /er/ of nurse. In day, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW.

Section P (Sequence 39)


spend en joy joy ful awe5
3

Sound to spell //n/. In joy, use the /oy/ used at the end of EW. R-21/2 LW-21 R-7, LW-5 In joy, use the /oy/ used at the end of EW. Write full with one l when it is added to another syllable. Use the /aw/ that we may use at the end and also at the beginning of EW; use silent e (job 5).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

166

Phonics for English


R-21/2 LW-21 R-4 In aw, the no function e is dropped before a consonant suffix. Write ful with one l when it is added to anther syllable. The u says // at the end of the first two syllables. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. R-4
3

aw ful u su al com plaint au to va ca tion flight trav el rap id em pire re pair trou ble4
4 3

Use the /au/ not used at the end of EW. In to, us the // at the end of a syllable.

R-4 R-11, LW-10 Use the 3-letter //. TTS: Sound the unstressed //-/l/.

R-7 LW-5 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 R-3, 7 R-29, 5 LW-11 R-24, LW-23 R-17 LW-9 R-7 LW-5 R-18

Sound to spell //m/. Use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1). Use // at the end of a syllable. In pair, use the 2letter // not used at the end of EW. In trou, use the /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. In ble, use the le4 suffix (job 4). Write trouble without the e and add suffix -//-/ng/. Use the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). In car, the a and r are sounded separately, not /ar/. In ry, sound the /r/ and use suffix y that says //. Write carry, change the y to i, add suffix ed. At the end of a one-syllable word, after a single vowel, the s is usually doubled. TTS: Sound both s. Use the /or/. Use silent e that lets u say // (job 1). In may, root words do not end in the letter a saying //; the /ay/ is used most often. TTS: In or, say /or/. For reading, say /er/. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

trou bling im por tant im por tance3 car ry


1 3

car ried loss for tune may or wait

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

167

Phonics for English

beg de gree pris on en gine5 vis it guest de part ment ob tain fam i ly fa vor Mrs. hus band a mount hu man vi ew clerk though
2 2 2 3 2 3

R-4

Use // at the end of a syllable. In gree, use the double ee.

R-3, LW-13 R-7, LW-5

In gine, use the /g/j/, the i that lets g say /j/, use the silent e; it has no job (job 5).

Use the /g/ of guilty guy. R-4 In part, use the /ar/ of car. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. R-5 LW-11 The i may say // at the end of a syllable. Use the suffix y that says // at the end of a word. Use // at the end of a syllable. In vor, say /or/. For reading, say /er/. Write the abbreviation. For readying, say Mis us.

R-4 R-4 R-5

TTS: Stress to say // at the end of a syllable. In mount, use the /ow//oo//. For spelling, say //mount. For reading, say /uh/mount.

In vi, the i may say // at the end of a syllable. In ew, use the /oo// used at the end of EW. Use the /er/ of her and the tall-/k/.

LW-22

Use the /th/th/ and //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

168

Phonics for English


o'clock = o(f the) clock sup port does re gard es cape since3 which length de stroy re ply news pa per an swer o blige
2 2 2 3

R-4 R-29 R-20 LW-12 R-4 R-7 LW-5 R-2,7 LW-13, 5

Use //. In clock, use the 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a word, after a single vowel that says /ah/. Sound to spell /s//p/. In port, sound the /p/ and use the /or/ o, r. Write do and add suffix es. For spelling, say each sound /d/oo//s/. For reading, say ds. Use // at the end of a syllable. Use the /ar/ of car. Sound to spell //s/. In cape, use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Use the /wh/ and the /ch/k/sh/. Use the /ng/ and the /th/th/.

R-4 R-4, 6 LW-7 CW LW-21

Use the //. In story, use the /oy/ that may be used at the end of EW. The y not i is used at the end of EW. In news, use the /oo// used at the end of EW; add suffix s. In pa, use // at the end of a syllable. In er, use the /er/ of her. Sound to spell //n/. TTS: In swer, sound the silent /w/ and use the /er/ of her. Use //. In blige, use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and lets the g say /j/ (job 3). Mark only job 1.

Sequence 39: LW-27, Other (Uncommon) Phonograms


beau beau ty
3 3 2

In beau, use the phonogram /// (eau) that says //. In beau, use the phonogram /// (eau) that says //. In ty, use the suffix y that says // at the end of a word. In beau, use the phonogram /// (eau) that says //. In ti, sound /t//. When full is written as a suffix, use one l.

beau ti ful

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

169

Phonics for English


daugh ter naugh ty
3

In daugh, use the phonogram /au/af/ (augh) that says /au/. In ter, use the suffix /er/ of her. In naugh, use the phonogram /au/af/ (augh) that says /au/. In ty, use the suffix y that says // at the end of a word. Use the phonogram /au/af/ (augh) that says /au/. Use the phonogram /au/af/ (augh) that says /af/. In laugh, use the phonogram /au/af/ (augh) that says /af/. In ter, use the suffix /er/ of her. The gh says /g/, use the o that says // when followed by two consonants (R19). In peo, use the phonogram /// (eo) that says //. In ple, use suffix le (job 4).

taught laugh laugh ter ghost


2 2 2

peo ple4

sale sail cit y 2 cit ies sev er al de sire near ly no tice3 2 no ticed
3 3

HH LW-14 R-2, 5, LW-11 R-24, LW-23 R-20, LW-12

Use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Use the // that lets the c say /s/ and suffix y says //. Write city, change the y to i; add suffix es. Sound /s//v/. Use /er/ of her. Sound //l/.

R-4, 7 LW-5 R-5 LW-11 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-16, LW-15

Use the //. In sire, use silent e that lets the i say //. In near, use the ////. Use suffix ly; y says //. Use //. In tice, use e that lets c say /s/ (job 3). Write notice without the e; add suffix ed.

Sequence 40: LW-28, Word Analysis Section Q (Sequence 41)


3 2

some5 times de clare

R-7 LW-5 R-4, LW-7 R-7, LW-5

In some, use silent e (job 5). In times, use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1); add suffix s. Use //. In clare, use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

170

Phonics for English


Sound to spell //n/. In gage, the first g says /g/, use the silent e that lets the second g say /j/ (job 3) and lets the a say //. Mark only job 1. Use the i that says // at the end of a syllable. In ter, the e and r are sounded separately. Sound to spell /r//. In ble, use the le suffix (job 4). In sur, use the /er/ of nurse. In prise, use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1).

en gage fi nal ter ri ble4 sur prise pe ri od ad di tion se lect em ploy prop er ty con nect con nec tion firm re gion con vict pri vate com mand de bate crowd
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1

R-7, LW-5 R-3, LW-13 R-5 LW-7 R-29 R-7, LW-5 LW-17 R-7, LW-5 R-4 R-11 LW-10 R-4

Sound both ds. Use the tall-letter /sh/. Use the // at the end of a syllable. Sound ct. Sound to spell //m/. In ploy, use the /oy/ that we may use at the end of EW.

LW-17, 11 R-29 R-11 LW-10 LW-17 R-4, 3 LW-13

Use the /er/ of her. In ty, use the suffix y that says . Sound both ns; sound the ct distinctly. Write connect; add vowel suffix ion. The t joined the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Use /er/ of first. Use //. In gion, the i lets the g say /j/.

R-5, LW-7 R-7, LW-5 R-29 R-4, 7

In pri, the i may say // at the end of a syllable. In vate, for spelling stress the schwa a to say //, use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1).

Use //. In bate, the e lets the a say // (job 1). Use the /ow// that may be used at the end and within EW.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

171

Phonics for English

fac to ry pub lish rep re sent term sec tion en tire rel a tive2 serve2 prog ress pro gress pres i dent meas ure fa mous es tate re mem ber ei ther ef fort im por tant
2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2

R-4 R-10 LW-10 R-4 LW-17 R-11 LW-10 R-7 LW-5 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-17, LW-9 R-4, 17, LW-9

In to, stress the o to say //. In ry, use suffix y. Sound to spell /p//b/. In lish, use the /sh/ that is used at the end of a word.

Use the /er/ of her. In sec, use the /// and /k/s/. Use tall-letter /sh/. Sound to spell //n/. Say tire, not ti er (job 1). Sound to spell /r//l/. TTS: Stress the a to say //. In tive, use the e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). For reading, say rel/uh/tive. Use the /er/ of her and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Sound to spell /p/r/ah/g/. In ress, at the end of a one syllable word, after a single vowel, the s is usually doubled, sound both s (noun). In pro, use // at the end of a syllable (verb).

In meas, use ////. In ure, the e lets the u say // (job 1). R-4 Use //. Use /ow//oo// not used at the end of EW. Sound //s/. Use silent e that lets a say // (job 1). R-4 R-9 LW-26 R-29 Use //. Sound /m//m/. In ber, use /er/ of her. In ei, use ///. In ther, use /th/th/ and er of her. Sound //f/. In fort, sound /f/ and use /or/ , r. Sound //m/. In por, use /or/ o, r. Sound /t//n/t/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

172

Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 R-7, LW-5 CW, LW-21 R-23, 3 R-14 LW-16 R-29 R-9 LW-26
3

due2 in clude ledge run ning al low field po si tion claim pri ma ry re sult Sat ur day ap point
3 1 2 3 1

English words do not end in u (job 2). Sound to spell //n/. In clude, use /k/s/ and the silent e that lets u say (job 1). Use the 3-letter /j/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says //. Rule 1-1-1. Suffix: With a one syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix. TTS: In al, sound // when followed by a consonant in the same syllable. In low, sound the l and use /ow// that we may use at the end of EW. Use the /// (piece). In po, use //. Sound /s//. In tion, use tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW.

R-4 R-11 LW-10

R-5, 4 R-4 R-26, 18 LW-17 R-29 R-4 R-11, LW-10

In pri, the i may say // at the end of a syllable. In ma, use //. In ry, use suffix y that says //.

Capitalize S. In ur, use the /ur/ of nurse. In day, use the 2-letter // used at the end of EW. TTS: In ap, sound // before the consonant. In point sound /p/; use /oi/ not used at the end of EW. Sound to spell //n/. In for, use /or/. In ma, use // at the end of a syllable. In tion, use tall-letter /sh/. TTS: For spelling say /wh/o/ and /wh/o/m/. For 4 4 reading, say /h/o/ and /h/o/m/.
4 4

in for ma tion who 4 whom ar rest wo man X wo men jus tice3


1 4

R-29

TTS: The a says // before a consonant. In rest, sound to spell /r//s/t/. In wo, use //. Sound to spell /m//n/. TTS: Say //. Sound to spell /m//n/. Say, wim un.

R-2, 7 LW-13, 5

In tice, the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3).

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

173

Phonics for English


pres ent 2 pre sent
2

R-4

Sound to spell /p/r//s/ //n/t/ (noun). In pre, use //. Sound to spell /s//n/t/ (verb).

LW-12, R-20, Plurals, Suffixes, Part 2: Change F to V, add es


self 2 2 them selve2 s TTS: Sound the silent l. Selves is the plural of self. Sound the silent l, change f to v and add suffix es. Use the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2); add suffix s. TTS: Sound the silent l. Calves is the plural of calf. Sound the silent l, change f to v and add suffix es. Use the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2); add suffix s.

calf 2 calve2 s

act ac tion gen tle4 man en close a wait sup pose won der ful for ward al though al read y prompt
3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3

R-11 LW-10 R-7 LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-4 R-29 R-7, LW-5 R-21/2 LW-21

In act, use the /k/s/. Write act; add vowel suffix ion. The t joined the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Sound to spell /g//n/, the e lets the g say /j/. In tle, use the le suffix (job 4). Sound to spell /m//n/. Sound to spell //n/. In close, use the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). TTS: Stress a to say //. In wait, use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Say, /uh/wait. Sound to spell /s//p/. In pose, sound the /p/ and use the silent e that lets the o say // (job 1). Sound /w//n/. In der, use the /er/ of her. Full is written with one l when added to another syllable. In for, use the /or// In ward, use the /ar/ of car.

R-21/2 LW-21, 22 R-21/2 LW-21

In al, use one l when all is a prefix. Use the /th/th/ and //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. In al, use one l when all is a prefix. In read, use the ////. Use suffix y that says //. Sound to spell /p/r/ah/m/p/t/. Say the pt precisely.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

174

Phonics for English


TTS: In at, stress a to say // before the consonant. Sound to spell, /t//m/p/t/. Say /uh/tempt. TTS: Sound the silent /w/ and use /ah///oo/, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). For reading, say hoos. In state, use the e that lets a say // (job 1). The silent e is retained with the consonant suffix -/m//n/t/. In per, use the /er/ of her. Sound to spell /h//p/s/. Use /th/th/ and the ///.
3 Sound //m/. In pris, use the /s/z/. Sound /o/n/.

at tempt whose5 state ment per haps their im pris on writ ten (writ)
2 3 2 X 4

R-29 R-7 LW-5 R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 LW-17 R-9 LW-26

R-14 LW-16

Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes, with a one syllable word ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix.

Sequence 42: Extended Writing and Paragraphs

Sequence 43: Greek and Latin Roots (supplement with other material)

Section R (Sequence 44)

fore noon lose5 neigh bor weigh com bine com bi na tion
3 1 4

R-7, LW-5 CW, LW-21 R-7 LW-5

In fore, use e that lets o say // (job 1). In noon, use the /oo/oo//. Use the /ah///oo/, /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5). In neigh, use the 4-letter //. In bor, use /or/ o, r. Use the 4-letter //. Sound /c/ah/m/. Use the e that lets i say // (job 1). Write combine without the e; add vowel suffix a tion. The n joins the a to form the syllable na. In tion, use tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.

R-11 LW-10

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

175

Phonics for English


R-7 LW-5 Sound //v/. TTS: Stress the schwa e to say //. In nue, use the silent e that keeps the word from ending in u (job 2). In reading, say /av/uh/nue/. Use the ////. Sound //n/. In ter, use the /er/ of her. In tain, use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. R-4 R-5, LW-11 R-5
3

av e nue2 wear en ter tain sal a ry vis i tor pub li ca tion ma chine5 suc cess drown a dopt se cure hon or prom ise5 wreck pre pare ves sel bus y
1 2 3 1 3 3 2 3 2

Sound to spell /s//l/. TTS: Stress the schwa a to say //. In ry, the suffix y says //. Say /sal/uh/ry/. Sound /v//s/. The i says //. In tor, say /or/ not /er/. Sound to spell /p//b/. Sound to spell /l//. In ca, use the //. In tion, use the tall-letter /sh/. In ma, the a says //. In chine, use the /ch/k/sh/; the i says // (job 5). For reading, say /m/uh/sh//n/. In suc, use the /k/s/. In cess, sound the /k/s/; use ///; sound both of the s (R-17). Use the /ow// that we may use at the end and within EW.

R-5, 4 R-11, LW-10 R-7 LW-5 R-29, 17 LW-9

R-4 R-4, 7 LW-5

TTS: Stress the schwa a to say //. Say /uh/dopt. Job 1. In hon, sound the silent h. Say /or/ not /er/.

R-7 LW-5 R-25 R-4, 7 LW-5 R-29 R-5, LW-11

Sound to spell /p/r/ah/m/. The ise is job 5. Use the 2-letter /r/ used only at the beginning of a word and use the 2-letter /k/ used at the end of a word after a single vowel that says //. In pre, use //. In pare, use e that lets a say // (job 1). Sound to spell /v//s/ /s//l/. TTS: Say /b//s/-//. For reading, say /b//s/-//.
2

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

176

Phonics for English


pre fer pref er ence3 il lus trate ill us tra tion dif fer dif fer ent fea ture di rect R-5 di rec tor com mon at ten tion
1 3 3 3

R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-29 R-4, 11, LW-10 R-16, LW-15 R-29 R-7 LW-5

In pre, use //. In fer, use the /er/ of her. In pref, the accent changes (not rule 15). Use the /er/ of her. In ence, use the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Sound //l/. Sound /l//s/. In trate, use the silent e that lets the a say // (job 1). Write illustrate without the e; add vowel suffix ion. The t joins the i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the end of any syllable after the first one. Use the /er/ of her. Write differ; add vowel suffix ent. In fea, use the ////. In ture, use the e that lets u say // (job 1). The i may say // at the end of a syllable. Write direct; add vowel suffix or. The t joined suffix or to form the syllable that begins with a consonant. TTS: Say /or/ not /er/. Sound to spell /c/ah/m/ /m//n/. TTS: In at, say // before the consonant t, sound /t//n/. In tion, use tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.

R-29 R-29 R-11 LW-10

LW-10, R-11: SH, TI, SI, CI Say /SH/


R-11: The si and ci say /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. R-12/13: The si says /sh/ when the preceding syllable ends with an s. ses sion 3 man sion 2 3 pro vi sion 1 spe cial so cial ac cord ac cord ing ed u cate 3 ed u ca tion R-4, 7 R-11, LW-10
1 1 3

R-12/13 R-11 R-4, 11 R-11 R-4, 11

Use the /sh/zh/ that says /sh/. Use the /sh/zh/ that says /sh/. Use the /sh/zh/ that says /zh/. Use the short-letter /sh/. Use the short-letter /sh/. TTS: In ac, use the // before a consonant. In cord, sound the /k/s/ and use the /or/ o, r. Write accord and add the vowel suffix -//-/ng/. For reading, say /uh/cord//-/ng/. Write educate without the e; add suffix ion. The t joins i to form tall-letter /sh/ used at the end of any syllable after the first one.

R-29

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

177

Phonics for English

pur pose5 di a mond to geth er con ven tion in crease5 man ner ar ti cle4 ef fect ser vice3 in jure 3 in ju ry dis trib ute gen er al to mor row
4 1 2 3 3 4 2 3

LW-17 R-5, 4

In pur, use the /er/ of nurse. In pose, use job 5. In di, the i may // at the end of a syllable. TTS: Stress a to say //; for reading, say /uh/. Sound to spell /m//n/d/. Say /di/uh/mond.

R-11 LW-10

Use the tall-letter /sh/. Use the ////, the /s/z/ and the silent e (job 5).

R-29 In ar, use the /ar/ of car. Sound /t//. Use le suffix (job 4). R-29 R-7, LW-5 R-2, LW-13 R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 Sound //f/. In fect, sound /f/, say the ct distinctly. In ser, use the /er/ of her. In vice, use the silent e that lets c say /s/ (job 3). In jure, use the e that lets the u say // (job 1). Write injure without the e; add vowel suffix y. The r joined suffix y to form the syllable ry. Job 1.

R-4, 29

In mor, the o and r are sounded separately (not /or/). In row, sound the /r/ and use the /ow// that we may use at the end of EW. Use the /er/ of her. TTS: Say //gainst. For reading, say /uh/genst. Use the silent e that lets the e say // (job 1).

con sid er a gainst com plete search LW-17


3

Use the /er/ of early and the /ch/k/sh/.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

178

Phonics for English

pop u lar Christ 2 1 Christ mas in ter est


2 2

R-4 R-26 R-26

The u says . Use the /ar/ of car, say /ar/ not /er/. Capitalize C; use the /ch/k/sh/; the i says //. For spelling, say Christ mas.

Sequence 45: Worksheet Completion


Complete the worksheets for future references by searching for words in the spelling notebooks and other sources.

Spelling Section R is usually the last section for Level 2, Second Grade. Extend the spelling list with derivatives of root words in the Spelling notebook; write the derivatives with their root words. Words may also be obtained from reading material or word clearing. Level Three, Remedial and Other Students continue with Spelling Sections S-Z.

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

179

Phonics for English

Level Three (Sections S-Z)


Third Grade Review Remedial Others Section S (Sequence 46)

of ten stopped mo tion the a ter im prove2 ment cen tu ry to tal men tion
3 3 4 3 3

TTS: Sound the silent t. R-29 R-14, LW-16 R-28, LW-18 R-4 R-11, LW-10 Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes: With a one syllable word, ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding vowel suffix ed. In mo, use //. In tion, use the tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. In the, use e at the end of a syllable. Stress the a to say //. In ter, use /er/ of her. Say, the /uh/ ter. Sound //m/. In prove, use silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Add suffix ment. R-4 R-5, LW-11 R-4 R-11 LW-10 R-29 R-7, LW-5 R-29 R-6, LW-7 In tion, use the tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. In ar, use // when followed by a consonant in the same syllable. In rive, sound the /r/; use the silent e that lets the i say // (job 1) and keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Mark only job 1. Sound /s//p/. In ply, sound /p/ and use the y, not the i, that is used at the end of EW. In as, use the // when followed by a consonant. In sist, sound /s//s/t/. For reading, say /uh/sist. R-2, 7 LW-5, 13 Use the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). In tu, use at the end of a syllable. In ry, use the suffix y that says //.

ar rive

sup ply as sist dif fer ence3


1

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

180

Phonics for English


Sound to spell //ks/ and //m/. In ine, use job 5. Write examine without the e; add vowel suffix a tion. The n joins the a to form the syllable na. In tion, use the tall-letter /sh/. Use the /ar/ of car in the first and last syllables. In af, sound // before a consonant in the same syllable. In fair, sound the f, and use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Say /uh/fair. Use the /ow//oo// (job 5). Use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW (job 5). R-9 LW-26 R-29, 5 LW-11 In nei, use /// (leisure). In mar, the a and r are sounded separately. In ry, use suffix y that says //. Job 1.

ex am ine5 3 ex am i na tion par tic u lar af fair course5 coarse5 nei ther mar ry 1 mar riage fur ther se ri ous doubt con di tion gov ern ment o pin ion X3 on ion X3 un ion X3 mil lion
X3 3 3 4 2 1 3 2 2 2 1

R-4 R-11, LW-10 R-4 R-29

R-4

In se, use /e/. Sound /r//. In ous, use /ow//oo//. Use the /ow//oo// and sound the silent b.

R-11 LW-10 Say ern, not /er/. R-4 R-29 R-4, 7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 For spelling, say //on. For reading, /y/on. In these words, the letter i says the consonant y sound /y/. Job 1. Write behave without the e; add suffix ior (i=y). In sys, use the /y////. R-17 LW-9 R-9, LW-26 CW, LW-21 R-16, LW-15 In lieve, use the /// (piece of pie) and the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). Write believe without the e; add vowel suffix a ble (job 4).

be have X be hav ior sys tem wit ness be lieve2 be liev a ble4

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

181

Phonics for English


R-29 R-7, LW-5 Sound /p/ah/s/. In si, the s and i are sounded separately. In ble, use the le suffix (job 4). In cer, use the /k/s/ and the /er/ of her. In tain, use the 2-letter // not used at the end of EW. Write certain; add suffix ly, the y says //. In ti, the t and i are sounded separately (job 1). CW LW-21 Job 1. In there, the e says // (job 5). Use the /oo/oo//. TTS: Sound the silent w.
2

pos si ble4 cer tain cer tain ly in ves ti gate be fore there5 fore too 4 two 4 to pleas ant
2 3

R-5, LW-11

In please, use the //// and the /s/z/. Sound //n/t/.

Section T (Sequence 46)


R-7 LW-5 LW-17 R-7, LW-5 R-4, LW-17 In ize, use the e that lets the i say // and the /z/ (job 1). In cir, use the /k/s/ and the /er/ of first; the i lets the c say /s/. In cle, use the le suffix (job 4). In cir, use the /er/ of first. In lar, use the /ar/ of car. Sound to spell /v/ah/l/. In ume, use the silent e that lets the u say // (job 1). R-7, LW-5 R-16, LW-15 R-29 R-29, 2 R-29 R-16, LW-15 R-11, LW-10 Use the /ar/ of car. In gue, the g and u are sounded separately (not /g/ of guilty guy); use the silent e that keeps the word from ending in u (job 2). Write argue without the e; add suffix ment. Sound /s//m/. In mon, use the third sound of o. In fice, sound the /f/ and use the e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Write office without the e; add vowel suffix er. Write office without the e; add vowel suffix ial. The c joins the i to form the short-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. In vic, use the /k/s/. Job 1.

or gan ize cir cle4 cir cu lar vol ume ar gue2 ar gu ment
3 sum mon X X 2

of fice3 of fi cer of fi cial vic tim es ti mate

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Extended Ayres Spelling Words

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R-29 R-2 R-16, LW-15 R-11, LW-10 R-29 R-29 Note: Both sounds of phonogram c are used. In ac, the /k/ is used. In ci, the i lets the c say /s/. Job 1. Write invite without the e; add the vowel suffix a tion. The t joins the a to form the syllable ta. In tion, use the tall-letter /sh/. In ac, use the c that says /k/. In cept, the e lets the c say /s/; say the pt precisely. In si, the s and i are sounded separately (job 4). In cern, use /er/ of her, the e of /er/ lets c say /s/.
3

ac ci dent in vite in vi ta tion ac cept im pos si ble4 con cern au to mo bile5 en ti tle4 ver y 2 3 var y 2 3 4 var i ous 3 as so ci ate
1 1 3 3 3

R-4 R-4, 5 R-5 R-5 R-24, LW-23 R-29, 4, 7 R-11, LW-10

Use the /au/ not used at the end of EW (job 5). In ti, the i says // at the end of a syllable (job 4). The e and r are sounded separately. Use suffix y. The a and r are sounded separately. Use suffix y. Write vary; change the i to y; add vowel suffix ous. In ous, use /ow//oo// not used at end of EW. In as, say // when followed by a consonant in the same syllable. In so, use //. In ci use the short-letter /sh/. In ate, use e that lets a say // (job 1). Say /uh/so/sh/ate/. Write associate without the silent e; add vowel suffix ion. The t joins the i and changes tall-letter /sh/. In ci, the c and i are sounded separately (not short-letter /sh/).

as so ci a tion

R-11, LW-10

po lit i cal de cide de cid ing de ci sion na tion 1 3 na tion al


3 2 3

R-4 R-4 R-16, LW-15 R-11, LW-10 R-4 R-11, LW-10 In cide, use /k/s/, the i lets the c say /s/ (job 1). Write decide without the e; add vowel suffix ing. In ci, the c and i are sounded separately. In sion, use /sh/zh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. In na, use the //. In tion, use tell-letter /sh/. In na, the a changes to //. Write nation; add vowel suffix al.

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R-5 R-17, LW-9 R-24, LW-23 R-4, 3 LW-13 R-4 R-5, 7 LW-22 R-2 LW-13 R-26, 18 R-2 LW-13 LW-3 R-4, 29, 5
3

bus y bus i ness re cent re fer min ute5 mi nute ought ab sent ab sence3 Wed nes day con fer con fer ence3 re al 1 3 re al ly
1 5 1 2

1 2

The y, not the i, is used at the end of EW. The vowel suffix y may say // at the end of a word. In spelling, say bs//. In reading, say bs//. Write busy, change y to i; add consonant suffix ness. The single vowel y changes to i when adding a suffix unless the suffix starts with an i. In cent, the e lets the c say /s/.

Sound to spell /m//n/. In ute, the u says // (job 5). In mi, the i may say // at the end of a syllable. In nute, the silent e lets the u say // (job 1). Use the //-/oo/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. Use the silent e that lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Capitalize W. For spelling, Wed nes day. For reading, say Wens day. Not Rule 2-1-1. The accent moves to first syllable. In ence, the silent e lets the c say /s/ (job 3). Division of syllables; vowels sounded separately. Write the word real; add suffix ly. Sound both ls.

cel e bra tion folk folks

R-4, 11 LW-10 R-19 LW-20 The o says // before two consonants. Sound the l. To make most nouns plural, add suffix s.

Section U (Sequence 46)


mean 2 meant ear ly 3 ear li est wheth er
2 3

Use the ////. Use the ////. LW-17 R-24, LW-23 Use the /er/ of early. Write early, change the y to i; add suffix est.

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R-10 LW-10
3

dis tin guish con sid er a tion col o ny 2 col o nies 3 co lo ni al


3 3

Sound /d//s/ and /t//n/. In guish, the gu of guilty guy says /gw/; use /sh/ used at the end of a word.

R-4, 11 LW-10 R-4, 5 R-24 LW-23 R-29 R-7, LW-5 R-4, LW-26 In ny, use suffix y that says //. Write colony; change the y to i; add suffix es. Write colony; change the y to i; add suffix al. The s followed by the u can say /sh/ (job 1). TTS: In as, use // before the consonant. In sure, the s before the u says /sh/; use the e that lets u say // (job 1). For reading, say /uh/sh/ure/. In leif, use the /// (leisure). In py, the y, not i is used at the end of EW. TTS: Stress the schwa a to say //. In reading, say prob/uh/ble (job 4). Job 5. Job 5. Write response without the e; add vowel suffix i ble. The s joins the i to form the syllable si (job 4). TTS: In ap, use // before the consonant. In ply, sound the /p/, use y not i at the end of EW. Write difficult; add vowel suffix y. The t joins y to form syllable ty.

sure 1 X as sure re leif oc cu py prob a ble4 ex pense5 re sponse5 re spon si ble4 ap ply ap pli ca tion dif fi cult 3 dif fi cul ty
3 1 2 2 2

R-4, 6 LW-7 R-4 R-7, LW-5 R-7 LW-5 R-4, 7 LW-5 R-16, LW-15 R-29 R-6, LW-7 R-29, 4, 11 LW-10 R-5

LW-27: Other Phonograms


scene 3 scen er y sci ence3 2 2 2 scis sors de scend de scent fi nal 3 fi nal ly R-5 R-4, 7 R-29 R-4 R-4 Job 1. Use suffix y that says //. Use the e that lets c say /s/ (job 3).

R-5, LW-7 R-5

In fi, the i may say // at the end of a syllable. Write final; add suffix ly. Sound both ls.

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de vel op cir cum stance3 is sue2


X

R-4 R-2 LW-17 R-29, 7 LW-5 R-4 R-3 LW-13 R-7 R-7 R-4, 7 R-9, LW-26
3

In cir, use the /er/ of first. In stance, use the silent e that lets c say /s/ (job 3). The s followed by the u can say /sh/ (job 2).

ma te ri al sug gest mere sen ate re ceive2 re spect ful re spect ful ly un for tu nate e lab o rate a gree a gree ment di vide ma jor ma jor i ty cit y 1 cit i zen nec es sar y nec es si ty
1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 3 2

In sug, the g says /g/ in gest, the e lets the g say /j/. Job 1. Job 1. In ceive, use the /// that says // after c and silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 2). The word full is written with one l when added to another syllable. Write respectful; add consonant suffix ly. Sound both ls. Vowel y may say // at end of a word. Job 1. Job 1. TTS: Stress the a to say // at the end of a syllable. In gree, use the double ee. In reading, say /uh/gree. Write the word agree; add consonant suffix ment. Job 1.

R-21/2, LW-21 R-21/2, LW-21 R-4, 7 R-4, 7 R-4 R-4

R-4 R-5 R-2, 5 R-2, 24, LW-23 R-29, 2, 5 R-2, 29, 5

TTS: Say jor, not jer. Write major; add vowel suffix i ty. In ma, stress the schwa a to say //. In suffix i ty, the i says // and the y says // at the end of the word. The i lets the c say /s/. The single vowel y says //. Write city, change the y to i; add the ending zen. In sar, the a and r are sounded separately, suffix y. In ne, the e says //. In ces, the e lets the c say /s/. In si, the s and i are sounded separately. In ty, y says //.

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Section V (Sequence 46)

prin ci pal tes ti mo ny dis cuss 3 dis cus sion


1 ar range 1 ar range ment 3

In ci, the c and i are sounded separately. R-4, 5 R-17 R-29, 11, 12/13 LW-10 R-3, 29 LW-13, 5 R-16, LW-15 R-7 R-2, LW-13, 5 R-2, 7 LW-13, 5 R-2, 7 LW-13, 5 R-29, 11, 12/13 LW-10 In ti, the t and i are sounded separately. Write discuss; add the vowel suffix ion; the s joins the i to form the /sh/-/zh/. The phonogram si says /sh/ when the preceding syllable ends in s. TTS: Stress the a to say // before the consonant. In range use //nge (job 1). Write arrange; add consonant suffix ment. Not R-15 (Rule 2-1-1 Accent), the accent shifts to the first syllable ref (job 3). Job 3. Job 3. Use the /sh/-/zh/. The phonogram si says /sh/ when preceding syllable ends with s. In tar, the a and r are sounded separately. TTS: In as, stress the schwa a to say // before a consonant in the same syllable; reading, say /uh/. TTS: Stress a to say //. In reer, use the double ee. Use the 3-letter //. TTS: Sound the silent e to say //; use 3-letter //. Use the 4-letter //.

re fer ref er ence3 ev i dence3 ex pe ri ence3 ses sion sec re tar y as so ci a tion ca reer high height weight
1 3 1 3 3

R-4, 5 R-29, 4, 11 LW-10

Section W (Sequence 46)


or gan ize 3 or gan i za tion In ize, use the e that lets i say // and the /z/ (job 1). Write organize without the e; add vowel suffix a tion; consonant z joins a to form the syllable za.

R-4, 11, LW-10

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e mer gen cy
3

R-4, 2, 5

In cy, the y lets the c say /s/. Job 1. Write athlete without the e; add vowel suffix ic. In cent, the e lets the c say /s/.

ath lete ath let ic flu o res cent prac ti cal ap pre ci ate ap pre ci a tive2 sin cere 3 sin cere ly pro ceed char ac ter Feb ru ar y
1 3 2 1

R-16, LW-15 R-4, 2

R-29, 4 R-11, 7 R-29, 4 R-16, LW-15 R-7 R-16, LW-15 R-4

In ci, use short-letter /sh/. In ate, use the silent e that lets a say // (job 1). Write appreciate without e; add vowel suffix ive. In tive, the t joins the suffix ive to form the syllable; the silent e that keeps the word from ending in v (job 1). Job 1. Write sincere without the silent e; add suffix ly. In ceed, use the /k/s/ and the double ee. In char, use /ch/k/sh/; the a says //. In ac, use the /k/s/. In ter, use the /er/ of her.

R-26, 4, 5

LW-27: Other Phonograms; the di says /j/


cor dial cor dial ly sol dier
3

In dial, the uncommon phonogram di says /j/. R-5 Write cordial and add suffix ly, y says //. In dier, the phonogram di says /j/; use /er/ of her.

sep a rate 3 sep a rate ly

R-16 LW-15

TTS: Sound the schwa a to say // (job 1). Write separate; add the consonant suffix ly.

Section X-Y-Z (Sequence 46)


im me di ate 3 im me di ate ly R-29, 4 R-16, LW-15 In di, sound to spell /d//. In ate, use job 1. Write immediate; add consonant suffix ly.

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con ven ient re ceipt pre lim i nar y dis ap point es pe cial ly an nu al de cide 3 de ci sion com mit 3 com mit tee prin ci ple4 judge judg ment rec om mend 3 3 rec om men da tion al lege3
1 3 3 1 3 1 1 3 2

In ient, the i is silent, for spelling sound //-//. R-4 R-9, LW-26 R-4, 5 R-29 R-5, 11 LW-10 R-29, 4 R-4 R-11, LW-10 R-29 R-15, LW-19 In cide, the i lets c say /s/ (job 1). In ci, sound /s/-//. In sion, use short-letter /sh/. Rule 2-1-1 Accent: With two or more syllables ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable. Job 4. R-23 R-16, LW-15 R-29 R-29, 11, LW-10 R-29 R-7, LW-5 R-3, LW-13 Use 3-letter /j/ after a single vowel that says //. The e has no use, write judge without the e; add suffix ment that begins with a consonant. Write recommend; add vowel suffix a tion. The consonant d joins a to form the syllable da. TTS: Sress a to say // before the consonant. In lege, sound the l and use the silent e that lets the g say /j/ (job 3). In reading, say /uh/lege. In ceipt, use the /// that says // after c. For spelling, sound the pt distinctly. In nar, the a and r are sounded separately. TTS: In ap, stress the a to say // before a consonant in the same syllable. In point, use the /oi/ not used at the end of EW. In cial, use short-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. Suffix ly; y=//.

Sequence 47: Woksheet Completion


Complete the Worksheet Reference Charts for searching the spelling notebooks or other sources. Spelling Section Z is the last spelling section for level three. Extend the spelling words with derivatives of root words from the spelling notebook. The derivative is written with its root word in the spelling notebook. The spelling list may also be exteneded with words from reading, word clearing or other word lists.

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Resources
Spelling and Reading
Ayres List, A Measuring Scale for Ability in Spelling: Original list and tests for spelling ability (1) Morrison-McCall Spelling Scale: Eight standardized, 50-word tests of equal difficulty for all grades (2) McCall-Harby and McCall-Crabbs lessons in reading K-6th Grade (2)

Books

The Writing Road to Reading , by Romalda Spalding (book stores) The ABCs and All Their Tricks, by Margaret Bishop. Complete reference for phonics
and spelling rules. Teachers Resources. (1) Primary Phonics Story Books: (5)

Grammar

Shurly Method, English Made Easy (3) Harveys Elementary Grammar and Composition (1) Harveys Revised English Grammar (1)

Media

Sound-A-Long, Illustrated Phonogram Flash Card DVDs from YesPhonics: 72 Orton


Phonograms with Sound Sequences, Illustrations and Keyword Captions Sound-A-Long Phonogram Flash Card CDs from YesPhonics: 72 Orton Phonograms with Sound Sequences Instructional DVDs of the Spalding Method: Demonstrates presentation of the phonogram flash cards and spelling lessons (2)

Core Knowledge

Core Knowledge Sequence K-8: Core Knowledge Books by E.D. Hirch. Free lesson
plans to download. (6)

Suppliers:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mott Media, LLC- www.mottmedia.com Spalding Education International- www.spalding.org Shruley Instructional International- www.shurley.com YesPhonics- www.yesphonics.com Educators Publishing Service- www.epsbooks.com Core Knowledge Foundation- www.coreknowledge.org

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72 Orton Phonogram Pages


1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. f 7. g 8. h 9. i 10. j 11. k 12. l 13. m 14. n 15. o 16. p 17. qu 18. r 19. s 20. t 21. u 22. v 23. w 24. x 25. y 26. z 27. sh 28. ee 29. th 30. ay 31. ai 32. ow 33. ou 34. aw 35. au 36. ew 37. ui 38. oy 39. oi 40. oo 41. ch 42. ng 43. ea 44. ar 45. ck 46. ed 47. or 48. wh 49. oa 50. oe 51. er 52. ir 53. ur 54. wor 55. ear 56. our 57. ey 58. ei 59. eigh 60. ie 61. igh 62. kn 63. gn 64. wr 65. ph 66. dge 67. tch 68. ti 69. si 70. ci 71. ough 72. gu

How to Make Phonogram Coloring Sheets and Flash Cards


Copy the phonogram pages on single-sides and cut them in half. Use them for coloring or to make flash cards. To make flash cards, cut them out and fold along the center line. Paste the cards together.

Use for teaching, students use, and for the parents of school children.

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Worksheets
Copy these blank master worksheets on single-sided pages and give them to the students as needed. It works well to create a notebook with them you can three-hole punch the worksheets and add them to a binder. 1: Consonants and Vowels 2: Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart 3: Syllables 4: Sentence and Paragraph 5: Silent Final Es 6: Nouns and Adjectives 7: Four Ways a Single Vowel Can Say A, E, I, Y, O, U 8: Verbs, Pronouns and Prepositions 9: F, L and S Doubling Rule 10: SH, TI, SI and CI Say /SH/ 11: I and Y Say E 12: Plurals: Suffixes S, ES 13: C and G before E, I or Y 14: Homonyms and Homographs 15: Es Dropping Rule 16: Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes Learning Reference Chart 17: Six Spellings of ER 18: ED-Past Tense Endings 19: Rule 2-1-1 Accent Learning Reference Chart 20: I and O Followed by Two Consonants 21: L Dismiss Rule, Compound Words 22: OUGH Wild Phonogram Team 23: Ys Exchange Rule 24: Contractions Reference Chart 25: Comparative Words Reference Chart 26: IE or EI Question 27: Other Phonograms 28: Word Analysis: Root with Rules Application

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 1
Consonants and Vowels

Consonants
Part 1

Vowels
Part 1 Part 2

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 2
Multi-Letter Phonogram Reference Chart

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Worksheet: 3
Division of Syllables
A syllable is a vowel sound and all of the consonants that are pronounced along with it. Every syllable must have a vowel. The following is usually the way words are divided into syllables: 1. Single vowel (1st sound) after the consonant: 2. Single vowel (2nd sound) after the vowel: 3. Two vowels sounded separately: 4. Compound words, between roots: 5. After prefixes, before suffixes: 6. Multi-letter phonograms remain together:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Three Kinds of Syllables


Root: The root is the syllable which supplies the words basic meaning. Prefix: The prefix is a syllable added before the root to alter its meaning. Suffix: The suffix is a syllable added after the root to alter its meaning. Prefix/root: Root/suffix: Prefix/root/suffix:

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Worksheet: 4
Sentence and Paragraph
Sentence
Sentence: Words put together that make sense. Standard form: A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark. Two parts of a sentence: Naming and Telling

Students Original Sentences:


_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Paragraph
A paragraph consists of several sentences about a single subject. The first sentence (topic sentence) usually explains the subject.

Students Original Paragraph:


_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 5
Silent Final Es
The Silent Final Es have at least five functions in English: 1. time: The silent final e is added to let the vowel say its letter name (job 1). 2. blue2, have2: English words do not end in u or v (job 2). 3. dance3, large3: The c says /s/ because of the e (job 3). The g says /j/ because of the e (job 3). 4. lit tle4: Every syllable must have a vowel.(job 4). 5. are5: Odd Job e, any reason not covered above (job 5).

Part 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Part 2

Part 3: Add Silent Final e words from the spelling notebooks.


_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 6
Nouns and Adjectives
A noun is a person, place or thing/idea. Adjectives answer questions about nouns: Which? Why? What kind? How much? adjective person adjective place

adjective

thing/idea

adjective

thing/idea

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 7
Four Ways a Single Vowel Can Say its Letter Name
The a, e, o, u usually say //-//-//-// at the end of a syllable.

The i and y may say /i/ at the end of a syllable. The y, not i, is used at the end of an English word.

The i and o may say /i/ and /o/ when followed by two consonants.

Silent Final e: The silent e lets the vowel say its letter name (job 1).

English words do not end in u (job 2).

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Worksheet: 8
Verbs Pronouns Prepositions
Verb: A verb expresses action or a state of being. They are: action, helping and being. Most verbs are action verbs. Pronoun: A pronoun takes the place of a noun. They are: subject and object. Preposition: A preposition shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word.

verbs-action

verbs-action

verbs-action

verbs-helping

verbs-being

pronouns-subject

pronouns-object

prepositions

prepositions

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 9
F, L and S Doubling Rule
At the end of one-syllable words, following a single vowel, f, l and s are usually doubled. ff ll ss other

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237

Phonics for English

Worksheet: 10
SH, TI, SI and CI Say /SH/
The ti, si and ci say /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. The si may say /sh/ or /zh/. The si says /sh/ when the preceding syllable ends with s and when the root word has an s. sh ti si

ci

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 11
I & Y Say E
The unaccented suffix y may say // at the end of a word.

The i at the end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the next syllable may say / /.

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 12
Plurals: Suffixes -S and ES
Part 1
To make a noun plural, add s.

Part 2
To make words plural that end in f, change f to v and add es.

Part 3
To make words plural that end in o, s, x, z, ch, sh, tch, or the sound of /j/ (dge), add es.

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 13
C and G Before E, I or Y
c usually says /k/andg usually says /g/

g says /g/ before e, i, and y

c says /s/ before e, i, and y ..g may say /j/ before e, i, and y

c says /s/ before Silent Final e (ce)

g says /j/ before Silent Final e (ge)

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241

Phonics for English

Worksheet: 14
Homonyms and Homographs
Homonyms
Homonyms are words that sound alike, but have different meanings and usually a different spelling.

Homographs
Homographs are words that have the same spelling as another word, but have a different meaning and sometimes are pronounced differently.

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Worksheet: 15
Es Dropping Rule
Silent Final e words are written without the e when adding a vowel suffix.

When adding a vowel suffix to root words with a c or g before the Silent Final e, the e can only be dropped if the suffix begins with e, i, or y.

If the suffix begins with any other vowel (not e, i, or y) the e must be retained.

When adding a vowel suffix to Silent Final e words that would lose their root word character, the e is retained.

When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant, the e is retained.

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Worksheet: 16
Rule 1-1-1 Suffixes Learning Reference Chart
With a 1 syllable word ending in 1 vowel and 1 consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix. root vowel suffix derivative

The x is composed of two consonants sounds, /ks/. The last consonant is not doubled when adding a vowel suffix.

The last consonant is not doubled when adding a consonant suffix.

root

consonant suffix

derivative

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Worksheet: 17
Six Spellings of ER
er er ir ur

wor

wor

ear

our

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Worksheet: 18
ED Past Tense Endings
The ed says /d/ and /t/ as the past tense ending of any root word that does not end in the sound /d/ (killed) or /t/ (liked). When the ed says /ed/ after words ending with d (land/land ed) or t (act/act ed) they form another syllable. words say /ed/ words say /d/ words say /t/

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 19
Rule 2-1-1 Accent learning Reference Chart
With a 2 or more syllable word ending in 1 vowel and 1 consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable. 2+ syllables vowel suffix derivative

2nd syllable unaccented

vowel suffix

derivative

2+ syllables

consonant suffix

derivative

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 20
I and O Followed by Two Consonants
-ind, -ign, -ild, -imb

-old, -olt, -olk, -ost, -oth

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 21
L Dismiss Rule
The words all, full and till are written with one l when they are added to another syllable. all full

till All right and all wrong are separate words; they are not compound words.

Compound Words: Compound words are made by combining two or more root words to alter their meaning.

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 22
OUGH Wild Phonogram Team

Enter and mark the ough phonograms. Draw a picture.

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 23
Ys Exchange Rule
The single vowel y (not the phonograms ay, ey, oy) changes to i when adding a suffix unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing, -ish).

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 24
Contractions Reference Chart
word contraction word contraction

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 25
Comparative Words Reference Chart

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 26
IE or EI Question
We use the ie most of the time. ie says // ie says //

except: ie says // and //

ie suffixes

We use the ei less often. ei says // ei says //

ei says // after c

ei says //

ei is schwa, says /uh/ (unstressed syllable)

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 27
Other Phonograms
A phonogram is either one letter or a set combination of letters that represent one or more voiced sounds in a given word. augh /au/-/af/ daughters laugh eau //-// beautiful beau eu /oo/-// neutral maneuver

sc /s/ scenic

qu /k/ conquer

gh /g/ ghastly ghost

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Phonics for English

Other Phonograms
aigh // rh /r/ pn /n/

di /j/

ps /s/

x /z/

mb /m/

mn /m/

eo //-//

yr /r/

Work on other phonograms in Worksheet Completion Sequences 45 and 47.

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Phonics for English

Worksheet: 28
Word Analysis: Root Words with Rules Application
Root + Prefix Root + Suffix Es Dropping Ys Exchange

Rule 1-1-1

Rule 2-1-1

L Dismiss

EI Words

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Phonics for English

Alphabet Letters and Circle Points Marked

top line

mid-line

base line

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