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Year 9 Extension and Enrichment


GZ Science Resources 2014
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WhatisScience?
Scienceisboth acollectionofknowledge
andtheprocess forbuildingthatknowledge.
Scienceasksquestions aboutthenatural
worldandlooksfornaturalexplanations.
Scienceworksonlywithtestable ideas.
Moral judgments,
decisionsabout
howtousescience
discoveries,and
conclusionsabout
thesupernatural
areoutside thearea
ofscience.
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AreasofSciencestudiedthisyear
Science
Material
World
Living
World
Planet
Earth
and
Beyond
Physical
World
Chemistry
Physics
Biology
Astronomy Geology
Motionand
Energy
Electromagnetism
andWaves
Particles
Earthand
SpaceSystems
Geneticsand
Ecosystems
Anatomyand
Physiology
Chemistryand
Reactions
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SpottheDangersinthelab
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Laboratory Rules
1. Dontsmellortastechemicals.
2. Placebagsunderyourdesks.
3. Wearsafetyequipmentifasked.
4. Tielonghairbackduringpracticals.
5. Norunninginclass.
6. Telltheteacherifyoubreakequipment.
7. Cleanupyourworkareaafterpracticals.
8. Noeatingintheclass.
9. .
10. ...
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Laboratorysafetysymbols
EasytorecognisesafetysymbolsareoftenusedinLabsandonlabelsof
chemicalswhenspecialcareisrequired.Achemicalmaybepoisonousorbe
explosiveorburnwhenittouchesskin.SafetysymbolsandLabrulesare
designedtowarnandprotectyoufromdangeroussituations.
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CommonLaboratoryequipment
Sciencelabscontain
equipmentthatis
usedtocarryout
investigationsand
experiments.This
equipmentmaybe
quitedifferentfrom
whatwehaveinour
homesbutisoften
designedfor
specificuses.
Thenamesanduses
oftheequipment
willneedtobe
learntalongwith
howtouseit.
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DrawingequipmentinScience
Inthesciencelabweuse
specialequipment.Often
wehavetodrawthe
equipment.Weuse
diagramstoshowthe
equipment,whichsaves
ustimedrawing.The
scientificdiagramsare
recognisedworldwide.
2d
Airholebarrelbase
collarjetgashose
PartoftheBunsen
Burner
Function
Toraisetheflametoa
suitableheightfor
heatingandburning
Tocontroltheamountof
airenteringtheburner
Toopenorclosetheair
hole
Toallowairtoenterthe
burner
Tosupporttheburner
andmakeitmorestable
Toforcethegasintohe
burner
DrawandlabeltheBunsenBurner
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MeasurementsinScience
Theprocessofscienceinvolves
observation,investigationandtesting.
Scientificobservationscanbemade
directlywithourownsensesormaybe
madeindirectlythroughtheuseof
equipmenttocollectdata.Beingableto
takeaccurate measurementsisimportant.
Theunitsandtypeofequipmentused
dependsonwhetheryouaremeasuring
length,volume,temperatureormass.
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MeasuringinScience
Quantity Unit Symbol Equipmentused
Volume litre L Flask
Millilitre mL Measuring
cylinder
Temperature Celsius C thermometer
Mass kilograms Kg Scales
grams g Scales
Length Metres m Metreruler
millimetres mm Handruler
Note:Weight istheresultof
force(gravity)actingonmass
andismeasuredinNewtons
usingaspringbalance.Weight
andMassareoftenconfused.
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Convertingmeasurements
Quantitiesareoftenmeasuredindifferent
scales dependinguponwhatismost
appropriatefortheoriginalsize.InScience
(andMathematics)weusecommon
prefixes toindicatethescaleused.
Wesometimeswanttoconvertscalesfrom
onetoanothertocomparedataorto
placethemeasurementsintoequations.
PrefixScale
Kilo=1000
Centi =1/10
th
Milli =1/1000
th
So1kilometre=1000metres
1metrecontains10centimetres
1metrecontains1000millimetres
Toconvertfromgramstokilogramsdivide by1000
(ormetrestokilometresandmillilitrestolitres)
Toconvertfromkilogramstogramsmultiply by1000
(orkilometrestometresandlitrestomillilitres)
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Aswellasrecording
thenumberwhat
mustwealsorecord?
Wheredowelook
fromwhenreading
measuringcylinders
andpipettes?
Whyisthesurfaceof
theliquidnotflat?
MeasurementsinScience
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Waterisaliquidthat
stickstogether.Ina
narrowtubeormeasuring
cylinderthewatersurface
tendstocurveupthe
sides.Thisiscalleda
meniscuscurve.A
measurementreadingis
tobetakenfromthe
bottom ofthemeniscus
curve becauseonlyavery
smallvolumeofliquidis
actuallyaroundtheside.
Measuringvolume
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Scientistsaskquestionstohelpworkoutwhatisoccurringinthenaturalworldaround
them.Theythencreatetestableideaswhichtheythinkmayanswerthequestion.
Scientiststesttheirideasbypredictingwhattheywouldexpecttoobserveiftheiridea
weretrue(calledahypothesis)andthenseeingifthatpredictioniscorrect.
Scientistslookforpatternsintheirobservationsanddata.
Analysisofdatausuallyinvolvesputtingdataintoamoreeasilyaccessibleformat
(graphs,tables,orbyusingstatisticalcalculations).
Theprocessofcreatingaquestion,developingahypothesisandcarryingoutatestto
collectdatawhichisthenanalysedtoseeiftheirhypothesisisprovedordisprovedis
calledascientificinvestigation.
Aninvestigationisusedtocollectdataforevidence
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Variables areallthethingsthatcouldchangeduringaninvestigation.
Inabouncingballinvestigation,wheretheheightaballbouncestoismeasuredafterit
isdroppedatdifferentheights,manythingscouldaffecttheresultsfromone
experimenttothenextsuchas usingadifferentball,adifferentdropheightora
differentsurfacewhichtheballisdroppedon.
Youshouldonlychangeonethingatatimeinyourinvestigation.Thiscalledthe
independentvariable.(Theheighttheballisdroppedat)
Duringyourinvestigationyoushouldbeabletomeasuresomethingchangingwhichis
calledthedependent variable.(Howhightheballbouncesafterbeingdropped)
Thefactorsyoukeepthesameinyourexperiments(fairtest)arecalledcontrolvariables
A'fairtest'isoneinwhichyouonlychangeonething(variable).
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Scientificinvestigationsaretypicallywrittenupinastandardwayunderthefollowing
headings:
Aim(focusquestion):whatyouaretryingtofindoutorprovebydoingtheinvestigation
Hypothesis: whatyouthinkwilloccurwhenaninvestigationiscarriedout
Equipment(ormaterials):thethingsthatyouneedtodotheinvestigation
Method:Asimple,clearstatementofwhatyouwilldo andcanberepeatedby
anotherperson
Results:data,tablesandgraphscollectedfrominvestigation
Conclusion:whatyourresultstellyou linkedbacktotheaimandhypothesis
Discussion:Scienceideastoexplainyourresults,possibleimprovementstothe
investigation,howyoumanagedtocontroltheothervariables.
ThetypicalwaythatscientistsworkiscalledtheScientificmethod.
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FocusQuestion/Aim
YourAimorfocusquestionmustincludebothvariables.
Forexample:IfIchange(independentvariable)howwillitaffect(dependantvariable)
Suchas:IfIchangethetemperatureofthewater(independent)howwillitaffecthow
muchsugarIcandissolveintothewater(dependant)
Independentvariable amountoflight
aplantreceives
Dependantvariable heightthatplant
grows
FocusQuestion:Howdoestheamount
oflightaplantreceivesaffecttheheight
itgrowsto
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WritingtheMethod
Amethodmustbewrittensothataninvestigation
isrepeatable byanotherperson.
Inorderforresultsfromaninvestigationtobe
reliable aninvestigationmustbeabletobe
repeatedexactlythesamewayfollowingthe
method.Theresultsgainedfromeachrepeat
mustshowthesamepatterneachtimeforthe
conclusiontobevalid(orifnotanexplanationor
faultinfollowingthemethodgiven)
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CollectingData
Datathatiscollectedfroman
investigationcanbeanalysedeasierif
placedintoaclearlylabelledandlaid
outdatatable.
Thetablemusthave:
Aheadinglinkedtothe
aim/hypothesis
Labelledquantities,unitsandsymbols
Values(oftennumerical)ofdata
collected
Datatablescanalsocontainprocessed
datasuchasresultsfrommultiple
trialsthathavebeenaveragedtogive
amorereliablevalue.
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PieGraphorChart
Acirclethatshowspartsofawhole
Whatareotherexamples
whereapiegraphcould
beusedtoshowresults?
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Lookingforpatternsinresults Graphs
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BarGraph
Abargraphisusedtoshowchangesinadiscretevariable.Thecolumnsdonot
toucheachother.
Whatdoesdiscrete
mean?
ThisgraphhasanX
andYaxis,whichis
which?
Giveotherexamples
whereabargraph
couldbeusedtoshow
results?
Lookingforpatternsinresults Graphs
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LineGraph
Alinegraphisusedtoshowchangesinacontinuousvariable.Morethanone
setofdatacanbegraphedtomakecomparisons.
Whenwouldyouusea
linegraphratherthana
bargraph?
Lookingforpatternsinresults Graphs
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Histogram
Hascolumnsthattoucheachother,showscomparisonsbetween continuous
data.
Whatisthedifference
betweenabargraphanda
histogram?
Lookingforpatternsinresults Graphs
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Writingaconclusion
Aconclusionlooksfor
patternsincollecteddata
fromaninvestigationanduses
ittoagreeordisagreewith
thehypothesis.
Boththevariablethatis
changed(independent)and
thevariablethatismeasured
(dependant)mustbeincluded
intheconclusionstatement.
Thedataisusedasevidence
intheconclusion.
Theconclusioncanalsobe
usedtoanswertheoriginal
Aim(focusquestion)
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ReliabilityandValidity
Reliability means that that any results produced in a scientific investigation
must be more than a one-off finding and be repeatable.
Other scientists must be able to perform exactly the same investigation using
the same method and generate the same results.
Validity is the extent to which a investigation measures what it is supposed
to measure. In a valid investigation the results gained will be as close to
reality as possible if only one variable is changed and all other variables are
kept the same.
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4d
extension
Understandthatmatter,ismadeupofparticles/atoms
Anatom isthesmallest
neutralparticlethat
makesupmatter.
Thetypeofatomandthe
waytheseatomsare
arrangedandconnected
toeachotherdetermines
thetypeofmatter and
thereforethephysical
andchemical properties
ofthematter.
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Matterismadeupofparticles/atoms
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Matter
(everything)
Elements
Substancesmade
upofonlyone
typeofatom
Mixtures
combinationsof
elementsand/or
compoundsthat
canbeseparated
byphysicalmeans
Compounds
Combinationsof
twoormore
elementsthatare
bondedtogether
Molecule
Twoormore
atomsbonded
formingthe
smallestunit
Atom
Thesmallest
neutralparticleall
matterisformed
from
Scientistsusemodelstoshowtherelationshipofprotons,electronsand
neutronswithinatomsandions
Scientistsandphilosophershaveusedmodels torepresenttheirideasof
whatanatomlookslike.Asmorediscoverieshavebeenmadethemodelof
theatomhaschanged.
The History of Atomic Theory
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Scientistsusemodelstoshowtherelationshipofprotons,electronsand
neutronswithinatomsandions
MyTheoryStates:
1. AllElementsaremadeup
oftinyparticlescalled
atoms.
2. Atomsofagivenelement
arealike
3. Atomsofdifferent
elementsaredifferent
4. Chemicalchangestake
placewhenatomslinkup
withorseparatefrom
oneanother
5. Atomsarenotcreatedor
destroyedbychemical
change
JohnDalton(17661844)wasaBritish
chemistandphysicist.In1803he
announcedhisatomictheory.Hisatom
modelswhererepresentedbysolid
spheres.
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Scientistsusemodelstoshowtherelationshipofprotons,electronsand
neutronswithinatomsandions.
SirJosephJohnThomson,whohad
discovered(1897)theelectron,and
cameupwithamodeloftheatom
knownastheplumpuddingmodel.
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5a
Scientistsusemodelstoshowtherelationshipofprotons,electronsand
neutronswithinatomsandions
ErnestRutherfordwasaNew
ZealandScientist.In1911he
announcedhisnewatomicmodel
basedonwhatheobservedfromhis
famousgoldfoilexperiment.
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Scientistsusemodelstoshowtherelationshipofprotons,electronsand
neutronswithinatomsandions
ErnestRutherfordsGoldFoilexperiment
Itwasthemostincredibleeventthathas
everhappenedtomeinmylife.Itwasalmost
asincredibleasifyoufiredacannonballata
pieceoftissueanditcamebackandhityou.
ErnestRutherford
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5a
Atomshaveaparticularstructure protons,electronsandneutrons
Thisisknownasthe
Bohrmodel.
Atomshaveacentralnucleus.Thenucleuscontainsprotons (p)andneutrons(n).
Electrons (e)orbitthenucleus,arrangedinshellsorenergylevels.
P
P
N
N
N
P
N
P
P
N
N
P
Electron
(negative)
Nucleus
Neutron
Proton
(positive)
Shell1
Shell2
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Atomshaveaparticularstructure protons,electronsandneutrons
Atomsareverysmall.Veryspecialmicroscopesarerequiredtoseethem.Manybillions
ofatomsarerequiredtoproducethisfullstop.
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Atomshaveequalnumberofprotonsandelectrons
Protonsarepositivelycharged;electronsarenegativelycharged;neutronshaveo
electricalcharge.
Atomshavenooverallchargebecausethenumberofprotons=numberofelectrons.
Summary
Allmatterismadeup
ofatoms.Atomsconsist
ofprotons,neutronsand
electrons.
Thechargesofprotons
andelectronsareequal
andopposite.
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5c
Eachdifferenttypeofelementhasadifferentnumberof
protonsinitsatoms
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AllBoronatomshave5protonsintheir
nucleus.
AllCarbonatomshave6protonsintheir
nucleus.
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Elementsarearrangedontheperiodictableaccordingto
theiratomicnumber
Eachelementhasanatomic
numberwhichtellsushowmany
protonsarecontainedinside
eachatomsnucleus.Thisnumber
ofprotonsismatchedbyan
equalnumberofelectronswhich
movearoundthenucleus.
Theperiodictablestartswith
Hydrogen(H)Atomicnumber1
andendswithelementsthat
haveover100protonssuchas
Copernicium (Cn)Atomicnumber
112.
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6a
Metalsareplacedonthelefthandsideandnonmetalsareplaced
ontherighthandsideoftheperiodictable
Elementscanbeclassifiedasmetalsornonmetals.Afewelementsarecalledsemi
metalsormetaloids (e.g.boronandsilicon),becausetheyshowsome,butnotall,of
thepropertiesofmetals.
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Themoreprotonsanatomhasthefurtherdown
thetableitis.
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Groupsarenumberedverticalcolumnsandperiodsarehorizontal
rows
Thecolumns(downwards)ofaperiodictablearecalledgroups.
Therows(across)ofaperiodictablearecalledperiods.
Elementsinthesamegroup allhave
thesamenumberofelectronsintheir
outer(orvalence)shells.
Elementsinthesameperiod all
havethesamenumberofshells
ofelectronsintheiratoms
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Groupsofelementsontheperiodictablehavecommonphysicaland
chemicalproperties
Group1
Metals
Group17
NonMetals
Elementsthatareinthesamegroup
showsimilartypesofchemicaland
physicalproperties.Theiratoms
chemicallyreactthesamewaybecause
theirelectronsintheoutsideshellin
theatomsarearrangedthesameway.
Theelementsinagroupalso
havesimilarphysical
propertiesbecauseofthe
waytheatomsjointogether
andarearranged.
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Thegroupsofmetalsandnonmetalshavespecificdefining
physicalproperties
Group Physicalproperties
Metals >Lustre(shiny)
>goodconductor
>Highdensity
>Highmeltingpoint
>Malleable(canshapeintosheets)
>Ductile(canshapeintowires)
SemiMetals >Solids
>Canbeshinyordull
>Ductileandmalleable
>ConductheatandenergybetterthanNonMetals
butnotasgoodasmetals
NonMetals >Nolustre
>Poorconductor
>Brittle>Notductile
>Lowdensity>Lowmeltingpoint
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6a
Eachelementisnamedandhasaspecificsymbol.
Elementsconsistofonlyonetypeofatom.
Eachelementcanberepresentedbyachemicalsymbol.
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Thereisacorrectwayofwritingelementsymbols.
>Mostsymbolsareoneortwo
letters,formedfromthenameof
theelement. e.g.Hydrogen
H,orHeliumHe.
>Thefirstletterofthesymbolis
alwaysacapitalletter.Anyother
lettersarelowercase.
e.g.HeliumisHenotHE
>Ifthesymbolsarenotbasedon
aelementsEnglishnamethenit
ismostlikelytobebasedonits
Latinname,theoriginallanguage
ofScience.
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GroupOneElements
TheseelementsarecalledtheAlkaliMetals.Theyareallveryreactivewithairand,
especiallyso,water.Thefurtherdownthegroupthemorereactivetheyare.Hydrogenis
notincludedinthisasitdoesnotsharesimilarpropertieswiththerestoftheelements.
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Year10Science2012 48
Grouptwoelements
TheseelementsarecalledtheAlkaliEarthMetals.Theyallreactwithair,butare
lessreactivethangroup1.
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Group16elements
TheseelementsaremostlyNonMetals.Aswemovedownthegroupthe
elementsshowsomemetallicproperties.
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Group16Elements
TheseelementsarecalledtheHalogens.Theyareveryreactiveandchangefrom
gastoliquidtosolidasyoumovedownthegroup.
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Group18Elements
TheseelementsarecalledtheInertgases.Theyareverynonreactiveandhave
onlyjustbeendiscoveredrelativelyrecentlybecauseofthat.
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TheAtomicNumberofanatomisequaltothenumberofprotons
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Theatomicnumberisuniqueforeachelement.
Anatomhasthesamenumberofelectronsasprotons.
Theperiodictableisarrangedinorderofanelementsatomicnumber.
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TheMassNumberofanatomisequaltothenumberofprotonsand
neutronsinanatom.
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TheMassnumberisthe
numberofprotons+
numberofneutrons.
TheMassnumberisclose
todoubleoftheAtomic
number.
Anisotopeisanelement
withadifferentMass
numberbecauseithas
moreorlessneutronsthan
normal.
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extension
Theelectronsinanatomarearrangedinaseriesofshells.
Electronsmoveororbitaroundthenucleusinenergylevelsorshells.The
shellsfurtherawayfromthenucleusareabletofitmoreelectrons.
Thefirstshellisfilledfirst,followedbythesecondandsoonuntilallthe
electrons(thesamenumberofprotonsinanatom)havebeenused.
Maximumnumbersofelectronsin
eachshellare:
>2inthefirstshell(nearestthe
nucleus)
>8inthesecondshell
>8inthethirdshell(beforethe
fourthshellstartstofill)
>18inthefourthshell
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extension
6d
Electronsorbitanucleusofanatomatfixedenergylevels.
Anelectroncanonlybe
foundinafixedenergy
levelaroundanucleus.
Aballbouncingdowna
flightofstairsprovidesan
analogyforenergylevels
ofelectronsbecausea
ballcanonlyrestoneach
step,notbetweensteps.
Anelectroncanmoveupanenergylevelifenergyisabsorbed,suchaslightorheat.When
theelectronmovesbackdowntoitslowestpossibleleveltheenergyisreleasedagain,often
intheformoflight.
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extension
6d
Electronsorbitanucleusofanatomatfixedenergylevels.
Ashorthandwayofdescribingthewayelectronsarearrangedinanatomiscalledthe
electronconfiguration.Theinformationforthenumberofelectronsisfoundbyan
elementsAtomicNumber(numberofelectrons=numberofprotonsinaneutral
atom).Eachshellisfilledtoitsmaximumcapacity,startingwiththelowestshellfirst
(shellnumber1).Theshellsareseparatedbyacomma.Theshellsarefilleduntilall
theelectronsareplaced.Shell1fits2electrons,shell2fits8electrons,shell3fits8
electrons,shell4fits18electrons.
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Mg
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2, 8, 2
Firstshell,secondshell,thirdshell
Atomic
number
Thetotaloftheelectronicconfigurationmust
equaltheatomicnumberinanatom
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extension
6d
Thereisarelationshipbetweentheperiodnumberandthenumber
ofelectronshellsanatomhas.
Intheperiodictable,
elementshavesomethingin
commoniftheyareinthe
samerow.Allofthe
elementsinaperiodhave
thesamenumberof
electronshells.Every
elementinthetoprow(the
firstperiod)hasoneshell
foritselectrons)Allofthe
elementsinthesecondrow
(thesecondperiod)have
twoshellsfortheir
electrons.Itgoesdownthe
periodictablelikethat..
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Atthistime,themaximumnumberof
electronshells(orelectronorbitals)
foranyelementisseven.
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6f
extension
Matterexistsindifferentstates solid,liquidandgases
Allmattercanbefoundaseithersolid,liquidorgasdependinguponthe
temperature.Eachtypeofmatterhasitsownspecifictemperatureranges
thatitwillexsist ineachofthesethreestates.Gases,liquidsandsolidscanbe
madeupofatoms,molecules,and/orions.
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7a
Matterexistsindifferentstates solid,liquidandgases
Solids remaininafixedshape theparticlesvibratebutremaintightlybondedtoeach
other.
Liquids taketheshapeofthecontainer theparticlescanmovepasteachotherbutare
stillbonded.
Gases fillanycontainertheyarein theparticlesmovefastandarenotbondedtoeach
other
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7b
Particlesarearrangedandmovedifferentlyinsolids,liquidsandgases
Solidparticlesarepackedcloselyandonlyvibrateinafixedposition.Liquidparticles
arealsopackedcloselybuttheparticlesmovearoundmore.Gasparticleshavealot
ofspacebetweenthemandmovearoundquickly.
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Gas Liquid Solid
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Particlesarearrangedandmovedifferentlyinsolids,liquidsandgases
CharacteristicsofGases,LiquidsandSolids
gas liquid solid
assumestheshapeand
volumeofitscontainer
particlescanmovepast
oneanother
assumestheshapeofthe
partofthecontainer
whichitoccupies
particlescanmove/slide
pastoneanother
retainsafixedvolumeand
shape
rigid particleslockedinto
place
compressible
lotsoffreespacebetween
particles
noteasilycompressible
littlefreespacebetween
particles
noteasilycompressible
littlefreespacebetween
particles
flowseasily
particlescanmovepast
oneanother
flowseasily
particlescanmove/slide
pastoneanother
doesnotfloweasily
rigid particlescannot
move/slidepastone
another
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7b
Mattercanchangefromonestatetoanother
Liquid
Solid
Gas
sublimation
deposition
Melting
Freezing
condensation
evaporating
Ifenergyisabsorbedorreleased
theparticleswhichmakeupthe
mattercanchangestate.Achange
ofstateisaphysicalreactionandit
isreversible.
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7c
Theparticlesofdifferentstateshavedifferentkineticenergylevels
Kineticenergycausesparticlestomove.Themorekineticenergyaparticlehasthe
fasteritmoves.Kineticenergycanbeaddedtoaparticlebyaddingheatenergy(and
heatsup).Theheatenergyisthentransformedintothekineticenergy.
Kineticenergycanalsobelostfromaparticle,whichslowsitdown,whenitchanges
backintoheatenergyandislost(andcools).
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7d
Theparticlesofdifferentstateshavedifferentkineticenergylevels
Themovementofparticlesinanystateisdeterminedbythreefactors:Howstrong
thebondsarebetweentheparticles,howmuchenergy(kinetic)theparticlescontain
andthemassoftheparticles.
Particlesmovefaster when:theyhavelessmass,haveweakerbondsbetween
particlesandhavemoreenergy.
Particlesmoveslowerwhen:theyhavemoremass,havestrongerbondsbetween
particlesandhavelessenergy.
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extension
7d
Temperatureisameasureofthekineticenergyinparticles.
Theatomsandmoleculesinagas
areinconstantmotion.Temperature
isameasureofthespeedwith
whichtheymove.(Moreexactlyitis
ameasureoftheirkineticenergy.)
Thehigherthetemperature,the
fasterthemoleculesmove.
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extension
7d
Heatandtemperaturearenotthe
samething.Heatenergyisthetotal
kineticenergyoftheatomsofa
substance.Temperatureisthe
averagekineticenergyoftheatoms
ofasubstance.
Wemeasureour temperatureon
theCelsius scalewherewater
freezesat0Candboilsat100C.
OthercountriesusetheFahrenheit
scaleandScientistsoftenusethe
Kelvin scale.
Heat/temperatureislinkedtoparticlemovement
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Latentheatistheheatreleasedorabsorbedbyamaterialduringa
changeofstatewithoutchangeoftemperature.
Thereisnotemperature
changeduringaphase
change(changeofstate),
thusthereisnochangein
thekineticenergyofthe
particlesinthematerial.
Theenergyreleased(to
changefromgastoliquid
orliquidtosolid)comes
fromthepotentialenergy
storedinthebonds
betweentheparticles.The
energyabsorbed(to
changefromgastoliquid
orliquidtogas)comes
fromthesurroundingarea.
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extension
7d
ThetheoryofBrownianmotion
Brownianmotionistherandommovementofparticlesinaliquidorgas,causedby
theparticleshitting(orcolliding)withmoleculestheyaresurroundedby.
Eachcollisionpushesparticlesinarandomdirectionandisthereasonwhydiffusion
occurs.
Pollenparticlesthatcouldbeseen
movingrandomlyinwaterwasfirst
describedbyRobertBrowninthe
early1800's.BrownwasaScottish
botanist.
In1905Einstein finallycameupwith
anexplanationwhenherealisedthat
thejigglingofthepollengrainsseen
inBrownianmotionwasdueto
moleculesofwaterhittingthetiny
pollengrains.
Hewasalsoabletousethisevidencetoprovetheexistenceofatomswhichuptothatpoint
hadonlybeenanidea.
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Whenparticlesdiffusetheymovefromanareaofhighconcentration(manyparticlesin
agivenarea)spreadingoutintoareasoflowconcentration(fewerparticlesina
givenarea).Diffusionwillcontinueuntiltheparticles
areevenlyspreadout thisisthencalledequilibrium.
Diffusionoccursbecausetheparticlesmovearound
duetokineticenergy.Whentheyhitintoeachother
theyarepushedapart.Thiscausestheparticlesto
spreadoutanddiffuse.
Diffusionoccursbecauseparticlesmixwithandmovethrough
anothersubstance
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Solutionsaremadefromasolutedissolvedinasolvent
Solution
(saltwater)
Solvent
(water)
Solute
(salt)
Asolution ismadeupofa
solvent andasolute.Asolventis
asubstancesuchaswaterthatis
abletodissolveasolute.The
solventpullsapartthebonds
thatholdthesolutetogetherand
thesoluteparticlesdiffuse
(spreadrandomlybyhittinginto
eachother)throughoutthe
solventtocreateasolution.The
solutionisamixturewithevenly
spreadsolventandsolute
particles.Theseparticlescanbe
physicallyseparatedby
evaporation.
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Solutionsformwhenasoluteisdissolvedinasolvent
Whenasolidmixesintoaliquidandcannolongerbeseenithasdissolved.Theliquid
iscalledthesolvent anditpullsapartthebondsbetweenthesolidparticles,called
thesolute,andtheydiffuse.Asolution isthencreatedwhenthesolventparticles
(oftenwater)aremixedupwiththebrokenapartsoluteparticles.
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Asasolventwaterformssolutionswithmanydifferentsolutes.
Solutionsaresimplymixtures ofmaterials,oneofwhichisa
liquidoragas.Theliquidorgas,alsocalledafluidbecauseitis
abletoflow.
Oneofthemostcommonsolventsiswater.Allwaterfoundin
naturalsourcesonEarth,exceptinrainwaterorice,isinthe
formofasolution suchassaltwater intheoceansandmineral
waterinrivers,springs,waterandlakes.Minerals
fromthesurroundingrocksare
erodedanddissolvedintothewater.
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Somesubstancesaremoresolubleinwaterthanothers.
Theprocessofcombiningthesoluteandthe
solventcanalsobecalleddissolving thesolutein
thesolvent.Theabilitytodissolveiscalled
solubility.Thecompletedissolutionofoneliquid
inanotherliquidiscalledmiscibility. Whenthe
oppositeoccurs,thesubstancesarecalled
immiscible
immiscible:oilandwater
miscible:vinegarandwater
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Concentration,dilutionandsaturation.
Asolutionbecomes
moreconcentratedas
moresoluteis
dissolvedintothe
solvent.Whena
solventcandissolveno
moresolute and
extrasoluteadded
remainsasasolid
thesolutionissaidto
besaturated.
Todilute asolution
moresolventisadded
sotherebecomes
fewerparticlesof
solutedissolvedinto
thesolventasa
solutionbecomes
morediluted.
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Dilutionseries
Asolutioncanbemadeinto
adilutionseriesbyadding
asetquantitytoavolume
ofsolvent(usuallywater)
thencontinuingtheprocess
bytakingthesameset
quantityfromthenew
dilutedsolutionandadding
ittomoresolvent.
Toobtainadilutionfactor
of10then1mlofthe
samplesolutionneedsto
beaddedto9mlofwater.
Thiscanberepeatedfor
eachstep.After4dilution
stepsthatsolutionwillbe
10,000lessconcentrated
thantheoriginalsample.
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extension
ExpansionandContractionofmatter
Matterexpands orgetsbiggerwhenitisheatedup.Itcontracts orgetssmallerwhenitis
cooleddown.
Sometypesofmatter,suchasmetals,conductheatverywellandthereforetheeffectsof
expansionandcontractionaremoreobvious.
Structuressuchasbridgesandrailwaytracksthataremadeoutofmetalhavetobebuilt
withgapssotheydontwarpoutofshapewhenexposedtohighertemperaturesduring
summer.
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ExpansionandContractionofmatter
When matter expands or contracts only the space between the particles changes:
not the size of the particles.
The particles in a solid vibrate more when it is heated, and take up more space.
The particles in a liquid move around each other more when it is heated, and take
up more space.
The particles in a gas move more quickly in all directions when it is heated, and
take up more space.
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SolidstransferheatenergybyConduction
Whenheatistransferredby
conduction theatomsremainin
fixedsolidposition andtheheat
energyistransferredfromoneatom
toanotherbybeingcarriedby
movingelectronssurroundingthe
atoms.Themoreheatenergyan
electronhasthefasteritmoves.
Somematerialsconductbetterthan
others.Theyarecalledconductors
andincludemetalswhichhave
electronsthatarefreetomove.
Thosematerialsthatcannotconduct
heatareknownasinsulators.They
havenofreeelectronstocarrythe
heatenergy.
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LiquidsandGasestransferheatenergybyConvection
Convectionoccurswhenfreemoving
particlesfoundinliquidsandgasesare
heated.Thiscausesanincreasein
kineticenergyoftheparticlesandas
theycollideintoeachothertheypush
apartmore.Thehotterareaofliquid
orgasbecomeslessdenseorlighter
andrises.Astheparticlesloseenergy
theyslowdownandbecomecloserto
eachotherwhichmakesthemdenser
andtheyfallbackdown.This
movementcreatesconvection
currentswheretheparticlescirculate.
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Whenyouheattheairinthe
balloonyourincreasethe
kineticenergyoftheair
particles.Theairparticles
absorbtheheatenergyand
movefaster.Thismakesthem
movefaster.Airparticlesare
pushedoutoftheballoon,as
theytakeupmorespace.
Ahotairballoonrisesbecause
itisfilledwithhot,lessdense
airandissurroundedbycolder,
moredenseair.
HotairballoonsriseduetoConvection
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Elementsarepuresubstancesthatcombinetomakemixtures&
compounds
Thereareapproximately
100differentelements
butmanymillionsof
substances.Mostmatter
aroundusismadeupof
combinationsof
elements.
Ifdifferentelementshave
chemicallyreacted
togetherandjoinedthen
theyformacompound.
Ifdifferentelements
and/orcompoundsare
justjumbledupandnot
joined(orbonded
together)thentheyform
a mixture.
Elements Mixture Compound
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EverydayElements,CompoundsandMixtures
Allaroundusare
examplesofelements,
compoundsand
mixtures.Fewelements
arefoundintheir
naturalstatebecause
theyreactwith
chemicalsaroundthem
soinsteadwehave
chemicalprocessesto
extractandpurifythem.
Manyoftheeveryday
itemsweuseare
compoundsthathave
beenmanufacturedby
chemicalprocessesas
well.
Elements Mixtures Compounds
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Elementsarepuresubstancesthatcombinetomakemixtures&
compounds
Mattercanbedividedintopuresubstanceswhichincludeelements(atomsofthe
sametype)andcompounds(differentatomsjoinedtogether)andMixtureswhich
caneitherbehomogeneous(evenlymixed)orheterogeneous(unevenlymixed)
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Elementsarepuresubstancesthatcombinetomakemixtures&
compounds
Amoleculeformswhenatomsjointogether eitherthesametypeofatomtoforma
moleculeofanelement(suchasoxygengas O2)ordifferenttypesofatomtoforma
moleculeofacompound(suchaswater H2O).
OxygenMolecule O
2
WaterMolecule H
2
O
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Elementsarepuresubstancesthatcombinetomakemixtures&
compounds
Eachcompoundhasachemicalformulaindicatingtheproportionsofeachcombined
element
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Waterhas2hydrogen
atoms(H)and1oxygen
atom(O).
Normallytheelement
foundontheleftofthe
periodictableiswrittenfirst
followedbytheelement
foundontherightofthe
periodictable.
Countingatomsinacompound
Aformulatellsyouthetypeofatomsthatareinacompoundandthenumberofeach
atom.
Anumberinfrontofthecompoundtellsyouhowmanymoleculesthereare.
Anumberafteranatomtellsyouhowmanyatomsofthattypeareinthe
molecule.Anumberafterbracketstellsyouhowmanytimestomultiplyevery
atominsidethebrackets.
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ChemicalandPhysicalchange
Achemicalreactionisaprocess
thatproducesachemicalchange
tooneormoresubstances.
Achemicalreactionwillproducea
newsubstance.Other
observationsmayincludea
temperaturechange,acolour
changeorproductionofgas.
Chemicalsthatareusedina
chemicalreactionareknownas
reactants.Thosethatareformed
areknownasproducts.
ReactantsProducts
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ChemicalandPhysicalchange
Physicalchangesareconcernedwith
energyandstatesofmatter.Aphysical
changedoesnotproduceanew
substance.Changesinstate(melting,
freezing,vaporization,condensation,
sublimation)arephysicalchanges.
Examplesofphysicalchangesinclude
bendingapieceofwire,melting
icebergs,andbreakingabottle
Achemicalchangemakesasubstance
thatwasn'ttherebefore.
Thestartingandendingmaterialsofa
physicalchangearethesame,even
thoughtheymaylookdifferent.
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ChemicalandPhysicalchange
ExamplesofPhysicalChanges
crumplingasheetofpaper
meltinganicecube
castingsilverinamould
breakingabottle
ExamplesofChemicalChanges
burningwood
dissolvingsaltinwater
mixingacidandbase
digestingfood
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysically
Mixturesofsubstancesarenotchemicallybondedtoeachothersotheycan
beseparatedbyphysicaltechniques.
Thestateofthevarious
substancesinthemixture
suchasaliquidandsolidor
thephysicalpropertiesof
thesubstancessuchas
differentboilingpointswill
determinewhichmethodof
separationwillbeused.
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Mixturesaremadeupofdifferentcomponents
Mixturesthataremadeupofasetratioof
otherelementsand/orcompoundsthatare
evenlyspreadareknownashomogeneous
mixtures.Thesetypesofmixtureshave
uniformcompositionandsimilarproperties
throughout.Airisanexampleofa
homogeneousmixture.Thereisafixedratioof
nitrogengastooxygenandcarbondioxide
gases.
Note:thisjustappliestoairsamplestaken
fromthesamesetaltitudeasoxygenlevels
decreasewithhigheraltitudes
Componentsofairmixture
Mixturescanbephysicallyseparatedintodifferentcomponents.
Acommonhouseholdexampleofamixturecouldbeacupofwhitecoffee.Thismixture
ismadeupofthreemajorcomponents:Milk,coffeeandwater.Milkitselfisamixture
thatcanbefurtherbrokendownintoothercomponentssuchasfat,protein,sugarand
water
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuchas:
Decanting
Decantingissimplypouringoffaliquidwithoutloosinganyofthemoredense
substance(usuallyaninsolublesolid)inthebottomofthecontainer.Decanting
separatesaheaviersubstancefromalighterone.Chemistsaremostoftenafterthe
substanceattheBOTTOMofthecontainer.
Original
mixtureofa
solidand
liquid
Heaviersolid
isallowedto
settletothe
bottom
Theliquidis
pouredoffthe
topwhilethe
solidremains
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuchas:
Evaporating
Evaporatingseparatesa
dissolvedsolidfroma
liquid.Thesolvent
(liquid)islostintothe
surroundings.
Theliquidwillevaporate
butevaporationbecomes
fasterathigher
temperatures.
Thesolidremains
becauseithasahigher
(oftenverymuchhigher)
boilingpointthanthe
liquid.
Evaporating
dish
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuch
as:Filtering
Filteringseparatesaninsoluble
solidinamixturefromtheliquid
completely.
Thesolventmolecules(liquid)and
anydissolvedmoleculespresent
inthesolutioncanpassthrough
thefilterpaper,whichhassmall
holes,whilethesolidparticles
cannotbecausetheyaretolarge
andstayinthefilterpaper.
Thesolventorsolutioncontaining
dissolvedsubstancespasses
throughthefilterpaper,iscalled
filtrate.Thesolidparticlesthat
remainonthefilterpaperiscalled
theresidue.
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuchas:
Magnetism
Magnetismcanbeusedto
separateamagneticsubstance
(suchasiron)fromamixture
containingnon magnetic
substances.
Themagneticsubstanceofthe
mixtureisseparatedwiththehelp
ofthemagneticattraction.
Amagnetismovedoverthe
mixturecontainingthemagnetic
substancee.g.,ironfilings.These
getattractedtothe
magnet.Theprocessisrepeated
untilthemagneticmaterialis
completelyseparatedfromthe
mixture.Thenonmagnetic
substanceisleftbehind.
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuchas:
Distillation
Distillation isaprocessof
boilingaliquidand
condensingandcollecting
thevapour.Theliquid
collectedisthedistillate.The
Liebigcondensercoolsthe
vapourbackintoliquid.The
purposeofdistillationis
separationoftheofa
mixtureoftwoliquids.Thisis
possibleifthetwo
substanceshavedifferent
boilingpointsandone
substanceturnstogasand
collectedwhiletheother
substanceremainsasa
liquid.
Mixture
of two
liquids
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuchas:
Chromatography
Chromatographyisatechniqueused
toseparatethevarioussubstancesin
acomplexmixtureofdyeorink.
Substancesofthemixturewilldiffer
inhowmuchthey"stick"tothings:
toeachother,andtoother
substances.Someofthesubstances
oftheinkwillstickmoretightlyto
thepaperfibers.Theywillspendless
timeinthewaterasitmovesalong
thepaperfibers,andtheywillnot
travelveryfar.Othercomponentsof
theinkwillsticklesstightlytothe
paperfibers.Theywillspendmore
timeinthewaterasitmovesalong
thepaperfibers,andthustheywill
travel further through the paper.
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Separationtechnique
Propertyusedfor
separation
example
MagneticAttraction magnestism
magneticironcanbeseparatedfrom
nonmagneticsulfur usingamagnet
Decanting densityorsolubility
liquidwatercanbepouredoff
(decanted)insolublesandsediment
lessdenseoilcanbepouredoff
(decanted)moredensewater
Filtration solubility
insolublecalciumcarbonatecanbe
separatedfromsolublesodiumchloride
inwaterbyfiltration
Evaporation
solubilityandboiling
point
solublesodiumchloridecanbe
separatedfromwaterbyevaporation
Crystallization solubility
slightlysolublecoppersulfatecanbe
separatedfromwaterbycrystallization
Distillation boilingpoint
ethanol(ethylalcohol)canbeseparated
fromwaterbydistillationbecause
ethanolhasalowerboilingpointthan
water
Mixtures can be easily separated physically
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Mixturescanbeeasilyseparatedphysicallyusingmethodssuchas:
Crystallising
Crystallisingisusedto
separateasolidcompoundin
pureandcrystalform.A
nearlysaturatedsolutionof
an impuresubstanceis
preparedinahotsolvent.
Thepreparedsolutionis
quicklyfilteredandthe
filtrateisthenallowedto
coolslowlyinanevaporating
dish.Onceallthesolvent
(oftenwater)isevaporated
purecrystalswillform.
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extension
Separationprocessescancreatesubstancesthatareusefulforus
Inareasthathavealimitedamountof
freshwaterbutaccesstosaltysea
waterapurificationmachine(as
showntotheright)canbeusedto
separateoutthesaltandother
substancesfromthepurewaterthat
canthenbedrunk.
Ifwerequirethesaltinsteadofthe
waterweusethesamestarting
solutionofsaltwater.Thistimewe
evaporateoffthewaterinlarge
holdingpondsandcollectthesalt
depositsthatremain.
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