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EXPERIMENT: TO DETERMINE THE COMPPSIOTION OF THE MIXTURE OF ODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM CARBONATE.

APPARATUS: Burette, Pipette, Conic ! "! #$, %e $er#. THEORY: In t&e e'peri(ent #o!ution o" t&e #upp!ie) !$ !i (i'ture i# titr te) *it& #t n) r) #tron+ ci). Out o" t*o !$ !ie# in t&e (i'ture #o)iu( &,)ro'i)e i# #tron+ -& # &i+& )i##oci tion con#t nt. n) neutr !i#e) co(p!ete!, in one #tep -re ction / . *&ere # #o)iu( c r%on te i# neutr !i#e) t*o #tep# , t&e "ir#t #tep %ein+ t&e con0er# tion o" c r%on te into &,)ro+en c r%on te -re ction 1 . *&en i# co(p!ete roun) pH 2.3. T&ere"ore P&eno!p&t& !ein ct# # in)ic tor -*or$in+ r n+e pH 2.4 5/6. "or t&e neutr !i7 tion o" #o)iu( &,)ro'i)e n) p rti ! neutr !i7 tion o" #o)iu( c r%on te. N 8OH 5 8 H 8 C95 CO41 5 8 H8 N 8 C9 5 8 H1O HCO54 -/. -1.

9et :/ %e t&e 0o!u(e o" #t n) r) ci) con#u(e) in "ir#t titr tion u#in+ p&eno!p&t& !ein # in)ic tor *&ere #o)iu( &,)ro'i)e i# co(p!ete!, neutr !i7e) n) #o)iu( c r%on te i# con0erte) into it# &,)ro+en c r%on te. ;&en (ore ci) -#t n) r). i# ))e), neutr !i7 tion o" &,)ro+en c r%on te t $e# p! ce -re ction 4. n) t&e proce## i# co(p!ete t pH 4.< n), t&ere"ore, (et&,! or n+e -*or$in+ r n+e pH 1.2 53.2. i# #uit %!e in)ic tor. HCO4 5 8 H8 H1O 8 CO1
-4.

9et :1 %e t&e tot ! 0o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) %, t&e (i'ture o" !$ !i -t&e %urette re )in+ "ter #econ) titr tion.. T&en t&e 0o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) in #econ) #tep *i!! %e e=u ! to -:15 :/. c(4 *&ic& i# t&e 0o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) in t&e neutr !i7 tion o" &,)ro+en c r%on te !one. :o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) in t&e Con0er# tion o" c r%on te into &,)ro+en c r%on te *i!! !#o %e e=u ! to -: 15:/.. T&en t&e tot ! 0o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) in t&e co(p!ete neutr !i7 tion o" c r%on te *i!! %e e=u ! to 1-: 15:/..Fro( t&i#, t&e 0o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) %, &,)ro'i)e !one c n %e c !cu! te), *&ic& *i!! %e e=u ! to :151-:15:/.i,e -1:/5 :1. B, $no*in+ t&e 0o!u(e o" ci) -#t n) r). con#u(e) %, $no*n 0o!u(e o" !$ !ie#, t&e concentr tion o" t&e !$ !ie# in t&e (i'ture c n %e )eter(ine). Fro( t&i#, t&e (ount# o" !$ !ie# pre#ent in t&e #o!ution c n %e c !cu! te). Note: Fo!!o* eit&er Proce)ure -/. 6r Proce)ure -1.

PROCEDURE: -/. /. Fi!! c!e n %urette *it& #t n) r) H 1 SO3 or HC9. i" t&e ci) i# not #t n) r), titr te, it *it& #t n) r) #o)iu( c r%on te #o!ution. 1. T $e /6c(4 o" !$ !i (i'ture in conic ! "! #$ n) ci) / or 1 )rop# o" p&eno!p&t& !ein. T&i# ( $e# t&e #o!ution pin$. 4. Run ci) "ro( t&e %urette .At en) point co!our >u#t )i# ppe r#. Note# t&e %urette re )in+. 3. A))/51 )rop# o" (et&,! or n+e to t&e # (e #o!ution .T&i# ( $e# t&e #o!ution ,e!!o* .T&en continue t&e titr tion unti! t&e ,e!!o* co!our >u#t %eco(e# or n+e .A+ in t&e %urette re )in+ i# note). ?. Repe t t&e %o0e proce## to o%t in concurrent re )in+.

OBER:AION: No . :o!u(e o" !$ !i (i'ture initi ! - . t "ir#t )i"".:/ en) -@%5 . point -%. Burette re )in+ Me n t #econ) en) )i"",:1 -@c5 . :/ point -c.

Me n:1

:o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) %, #o!ution c r%on te !one @ 1-:1 5:/.@ :o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) %, #o)iu( &,)ro'i)e !one @:1 51 -:15:/.@1:/5:1@ Concentr tion o" ............................................. ci) @

PROCEDURE :-1. /51 # (e # %o0e 3. Re>ect t&i# #o!ution n) t&e # (e 0o!u(e -/6c(4. or !$ !i (i'ture in not&er conic ! "! #$ en) no* )) /51 )rop# o" (et&,! or n+e .Titr te t&e re#u!t nt ,e!!o* #o!ution unti!

t&e #o!ution %eco(e# >u#t or n+e. Note t&e %urette re )in+ .Repe t t&e proce)ure no 4 n) 3 to o%t in countercurrent re )in+. OBER:ATION: A . Titr tion o" !$ !i (i'ture u#in+ P&eno!p&t& !ein # in in)ic tor: No. :o!u(e o" !$ !i (i'ture Burette Re )in+ initi ! "in ! )i""erence

Concurrent re )in+ :/A c(4

B . Titr tion o" !$ !i (i'ture u#in+ (et&,! or n+e # n in)ic tor: No. :o!u(e o" !$ !i (i'ture Burette re )in+ initi ! "in ! )i""erence

Concurrent :1Ac(4

re )in+

:o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) %, #o)iu( c r%on te @ 1-:45:/. :o!u(e o" ci) con#u(e) %, #o)iu( &,)ro'i)e @:151 -:15:/.@-1:/5:1.@ Concentr tion o" ................................... ci) @ REBUEST: /6c(4 o" +i0en !$ !i (i'ture #o!ution cont in# CCCCCCCCCC (ote - CCCCCCCCCC +. o" #o)iu( &,)ro'i)e n) CCCCCCCCCCCCC (ote - CCCCCCCCC +. o" #o)iu( c r%on te . SPACE FOR CA9CU9ATION: