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GRAMMAR TOOLBOX PARAPHRASING METHOD (p.

10) Another way to paraphrase is to use changes in grammar, word order and vocabulary to create a new statement with the same meaning as the original. We call this the grammar toolbox method. This method follows four steps. Grammar Toolbox St p! 1. ead the original carefully for a general idea of its meaning. !. "ircle the #ey words or phrases$ideas that you cannot leave out. %. &sing a combination of the six paraphrasing tools described below, change the grammar, vocabulary and sentence structure of the original. '. "ompare your paraphrase with the original to see if it fits the criteria of a good paraphrase. Parap"ra!#$% Tool! 1. (ind synonyms for some of the words. Original: Revised: No& 'o( Tr) Original: Adolescent employees sometimes argue with their employers. .

The tiger )uic#ly disappeared into the trees. The big cat vanished into the forest.

Revised: ________________________________________________ !. "hange the verb to negative. Original: Revised: No& 'o( Tr) Original: +n times of crisis, politicians may ignore public opinion. The nervous student was awa#e all night. The nervous student didn*t sleep all night.

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Revised: ________________________________________________

%. "hange voice0 1a#e active sentences passive and passive ones, active. Original: Revised: No& 'o( Tr) Original: 2ieting can cause poor nutrition. The voucher was sent by the testing service on August %rd. The testing service sent the voucher on August %rd.

Revised: ________________________________________________

'. "hange parts of speech0 "hange nouns into verbs, verbs into nouns, etc. Original: Revised: The teacher helped the student finish her class registration form. The teacher helped the student register for classes.

No& 'o( Tr) Original: 3veryone danced at the graduation party for hours.

Revised: ________________________________________________

4. "ombine sentences0 &se new connecting words to combine shorter phrases and sentences. Original: .araphrasing is a s#ill students need to learn. +t is an important part of academic writing.

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Revised:

.araphrasing, which is a s#ill students need to learn, is an important part of academic writing.

No& 'o( Tr) Original: Revised: The movie was shot in 5ew 6or# "ity. 1any actors choose to live in 5ew 6or#. _______________________________________________

7. 1ove phrases0 1ove parts of a sentence to change the sentence structure. Original: 6esterday, + stayed in the library until midnight and finished my homewor#. + finished my homewor# at midnight in the library yesterday.

Revised:

No& 'o( Tr) Original: +n order to fight a damaging disease, the farmers began to grow genetically modified crops.

Revised: 888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888

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A*TI+ITIES TO PRA*TI*E PARAPHRASING A,t#-#t) O$ .ractice using the various tools from the 9rammar Toolbox method to rewrite the sentences below. 1. The president spo#e to the angry crowd, hoping to pacify them. !. An architect has to be able to envision the buildings she or he designs. %. -e always tries to dominate the conversation so it:s difficult for anyone else to tal#. '. +n spite of the strong wind that blew in the window, everything on my des# is still intact. 4. +t is not easy to find a homogeneous group of students because all students have different bac#grounds and different ideas.

A,t#-#t) T&o &se this activity to practice the 9rammar Toolbox method with your classmates. 1. As a class, select three or four sentences from your source;s< and write them at separate places along the top of the chal#board. !. 2iscuss the meaning of each )uote. %. 2ivide the class into groups so that there are enough groups for each to wor# on one of the )uotes. '. With your group, select one tool from the grammar toolbox method. ewrite the )uote, using the techni)ue. 5ext to the rewritten sentence, write the tool your group has used. 4. =nce the groups have finished, each should move to a )uote they have not wor#ed on. 7. ead the rewritten sentence and select a different tool to change the sentence yet again. Write the newest version of the sentence below and write the tool your group has used. >. epeat this process until three or four tools have been used to change the original sentence. ?. As a class, evaluate each of the final paraphrases.

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Exampl Original: Although the instructor was considered difficult by many students, she was very popular.

1. Change voice (passive to active) Although many students considered the instructor difficult, she was very popular. !. Word substitution Although many students thought the teacher was challenging, she was li#ed by everyone. %. Change connecting words 1any students thought the teacher was challenging, yet she was li#ed by everyone. '. Change voice (passive to active) 1any students thought the teacher was challenging, yet everyone li#ed her.

A,t#-#t) T"r This is a homewor# variation of Activity Two 1. @elect a sentence from your source to paraphrase. Write this sentence at the top of your paper. !. &se one paraphrasing tool to change the original sentence. Write the modified sentence and the name of the tool directly below the original sentence. %. "hoose a second paraphrasing tool to change this modified sentence. Write your newest version of the sentence directly below with the name of the tool you have used. ;@ee example above<. '. epeat this process one or two more times. 4. 3valuate your new paraphrase. +s it grammatically correctA -ave you added or deleted ideasA 7. Bring your paraphrase to class to share.
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A,t#-#t) .o(r This activity is useful when the class is reading the same article. 1. With your group, select two or three sentences from the article to paraphrase. !. &sing the Tell a (riend techni)ue or the 9rammar Toolbox method or a combination of the two, rewrite the passages you have selected. %. 3valuate your paraphrases. '. Trade your paraphrases with another group. 4. ead the other group:s paraphrases and see if you can identify the original passages in the article.

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