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ODDs RATIO (OR)

Group A Prof. G P Kumar College of Physiotherapy

Odds ratio OR
ODD is a word popular in Gambling Betting, Horse race, Play cards Often 'odds' are quoted as odds against, rather than as odds in favor

2 X 2 table
Disease
Total Yes No

Yes Exposure No

a +b

c+d

a+c

b+d

a+b+c+d

Disease Total Yes Yes Exposure No c a+c d b+d c+d a+b+c+d a No b a +b

Relative risk a/a+b c/c+d assume a and c are very small, then a/b c/d = ad/bc RR = ad/bc

Disease

Total
Yes No

Yes Exposure No

a +b

c+d

a+c

b+d

a+b+c+d

Disease Total Yes No

Yes Exposure

a +b

No

c+d

a+c

b+d

a+b+c+d

Disease

Total
Yes Yes Exposure No c a+c d b+d c+d a+b+c+d a No b a +b

Disease among exposed/ Disease among unexposed No Disease among exposed/ No Disease among unexposed a/c b/d = ad/bc OR (exposure) = ad/bc RR = ad/bc

RR OR If RR is almost equal to OR then why OR?

RR is used in Cohort studies


Time consuming
Requires denominator (Population) Impractical at certain situations Difficult in rare disease

OR used in WELL DONE Case control studies and cross sectional studies Collect data about each patients with disease, Have a comparison group and collect data about each subject

Why WELL DONE?


Bias
Selection (for controls) bias Information bias

Consideration of Confounding factors

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