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OILANDGASSEPARATION DESIGN MANUAL

OILANDGASSEPARATION DESIGN MANUAL


BY C. RICHARD SIVALLS, P.E.

SIVALLS, INC. BOX 2792 ODESSA, TEXAS79760

All rights reserved. This publication is fully protected by copyright and nothing that appears in it may be printed, eitherwholly or in part, withoutspecialpermission.

ievised 1187

Price$5.00

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OIL AND GAS SEPAMTION - DESIGN MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Technical

Bulletin

No. I42 - Oil

and Gas Separation

- Design and Sizing

Page
Introduct ion Construction of Separators Separator Types Factors Affecting Separation Separator Design Gas Capacity Liquid Capaciry Example Problems Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Table Table Table Table Table 1 - Gas capacity of Vertical L.p. separators 2A & 28 - Gas capacity of vertical H.p. separators 3 - Gas capacity of Horizontal L.p. separators 44 & 4B - Gas capacity of Horizontal H.p. separators 54 & 58 - Liquid Capacity of Horizontal H.P. Separators 6 - Gas capacity of spherical L.p. separators 7 - Gas capacity of spherical H.p. separators 8 & 9 - Vertical Oil-Gas Separators 10 - Horizontal Oi1-Gas Separators 11 VerEical Oil-Gas-hlater Separators L2 - Horizontal oi1-Gas-trrlater separators 13 - Spherical L.p. Oi1-Gas Separators L4 - Spherical H.p. Oil-Gas Separators 15 - Horizontal H.p. Double Tube separators 1A & 18 24 & 2B 34 & 38 4A & 4B 54, 58, - specifications, Vertical L.p. separarors specifications, vertical H.p. separators - specifications, Horizontal L.p. separators - specifications, Horizontal H.p. separators 5c - specifications, spherical separators

I 1 - 3 3 - 4

4 - s
5 7 9 10

11 L2 - 13 L4 1 5 - L 6 L 7 - 1 8 19 20 2 I - 2 2 23 24 25 26 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

References

Technical Theory and Economics Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 -

Bulletin Text

No. 159 - Two Stage separation

System

Schematic Flow Diagram Gas from Flash Separator Stock Tank Liquid Increase

1 - 3 3 4 5 6 7

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Page Technical Bulletin No. 162 - Filter Separators

T heor y and T e x t Table 1 & 2) Correction Factors Separators Filter Figure 1 & 2, Gas Capacity of Horizontal S e parators F i l t e r V e r t i c a l o f G a s C a p a c i t y Figure 3 & 4, S e p a r a t o r F i l t e r H o r i z o n t a l Figure 5, Filter Separator Figure 6, Vertical Separators of Filter Table 3 & 4, Specifications Technical Bulletin No. 163 - Low Temperature Gas Separation Units

4 6

: B 9 10

5 7

Process Application Equipment Description Recoveries Figure 1, Flow Diagram, Low Temperature Separation Unit of Temperature on Liquid Recovery Figure 2, Effect R ef e r e n c e s Technical Bulletin No. 177 Vertical Gas Scrubbers

1 2

3 4 5 6

2 3

Process Application Design Procedures Table 1, Correction Factors of Vertical Table 2, Specifications Figure 1, Gas Capacity of Vertical Gas Scrubber Figure 2, Vertical

Gas Scrubbers Gas Scrubbers

1 2 3 3 4 5

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January

1,

1987

SECTION: 300 TE C H N IC A L B U LLE TI N No. L42, Rev. 5 OIL AND GAS SEPAMTION DESIGN AND SIZING

INTRODUCTION: Hydrocarbon streams as produced at the wellhead are composed of a mixture of gss, liquid hydrocarbons, and sometimes free water. In most cases it is desirable to separate these phases as soon as possible after bringing them to the surface and handle or transport the two or three phases separately. This separation of the liquids from the gas phase is accomplished by passing the wellstream through an oil-gas or oil-gas-water separator. Different design criteria must be used in sizing and selecting a separator for a hydrocarbon stream based on the composition of the fluid mixture. In the case of low pressure oil wells, the liquid phase will be large in volume as compared to the gas phase. In the case of high pressure gas-distillate we1ls the gas volume will be higher as compared to the liquid volume. The liquid produced with high pressure gas is generally a high API gravity hydrocarbon, usually referred to as distillate or condensate. However, both 1ow pressure oi1 we11s or high pressure gas-distillate we11s may contain free water. Separators are used in many other locations other than at wellhead production batteries, such as gasoline plants, upstream and downstream of compressors, and liquid traps in gas transmission lines. They are also found on inlets to dehydration units, gas sv/eetening units, et cetera. At some of these locations separators are referred to as knockouts, free liquid knockouts, and traps. Sometimes these vessels are cal1ed scrubbers. Caution should be used when referring to a vessel required for gas/ liquid separation as a scrubber. Within the gas industry there is another type of vessel often ca11ed a scrubber. This is one that is designed to handle a gas stream with only trace amounts of free liquid present in the gas. They are not designed using the same criteria as is used for gas/ liquid separation where appreciable amounts of liquid are present or where liquid slugging may be encountered. However, all of and free liquids cerned primarily and basic design their basic use. the vessels mentioned above that are designed to separate gas serve the same primary purpose. This technical paper is conwith the use of separators in field installations. The theory criteria will be the same no matter where they are located or

I NT E RNA L CO N ST R U C T IO N O F SE PA M T O R S : The principal items of construction that should be present in a good liquid-gas separator are the same regardless of the over-al1 shape or configuration of the vessel. some of these features are itemized as follows: A centrifugal inlet device where the primary liquid and gas is made. separation of the

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length or height to al1ow section of sufficient A large settling droplets to settle out of the gas stream with adequate liquid surge room for slugs of liquid. or eliminator A mist extractor that of liquid smal1 particles Adequate controls gas back pressure gauge, instrument consisting of valver sofety gas regulator coalesce that will near the gas outlet will not settle out by gravity. dump valve, liquid leve1 control, retief va1ve, pressure gauge, leve1 and piping.

3.

4.

separation takes place in the It has been found that the bulk of the gas-liquid Here the incoming stream is spun around section. separating inlet centrifugal or usually the walls of the vessel in the case of the walls of a smal1 cylinder to a centrifugal This subjects the fluids separator. or spherical a vertical This action stops the force up to five hundred times the force of gravity. in the gas stream and forces the entrained motion of the free liquid horizontal to the bottom of the separator in fall droplets together, where they will liquid section. the settling stream section is necessary to allow the turbulence of the fluid The settling droplets to fal1 to the bottom of the vessel, to subside and allow the liquid A and gas phases. between the liquid in the gravity due to the difference Introlarge open space in the vessel has been found adequate for this purpose. duction of special quieting plates or baffles with narrow openings only compliof the separator and provides places for sand, construction cates the internal plug the vessel and and eventually t cetera, to collect sludge, paraffin, and gas using of liquid It has been found that the separation stop the flow. produce a section will feature and a large open settling inlet the centrifugal product, which can be obtained in atmospheric or low presmore stable liquid bafIlinute scrubbing of the gas phase by use of internal sure storage tanks. to be discharged from the separator, fling or plates may produce more liquid be entrained in it, ends will not be a stable product, since light but it will be incurred from the storage system. more vapor losses will and, therefore, section to handle slugs Sufficient surge room should be allowed in the settling This can be accomplished to without carry over to the gas outlet. of liquid in the separator which leve1 control some extent by the placement of the liquid is The amount of surge room required level. in turn determines the liquid if not impossible, to determine based on well test or flowing often difficult, is application In most cases the separator size used for a particular data. cost and possible surging requirements. often a compromise between initial separation is Another major item required to affect good and complete liquid-gas droplets that Small liquid near the gas outlet. or extractor a mist eliminator difference or no gravity out of the gas stream, due to little will not settle and pass out of the separator be entrained between them and the gas phase, will This can be almost eliminated by passing the gas through a mist with the gas. which has a large surface impingement area. near the gas outlet eliminator and form hit the surfaces, coalesce and collect droplets will The sma11 liquid section in back to the liquid then drain by gravity larger droplets which will wire steel \^7oven It is believed that the stainless the bottom of the vessel.

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mist eliminator is the most efficient type, and has been proven by removing up to 99.9% or more of the entrained liquids from the gas stieam. This type offers the greatest surface area for the collection of liquid droplets per unit volume as compared to vane types, ceramic packingr or other configurations. The vane tyPe mist eliminators do have their application in areas where there is entrained solid material in the gas phase that may collect and plug a wire mesh type mist eliminator. S E P A M T O R TYP ES : There are four major types or basic configurations available from manufacturers which are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Vert ica I Horizontal I{orizontal Spherical of separators, generally

Single Tube Double Tube

A typical vertical low pressure oil-gas separator nith mechanical controls and the features as previousry described is irlustrated in Figure g. Figure 9 ilrustrates a typical vertical high pressure or low pressure oil_gas separator with pheumatic controls. The vertical separator has the advantage that it wirr handle greater slugs of liquid without carry over to the gas outlei, and the action of the liquid level control is not quite as criticar, Due to the greater vertical distance betr{'een the liquid revel and the gas outlet there is lJss tendency to revaporize the riquid into the gas phase. sosre disadvantages are that it is more difficult and expensive to fabricate and ship this type of separator in skid [ounted assemblies, and it takes a larger dianeter separator ior given gas capacity than a horizontal vessel. Frou this it can be seen that thiJ type'of separator is most often used on fluid streams with row gas-oil ratios. rn other words, handliog considerably more liquid than gas. Spherical separators offer an inexpensive and compact vessel arrangement. Figure 13 illustrates a typical low pressure model with mechanical controls. Figure 14 illustrates a simirar high pressure sphericar oir-gas separator with pheurnatic controls. However, this type of vessel has very lirnitea "u.g" "pr." and liquid settl'iog section. The placement and action of the liquid r;vel control in this type of vessel is also very critical, The horizontal separator has severar different advantages particurar to this type of construction. Figure l0 ilrustrates a typical horizontal high pressure or low pressure oil-gas separator with pneuuatic controls. The hori-oniar high pressure double tube separator is irlustrated by a typicar example sho\,rn i.n Figure 15' The horizontal separator in both the double iube and single tube configuration has several advantages over the verticar separator a8 it is easier co skid mount, less piping is required for field connections, and a smaller diameter is required for a given gas capacity. This type of vessel also has a larger in_ terface area between the liquid and gas phases which aids in separation, when gas capacity is a design criteria, the horizontal vessel is nore economical in high pressure aeparators, due to the increased walL thickness required with larger diameters,

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than in a vertical placement is more critical level control However, the liquid The double tube seParator and the surge space is somewhat lirnited. separator section is a slight advantage over the single tube irr that the liquid offers of the separated from the gas space, and there is less chance for disturbance Ilordever ' the into the gas phase. of any liquids liquid and re-entrainment is rnore expensive. double tube configuration accomplished in any tyPe seParation can be easily Three phase or oil-gas-water to construct a water baffling special internal either of separator by installing liquid level control. 1eg or water siphon arrangement or by use of an interface due to the linited in a spherical to install A three phase feature is difficult 1evel controls two liquid I{ith three phase operation internal space available. ver11 illustrates a typical Figure durnp val.veg are required. and two liquid three tical high presaure or low pressure aeparator equipped for oil-gas-water high preshorizontal of a typical phase operation. Figure 12 is an illustration seperator. sure or low pressure oil-gas-ttater tyPes of of the various of the advantages and disadvantages From an evaluation has emerged as the one that tube separator single separators, the horizontal inveatment coat for high presgives the most efficient for initial. operation loadings' For high liquid wells with high gas-oi1 ratios. sure gas-di6tillate vertical type seParators should be considered. either low pressure or high pressure' FACTORS AFFECTING SEPAMTION r affect There are several basic factors which will and gas phases in a separatot.l between the liquid 1. 2. 3. Separator operating pressure Separator oPerating temperature Fluid stream composition the operation and separation

change the wellstream will on a given fluid Changes in any one of these factors the wellIn most applications leaving the separator. amount of gas and liquid by the operator. stream composition is a fact of nature and cannot be controlled stream composiOnly in plants or where several streams are mixed can the fluid Generally speaking' an the oil and gas separation. tion be varied affecting increase in operating pressure or a decrease in operating temperature will However, there are optimum points covered in a separator. increase the liquid In recovery. not aid in liquid changes will in both cases beyond which further p o i n t s a r e t h e s e fact, storage system vapor losses may become too great before reached. wants to equipment an operator generally In the case of wellhead separation m a x i m um income. t h e for a separator to affect determine the optimum conditions So t h e gas. m o r e t h a n recovered is worth Again, generally speaking, the liquid t h e h e l d i n b e p r o v i d i n g i t c a n feature, recovery is a desirable high liquid requirements for the BTU content of A1so, pipeline storage system. available Without the the separator operation. the gas may be another factor affecting i t i s o f t e n not feasiequipment of expensive mechanical refrigeration addition H o w everr oD most the operating temperature of a separator. ble to try to affect p r i o r g a s to heater is used to heat the high pressure wells an indirect

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pressure reduction in a choke to pipeline pressure. By careful operation of this indirect h e a t e r t h e o p e r a t o r can prevent overheati ng of the gas stream pr ior t o c h o k i n g , m o re th a n w h a t i s r e q u i r e d , and therefore, affect the temperature of the separator downstream from the indirect heater. The operator can also control the operating pressure to some extent with the use of back Pressure valves within the limitation of the flowing characteristics of the well against a set pressure head and the transmission line pressure requirements. As previously mentioned, higher operating pressure will generally result in higher liquid recovery. An analysis can be made using the wellstream composition to find the optimum t em per at ur e a n d p re s s u re a t w h i c h a separator shoul d operate to gi ve the maxim um liquid a n d /o r g a s p h a s e re c o very. These cal cul ati ons know n as ttFl ash Vapor ization Calculationsrr require a trial and error solution and more generally a dapt ed t o s o l u ti o n b y a p ro g ra mmed computer. H ow everr 611 operator can al so make trial settings within the lirnitations of the equipment to find the best o per at ing c o n d i ti o n s to re s u l t i n the maxi mum amount of gas or l i qui ds that ar e desired. In the case where separators are used as scrubbers or knockouts ahead of other treating equipment or compressors, it is generally desired to remove the m ax im um a m o u n t o f l i q u i d fro m the gas stream to prevent operati onal dam age to the equipment downstream from the scrubber.2 SEPAMTOR DESIGN . GAS CAPACITY: The gas capacity of oil-gas separators has been calculated for many years the following empirical relationship proposed by Souders-Brown.
v = Klr-l

from

f ,o. - .a-lYz L ' ? g J

Then

A=g v

Where

v = Superficial gas velocity based on total cross-sectional area of vessel*, ft/sec [ = Cross-sectional area of separator*, sq ft q = Gas flow rate at operating conditions r cu ft/sec Pt= Density of liquid at operating conditions, lb/cu ft Density of gas at operating conditions, lb/cu ft 4= l( = Empirical Factor Vertical Separators, 5t 10' Separators, Other high high 10t long Lengths

Horizor,Eal

K - 0.L2 to 0 .24, avg 0.18 ( = 0.18 ro 0.35, avg a.265 l ( = 0.40 to 0.50, avg 0.45 ( = 0.45 [l'lo.so L = Separator Length, f t . ( = 0 .2 to 0. 35., avg 0 . 2 7 5
l(=

L loj

Spherical Separators Wire Mesh Mist Eliminators

0.35

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Bubble Cap Tray Columns, 2 4 " s p aci ng 18t' spacing Valve Tray Columns, 24tt sPacing 18tt spacing Scrubbers Vertical 'kFor horizontal an equivalent single tube separators I.D. must be determined

0.16 0.12 ( = 0.18 l ( = 0.11 l ( = 0.35


l(= l(=

ful1 of liquid' partially for the vapor area available.

through a veseel vapor velocity is based on a superficial The above relatlonship of the vesto the diameter is then in relationshlP and the vapor or gas capacity such as trayed towers in dels also used for other designs, The fornule sel. Thereor gas sweetening units and for the sizing of mist eliminators. hydration for verthe factors above, along ltith for these is presented fore, the rrKrr factor one bears with the so that the relationship Beparetora, tical and horizontal be seen. other can

)a (P a = 2.40(p)2(Kl -)
z(r+460) L
W her e : a = D = P = T = Z = A11

P3

l- v J^
' MMSCFD

Gas capacity at std conditions Internat diameter, ft.* Operating pressure, Psia oF Operating temperature, factor Compressibility other items as defined above

fu11 *For horizontal single tube separators partially I.D. must be determined for dD equivalent of liquidr the vapor area available. of separperhaps a better determination Since the above equation is empirical, test data. field ator gas capacity should be made from actual manufacturers Figures 1 through 4, 6 and 7 are gas capacity charts for various standard size These actual manufacturers gas capaseparators based on operating pressure. separators in vertical height differences city charts take into consideration separators which add to the gas capacity in horizontal and length differences are not taken As can be seen, height and length differences of the separators. experience has But, field into account in the above Souders-Brown equation. gas capacity can be obtained by increase in height of proven that additional separalength of horizontal separators and correspondenly additional vertical tors. must a correction As can be seen on the sizing charts for horizontaL separators, f o r i s This in the bottom of the separator. be made for the amount of liquid m o r e o r less i s l i q u i d o f f u l l O n e h a l f v e s s e l s . h o r i z o n t a l t u b e single However, s e p a r a t o rs. h o r i z o n t a L t u b e f o r s i n g l e m a n u f a c t u r e r s m o s t f o r standard level to increase the the gas capacity can be increased by lowering liquid separators of horizontal c a p a c i t i e s G a s v e s s e l . t h e w i t h i n g a s s p a c e available can be f u l l o n e : q u a r t e r o r f u 1 l , o n e t h i r d f u l l , o n e h a l f s e c t i o n s l i q u i d with determined from the gas capacity charts.

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S E P A M T O R D E SIGN - L IQ U ID C A PA CITY : The liquid capacity of a separator is primarily dependent upon the retention time of the liquid within the vessel. Good separation requires sufficient time to obtain an equilibrium condition between the liquid and gas phase at the temperature and pressure of separation. The liquid capacity of a separator or the settling volume required based on retention can be determined from the following equation.

I^t= 1440 (V) t


Where:

ort=1440(v)
I4I

or V = w (t) L440

lI = Liquid capacity, bbl/day V = Liquid settling volume, bbl t = Retention time, mi-n. have been deter-

Basic design criteria for liquid retention times in separators mined by numerous field tests. These are as follows:

Oil-gas

separatlon separation -----separatlon

I nin. 2 to 5 nins, 5 to 10 roins. @ 100oF and up 10 to 15 Eins. @ 90oF L5 to 20 nins. G 80oF 20 to 25 rnins. @ 70oF 25 to 30 nins. @ 60oF

Iligh pressure oil-gas-lreter Low presaure oil-gas-water

Figures 5A and 58 are sizing charts for the liquid capacity of horizontal single tube high pressure separators. These are based on the parameters of the separator working preasure, size and the depth of liquid used in the settling section. Tables I through 5 list the standard specifications of typical oil-gas separators available, along rdith the liquid settling volumes rrith the conventional placement of liquid level controls. The settling volumes may be used in the above equations to determine the liquid capacity of a particular vessel. For proper sizing both the liquid capacity and gas cepacity required should be deternined. It may be noted that on most high pressure gas distillate wells, the gas-oil ratio is high and the gas capacity of a separator is usually the controlling factor, However, the reverse nay be true for low pressure separators used on wellstreans rdith lord gas-oil ratios. T h e l i q u i d d i s c h a r g e o r d u r n pv a l v e o n t h e s e p a r a t o r should be sized based upon the pressure drop available and the liquid flow rate,

OTIIER TYPES SEPAMTION EQUIPMENT I There are several types of separation equipment which employ some of the basic features as discussed for oil and gas separation along lrith additionel items. These types of equipment are discusaed in more complete detail ln other technical bulletins. Filter separators ernploying a dry gas fiLter in combination tr7ith oil and gas separation are discusaed in Technical Bulletin No. 152 "FiLter Separators . tl

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Low temperature separation urxits are another type of equlFtrent enployed for gascondensete separation of hlgh preaaure gas streams for maximun liquid recovery. The details and application of these units are diecussed ln Technical BulLetin No. 163 rrl,olr Temperature Separation Unlte."
On high pressure gas-condensate separation of the liquids which provide a better will stabLLzed separation systems is discussed ation Systems. tt streams it is often advantageous to employ stage This require the use of two or more separators. product. The use and application of stage liquid No. 159, "Two Stage Separin Technical Bulletin

I{here only trace or small amounts of free liquid are found in the gas stream, gas scrubber to remove the liquid from the it may be possible to use a vertical gas. No. This type of vessel is discussed more completely in Technical Bulletin of Caution should be used in the application L77, trVertical Gas Scrubbers.tt separator. these vessels in the place of a conventional designed gas/liquid are Scrubbers should be used only where no appreciable amounts of free liquid present in the gas stream or no liquid slugging is to be encountered. C O NCLUS I O N :

The above described sizing procedures and accompanyLng charts and tables offer an accurate procedure for sizlng standard oilfield oil-gas aeparators for high presOf course, these sure gas condensate nellstreems or low pressure oilstreams. charts and tables can be used in any reverse manner for evaluating and deterEinThe following exanples are lng the capacity or performance of existing equipment. presented to further illustrate the use of the charts end tabLes and methods to be used in eizing oil-gas separation equipment.

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HilI"IPLE

PROBLEMS

Ex?grple 1: size a atandard oil-gas following condltlons.

aeparator

both vertical

and horizontal

for

the

G as F lo w R a te : 5 . 0 MMS C F D Operating Pressure: 800 psig Condensate Flow Rare: 20 bb1/MMSCF Total Liquid Capacity = 20 (5.0) = 100 bbl/day pressure, a 20tt x 7t-6tt vertical separator

From Figure will handle From Table

2A, at 800 psig 5.4 MMSCFD. 28, a 20" x 7t-6tt

operating

separator

will

handle

the

following

liquid

eapacity.

I^l = 1440 (v) t

= 1440 (0. 65) = 936 bbl/day 1.0 and 7/2 ful-l of liquid, a 16" x 5f

From Figure 4A, at 800 psig operating pressure horizontal separator will handle 5.1 MMSCFD. From Table 48, a 16" x 5t separator will handle.

w = 1440 (v) = 1440 (0.51) = 878 bbl/day r 1.0


Therefore, a smaller horizontal separator would be reguired and r+ou1d be more econornical. For the operating pressure invoJ-ved, at least a L000 pstg working pressure separator should be used. Example 2: Slze a standard vertical oll-gas separator for the followlng conditions.

0i1 Flow Rates 2500 bbll d,ay cas-oil Raclo: L000 Operating Pressure: 50 psig Gas flow rate = L00 (2500) = 2,500,000 ct ftlday = 1.5 MMSGFD From FLgure 1, at 50 psig operatlng pressure, a 35r'x 5r vertical handle 2.9 MMSCFD. Fron TabLe 18, a 36" x 5' separator will handle. separator will

w = 1440 (v) = 1440 (1.61) = 2318 bbL/day t 1.0 Therefore, a larger separator will 30" x 10r separator will handle. be required to handle the liquid 1oad. A

W = 1440 (2.06) = 2966 bbL/day 1.0

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In fact' the diameter ' The gas capacity of a 30" x 10r separator is 3.75 MMSCI'D of a aeparator generall"y controls the price and a 30" x 10r separator will probably be cheaper than a 36" x 5'. seParator is operated at l/2 Exanple 3: A 20" x 10t, 100 psl W.P. horlzontal of J-1qu1d. It can be used on a well with the followi,ng conditions. Gas Ilow Rate: Llne Pressure: From Flgure 9.0 I,IMSCFD 500 pslg will handle only at 500 psig. 8.1 IIMSCFD frtLL

44, a 20" x 1-0r separator

But, if a gas back pressure valve were Put oo the seParator and held at 800 psig' the separator w111 handle 10'2 !'IMSCFD. This ls accePted procedure Providing the well w111 fl-on the deslred rate at 800 pslg. Example 4: SLze a horlzontal hlgh pressure separator for the folJ-owing conditions.

10.0 MMSCFD Gas Fl-ow Rate: 800 pslg operating Pressute: Condensate Load: 500 bbl/day water Load: 100 bbl/day seParator FroE Figure 44, at 800 psig operatlng Pressure, a 2Q" x 10r horizontal Where lhree Phase oPeration operating L/2 fuLL of liquld' w111 handle 10.2 MMSCFD separator, the liquid section should be Il2 f'uLL, Is required in a horlzontal otherwise the leveL control action becomes too crltlcal. Fron Table 48, the liquid
w = 1440 (v) t

capacity

wiLl

be.

= 1440 (1.89) 5.0

= 518 bb1/day

l oad of not handl e the combi ned l i qui d th e 2 0 " x 1 0 t s e p a ra to r w i l l T her ef or e, ti me i s used as a conservati v e F i v e m inute retenti on 5 00 + 100 = 6 0 0 b b l /d a y . i n formati on. a n y a d d i ti o n a l figur e wit ho u t From Table 48, capacity is. a separator with more settling volume is a 24t' x 10f. Its liquid

W = L44O (2.63)

= 757 bbllday

5.0
The gas capacity of a 24" x 10r separator at 800 psig is 15.0 MMSCFD.

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FIGURE I GAS CAPACITY OF VERTICAL L.P. SEPARATORS

* z9 6o.
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o""4 '^d\*

ro
.9 ,8

,7,.
'5
a6
4

6 ,,:
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rl

"09
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,6
i t l

:;:l

o.

{'

(n
l ri6
!.{,

('

zdlt

' - ' l'


t5 ?:o
50 6.0 70 80 90 roo t25
.i.i- . -: i,i.., : ,.: .:.. . ..1.:.

S E P A R A T O R O P E R A T I N GP R E S S U R E P , SIG slvALLs c.R.s. TANKS,tNC. I /22/6e

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FIGURE ? A GAS CAPACITYOF VERTICAL H.P. SEPARATORS

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ff
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't.O

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, 'i.r.-:.: : ,.f:. I -r":: i til

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t :-: ..::? Fr' f.(J,

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til-. i

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. :'.: 'r:1 t., "'

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t".c'

(,::::
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&.. <l:.

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it

.-4'
r:lta

1.5

i'.N

2u

i6,

*4

'1, ,] .T

:t ;
:i.

20o

300

4GO 500 600 ; 800 ,- looo

:l

15o0o 200000

l,o

S E P A R A T O R O P E R A T IG N

PRESSURE, PSIG

slvALLs c.R.s.

TANKS,INC 8/22/6:

FIGURE

28

-13

GAS CAPACITY OF VERTICAL H,P. SEPARATORS

il*

.o_9,
9'O80,
t ' :: : l

70
:i.'i,i,

.retr ,r|T.i .i(): :'.1D"!:

6.o

ffi
A'

',,Ei .t8
::l:ir,fi

;.:il;:i..:::i

5io:
t.r. i ij i. :1l::l.'

.'E t:.:F;
il::lia::i

,1,:-i...1

46 ;.:',:
i i-i i., l ':rii.11

,;9t ,-,.{,i ,:,[ ti

.',,Pt
.,.(fli

,I ,. .'

.+
-.iF'

r r,'l',: ,l...t

,:{l 3o,

i,F

o' oi'*td
aO
rrJ*t.

6tr

^..t\v

"j=

, ./ "rO

-{'

i"
dd6-'*466 5d0"dod 8AO rooo

'-ir'

|500

SEPARATOR OPERATING P R E S S U R E P , S|G

stvALLs TANKS, tNC. c.R.s. I /22 /69

FIGURE 28 G A S C A P A C I T YO F V E R T I C A L
H,P. SEPARATORS

-13

O.O' S.O
,::i.'::lt :f i

,Ai., 8_,0,.& i.. (Ji ; 7o ,A-:-:"

6,O
,";.r:r:t,

Fr:,:l-:::

Ei.

5Ol
] .l :. l |.1

,hi
li+:: :, ,Or::: 4:,,rr &;,;1
,i-..i::l::

i.r l ..l::

40
::t,l::r:l

,'{.-.. .
, : : , r l :

,.:.:,.
r.: l ! r.i

r'"ft:

3,0,

ff''l ,.{{i. {9r':

j'f '
Au
,,,.1,,,f:lj.l

'njtl'
.rl.ijl:ir: :.:l;,

u,./ oi'+td
rr 'r1fO.

od*t'

_r,,1,.

'lu'
'it'.'
-' i-i,i:

aO

'-'1t,l

300

400

500 600

800

rooo

150o 2

S E P A R A T O R O P E R A T t N c P R E S S U R E ,p S t G

stvALLs TANKS, tNC. c.R.s. 8 /22 /69

-14-

3 GAS CAPACITY OF HORIZONTA L L.P. SEPARATORS

FIGUR E

oo"*j9

1""* {

I/4

FI,JLL

_t/3

FU[ _

_T/ . 2 FULL

tL

():
a

z 24"xj.g

E .-

W;
lo t5

ffi r
40 50 60 70 80 90 too

,b-E

{]{: (}
l l

>: tc) 4..

ro <. (t:

zo

t25

SEPARATOR OPERATING P R E S S U R E P,S I G

slvALLs rANKS, lNC. c.R.s. e /22/69

FIGURE 4A GAS CAPACITY OF HORIZONTAL


H.P. SEPARATORS
ro
9 I 7

-15-

Qr

3l

I/4 FULL

rl3, FULL

od'*tu
F.ULL

t( 9 I
7 6

.o
an'

lr.. (J

=, E.

S/K/T
'
2olo

i//r'/i

f//i'fr

>-r l-,
(Jl

, : l i : !

s {,
()
O, { l (2,

t.5

3oo 4oo soo600 ,i,

,ooo

t5o.0 2000

t.o

S E P A R A T O R O p E R A T t N c P R E S S U R E ,p s t c

s l v A L L s T A N K St ,N C . c.R.s. I /22/69

FIG UR E
-16-

48

G A S C A P A C I T YO F H O R I Z O N T A L
H .P . S E P A R A T O R S

'
'

t/4 FUL:l- 4 . r - . .

t/3 FUt-Ll
t ; 4 ' -

U? FULL a
(t. gr', =. = ' i.
IL.

-r' ^i'*.t:;i'.Y
^i-*|.d/
*' og"

l, F,

(). {, o-. {: (t
a rC: (9'

300

400

500 600

80

tooo

1500 2000

SE PA R A T O R OP ER AT IN G P R E S S U R E , PStG s t v A L L S T A N K S ,t N C . c.R.s. I /22/69

F I GU R E 5 A L I Q U I D C A P A C I T YO F H O R I Z O N T A L S I N G L E T U B E H.P. SEPARATORS
EA.SED M.I N U . T . E .. ON..,ON.E .RET.EN.TION
36"XlO'+

-17-

ooo
8o00 : :.. 7,OOO

24'* x 15'-----+

,spoo
5 0

24"x io'

aooo
3000
- , - ?

24" x;'- 6"--r-

20"x ro'
24t' X 5'

t/" F

t t-

l l-

--:-l.

20" x 7'-6"-*

V;
16" x r'- 6t'-.-->
I

E-Ull ----a> isoo

la"x lo'
t'x st

')./_1 FllL!

=--+ t0OO

900 800 700


O

lz"x b'
CAPACiTY CORRECTION FAC FOR DIFFERENT RETENTION TIMES

x
,;J,. ml

600 : 500
i

e.

.:ir

F, l'r. I

400
I

R E T E N T I O NT I M E 30 i 2 3 4 5 SEC MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN

M U T T I P L YB Y ?.a

t-o o.5
o33 o25 o . 20

CL: 4: (J:

u, {. .
300
'r:r

?oo

30o

400

500 60o

t t

( \
b,

,f
E
Dr

o.

5.
if.:

O,
J:.

200

8r3O,;IOOO

|SOO

2O0O

S E P A R A T O RW O R K I N G P R E S S U R E , P S I G

s t v A L L s T A N K S ,t N C . cRS 9/t3/66

FIGURE 5 B
- l8-

SINGLE TUBE LIQUID CAPACITY OF HORIZONTAL H.P. SEPARATORS

l, .",t

'fx oo" x l5'------.-r'


t , l , , l . l i , l. , t , , . , ,

2ol

ItG
t r l
1....::

'",1

1,,,,54lxl5"#,
ftt l,:tl t :',,,,',""t" tt ttl t, i ,

. ,

30

fs' - 4z"xzd 48'1x

eo"x,to',

i',gr?'id]$ 42" xrs's6"xzo'


5 4 " x7 ' - 6 " 36" x 15'-* . . .4r,ir*7''it,' , 42" x T'- 6"

ro ei
I

7 .: 6 :, ,$
: l

\:

F: cl J ID o

4
, : r

(t

tr.
o
C' ct

,.' 3

{.f
s/
50o "''''400 "500'6o0'"..'"800

= o
J

rooo

"'ZOOO r55OO

P R E S S U R EP , SIG S E P A R A T O RW O R K T N G

stvALLs TANKS,lNC. c.R.s. 8/22/6e

FIGURE 6 G A S C A P A C I T I E SO F S P H E R I C A L L.P. SEPARATORS

-t9.

6\r.:
lo.o
9,,,,,='

Q\r"

8'_.7'lll,l,,l

sir:

d-i
t ,.tt,t

-61..'
,t':.t '

(5l It. cl. f;',


t ;

E.

4,tt:

,--=
3,t".'

5, {,
.: i

F. F.

oc),
:

ci

.{, (9f

t6

20

2,5 3o

50

60 70 BO 90 ]OO t25 t,50

OPERATING PRESSURE , PSIG

stvALLs TANKS I tNC. 8/22/ 69 c.R.s.

-20-

7 GAS CAPACITIES OF SPHERICAL H.P. SEPARATORS


tppp 90 8q
: : t t

FIGURE

v.a.
ll'r'': : l'l

60o
lirl'

, l l r

'50'

- r : ' ti -

iiF
40

eg'

dL

* oi)

n9

"o9
llo,o n,, :..:
,8,.,.
, i

o."P

7 ' , ''" l r ,

6 ' ,o, 'i$,,, p \ :


l#l i-

: - : : 1r .: " IJ 5', E
t::t

r''t. 4t.t,' : ' l r


. t ,

E
a

3 .

s,
()
d

ct.

(}

200

,:,, 300

400

500 600

800

tooo

1500

2000

3000

OPERATING

PRESSURE,PSIG

stvALLs TANKSflNC. 8/ 22/ 69 c.R.s.

^J\
\\
\ZO

Sivalls, Inc.
bx Tl92 Odeesa, Texas 797ffi

-2L-

FIGURE8 VERT|CALLOW PRESSURE OtL AND GAS SEPARATOR MECHANICAL CONTROLS

RE L I E F VALVE

SAFETY

ww
lrr-rr-r

ELIMINATOR

PRESSURE GAUGE HAND

VALVE

LEVEL
LEVEL -NrRoL

CONTROL

OUTLET

-22-\\

^a\

Sivalls, Inc.
Box 2792 Texas 797ffi Odegea,

\ZO

FIGURE 9 VERTICALHP OR LP OIL AND GAS SEPARATOR PNEUMATIC CONTROLS

MIST ELIMINATOR

RELIEF VALVE

HAN D

VA L VE PRE SSURE REGULATOR

.\N(z
INLET

orL
OUTLET

GAS

OUTLET

^a\
\\

Sivails, fnc.
hx TI92 Odeesa, Texas 797ffi

- 23-

\ZO

FIGURE IO }IORIZONTAL HP OR LP OIL AND GAS SEPARATOR PNEUMATIC CONTROLS

PRESSURE GAUGE

HAND CENTRIFUGAL INLET DIVERTER

VALVE MIS T
ELIMINATOR

-24- \\

^a\

Sivalls, Inc.
Box tl92 Texas 797ffi Odeega,

\ZO

FIGURE II SEPARATOR VERTICALHP OR LP OIL.GAS-WATER CONTROLS PNEUMATIC

RELIEF

VALVE

SAFETY HEAD

ELIMINATOR

l?*r\rN
P RE S S U RE

t3--::-

REGULATOR

HAND VALVE PRESSURE


GAUGE HAND

INLET DIVERTER
CONTROL
I

VALVE

BAFFLE

l[IrF:
LE V E L GALJCE
CONTROL

l_ulElFAcE_

CONTROL

V A LV E

GAS

OUTLET

otL CUT LET

WATER

OUTLET

^a\
\\

Sivalls, fnc.
ht 2792 OdeEEa,Texas 797ffi

\Z

-25-

FIGURE I? HORIZONTAL HP OR LP OIL.GAS.WATER SEPARATOR PNEUMATIC CONTROLS

RELIEF VALVE SAFETY

PI?ESSURE GAUGE HAND VALVE

PRESSURE REGUL ATOR

HEAD
CENTRIFUGAL

MIST
ELIMINATOR

I NLE TD IVE R T E R

FOL CONT CONTROL

).'(
W A TE R OUTLET OU TLE T

^J\
-26-\\

Sivalls, Inc.
hx 2792 Odegsa, Texas 797ffi

\ZO

SPHERICALSEPARATORS
F I G U R E1 3 - L O W P R E S S U R E CONTROLS MECHANICAL

GAs 6ACK PRESSURE VALVE

3 r3tY L|.l vr!v3 rrst latocttr^L ov:rtcl : |rL:T

T{S#, -;;\-iV

6 3 EOttLrZ|rG trPf,

,L----- L.!,!--rt--, l- ,r'--r*--{---/.

tLU6 styt

F I G U R E1 4 - H I G HP R E S S U R E CONTROLS PNEUMATIC

3l?3ll n!v3

tC!r811 \

nst tlfF:rrra! orvcttcl

:r |rl cv

-tl|lEt fLUtO cortrlvrSr?

ACCUIUITIOI

ltu.t1.} g!ttl-l:

- - -)..,-.
I
t l

'-* ,l

^a\ il
\ZO

c Sivalls,Inc.
Box 2792 Gdetea,Texas 797ffi

- 2 7-

FIGURE I5 HORIZONTAL I{GH PRESSURE DOUBLETUBE SEPARATOR PNEUMATIC CONTROLS

G0?rnrl urtrrra tllrtl? --7

?tttttnt -auet - lq.rullt

il:rn|rtr
rfi otttrgru

-28-\\

^a\

Sivalls, Inc.
Box TI92 Odeesa, Texas 797ffi

\ZO

TABLE 1A SEPARATORS VERTICAL LOWPRESSURE SPECIFICATIONSOF STAI{DARD

Model No.

Size Dia x Ht

,,trorking Pressure Psi

Inlet & Gas Outlet Conn. 2" 2" 3" 4" 4t' 4" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg

oil Outlet Conn. 2" 2t' 3" 2" 3" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd

Standard

Oi1 or Oil & trrlater

Valves Gas

Shipping Weight 1b

v-245 v-2475 v-3010 v-365 v-3675 v-3610 v-4810 v-4815 v-6010 v-6015 v-6020

24" x 5t 24" x 7-L/2' 30" x 10|


36tt x 5t

36" 36t' 48" 48" 60t' 60t' 60tt

x x x x x x x

7-L/2' 1 0| l-0r 15r 10| 15| 201

L25 L25 L25 L25 L2t L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25

2" 2" 2" 2"


2t'

2" 2" 2"


2tt

2"
2tt

2"
3tt 3tt 3tt

2" 2" 2" 2"


3tt 3tt 3tt

950 1150 2000 2000 2350 2 70 0 3400 4500 5200 6400 7600

TABLE 18 OF STANDARD VERTICAL LOW PRESSURE SETTLING VOLTJMES L25 psi W.P. SEPARATORS, SLze Dia x Ht
24t' x 5t

Settling Oil-Gas Separators 0.65 1.01 2. 0 6 l _ .6 1 2. 4 3 3.04 5.67 7.86 9.23 L2.65 15.51
volume is usually spJ-i t

Volume, bbl
Oi1-Gas-!,later Separators*

24" x 7-L/2' 30" x 10t


36tt x 5t

36" x 7'L/2'
36t' 48" 48tt 60tt 60tt 6 0" x x x x x x 101 10t 15 | 10t 15 | 201 s et t li n g

1 1 3 2 4 5 10 L4 L6 L2 18
even betw een oi l and w ater.

10 82 75 63 26 48 06 44 08 93 64

* T ot al

^'\
\ \ \ZO

\ Box 2792

Sivalls, Inc.
Texas797ffi Odeggs,

-29-

TABTE 2A SPECIFICATIONS OF STAI{DARD VERTICAL }IIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS

Model N o .* *

Size Dia x Ht

Working Pressure Psi*

Inlet & Gas Outlet Conn. 2" 2" 2" 3" 3" 3tt 3" 3" 3" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" 6" 6" 6t' 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6t' Thd Thd Thd Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg

Standard Li qui d Valve


1tt 1tt ltt ltt 1tt ltt 1tt l_tt Ltt lltt tt 1tt ltt l1tt tt

Shipping Weight 1b

v-L65-l-0 v-I675-10 v-1610-10 v-205-10 v-2075-10 v-2010-10 v-245-10 v-247 5-L0 v-2410-10 v-305-10 v-3075-10 v-3010-10 v-3675-10 v-3610-10 v-3615-10 v-427 5-L0 v-4210-10 v-4215-10 v-4875-10 v-48L0-10 v-48r.5-10 v-5475-10 v-5410-10 v-5415-10 v-6075-10 v-6010-10 v-6015-10 v-6020-10

l-6tt x 16" x 16" x 20" x 20" x 20" x 24" x 24" x 24" x 30tt x 30" x 30" x 36" x 36t' x 36" x 42" x 42" x 42" x 48" x 48" x 48" x 54" x 54tt x 54" x 60" x 50" x 60" x 60tt x

5| 7-L/2' 10t 5f 7-L/21 10| 5l 7-Ll2l L0 5t 7-L/2' 10| 7-Ll2l 10t 15r 7-L/2' 10| 15t 7-L/21 10| 15| 7-Ll2l 10 | l-5 | 7-L/2' 10| L5| 201

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 r.000 1000 1000

2t' 2t'

2"
2tt 2tt

2" 2" 2" 2" 2" 2" 2" 2"

1100 1200 1500 1600 1900 2200 2500 2850 3300 3200 3650 42AO 5400 6400 8700 7700 91C0 12000 10400 L2400 1640C 12300 14900 20400 17500 20500 26500 32500

*Other s'tandard working pressures avail-able are 230 , 500, 600, l-200, L440 , 1500, and 2000 psl. **Last two digits of model number would change for other working pressures, i.e. L44Opsl (-14), 600 psi (-6).

-30-\\

^'\
\ZO

Sivalls, Inc.
Box 2792 Texag 797ffi Odeesa,

TABLE 2B SETTLING VOLI]MESOF STAI\TDARD VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPASATORS, 230 PSr THRU2000 PSr W.P.***

Sj-ze Dia x Ht
16tt x 5t

Settl-ins Volume. bbl* Oil-Gas Separators 0il--Gas-Water Separators**

16" x 7-L/21 16" x 10f 2 0" x 5t

20" 20" 24" 24" 24"

x x x x x

7-L/2' 10| 5t 7-L/2' 10r


5t

30tt x

30" x 7-Ll2'
30tt x 10 t

36" x 7-L/2' 36" x 10|


36tt x 15 t

42" 42" 42" 48" 48" 48" 54" 54" 54" 60" 60" 60tt 60"

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

7-L/2' 10t 15r 7-Ll2l 101 15r 7-L/2' 10t 15| 7-L/2' 10t 15| 201

0.27 0.41 0.51 0. 4 4 0.65 0.82 0.66 o. 9 7 L.2L 1.13 L.64 2.02 2.47 3.02 4.L3 3.53 4.29 5.80 4.81 5.80 7. 7 9 6.33 7. 6 0 1 0 .1 2 8.08 9. 6 3 L2.73 15. 3l_

0.44 0.72 0. 9 4 o.7L 1.15 1.48 1 .0 5 l _ .6 8 2.L5 L,7 6 2.78 3. 5 4 4.L3 5.24 7.45 5.80 7. 3 2 I 0.36 7. 7 9 9.78 13 . 7 6 I 0.L2 12. 6 5 17 . 7 0 12 . 7 3 15 . 8 3 22 . 0 3 27. 2 A

*Based on 1000 psi W.P. Separators. **Total settling vol-ume i.s usuaLl-y spLit even between oil- and water. ***ggandard working pressures avail-abl-e are 230 , 500, l-000' l-200, L440, l-500' and 2000 psi.

^'\
\
\ZO

"

Sivalls, Inc.
Texas 797ffi Odessa,

-31-

Box 2792

TABTE 3A SPECIFICATIONSOF STA}IDARD HORIZONTAL LOWPRESSURE SEPARATORS

Model No.

Size Dia x Ht

Working Pressure psi L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25

Inlet & Gas Outlet Conn. 2" 2" 3" 3" 3" 4" 4" 4" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Flg Flg Flg F1g Flg

oil_ Outlet Conn.


2" 2" 2" 3" 3" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4" Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd Thd

Standard
Oj-I or

Valves Gas

0i1 & Water


2t, 2t'

Shipping trleight 1b

H-245 H - 2 4 75 H-24L0 H-305 H-3075 H-3010 H-3610 H-3615 H-4810 H-4815 H-6010 H-6015 H-6020

24" x 24" x 24" x 30tt x 30" x 30" x 36" x 36t' x 48t' x 48" x 60tt x 60" x
60tt x

5t 7-L/2' 10r 5r 7-Ll2l 10r 10t 15| 10| 15| 10r 15t
201

2"
2t' 2t'

2" 2" 2" 2" 2" 2" 2"


3tt 3tt 3tt

2"
2rt 2rt

2"
2rt 2tt 3tt 3tt 3tt 4t'

4"

1000 1200 1600 1200 1600 2100 2900 3800 3500 4600 6200 8100 10000

TABLE 38 SETTLING VOLI]MESOF STANDARD HORIZONTAI LOW PRESSURE SEPARATORS, L25 psi W.P.

Dia

Size x Len
5l

S ettl i ng

V ol ume.

bbl

L/2 Full 1.55 2. 2 2 2.gg 2.48 3.54 4.59 6.7L 9.76 L 2. 2 4 L7.72 19.50 28.06 3 6. 6 3

r/3 Ful-l
0.gg L.28 L.67 L.43 2.04 2.66 3.88 5. 6 6 7. 0 7 LO.26 LL.24 L6.23 2L.2L

Ll4 Full 0.59 0.B6 L.L2 0.94 L. 3 6

24tt x

24" x 7-L/21 24" x 10r


30tt x 5f

30" 30" 36" 36" 48" 48" 60" 60" 60t'

x x x x x x x x x

7-L/21 10r 101 15r 10r 15r 101 15| 201

r.77
2. 5 9 3.79 4.7L 6.85 7. 4 7 10.82 L4.16

^'\
-32-\\ \ZO

Sivalls, Inc.
Box 2792 Texas797ffi Odeeea,

TABTE 4A SEPAMTORS HIGH PRESSURE HORIZONTAT SPECIFICATIONSOF STAI{DARD

Model N O .J r *

Si-ze Di.a x Ht

Working Pressure psi*

Inlet & Gas Outlet Conn. 2" Thd 2" Thd 2t' Thd 2" Thd 2" Thd 2t' Thd 3" Flg 3" Flg 3" Flg 4" Flg 4" Flg 4" Flg 4" Flg 4' Flg 4" F1g 4" Flg 4" Flg 6" Flg 6t' Flg 6t' Flg 6" Flg 6" F1g 6" Flg 6" Flg 6" Flg 8" Flg 8" Flg 8t' Flg 8" Flg 8" Flg 8" Flg 8r' Flg 8r' Flg 8t' Flg 8" Flg 8" Flg 8t' Flg

Standard Li qui d Valve


ltt ltt 1tt ltt l_tt tt l_ 1tt 1tt 1tt 1tt ltt 1tt 1tt 1tt

S hi ppi n g Weight 1b

H-125-10 H-1275-10 H-1210-10 H-165-10 H-1675-10 H-1610-10 H-205-10 H-207 5-LO H-2010-10 H-245-L0 H - 2 4 75 - 1 0 H-2410-10 H-24L5-L0 H-305-10 H-3075-10 H-3010-10 H-3015-10 H-3675-10 H-3610-10 H-3615-10 H-3620-10 H-427 5-L0 H-4210-10 H-4215-10 H-4220-L0 H-4875-10 H-4810-10 H-4815-10 H-4820-r0 H-547 5-L0 H-5410-10 H-5415-10 H-5420-10 H-6075-10 H-6010-10 H-6015-10 H-6020-10

L 2 - 3 1 4 "x 5 r L 2 - 3/ 4 " x 7 - L / 2 ' L2-3|4" x 10I


16tt x 5r

1000 1000 1000 1000

16" x 16" x 2A" x 20" x 20" x 24" x 24" x 24" x 24" x 30tt x 30" x 30" x 30" x 36" x 36" x 36" x 36" x 42" x 42" x 42" x 42t' x 48" x 48" x 48" x 48r' x 54" x 54" x 54" x 54" x 60" x 60" x 60" x 60" x

7-L/21 10r 5t 7-L/21 10t 5r 7-L/2' 10| 15| 5r 7-L/21 10r 15| 7-Ll2' 10| 15| 201 7-L/2' 10| 15' 20' 7-L/2' 10| 15| 201 7-L/21 10' 15| 20t 7-Ll2' 10r 15| 2Ol

r_000

l_"
ltt 2t'

1000

2" 2" 2"


2t,

1000

2"
2tt

2" 2"
2t' 21, 2t' 2t,

1000

1000

2"
2tt 2tt 2rt

1000

2" 2" 2"


2t'

1100 1200 1300 1400 1750 2t_00 1800 2300 2900 2200 3000 3800 s400 3200 4300 5500 7800 6100 7s00 10200 12000 8200 9900 13400 16900 10900 L2700 17500 22LOO 13400 16000 2L200 26400 16700 19900 26400 32900

*Other standard working pressures availabl-e are 230, 500, 600, 1200 , L440, 1500 ' and 2000 psi. **Last, two digits of model number woul-d change f or other working Pressures ' i. o. 6 0 0 p s i ( - 6 ) , L 4 4 Op s i ( - 1 4 ) .

it

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G Sivails, fnc.
Box 2792 Odesea, Texag 797ffi

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TABTE 48 SETTTING VOLI]MESOF STAI.IDARD HORIZONTAT HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS, 230 psl THRU2000 psr I{I.p.**
Size Dia x Len

Settline

Volume- bb1*

L/2 Fu1l

1/3 rutt
o. 2 2 0. 3 2 0. 4 2 0.35 0.50 0 .6 6 0.55 0.79 1.03 0 .g 3 1. l_8 L.52 2.2L 1 .3 g L. 9 6 2. 5 2 3. 6.5 2. 9 7 3 .6 8 5 .3 0 6.92 3 .9 8 5.0g 7. 3 0 9.51 5. 3 2 6.77 9.67 L2.57 6.87 8.7L L2.40 L6.08 8.60 L 0 .8 6 15.39 l_9.90

L/ 4 Fu1l

L2-3/4" x 5t I2-3/4" x 7-L/2 L2-3/4" x 10|


16tt x 5l

16" 16" 20" 20" 20" 24" 24" 24" 24"

x x x x x x x x x

7-t/2' 10r 5t 7-L/21 10t 5r 7- L / 2 1 10| 15t


5t

30tt x

30" x 30" x 30tt x 36" x 36" x 36" x 36" x 42" x 42" x 42" x 42" x 48" x 48" x 48t' x 48" x 54" x 54" x 54" x 54" x 60" x 60" x 60" x 60" x

7-t/2t 10t 15t 7-L/21 10f 15| 201 7-L/2' 10| 15| 201 7-t/Z' 10r 15r 201 7-L/21 10| 15r 201 7-L/21 10| 15r 2Ol

0 .3 g 0.55 0.72 0.61 0.gg L.L4 0.gg 1.39 1.g0 L.45 2.04 2.63 3.81 2.43 3.40 4.37 6.30 4.gg 6.3g 9.L7 1 1 .9 6 6. 9 3 g.g3 L2.52 L6.4L 9. 2 8 L L. 7 7 L6.74 2L.7L L 2. 0 2 L5.L7 L2.49 2 7. 8 L 1 5 .0 5 1 8 .9 3 2 6. 6 9 3 4. 4 4

0.15 0.21 0.28 0. 2 4 0.34 0. 4 4 0.39 0.54 0.70 0.55 0 .7 8 0.01 L.47 0 .9 1 L.2g L.67 2.42 1 .g 0 2. 4 5 3. 5 4 4. 6 3 2.6L 3 .3 5 4 .g 3 6. 3 2 3 .5 1 4. 4 9 6. 4 3 8 .3 g 4.49 5.73 8. 2 0 1 0 .6 8 5. 6 6 7. L 7 LO.2L L 3. 2 4

*Based on 1000 psi W.p. Separator. **Standard working pressures avail-abl-e are 230, 500, 600, 1000, 1200, L440, 1500, and 2000 psi.

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Sivalls, Inc.
2792 Odeesa, Texas 797ffi

TABLE 5A SPHERICAI SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONSOF STANDARD

Mo del \ J 9 .* * *

Diameter

Working Pressure psi

Inlet & Gas Outl-et Conn. 4" 4" 4" 3t' 4" 6" 2" 2t' 3t' 4" 4" 6" Thd Thd Thd Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg Flg

Standard Liquid Valve


2t' 3tt 4tt 2t' 2tt

Shipping trleight 1b

S-4lF S-46F S-54F

41tt

L25 250 1.000* l-000**

s-342 s-348 s-360 s-L024 s-1030 s-1036 s-1042 s-1048 s-1060

46" 54" 42"


4gtt 60tt

2"
1tt l_tt l_tt

24"
30tt 36tt

42"
4gtt 60tt

2"
2t' 2rt

1000 1300 1700 1100 1400 3400 1300 1400 1800 2800 3700 4300

*other standard working pressures availabl-e are 500, 600, 1200, L440, 2000 ' and 3000 psi. **Other standard working pressures available are 500, 600, 1200 and 1440 psi. ***First of model number on high pressure unit,s ehange for other two digits working pressures, i.e. 600 psi (5-6--) , L440 Psi (S-l-4--).

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Sivalls, fnc.
Box 2792 Texas 797ffi Odesea,

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TABTE 58 SETTTING VOII'MES OF STAI{DARD SPHERICATtOW PRESSURE SEPARATORS, L25 PSr W.P.

Slze 0.D.

Settling Volume bbl_

4L"
46tt

s4"

0.77 L. 0 2 1.60

TABLE 5C SETTLING VOLI'MESOF STAI{DARD SPHERICALHIGH PRESSURE SEPAMToRS, 230 pSI THRU3000 pSI W.p.**

Size

o .D .
24tt 30tt

SettLing Volume bb1*

36" 42"
48t' 50tt

0.15 0.30 0.54 0.8g l_.33 2.20

*Based on 1000 psi W.P. Separator **Standard working pressures availabl-e are 230 , 500 , 600, l-000, l-200, L440, L500, 2000, and 3000 psi.

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box Tl92 Odessa'Texas 797ffi

REFERENCES "Elements of Field Campbell, John M., pp 6-L2.

1.

Processing",

The Oil- & Gas Journal,

Z,

perry, John, t'Chemical Engineerts Handbook"r 4ttr Ed, McGraw-Hi11-, 1963' pp L8-6

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Sivalls, Inc.
hx 2792 Odegga, Texas 797ffi

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J anuar y

1,

1987

SECTION: 300 TECHNICAL BULLETIN No. 159, Rev. 2 TWO STAGE SEPAMTION SYSTEMS

I NT RO DUCTION : When natural gas was worth approxinateLy and oil or $.16 per MCF at the wellhead hydrocarbon condensate was worth $3.00 per barrel, it nas very hard to Justify the economics of the additional equlpment required for tvo atage separation of high pressure gas streams, Now that the economic picture has changed and gas is north approxitriately $2,00 per MCF at the weLlhead, and hydrocarbon liquids are worth approxlmately the econouic payout of additional $15.00 per barrel, equipment changes quite rapidly. This Technical BuLletin pre8ente chsrts which may be used to make a rapid estination of the additional recoveries that may be expected from trro stage versus single stage separation. The economics of these additional recoveriea can be quickly determined in order to evaluate the payout of additioneL equipment required as described below. TWO STAGE SEPAMTION: In high pressure gas-condensa,te separation systems, it is generally accepted that a step wise reduction of the pressure on the liquid eondensate lrill appreciably increase the recovery of stock tank liquids. The calculation of the actual perfornance of the various separators in a multi-stage separation system can be rnade, using the initial wellstream composition and the operating temperatures and pressures of the various stages, Horrever, in the absence of a computer to perforn a complete set of flash vaporization general guidelines calculationa, can be furnished to estimate the anticipated performance of multi-stage separation unita. Although, theoretically, three to four stages of separation would increase the liquid recovery over ttro stage, the net increase over trro stage separetion will rareLy pay out the cost of the second and/or third separator. Therefore, it has been generally accepted that two stages of separation, plus the stock tank are the most optimum considered. The actual increase in liquid recovery fof two stage separation over single stage may vary from 3 to L5%, depending on the wellstream composition, preasurea and temperatures. operating Horrever, in some cases, as high as 20 to 25% increaae in recoveries has been reported. The optimum high stage or first preasure is generally separator operating governed by the gas transnission line pressure and operating characteristics of the well. This will generally range in pressures fron 600 to 1200 p6i. If the transmission p r e s s u re is at least 600 psi, operatore will line generally let the first stage separator ride the line or operate at the transmission line presaure. For each high or first stage pressure there is an optimum low stage separation pressure which will afford the maximum liquid recovery. This operating pressure can be determined from an equation based on equal pressure ratios bettreen the stages.2

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box 2792 Texas797ffi Odesga,

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R =[rtio l - l
or

L P".J

P2 = P1 = ps (n)n-l R

Inlhere: R n P1 P2 Ps

=Pressureratio = Number of stages - 1 = First stage or high pressure separator = Second stage or low pressure separator = Stock tank pressure, psia

pressure, pressure,

psia psia

D E S C R I P T I O NO F P R O C E S S : high pressure weLl proFigure 1 illustrates a schenatic flow diagrarn of a tyPical for two stage e q u i p m e n t i 8 i l l u s trated i n s t a l L a t l o n . T h e b a s i c duction equipment pressure well t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e F r o m t h e w e l l h e a d , stream. eeparation of the high gas pressure and indirect heater high separator streaE flons through a Production to choking to reduce the wellunit. In this unit the inlet stream is heated prior stream pressure to sales line pressure. This is done to prevent the formation of or sales line. in the choke or do$nstream of the choke in the separator hydrates p r e s s u r e separator luhere p a s s e s t o t h e h i g h w e l l s t r e a m From the indirect heater the p r o d u c e d r oell fluids occur. g a s h i g h p r e s s u r e s t r e a m a n d separation of the the initial meter and to the the gas florcs through an orifice From the hlgh pressure separator p r e s s u r e t h r ough a diaphragn s e p a r a t o r The liquid from the high sales line. Passes t o a low pressure p r e s s u r e a n d i t i s d i s c h a r g e d i s r e d u c e d , motor valve where the o P erate at approxip r e s s u r e w h l c h w o u l d l o w f l a s h s e p a r a t o r flash separator. In the hydroa n d t h e lighter p s i , o c c u r s b e t h T e e n t h e l i q u l d s a second separation nately 100 p r e s s u r e s e P a r a t o r is f l a s h g a s f r o m t h e l o w T h e r e l e a s e d carbons in the liquids. for both instrument pressure it ltray be used unit where returned back to the high in Figure 1, a secondary makeheater. As illustrated and fuel gas for the indirect additional pressure which would provide seParator' fron the high up llne ie shown gas released front gas, was gas if not enough gas and fuel for the inatrument makeup i s r e q u ired g a s r e l e a s e d t h a n m o r e i s p r e a a u r e T y p i c a L L y t h o u g h , separator. the low g a t h e r i n g p r e s a u r e g a s g a s i n a L o w p r e s s u r e m a y b e s o l d and the additional low purpoaes, such as fuel for comPressor engines system and/or used for other utillty for dehydrators or a r e a . This nay be for reboilers or other fired equipment in the p r e s s u r e f l a s h separator the l o w g a s c e t e r a . F r o n t h e u n i t s ' e t acid aweetening tank lthich a storage motor valve into diaphragrn through another liqutd is discharged p r e s s u r e . g e n e r a l l y a t m o s p h e r i c operated at is single stage from a typical feetures shordn here which are different The additional b e t w e e n the liquid p r e s s u r e s e P a r a t o r f l a s h o f t h e l o w i s t h e a d d i t i o n installation This unit and the storage tank. discharge fron the high pressure gas production This also provides a source rather than one. provides for two stages of separation purPoses ltith any excess sold, and of Low pressure gas which may be used for utility product which in effect of the liquid increaseg the stabilization Produces more b e s o l d . s t o r a g e t a n k t o liquid in the

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box2792 Odeesa,Texae 797ffi

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GAS AND LIQUID INCREASE: Flash vaporization calculations were perforned on a typical high pressure gaa stream to determine the increased recoverieg that nould be 6een in both the low pressure flash gas as lrell as increased liquid recoverles i.n the storage tank. The typical lreLlstream used was a high pressure gas stream with a specific gravity of 0.67, and the flash celcuLatlons were performed at various high pressure separator pressures fron 500 to 1000 psi. The tenperature was held constant at 70oF for these celcuThe low lations. This would be a typlceL year round average for moet locations. pressure separator flash calculations were also held at 70"F and 14.7 psia. The gas strean selected was a fairly lean stream producing only about 5 to 7 barrels per MMCFstock tank liquid recovery. This is a fairly lean gtream and richer atreama would produce more dramatic results in payout using tvo stage separation. The results indicated herein are considered very conservative for typlcaL lreLlstream8. Figure 2 illustrates the gas produced fron the low pressure flagh separator for the above described wellstream at varioua high pressure operating pressures (line pressure). The gas produced from the low pressure flash separator in MCF per year may be read fron Figure 2, based on a high pressure gas stream flon rate in MMSCFD and the high pressure separator operating pressure, Figure 3 il.lustrates the increase in stock tank liquid recovery that would be This chart is also based on achieved by using the low pressure flash sepsrator. the high pressure gas flow rate in MMSCFD and the high pressure separator operating pressure. The increase in stock tank liquid recovery may be reed from the chart in B b1 / y e a r .
ECONOMICS:

The economics or increese in doLLar revenue that can be achieved with two stege separation ean be rapidly determined based on the results from Flgures 2 and 3 using formula. the following Low Pressure Flash Gas = (tqcr'/yr) (price $/ucr') $/ y r $/ y t $/ y r

Additional Stock Tank Liquid = (gb1/yr) (price $/Bb1)


Total Increased Revenue

gas well operating at a line pressure of 700 psi Using an example of a 2.0 MMSCFD that would normally make about 5 to 6 bbl/MMCF of condensate with single stage seprevenue would be achieved using two stage dollar aration, the following additional separat ion . Based on gas at $2.00/UCf and condensate at = = $15.00/bb1.

Low Pressure Flash Gas Additional Total Condensate

Q|SO MCF /yr ) ( $2. 0O/tqcr) = $ (650 bbL/yr)($fS.00/bb1) =

5300 9 75 0

Increased

Revenue =

$ t5050/yr

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Sivalls, Inc.
2792 Odegsa, Texas 797ffi

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SUM}IARY:

As can be seen from the above results the payout that could be achieved on the use The cost required for the addition of a of tlrro etage seperation is qulte dramatic. enall low pressure flash eeparator to provlde for. t\ro stege separation is quite snal recover This additional recovery that could be achieved. compared to the additional precious not only produces dollsrs of revenue, but prevents the unneeded waate of hydrocarbon energy that wouLd normally be vented out the stock tank using only singl stage aeparation.

-5-

l-

E 6
\-

x i
t-

c) t (t

5E

Fe
E

Rs
cB
-rl

!r

:F

lrr

BF HE
*E

lFb$ t v ,

k i

F f ; E S
i-

,'E

F3

t"

!3
i

tH
-l

Pt

F*F u=
t a \ {
l{ -f

HH3

$Qd s e

E6*

kr =

- 6-

FIGURE 2 LOW PRESSUREGAS FROM FLASH SEPARATOR

L'** i '--

ilr'lirti*.'=lif,,i*ll-,''f i;i,l',

GAS FLOW RATE -

MMSCFD

SIVALLS INC.

6 /. / zt

c.R.s.

TEIS PAGE BI...AIIK

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Sivalls, Inc.
bx 2792 Odessa, Texas 797ffi

\ZO

January 1, 1987

SECTION: 300 TECHNICAL BULLETIN N o . L 6 2, R e v . 1


FILTER SEPAMTORS

G E NE M L:

Filter Separators are combinatlon units which incorporate the features of a dry ges filter rdith fiLter elements in conjunction with the feetures of a liquid-gas separation unit. They are used primarily ahead of processing equipment where it is desirable to remove any solid foreign particle elements ae well as liquid fron the gas strearn, They would find application ahead of conpressors, dry desicant proceasing equipment, and gaa processing equipnent where contamination of a liquid clrculated in the system would be undesirable, PROCESS DESCRIPTION:
FiLter separators, nhether constructed in a horizontal or vertical configuration, are basicaLly two stege vessels. The flrst stage is an area whlch is filled with multiple sock type filter elenents for removing foreign solld particle contamination from the gas atream. The filter elements also aid in coalesclng very smaLl particles of liquid into larger droplets, where they will drain by gravity into the liquid eettl-lng section of the veeeel. The gas flow is from the outside of the filter elements to the inside, and through a perforated mandril located inside each element to the next stage of the vessel. The inl.et aection also acts as a slug catcher for receiving surges of liquid where it nay be trapped and passed into the liquid settling section of the vessel. The second stage of the vessel consists of an open separator section nhich contains a mist elininator for removlng smal1 entrained droplets from the gae stream before it passes out of the vessel. This nist eliminator may be either a vane type configuration or a stalnLess wire nesh type. The liquid separated from the gas in either the first etage or second stage of the vessel pesses to a liquid settling section where it is discharged from the vessel. IIORIZONTAL FILTER SEPAMTORS: Figure 5 il-lustrates a typical horizontal filter separator which is noraully constructed in a two-barrel separator configuration. The gas passes through the upper barrel or tube of the vessel. The gas enters through the inlet connection on the top of the vessel. and passes through the first stage or filter element section. On the end of this section ls a qulck opening closure for maintenance through a small. settling section, and then through a mist eliminator before discharging from the vessel at the opposite end. The lower barrel or tube of the pipes separator is the liquid accuDulator or eettling section which has drain-back connecting the various portions The liquid of the upper barrel of the vessel. settling section is diviiled into two compartments so that there is no gas bypass

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Sivalls, Inc.
Bo:r2792 Odesga,Texas 797ffi

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stage of the vessel to the second stage. through this section from the first section is equipped with a high pressure settling Each compartment in the liquid leve1 control and diaphragm operated motor valve to discharge the liquid liquid of horizonspecification Table 3 lists the typical accumulated from the vessel. separators. ta1 high pressure filter VERTICAL FILTER SEPAMTORS: in Figure 6 and are normally constructed Filter Separators are illustrated Vertical The upper section of the vessel is the first in a single vessel configuration. The top of the vessel is elenents. stage of the unit which houses the filter for renoval and changing of the filter equipped with a quick opening closure is on the side of the first stage of the unit and the gas elements. The gas inlet pasaes in and through the filter After passing through the filelements section. ter elements the gas flow passes dotdnward into the lower stage or second stage of The gas passes section and the mist eliminator. the vessel, which houses a settling and leaves the vessel through through this section out through the Eist eliminator The upper stage of the a gas outlet connection on the lower side of the vessel. l i q u i d discharge motor valve to w i t h a l i q u i d l e v e l c o n t r o l a n d vessel is equipped The lower stage of of the unit. discharge any liquid accumulated in this portion a n d d i a p hragm motor valve w i t h a l i q u i d l e v e l c o n t r o l the vessel is also equipped a e c t i o n a n d r e m o v e d by the nist elimiseparated in the settling to discharge liquid t w o discharge motor h a v e t w o l i q u i d c o n t r o l s a n d nator. It is also necessary to g a s p r e v e n t a r o u nd the filter a n y b y p a s s i n g o f valves in this type of vessel to of verT a b l e 4 l i s t s t h e t y p i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s elementa or mist eliminator. p r e a s u r e f i l t e r s e p a r a t o r s . tical high FILTER SEPARATORSIZING I separators may be determined from the rapid si-ztr.g The gas capacity of filter The gas capacity of smal1 horizontal charts contained in Figures 1 through 4. in The larger models are illustrated filter separators are shown in Figure 1. a r e s h o w n i n f i l t e r s e p a r a t o r s g a s v e r t i c a l o f s m a l 1 The capacity Figure 2. are based on a These gas capacities Figure 3 and the larger ones in Figure 4. For difgas specific gravity of 0.68 and an operating temperature of 60" F. Tables 1 i n f a c t o r s c o n t a i n e d u s e c o r r e c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , t h e ferent operating equation. and 2 with the following Q f Wheret = Q s x C g x C r MMSCFD Qf = Gas capacity at operating conditions' = a t o p erating pressure F i l t e r / S e p a r a t o r o f c a p a c i t y G a s Qs MMSCFD from charts, factor correction Cg = Specific gravity = f a c t o r c o r r e c t i o n T e m p e r a t u r e Ct

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box 2792 Odessa, Texas 797ffi

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TABLE 1 SPECIFIC GRAVITYCORRECTION FACTORS


Ga s Gravity

IABLE 2 TEMPERATURECORRECTIONFACTORS

cg
Correction Factor Gas Temperature

cr
Correction Factor

Specific

0.55 0.60 0.65 0.68 0.70 0,75 0.80 0.85 0.90

1 .1 1 1.06

r.02
1.00 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.89 0.87

50"F 60 70 80 90 100 110 L20 130

1.01 1.00 0.99 0.gg 0.97 0.96 0.955 0.95 0.94

CONCLUS ION : The gas and liquid capacities of either horizontaL or vertical high pressure filter separators will differ from those of conventional oi1-gas separators. Caution should be observed in the design of either type of vessel to provide one with the proper capacity that is required.

-4-

F I G U R EI GAS CAPACITY OF HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSUREFILTER/SEPARATORS

r#
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,"tlP

ciP

r.9. :$
.:l:

to ..... -,i
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w t ;8. ..: . :
>*r, p +

,5

, i

u
L (t

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(t

o.ej e$

too

300

400

600

1500

oPERATTNGPRESSURE,PSIG.

SIVALLS INC.

t 2 / t/ 7 l c R s

2 FIGURE GAS CAPAC ITY OF

HO R I Z O N T A L

-5-

HIGH PRESSURE FILTER/SEPARATORS

$o-o
: l ,'1 ,

rr

700,
i , . .

6D $

%
!'rD
' .o 9 ' hb7

tl

:6oo ::.,,: ::,


l'rr .-l :r l

5 400
: . 1

, - , l l

. ,:, i ' . 1

'oiP

so-0

,,,

;,e
adP
*,

6q
l-0,-o

'e0

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r : l

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=i :'f

60
't' :tt:'

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$-

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(L 4

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zoo

300

400

800., tooo
PSIG

t500

OPERATING

P R E S S U R E,

SIVALLS

INC.

t2/ | /7t

c.R.s.

-6-

F I G U R E3 GAS CAPACITY OF VERTICAL HI G H P R E S S U R E F rL T ER / S E P A R A T O R S

ir

zJP
ids

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irffi
,dP

lo
iej :8
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H (lr

i$
lt" $; 'i'

tF, -E ''.i'
t.iF

$,I

P-r" H &). ,4. L-. lsl $r':


-t:

: rI

rco

400

$6;l'1666

O P E R A T I N G P R E S S U R,E P S I G S I V A L L SI N C . t2/t /7t c.R.s,

F I G U R E4 GAS CAPAC ITY OF

VERTICAL

HIGH PRESSURE FILTER /,SCPARATORS

[oP
i\

300

6q

6P
A
l , r l

}P 'otP

ab

{,P Pv o9
x9

a6x

IOppp9999.Q

,,9o
O. fl ..8. ,(J, '7'Q;,:{t}" E E. , 6 0 ''i
' . l l : '

>nl

40

ff.: {.
4,.

6:

;
lJ',

t00

200

300

800., lo.oo
P R E S S U R E, P Sl G .

OPERAT I NG

SIVALLS ING.

t?/t/7t c.R.s.

-8-\\

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Sivalls, Inc.
2792 Odesea, Texas 797ffi

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c o o c c c c o a c c c c c c o o o a c o

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\ Box 2792

Sivalls, Inc.
Odeeaa, Texas797ffi

-9-

FIGURE 6 VERTICAL FILTER SEPAMTOR OPENING OUICK CLOSURE

SAFETYHEAD S A F E T YR E L I E F
VALVE

4 Y?' x 72' FTLTER


ELEM ENTS

TNLET

DIAPHRAGM MOTOR
VALVE

L I Q U I DL E V E L C O N TROL SIGHT GLASS

L I O U I DO U T L E T

I N S T C ' A SP I P I N G

)_ ) _l
o o o o ll. o o c l o l o o o

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAUSE GASOUTLET INSTG . ASREG.

V A N ET Y P EM I S T EXTRACTOR PRESSURE GAUGE

MOTOR DIAPHRAGM
l j

VALVE

L I O U I D L E V E LC O N -

TROL v

STGHT

S G LA S S E

loutD 3uIlE T_

\-==+,= -"'
DRAI N

ELEVATION

-10-\\

^'\

Sivalls, Inc.
Box 2792 Texas797ffi Odessa,
TABLE 3 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE FILTER/ SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS

\ZO

l"1ode1 No.I

Upper Tube Size Nomlnal P.2 psi 0D x Length I . I . x 10 x 10' x 10' x 10I 10| LOt Lzl L2l L4l 16| 16t 18t 1 8| 2Al 201

Lower Tube Inlet & Outlet Size OD x Length Gas Conn. 6-5/8" 6-518" 6-5/8" 6-5/8" 6-5/9" 6-5/8" 8-5/8" 8-5/8" L0-3/ 4" L0-3/4" L0-3/4" l-4tt x L4" x 16" x L8" x x 7' x 7l x 7' x 7l x 7' x 7l x I' x 8l x 9' x 11' x lL' Lzl Lzl 13r 13t

Nomlnal

std. oil Valves


ltt ltt ltt ltt tt l1tt ltt

eas C.p""rtv3
MMSCFD

HES-610-10 6-5/8" r{ES-810-10 8-5/8" HES-1010-10 L 0 - 3 / 4 " HES-1210-10 t2-3/4" H E S - 1 4 1 0 - 1 0 L4" x HES-1610-10 L 6 " x HES-1812-L0 18" x H E S - 2 0 1 2 - 1 0 20" x H E S - 2 4 1 4 - 1 0 24" x HES-3016-10 30" x HES-3616-10 36t' x H E S - 4 2 1 8 - 1 0 42" x HES-4818-10 48t' x HES-5420-10 54" x H E S - 6 0 2 0 - 1 0 60" x

1000

2" 2"
3tt 4tt

4" 4"
6tt 6tt gtt 10tt

1'l
Ltt ltt 1tt 1t' tt l_ 2rt

L2" L4"
L6tt Lgtt

20"

2"

2.4 9.7 10.8 19.0 2L.0 29.5 38 47 72 L27 L72 265 330 450 560

TABLE 4 FILTER/SEPAMTORS VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SPECIFICATIONS Nomlnal Gas Capacity3 MMSCFD

Model No.1

Size O.D. x Length

Noninal W ,P . 2 p s i

Inl-et & Outl-et Gas Conn.

srd. oil
Valve
l_tt ltt 1tt lit tt l_ ltt Ltt ltt ltt Ltt tt l_ 2tt 2rt

vES-1010-10 10-3/4" x 10 vES-1210-10 L 2 - 3 / 4 " x l - 0 ' L4" x 10' vES-1410-10 16" x 10r vES-1610-10 vEs-181 2-L0 18tt x Lzl 20" x Lzl vES-20L2-L0 24" x L4l vEs-2414-10 vEs-3014-10 30" x L4l vES-3614-10 36" x l.4l 42" x 16t vEs-4216-10 vES-4816-10 48" x l"6 t vES-541_6-10 54" x 16t 60" x 16| vES-6010-10

1000

2" 2"
3tt

4" 4"
6tt 6tt gtt L0tt L0tt

Lzt'
14tt L6tt

5.0 8.5 11.5 15.5 22 27 43 63 93 L22 150 zLO 255

f. 2. 3.

working pressure units. iast two digits of nodel number would change for different Other working pressures available are 23O, 500, 1200, 1440 psig. Gas capacity is at design working pressure for 0.69sP gr natural gas at 50"F.

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Sivalls, Inc.
Texas 797ffi Odeesa,

Box 2792

January 1, t987

SECTION: 300 TECHNICAL BULLETIN No. L63, Rev. 1 LOW TEMPEMTURE GAS SEPAMTION UNITS

GENERAL: Low temperature gas eeparation equipnent is specifically designed to increase the recovery of liquid distillate frorn high pressure gas condensate wells, over that which could be expected by conventional aeparation methods. Each well strean must be examined with regards to the analysis of the stream composition, as well as operating characteristics of the weL1, such as flowing preasures and temperarures, to determine if it would be economically feaslble to instaLl a lou temperaEure gas separation unit. sivalls, rnc. low temperature gas separation units are each custom designed to meet the specific well stream characteristic and operating conditions, In looking at the feasibility of installing a low ternperature gas separation unit, the operator should also consider the type of liquid storage equipEent available, or to be inetalled, as well as the transportation costa of the recovered liquid product. PROCESSAPPI,ICATION: It is well known that lowering the operating teuperature of a separator will increase the liquid recovery. When the pressure is reduced on a high pressure gas condensate strean by use of a pressure reducing choke, there is also acconpanying decrease in the fluid temperature. This is rnhat is knovn a6 the JouLe-Thompaon or throttling effect, which is an irreveraible adiabatic process where the heet content of the gas remains the saue across the choke, but the pressure and teFperature of the gas strean is reduced.l It is aleo well knovn that a reduction of gas stream temperature will bring about the problenr of hydrate formation in the Lines and equipment. This occurrence and the handling of hydrates and gas streama is discussed nore completely in other technical publications.zrJ Howeverr in brief, the hydrates are solid particles and maases formed in gas strearns consisting of water and liquld hydrocarbons. These hydrates will form at specific conditions of temperature and pressure for each gas stream which is generally above 32"F for most high pressure gaa atreaus. The low temperature effect is uaed to advantage in low temperature units to increase the liquid recovery. The lower the operating temperature of the separator, the higher the liquld recovery will be. Ilowever, the naximum flowing pressure from the well at a given flor^t rate and the transmission line pressure rril1 indicate the maxinum amount of pressure drop avaiLabLe across the choke. Enthalpy curves on naturalgas can be used to determine the tenperature drop that can be expected based on the pressure drop.4 available In general, at least 2500 to 3000 psi pressure drop should be availabl.e frorn wellhead preaaure to pipeline flowing presaure before a low temperature separation unit will pay out in increased liquid recovery, The lowest operatiBg temperature reconmended for low temperature units is usually around -20"F. Carbon steel embrittlement occur below this temperature and high a1loy steels for lower temperatures are usually not economical for most oilfleld installations. Generally, lord tenperature separation units are operated in the range of 0"F to 20otr.

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box2792 Odessa,Texas 797ffi

\ZO

The liquid recovered from the high pressure separator on low temperature units should be passed through at least one low pressure separator to help in stabilproduct before it is put in storage tanks. i-zLr.g the liquid Since this cold contain many light hydrocarbons, severe agitation liquid will and flashing will occur if it is put directly into a stock tank. EQ UI P M E NTDE S C R IPT ION : A general sche[atic drawing of a low teEperature separation unit is illustrated in Figure 1. The inlet passes through a multiple well stream first tube heat exchanger. In the first well stream is aection of the heat exchanger, the inlet either cooled down by using the colder liquid fron the high pressure-low temperature separator or heated using 1.ow pressure stream. Either method rnay be used depending upon the fl.owing temperature of the inlet well strean, In the remaining sections of the heat exchanger the inlet well stream is cooled down by exchanging heat nith the cold gas from the Lon temperature separator, The heat exchangers are ernployed to raise the temperature of the coLd gas from the separator to a temperature suitable for entering the pipeline, as well as lowering the inlet well atream temperature point before entering to just above the hydrate the choke, The inlet well stream then passes through a pressure reducing choke mounted directly on the inlet of a high pressure-low In the choke, te[perature separator. the pressure as well as the temperature of the inlet well stream is substantially reduced to give an outlet gaa teEperature in the separator approximately 10o to 20' F. The distillate and any water produced with the well strearn is collected in the high pressure-low temperature separator. More distillate is recovered than would be recovered by conventional separation, due to the extremely low tempergas from the separator passes through ature within The cold outlet the vessel, the 6he11 side of the exchanger as described above and to the pipeline. A three way, throttling motor valve is instaLled on the coLd gas line at the inlet of the heat exchanger to control the temperature within the heat exchanger section. The distillate and water froro the high pressure separator are discharged to a low pressure three phase flash separatorr where the distil.late is further stabilized before it is discharged to the storage equipnent, If the liquid-to-gas passes from the heat exchange equipment is used as described above, the liquid high pressure and then to the low presseparator through this heat exchanger, sure flash separator. The nater from the low pressure separator is discharged separately to water disposal equipEent. A 15 psig (maximum 250'F) low pressure steam generator is employed to provide a heating nedium for the first section of the inlet ! , 7 e L 1s t r e a m h e a t e x c h a n g e r ( i f required) as well as for the heating coils in the liquid section of the lov temperature separator and the low pressure flash separator. Steam jackets are prolrell centrifugal drum in the low vided around the inlet stream choke, the inlet discharge line fron the high pressure-low temperature separator, and the liquid temperature separator, to prevent collection of hydrates and plugging of the lines. blanket, it is poeSince a gas-liquid interface i.s an extremely good insulating at in the bottom of the low temperature separator sible to maintain the liquid while the gas in the approximately fornation of hydrates 70o to 80" to prevent seDarator is maintained at a much lower temDerature. A high pressure free liquid knockout is not normally the low temperature separator. The free distillate used ahead of the is allowed to flow choke and through the

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box2792 Odeasa,Texas 797ffi

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choke along rrith the gae. Any free distillate and irater in the lnlet I'ell stream will pass through the choke and remain essentlally at the same temperature as it It is conceded that this free dlstillate entered. entering the separator wilL give up some heat and slightLy raise the temperature of the gas rrithin the separator. Any free nater accompanying the gas and distilLate through the choke will act in the sane rulnner. llorrever, accordlng to flagh vaporization calculations and field tests, the free distillate vill act as an absorption oiL and ectuaLLy ebsorb more of the gasoLine end the butane fraction from the htgh pressure gae stream. Therefore, nore distillate can be recovered et e higher operating temperature than lrould be possible at a lower opersting tempersture, if the distillate rrere renoved ahead of the choke and discharged into the separator separately. Free water will have a more adverse effect upon the gaa temperature lrithln the Beparator, since it hag a higher specific heat than the distillate, Generally, the nater has to be produced. in quantitles of at least 10 barrels per IIMCF, before the heat given up by rtater to the gas in the Beparator rriLl raiae the gas temperature enough to cauae any adverse affects upon the distiLlate recovery. If this were the case, the.n a fluid packed freewater knockout ahead of the separator and choke would be recommended. This is shorrn on a schematic drarring ea an optlonel lten. However, the gas and free dlstillate from the fLuid knockout would pass directly through the choke and into the aeparator as described above to obtain the absorptlon cheracterigtics of the free dtstillate. The process for low temperature separation bes been thoroughly investigated witlt respect to liquid recovery by both flssh calculations and field tests. SivaLls, Inc. is convinced that it has merit over other processea that are now available on the market. Sivalle low temperature aeparation unita are able to operate at high tenperatures (10" to 20"F in the low temperature separator rather than 0-10"F) which will give the operator lese operational problens while naintaining htgh distillate recoverles. ESTIMATED RICOVERIES: A recovery chart is illustrated ln Figure 2 by which it is possible to determine the effect of the lower separation temperature on Llquld recovery. This will aesist ln feasibility studies to determine if lorrr teEperature separation equipnent rrill pay out olr a given well stream. The purpose of this chsrt ls to estinate the liquid recovery by a 1o!, temperature eeparation unit, knowing the liquid recovery ratio that can be obtained by conventional separation unita. or gas/oil As illustrated by the dotted 1ine8 on the chart, fir8t locate a point of intersection of known GORor barrels per MMCFrecovery, end the tempereture at which the conventional separation test waa made. Fo1low parallel to the slanting Lineg from thls point to the intersection of the proposed low temperature separator temperature. Read vertically fron thls corner to determlne the predicted distillate recovery in barrels per MMCFor the GOR. In the exerple eholrn, tf lt ls knolrtn that 20 barrele per MMCFcan be recovered at a separatlon tempereture of 80oF, then approximately 25.7 barre\e per MMCFcan be recovered at a separatLon temperature of 20"F. On most Slvalls, Inc. low temperature separation units it rsould be possibl to maintain the sarne recovery at a separation temperature of 10"F higher or approxtnately 30oF.

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Sivalls, Inc.
Box TI92 Texas ?,97ffi Odeesa,

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RXFERENCES

1.

Katz, Donald L., L959, pp 135. Sivalls, Bulletin

et

11, rrHandbook of

Natural

Gas Engineeringtt,

McGraw-Hill,

2.

Heaters, C. Richard, ttlndirect Inc. No. 113, Sivalls,

Design and Sizingtt,

Technical

3.

C. Richard, ttGlycol Dehydration Design Manual", Siva1ls, of Oklahoma, L974. Conference, University

Gas Conditioning

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Sivalls, Inc.
TI92 Odesaa, Texas 797ffi

January

1,

1987

SECTION: 300 TE C H N IC A L B U LLE TI N No. L77 VERTICAL GAS SCRUBBERS

I NT RO DUCT I ON : Where only small or trace amounts of free liquid are known to be present in a gas gas scrubbers may be designed and sized using the gas capacity stream, vertical of the mist eliminator only. This will result in a considerably smaller vessel for a given gas flow rate. Or a given size vessel will handle considerably more gas than it would under conventional vertical separator sizing procedures. The vessel would be equipped with a conventional leve1 control and liquid liquid discharge valve, and, of course, would have a settling section in the bottom of the vessel for accumulating liquid drained out of the mist eliminator. However, surge room would be limited and there would be no settling section for separation of the liquid and gas by gravity. The major function of the vessel is to house the mist eliminator section which would remove entrained liquid mist from the gas stream strictly due to the action of the mist eliminator. This type of vessel might be used ahead of compressors where other separation equipment has already removed all of the free liquids r or downstream of process vessels where only entrained liquids or slight amounts of mist carry overs would be expected in the gas stream. CO NS T RUCTION : gas scrubber would normally be constructed A vertical identical to a small two phase vertical gas separator. It would have a tangential inlet diverter, a liquid level coatrol and discharge valve, diameter wire nesh mist elirinator and full in the top of the vessel, Other uaual separator devices would be furnished such as safety head, pressure relief Nornally, valve, level gauge, et cetera, these vessels would be built in only a 5' to 7-L/2t height, depending on the diameter of the vessel. These would not be equipped for three phase operation, since there would be not enough surge room for a conventioneL settLing section in the bottoqr of the vessel for proper separation of free water and distiLLate. See Table 2 for typical gas scrubbers. specifications of standard size vertical Norurally, gas connections the gas scrubbers roould have larger inlet and outlet than would conventional aeparators of the same physical size, because these vessels would be handling considerabLy more voluues of gas than would a conventional separator. SCRUBBERDESIGN: gas scrubbers may be calculated from the fo1lowThe gas capacity of vertical proposed by Souders-Brown. This is the same equation ing empirical relationship used for conventional separator sizing with only a change in the empirical K factor.

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Sivalls, fnc'
Box 2792 Odessa, Texas 797ffi

p--- p.r,l'h v = rl L a x J
Then A=g

Where:

gas velocity v = Superficial based on total cross-sectional area of vessel, ft/sec [ = Cross-sectional area of vessel, sq ft q = Gas flow rate at operating conditions, cu ft/sec lb/cu ft Pz= Density of liquid at operating conditions, .41= Density of gas at operating conditions, lb/cu ft K"= Empirical factor = 0.35 G = Gas capacity at standard conditions, MMSCFD D = Internal diameter of vessel, ft P = Operating pressure, psia oF T = Operating temperature, Z = Compressibility factor

For rapid sizing of vertical gas scrubbers the above equations have been plotted on Figure 1 based on a gas specific gravity of 0.69 and operating temperature 60"F. For other operating temperatures the correction factors may be used as listed in Table 1. The corrected gas capacity for other temperatures would then be expressed as follows:

cc = Gs(cr)
Wheret Gc = Corrected gas capacity, MMSCFD Gs = Standard gas capacity from Figure 1, MMSCFD Ct = Temperature correction factor, Table 1

Variations in normal gas specific gravities encountered need not be considered in using the sizing chart as it will not affect the gas capacity by a great amount. However, a more accurate design can be made using the equations described in the first part of this section. CONCLUSION: As stated above, the vertical gas scrubbers are not designed to handle any appreciable amounts of free liquid or normal liquid/gas settling as is found in conventional oil-gas separators. Thereforer Do liquid capacity sizing is necessary. If any liquid flow rates are known then conventional oil-gas separators gas scrubbers should not be used for this applicashould be used and vertical tion. Liquid discharge valves and liquid 1evel controls are provided on the vessels only for discharging the small amounts of liquids coalesced and drained from the mist eliminator portion of the vessels.

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\ BoxTl92

Sivatls, Inc.
Odesea, Texas797ffi

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TABLE 1 TEI'IPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR FIGURE 1

O p e r at i n g Temperature, oF

Correction FacEor, Ct

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

1.04 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.95 0 .9 3 0.91 0.90

TABLE 2 SPECIFICATIONS VERTICAL GAS SCRUBBERS Gas Connec t ions Inlet & Outlet
3tt 4tt

Ilode1 No.**

Si z e

o . D .,
in.

Shell Height

fr
5t 5t 5t 5t

Working Pressure, P si g *

St a n d a r d Liquid \talve
ltt ltt 1tt ltt ltt 1tt ltt ltt Lt'

Shipping Weight, Ib.

vcs- 1610 vcs-2010 vcs-2410 vcs-3010 vcs-36r0 vcs-4210 vGs-4810 vcs-5410 vcs-6010

16" 20" 24"


30tt 36tt

42"
4gtt

7- r / 2 l 7-t/2' 7-L/2'
7-L/21

54" 60"

7-rl2l

1000 1 0 00 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

4"
6tt 6rt gtt gtt

10" 10"

1200 1700 2600 3400 5600 7900 10600 r27 00 17900

*Other standard working pressures avallable are 230, 500, 600, 1200, 1440, 2000 P s ig . **Last two digits of model number would change for other working pressures, i.e. 1440 psi (14), 500 psi (6).

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l, ' " , FIGURE, , ' ,, VRTICAL .ggS.: CAPACITY. : GAS'SCR'UB$f ft$'1

GAS.-SP' GR. O. 'TEMP. 60 GAS,

200

-":P
po
90 80 70 60 50 40 30

6a:

dP
?lc;:

io;P

20

bro !s
= 8

t'7

56
f 5
o 4

o .,3

r.o

I
200 400

srvALL s , tNc. '- 7/to/go c.R.s.


i , . I . ,' ,

800 Iooo 600 E , P SI G P RE S S U R oPERAT|NG

t200

t400

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Sivalls, Inc.
Bo:r2792 Odessa,Texas 797ffi

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FIGURE 2 VERTICAL GAS SCRUBBER

M IST
E L I M I NA T OR R Er l E F

m'rrHAND VALVE PR E S SURE


R EG U L A T O R

SAFETY

PRESSURE GAUGE

INLET D I V E R TF E

LEVEL CONTROL CONTROL

----

JT

0rL
OUTLET

OUTLET