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Pope John Paul II

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Contents
Articles
Overview
Pope John Paul II 1 1 41 41 52 55 57 57 61 64 66 70 77 85 92 94 95 96 99 108 112 114 114 125 140 145 152 162 164 165

Biography
Biography Early life Family home

Papacy
October 1978 Conclave Teachings Relations with Eastern Orthodox Church Pope John Paul II and Judaism Assassination attempt Pastoral trips List of visits 1982 visit to Britain 1983 visit to Nicaragua Apologies Social and political stances Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict Criticism of John Paul II Health

Death and legacy


Funeral List of dignitaries 2005 Conclave Canonisation Places named after him Pope John Paul II Cultural Center Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula John Paul II Collection Museum

Encyclicals
List of Encyclicals The Redeemer of Man Rich in Mercy On Human Work The Apostles of the Slavs The Lord and Giver of Life Mother of the Redeemer On Social Concerns Mission of the Redeemer The Hundredth Year The Splendor of Truth The Gospel of Life That They May Be One Faith and Reason Church of the Eucharist

166 166 167 170 172 172 173 173 174 175 176 183 185 188 189 191 193 193 196 197 198 201 203 209 209 210 211 212 213 216 218 218

Bibliography
Bibliography of Pope John Paul II Memory and Identity Roman Triptych Crossing the Threshold of Hope Love and Responsibility The Theology of the Body

Books and films about John Paul II


Have No Fear: The Life of Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II: The Movie Karol: A Man Who Became Pope Karol: The Pope, The Man Pope John Paul II The Papal Chase

Cultural references
Cultural references to Pope John Paul II

References
Article Sources and Contributors 222

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

226

Article Licenses
License 231

Overview
Pope John Paul II
John Paul II

John Paul II in 1993 Papacy began Papacy ended 16 October 1978 2 April 2005 (26years, 168days) John Paul I Benedict XVI Orders Ordination 1 November 1946 byAdam Stefan Sapieha 28 September 1958 byEugeniusz Baziak

Predecessor Successor

Consecration

Created Cardinal 26 June 1967 Personal details Birth name Born Karol Jzef Wojtya 18 May 1920 Wadowice, Poland 2 April 2005 (aged84) Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Polish Auxiliary Bishop of Krakw, Poland (19581964) Titular Bishop of Ombi (19581964) Archbishop of Krakw, Poland (19641978) Cardinal-Priest of San Cesareo in Palatio (19671978)

Died

Nationality Previous post

Pope John Paul II

2
Motto Signature Coat of arms Totus tuus

Sainthood Feast day Beatified 22 October 1 May 2011 Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City byPope Benedict XVI World Youth Day (Co- Patron) Other Popes named John Paul

Patronage

Blessed Pope John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan Pawe II), born Karol Jzef Wojtya (Polish:[karl juzf vjtwa]; 18May1920 2April2005), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16October1978 until his death on 2April2005, at 84years and 319days of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted 26years and 168days; only Pope PiusIX (18461878) who served 31 years, has reigned longer. Pope John Paul II is the only Slavic or Polish pope to date and was the first non-Italian Pope since Dutch Pope AdrianVI (15221523). John Paul II has been acclaimed as one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century. It is widely held that he was instrumental in ending communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. Conversely, he denounced the excesses of capitalism. John Paul II is widely said to have significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. Though criticised by progressives for upholding the Church's teachings against artificial contraception and the ordination of women, he was also criticised by traditionalists for his support of the Church's Second Vatican Council and its reform of the Liturgy as well as his ecumenical efforts. He was one of the most-travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129countries during his pontificate. He spoke Italian, French, German, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Croatian, and Latin as well as his native Polish. As part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340people and canonised 483saints, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the last five centuries. On 19December2009, John PaulII was proclaimed venerable by his successor Pope BenedictXVI and was beatified on 1May2011.

Pope John Paul II

Biography
Early life
Karol Jzef Wojtya (Anglicised: Charles Joseph Wojtyla) was born in the Polish town of Wadowice[1] [2] [3] and was the youngest of three children of Karol Wojtya, an ethnic Pole,[4] and Emilia Kaczorowska, who is described as being of Lithuanian[4] or Ukrainian ancestry.[5] [6] His mother died on 13 April 1929,[7] when he was eight years old.[8] Karol's elder sister, Olga, had died in infancy before his birth; thus, he grew close to his brother Edmund, who was 14 years his senior, and whom he nicknamed Mundek. However, Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, profoundly affecting Karol.[4] [8] As a youth, Wojtya was an athlete and often played football as a goalkeeper.[9] [10] His formative years were influenced by numerous contacts with the vibrant and prospering Jewish community of Wadowice. School football games were often organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and Wojtya would voluntarily offer himself as a substitute goalkeeper on the Jewish side if they were short of players.[4] [9] In mid-1938, Karol Wojtya and his father left Wadowice and moved to Krakw, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages at the University, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon. He performed with various theatrical groups and worked as a playwright.[11] During this time, his talent for language blossomed and he learned as many as 12 foreign languages, nine of which he later used extensively as Pope.[2] In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the Jagiellonian University after the invasion of Poland.[2] All able-bodied males were required to work, and, from 1940 to 1944, Wojtya variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory to avoid being deported to Germany.[3] [11] His father, a non-commissioned officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Karol the sole surviving member of his immediate family.[4] [7] [12] "I was not at my mother's death, I was not at my brother's death, I was not at my father's death," he said, reflecting on these times of his life, nearly forty years later, "At twenty, I had already lost all the people I loved."[12] He later stated that he began thinking seriously about the priesthood after his father's death, and that his vocation gradually became an inner fact of unquestionable and absolute clarity.[13] In October 1942, increasingly aware of his calling to the priesthood, he knocked on the

Emilia and Karol Wojtyla Sr. wedding portrait

Family home of the Wojtyas in Wadowice

Courtyard within the family home

Pope John Paul II door of the Archbishop's Palace in Krakw, and declared that he wanted to study for the priesthood.[13] Soon after, he began courses in the clandestine underground seminary run by the Archbishop of Krakw, Adam Stefan Cardinal Sapieha. On 29 February 1944, Wojtya was knocked down by a German truck. German Wehrmacht officers then tended to him and sent him to a hospital. He spent two weeks there recovering from a severe concussion and a shoulder injury. This accident and his survival seemed to Wojtya a confirmation of his priestly vocation. On 6August1944, Black Sunday,[14] the Gestapo rounded up young men in Krakw to avoid an uprising similar[14] to the previous uprising in Warsaw.[15] [16] Wojtya escaped by hiding in the basement of his uncle's home at 10 Tyniecka Street, while German troops searched upstairs.[13] [15] [16] More than eight thousand men and boys were taken into custody that day, but he escaped to the Archbishop's Palace,[13] [14] [15] where he remained in hiding until after the Germans left.[4] [13] [17] On the night of 17January1945, the Germans fled the city, and the students reclaimed the ruined seminary. Wojtya and another seminarian volunteered for the unenviable task of clearing away piles of frozen excrement from the lavatories.[18] That month, Wojtya personally aided a 14-year-old Jewish refugee girl named Edith Zierer[19] who had run away from a Nazi labour camp in Czstochowa.[19] After her collapse on a railway platform, Wojtya carried her to a train and accompanied her safely to Krakw. Zierer credits Wojtya with saving her life that day.[20] [21] [22] B'nai B'rith and other authorities have said that Wojtyla helped protect many other Polish Jews from the Nazis.

Priesthood
On completion of his studies at the seminary in Krakw, Karol Wojtya was ordained as a priest on All Saints' Day, 1 November 1946,[7] by the Archbishop of Krakw, Cardinal Sapieha.[3] [23] [24] He was then sent to study theology in Rome, at the Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum,[23] [24] where he earned a licentiate and later a doctorate in sacred theology.[2] This doctorate, the first of two, was based on the Latin dissertation The Doctrine of Faith According to Saint John of the Cross. He returned to Poland in the summer of 1948 with his first pastoral 1948 assignment in the village of Niegowi, fifteen miles from Krakw. Arriving at Niegowi during harvest time, his first action was to kneel down and kiss the ground.[25] This gesture, adapted from French saint Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney,[25] would become one of his trademarks during his Papacy.
Karol Wojtya as a priest in Niegowi, Poland,

Pope John Paul II

5 In March 1949, Wojtya was transferred to the parish of Saint Florian in Krakw. He taught ethics at the Jagiellonian University and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin. While teaching, he gathered a group of about 20young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the "little family". They met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and helping the blind and sick. The group eventually grew to approximately 200participants, and their activities expanded to include annual skiing and kayaking trips.[26] In 1954, he earned a second doctorate, in philosophy,[27] evaluating the feasibility of a Catholic ethic based on the ethical system of phenomenologist Max Scheler. However, the Communist authorities' intervention prevented his receiving the degree until 1957.[24]

During this period, Wojtya wrote a series of articles in Krakw's Catholic newspaper Tygodnik Powszechny ("Universal Weekly") dealing with contemporary church issues.[28] He focused on creating original literary work during his first dozen years as a priest. War, life under Communism, and his pastoral responsibilities all fed his poetry and plays. However, he published his work under two pseudonyms Andrzej Jawie and Stanisaw Andrzej Gruda[11] [28] [29] to distinguish his literary from his religious writings (which were published under his own name) and also so that his literary works would be considered on their own merits.[11] [28] [29] In 1960, Wojtya published the influential theological book Love and Responsibility, a defence of the traditional Church teachings on marriage from a new philosophical standpoint.[11] [30]

Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum in Rome

Bishop and cardinal


On 4 July 1958,[24] while Wojtya was on a kayaking vacation in the lakes region of northern Poland, Pope Pius XII appointed him to the position of auxiliary bishop of Krakw. He was then summoned to Warsaw to meet the Primate of Poland, Stefan Cardinal Wyszyski, who informed him of the appointment.[31] [32] He agreed to serve as an Auxiliary Bishop to Krakow's Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak, and he was ordained to the Episcopate (as Titular Bishop of Ombi) on 28 September 1958. Archbishop Baziak was the principal consecrator. Then-Auxiliary Bishop Boleslaw Kominek (Titular Bishop of Sophene and Vaga; of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Wroclaw and future Cardinal Archbishop of Wroclaw) and then-Auxiliary Bishop Franciszek Jop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sandomierz (Titular Bishop of Daulia; later Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Visit to the Church of the Visitation of the Wroclaw and then Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Opole) Blessed Virgin Mary in Cracow. Carmelite on the were the principal co-consecrators.[24] At the age of 38, he became the Sand early June 1967, shortly before being youngest bishop in Poland. Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July, appointed cardinal Karol Wojtya was selected as Vicar Capitular, or temporary administrator, of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop could be appointed.[2] [3] Beginning in October 1962, Bishop Wojtya took part in the Second Vatican Council (19621965),[1] [2] [3] [24] where he made contributions to two of the most historic and influential products of the council, the Decree on Religious Freedom (in Latin, Dignitatis Humanae) and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et Spes).[24]

Pope John Paul II Bishop Wojtya participated in all the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops.[2] [3] On 13 January 1964, Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Krakw.[33] On 26 June 1967, Paul VI announced Archbishop Wojtya's promotion to the Sacred College of Cardinals.[1] [24] [33] He was named Cardinal-Priest of the titulus of San Cesareo in Palatio.[34] In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae Vitae, which deals with the same issues that forbid abortion and artificial birth control.[1] [24] [35] [36] According to a contemporary witness, Cardinal Wojtyla in 1970 was against the distribution and reading in the Krakw diocese a pastoral letter that the Polish Episcopate was preparing for the 50th anniversary of the Polish-Soviet War.[37]

Election to the Papacy

The newly elected Pope John Paul II stands on the balcony

Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II with the Marian Cross. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion

Papal styles of

Pope John Paul II

Reference style Spoken style Religious style

His Holiness Your Holiness Holy Father

Posthumous style Blessed

In August 1978, following the death of Pope Paul VI, Cardinal Wojtya voted in the Papal conclave that elected Pope John Paul I, who at 65 was considered young by papal standards. John Paul I died after only 33 days as Pope, thereby precipitating another conclave.[3] [24] [38] The second conclave of 1978 commenced on 14 October, ten days after the funeral of Pope John Paul I. It was divided between two strong candidates for the papacy: Giuseppe Cardinal Siri, the conservative Archbishop of Genoa, and the liberal Archbishop of Florence, Giovanni Cardinal Benelli, a close associate of John Paul I.[39] Supporters of Benelli were confident that he would be elected, and in early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of election.[39] However, the scale of opposition to both men meant that neither was likely to receive the votes needed

Pope John Paul II for election, and Franz Cardinal Knig, Archbishop of Vienna, individually suggested to his fellow electors a compromise candidate: the Polish Cardinal, Karol Jzef Wojtya.[39] Wojtya ultimately won the election on the eighth ballot on the second day with, according to the Italian press, 99 votes from the 111 participating electors. He subsequently chose the name John Paul II[24] [39] in honour of his immediate predecessor, and the traditional white smoke informed the crowd gathered in St. Peter's Square that a pope had been chosen.[38] He accepted his election with these words: With obedience in faith to Christ, my Lord, and with trust in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in spite of great difficulties, I accept.[40] [41] When the new pontiff appeared on the balcony, he broke tradition by addressing the gathered crowd:[40]

Dear brothers and sisters, we are saddened at the death of our beloved Pope John Paul I, and so the cardinals have called for a new bishop of Rome. They called him from a faraway land far and yet always close because of our communion in faith and Christian traditions. I was afraid to accept that responsibility, yet I do so in a spirit of obedience to the Lord and total faithfulness to Mary, our most Holy Mother. I am [40] [42] speaking to you in your no, our Italian language. If I make a mistake, please kirrect [sic] me...

Wojtya became the 264th Pope according to the chronological list of popes and the first non-Italian Pope in 455 years.[43] At only 58 years of age, he was the youngest pope elected since Pope Pius IX in 1846, who was 54.[24] Like his immediate predecessor, Pope John Paul II dispensed with the traditional Papal coronation and instead received ecclesiastical investiture with the simplified Papal inauguration on 22 October 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his ring, he stood up as the Polish prelate Stefan Cardinal Wyszyski knelt down, stopped him from kissing the ring, and hugged him.[44]

Life's work
Teachings

The future starts today, not tomorrow.

[45]

Pope John Paul II

As pope, one of John Paul II's most important roles was to teach people about Christianity. He wrote 14 papal encyclicals and taught about "The Theology of the Body". In his At the beginning of the third millennium (Novo Millennio Ineunte), he emphasised the importance of "starting afresh from Christ": "No, we shall not be saved by a formula but by a Person." In The Splendour of the Truth (Veritatis Splendor), he emphasised the dependence of man on God and His Law ("Without the Creator, the Pope John Paul II inSaint Peter's Square (1985) creature disappears") and the "dependence of freedom on the truth". He warned that man "giving himself over to relativism and skepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself". In Fides et Ratio (On the Relationship between Faith and Reason) John Paul promoted a renewed interest in philosophy and an autonomous pursuit for truth in theological matters. Drawing on many different sources (such as Thomism), he described the mutually supporting relationship between faith and reason, and emphasised that theologians should focus on that relationship. John Paul II wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals. Through his encyclicals and many Apostolic Letters and Exhortations, John Paul talked about the dignity of women and the importance of the family for the future of humanity.[35]

Pope John Paul II Other encyclicals include The Gospel of Life (Evangelium Vitae) and Ut Unum Sint (That They May Be One). Despite critics who accused him of inflexibility, he explicitly re-asserted Catholic moral teachings against murder, euthanasia and abortion that have been in place for well over a thousand years.[35]

Pastoral trips

As the family goes, so goes the nation and so goes the whole world in which we live.

[45]

Pope John Paul II

During his pontificate, Pope John Paul II made trips to 129 countries,[46] and logged more than 1.1million km (725,000 miles). He consistently attracted large crowds on his travels, some amongst the largest ever assembled in human history like the Manila World Youth Day, which gathered around 5 million people.[47] Some have suggested that it may have been the largest Christian gathering ever, although this is not certain.[48] John Paul II's earliest official visits were to the Dominican Republic and Mexico in January 1979 and to Poland in June 1979,[49] where ecstatic crowds constantly surrounded him.[50] This first trip to Poland uplifted the whole nation's spirit and sparked the formation of the Solidarity movement in 1980, which brought freedom and human rights to his troubled country.[35] On later trips to Poland, he gave tacit support to the organization.[35] Successive trips reinforced this message and Poland began the process that would finally defeat the domination of communist regimes under the lead of the Soviet Union in Central Europe between 1989 (reintroduction of democracy in Poland) and 1990, Eastern Europe (19901991) and South-Eastern Europe (19901992).[42] [46] [50] [51] [52] [53]
Pope John Paul II's visit to the Polish Parliament on 11 June 1999

While some of his trips (such as to the United States and the Holy US President George W. Bush and Laura Bush Land) were to places previously visited by Pope Paul VI, John Paul II visit Pope John PaulII at Castel Gandolfo on 23 July 2001 became the first pope to visit the White House during his October 1979 U.S. trip, where he was greeted warmly by then-President Jimmy Carter. He travelled to countries that no pope had ever visited before. He was the first pope to visit Mexico in January 1979,[54] before his initial trip to Poland as Pope, as well as to Ireland later that year.[55] [56] He was the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, in 1982,[57] where he met Queen ElizabethII, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[57] He travelled to Haiti in 1983, where he spoke in Creole to thousands of impoverished Catholics gathered to greet him at the airport. His message, "things must change in Haiti", referring to the disparity between the wealthy and the poor, was met with thunderous applause.[58] In 2000, he was the first modern pope to visit Egypt,[59] where he met with the Coptic pope, Pope ShenoudaIII[59] and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria.[59] [60] He was the first Catholic pope to visit and pray in an Islamic mosque, in Damascus, Syria, in 2001. He visited the Umayyad Mosque, a former Christian church where John the Baptist is believed to be interred,[61] where he made a speech calling for Muslims, Christians and Jews to work together.[61] [62] On 15 January 1995, during the X World Youth Day, he offered Mass to an estimated crowd of between five and seven million in Luneta Park,[47] Manila, Philippines, which was considered to be the largest single gathering in Christian history.[47] In March 2000, while visiting Jerusalem, John Paul became the first pope in history to visit and

Pope John Paul II pray at the Western Wall.[63] [64] In September 2001, amidst post-11 September concerns, he travelled to Kazakhstan, with an audience largely consisting of Muslims, and to Armenia, to participate in the celebration of the 1,700years of Christianity in that nation.[65]

Today, for the first time in history, a Bishop of Rome sets foot on English soil. This fair land, once a distant outpost of the pagan world, has become, through the preaching of the Gospel, a beloved and gifted portion of Christ's vineyard.

[45]

Pope John Paul II (1982)

Pope John Paul IIs World Travels:[49] [66]


1979

1. January 25February 1 Dominican Republic and Mexico 2. June 210 Poland 3. September 29October 7 Ireland and United States 4. November 2830 Turkey

1980

5. May 212 Zaire, Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ghana, Republic of Upper Volta and Ivory Coast 6. May 30June 2 France 7. June 30July 12 Brazil 8. November 1519 West Germany

1981

9. February 1627 Philippines, Guam, and Japan

1982

10. February 1219 Nigeria, Benin, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea 11. May 1215 Portugal (including Ftima) 12. May 28June 2 Great Britain 13. June 1013 Argentina 14. June 15 Switzerland 15. August 29 San Marino 16. October 31November 9 Spain

1983

Pope John Paul II


17. March 210 Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Haiti 18. June 1623 Poland 19. August 1415 Lourdes in France 20. September 1013 Austria

10

1984

21. May 212 South Korea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Thailand 22. June 1217 Switzerland 23. September 920 Canada 24. October 1012 Spain, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico

1985

25. January 26February 6 Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago 26. May 1121 Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg 27. August 819 Togo, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Zaire, Kenya, Morocco 28. September 8 Liechtenstein

1986

29. February 1February 10 India 30. July 18 Colombia, St. Lucia 31. October 47 France 32. November 19December 1 Australia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Fiji, Singapore, Seychelles

1987

33. March 31April 13 Uruguay, Chile, Argentina 34. April 30May 4 West Germany 35. June 814 Poland 36. September 1020 United States and Canada

1988

Pope John Paul II


37. May 718 Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay 38. June 2327 Austria 39. September 1019 Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, detour through South Africa 40. October 811 France

11

1989

41. April 28May 6 Madagascar, Runion, Zambia, and Malawi 42. June 110 Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark, Sweden 43. August 1921 Spain 44. October 616 South Korea, Indonesia, East Timor, Mauritius

1990

45. January 25February 1 Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad 46. April 2122 Czechoslovakia 47. May 613 Mexico, Curaao 48. May 2527 Malta 49. September 110 Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Ivory Coast

1991

50. May 1013 Portugal 51. June 19 Poland 52. August 1320 Poland, Hungary 53. October 1221 Brazil

1992

54. February 1926 Senegal, Gambia, Guinea 55. June 410 Angola, So Tom and Prncipe 56. October 914 Dominican Republic

1993

Pope John Paul II


57. February 310 Benin, Uganda, Sudan 58. April 25 Albania 59. June 1217 Spain 60. August 916 Jamaica, Mexico, United States 61. September 410 Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia

12

1994

62. September 1011 Croatia

1995

63. January 1221 Philippines, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka 64. May 2022 Czech Republic, Poland 65. June 34 Belgium 66. June 30 Slovakia 67. September 1420 Cameroon, Kenya, South Africa 68. October 48 United States

1996

69. February 512 Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Venezuela 70. April 14 Tunisia 71. May 1719 Slovenia 72. June 2123 Germany 73. September 67 Hungary 74. September 1922 France

1997

75. April 1213 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 76. April 2527 Czech Republic 77. May 1011 Lebanon

Pope John Paul II


78. May 31June 10 Poland 79. August 2124 France 80. October 25 Brazil

13

1998

81. January 2125 Cuba 82. March 2123 Nigeria 83. June 1921 Austria 84. October 24 Croatia

1999

85. January 2225 Mexico City in Mexico January 2627 St. Louis, Missouri 86. May 79 Romania 87. June 517 Poland 88. September 19 Slovenia 89. November 59 New Delhi, India, and Tbilisi in Georgia

2000

90. Feb. 2426 Egypt 91. March 2026 Jordan, Israel and Palestinian Autonomous Territories 92. May 1213 Ftima in Portugal

2001

93.(a) May 45 Athens in Greece 93.(b) May 56 Syria 93.(c) May 89 Malta 94. June 2327 Ukraine 95. September 2227 Armenia and Kazakhstan

Pope John Paul II


2002

14

96. May 2226 Azerbaijan and Bulgaria 97. July 23August 1 Canada, Guatemala, and Mexico 98. August 1619 Poland

2003

99. May 34 Spain 100. June 59 Croatia 101. June 22 Bosnia and Herzegovina 102.September 11-14 Slovakia

2004

103. June 5-6 Switzerland 104. August 14-15 Lourdes in France

Map indicating countries Pope John Paul II visited.

Pope John Paul II

15

Youth
John PaulII had a special relationship with Catholic youth and is known by some as The Pope for Youth.[67] [68] Before he was pontiff, he used to camp and mountain hike with the youth. He still went mountain hiking when he was pope.[67] He was concerned with the education of future priests and made many early visits to Roman seminaries, including to the Venerable English College in 1979.[3] He established World Youth Day in 1984 with the intention of bringing young Catholics from all parts of the world together to celebrate the World Youth Day is a popular Catholic faith faith.[3] [67] [68] These weeklong meetings of youth occur every two or themed international youth event initiated by Pope John Paul II three years, attracting hundreds of thousands of young people, who go [3] [68] there to sing, party, have a good time and deepen their faith. The 19 World Youth Days celebrated during his pontificate brought together millions of young people from all over the world. During this time, his care for the family was expressed in the World Meetings of Families, which he initiated in 1994.[3]

Young people are threatened... by the evil use of advertising techniques that stimulate the natural inclination to avoid hard work by promising the immediate satisfaction of every desire.

[45]

Pope John Paul II

Relations with other religious groups


Pope John Paul II travelled extensively and met with believers from many divergent faiths. He constantly attempted to find common ground, both doctrinal and dogmatic. At the World Day of Prayer for Peace, held in Assisi on 27 October 1986, more than 120 representatives of different religions and Christian denominations spent a day together with fasting and praying.[69] Anglicanism Pope John PaulII had good relations with the Church of England, referred to by his predecessor Pope Paul VI, as "our beloved Sister [70] Church". He preached in Canterbury Cathedral during his visit to Great Britain,[57] and received the Archbishop of Canterbury with friendship and courtesy.[57] However, John PaulII was disappointed by the Church of England's decision to offer the Sacrament of Holy Orders to women and saw it as a step in the opposite direction from unity between the Anglican Communion and the Catholic Church.[70]
Monument to Pope John Paul II in Rome

In 1980 John Paul II issued a Pastoral Provision allowing married former Episcopal priests to become Catholic priests, and for the acceptance of former Episcopal Church parishes into the Catholic Church. He allowed the creation of the Anglican Use form of the Latin Rite, which incorporates the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. John Paul II's historic ecumenical effort with the Anglican Communion was realised with the establishment of Our Lady of the Atonement Catholic Church (Anglican Use), in cooperation with Archbishop Patrick Flores of San Antonio, TX, in the United States.[71]

Pope John Paul II Lutheranism On 1519 November 1980 John Paul II visited the Federal Republic of Germany[72] on his first trip to a country with a large Lutheran population. In Mainz he met with leaders of the Lutheran and other Protestant Churches, and with representatives of other Christian denominations. 11 December 1983 John Paul II participated in an ecumenical service in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Rome,[73] the first papal visit ever to a Lutheran church. The visit took place 550 years after the birth of Martin Luther, the German Augustinian monk who initiated the Lutheran reformation. In his apostolic pilgrimage to Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark and Sweden 110 June 1989,[74] John Paul II became the first pope to visit countries with Lutheran majorities. In addition to celebrating Mass with Catholic believers, he participated in ecumenical services at places that had been Catholic shrines before the Lutheran reformation in the 16th century: Nidaros Cathedral in Norway; near St. Olav's Church at Thingvellir in Iceland; Turku Cathedral in Finland; Roskilde Cathedral in Denmark; and Uppsala Cathedral in Sweden. On 31 October 1999 (the 482nd anniversary of Reformation Day, Martin Luther's posting of the 95 Theses), representatives of the Vatican and the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) signed a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, as a gesture of unity. The signing was a fruit of the theological dialogue that has been going on between the LWF and the Vatican since 1965 [75]. Judaism Relations between Catholicism and Judaism improved during the pontificate of John Paul II.[35] [64] He spoke frequently about the Church's relationship with Jews.[35] As a child, Karol Wojtya had played sports with his many Jewish neighbours.[9] [76] In 1979, he became the first Pope to visit the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, where many of his compatriots (mostly Polish Jews) had perished during the Nazi occupation in World War II. In 1998 he issued "We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah" which outlined his thinking on the Holocaust.[77] He became the first pope known to have made an official papal visit to a synagogue,[78] when he visited the Great Synagogue of Rome on 13 April 1986.[79] [80] [81] In 1994, John PaulII established formal diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel, acknowledging its centrality in Jewish life and faith.[79] [82] In honour of this event, Pope John Paul II The Western Wall in Jerusalem hosted The Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust. This concert, which was conceived and conducted by American Maestro Gilbert Levine, was attended by the Chief Rabbi of Rome, the President of Italy, and survivors of the Holocaust from around the world.[83] [84] In March 2000, John PaulII visited Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial in Israel, and later made history by touching one of the holiest sites in Judaism, the Western Wall in Jerusalem,[64] placing a letter inside it (in which he prayed for forgiveness for the actions against Jews).[63] [64] [79] [85] In part of his address he said: "I assure the Jewish people the Catholic Church ... is deeply saddened by the hatred, acts of persecution and displays of anti-Semitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any time and in any place", he added that there were "no words strong enough to deplore the terrible tragedy of the Holocaust".[63] [64] Israeli cabinet minister Rabbi Michael Melchior, who hosted the Pope's visit, said he was "very moved" by the Pope's gesture.[63] [64]

16

Pope John Paul II

17

It was beyond history, beyond memory.

[63]

Rabbi Michael Melchior (26 March 2000)

We are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant.

[85] [86] Pope John Paul II (12 March 2000) from a note left by the Pope at the Western Wall in Jerusalem

In October 2003, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued a statement congratulating John Paul II on entering the 25th year of his papacy.[82] In January 2005, John Paul II became the first Pope in history known to receive a priestly blessing from a rabbi, when Rabbis Benjamin Blech, Barry Dov Schwartz, and Jack Bemporad visited the Pontiff at Clementine Hall in the Apostolic Palace.[87] Immediately after the pope's death, the ADL issued a statement that Pope John Paul II had revolutionised Catholic-Jewish relations, saying that "more change for the better took place in his 27 year Papacy than in the nearly 2,000 years before."[88] In another statement issued by the Australia, Israel & Jewish Affairs Council, Director Dr Colin Rubenstein said, "The Pope will be remembered for his inspiring spiritual leadership in the cause of freedom and humanity. He achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the Jewish people and the State of Israel than any other figure in the history of the Catholic Church".[79]

With Judaism, therefore, we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion. You are our dearly beloved brothers, and in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers.

[45]

Pope John Paul II (13 April 1986)

Eastern Orthodox Church In May 1999, John Paul II visited Romania on the invitation from Patriarch Teoctist Arpau of the Romanian Orthodox Church. This was the first time a Pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.[89] On his arrival, the Patriarch and the President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, greeted the Pope.[89] The Patriarch stated, "The second millennium of Christian history began with a painful wounding of the unity of the Church; the end of this millennium has seen a real commitment to restoring Christian unity."[89] John PaulII visited another heavily Orthodox area, Ukraine on 2327 June 2001 at the invitation of the President of Ukraine and bishops of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.[90] The Pope spoke to leaders of the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches and Religious Organisations, pleading for "open, tolerant and honest dialogue".[90] About 200 thousand people attended the liturgies celebrated by the Pope in Kiev, and the liturgy in Lviv gathered nearly one and a half million faithful.[90] John PaulII stated that an end to the Great Schism was one of his fondest wishes.[90] Healing divisions between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches regarding Latin and Byzantine traditions was clearly of great personal interest. For many years, John Paul II sought to facilitate dialogue and unity stating as early as 1988 in Euntes in mundum that "Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe easily until it uses both of them". During his 2001 travels, John PaulII became the first Pope to visit Greece in 1291 years.[91] [92] In Athens, the Pope met with Archbishop Christodoulos, the head of the Greek Orthodox Church.[91] After a private 30 minute meeting, the two spoke publicly. Christodoulos read a list of "13 offences" of the Roman Catholic Church against the Eastern Orthodox Church since the Great Schism,[91] including the pillaging of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204, and bemoaned the lack of apology from the Roman Catholic Church, saying "Until now, there has not been heard a single request for pardon" for the "maniacal crusaders of the 13th century."[91]

Pope John Paul II The Pope responded by saying "For the occasions past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us forgiveness," to which Christodoulos immediately applauded. John PaulII said that the sacking of Constantinople was a source of "profound regret" for Catholics.[91] Later John Paul and Christodoulos met on a spot where Saint Paul had once preached to Athenian Christians. They issued a common declaration, saying "We shall do everything in our power, so that the Christian roots of Europe and its Christian soul may be preserved. We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion".[91] The two leaders then said the Lord's Prayer together, breaking an Orthodox taboo against praying with Catholics.[91] The Pope had said throughout his pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred. He attempted to solve the problems that had arisen over centuries between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, such as giving back the icon of Our Lady of Kazan in August 2004. Buddhism Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama visited Pope John PaulII eight times, more than any other single dignitary. The Pope and the Dalai Lama often shared similar views and understood similar plights, both coming from peoples affected by communism and both being heads of major religious bodies.[93] [94] Islam Pope John PaulII made considerable efforts to improve relations between Catholicism and Islam.[95] On 6May2001, Pope John PaulII became the first Catholic pope to enter and pray in a mosque. Respectfully removing his shoes, he entered the Umayyad Mosque, a former Byzantine era Christian church dedicated to John the Baptist (who is believed to be interred there) in Damascus, Syria, and gave a speech including the statement: "For all the times that Muslims and Christians have offended one another, we need to seek forgiveness from the Almighty and to offer each other forgiveness."[61] [62] He kissed the Quran in Syria,[96] [97] [98] an act which made him popular amongst Muslims but which disturbed many Catholics.[97]
The Dalai Lama met with Pope John Paul II eight times.

18

In 2004, Pope John PaulII hosted the "Papal Concert of Reconciliation," which brought together leaders of Islam with leaders of the Jewish community and of the Catholic Church at the Vatican for a concert by the Krakw Philharmonic Choir from Poland, the London Philharmonic Choir from the United Kingdom, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra from the United States, and the Ankara State Polyphonic Choir of Turkey.[99] [100] [101] [102] The event was conceived and conducted by Sir Gilbert Levine, KCSG and was broadcast throughout the world.[99]
[100] [101] [102]

John PaulII oversaw the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church which makes a special provision for Muslims; therein, it is written, "The plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place amongst whom are the Muslims; these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind's judge on the last day."[103]

Pope John Paul II

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Role in the fall of Communism


John PaulII has been credited with being instrumental in bringing down communism in Central and Eastern Europe,[35] [42] [46] [51] [52] [53] [104] by being the spiritual inspiration behind its downfall, and a catalyst for "a peaceful revolution" in Poland. Lech Wasa, the founder of Solidarity, credited John PaulII with giving Poles the courage to rise up.[35] According to Wasa, "Before his pontificate, the world was divided into blocs. Nobody knew how to get rid of communism. In Warsaw, in 1979, he simply said: 'Do not be afraid', and later prayed: 'Let your Spirit descend and change the image of the land... this land'."[104] [105]

Russian President Vladimir Putin meeting Pope John Paul II

President Ronald Reagan's correspondence with the pope reveals "a continuous scurrying to shore up Vatican support for U.S. policies. Perhaps most surprisingly, the papers show that, as late as 1984, the pope did not believe the Communist Polish government could be changed."[106] In December 1989, John Paul II met with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at the Vatican and each expressed his respect and admiration for the other. Gorbachev once said The collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II.[42] [51] On John Paul's passing, Mikhail Gorbachev said: "Pope John Paul II's devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us."[53] [104] [107] In February 2004, Pope John Paul II was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize honouring his life's work in opposing Communist oppression and helping to reshape the world.[108] President George W. Bush presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America's highest civilian honour, to Pope John Paul II during a ceremony at the Vatican 4 June 2004. The president read the citation that accompanied the medal, which recognised "this son of Poland" whose "principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired US President George W. Bush presents the Medal millions and helped to topple communism and tyranny." After of Freedom to Pope John Paul II, in June 2004 receiving the award, John Paul II said, "May the desire for freedom, peace, a more humane world symbolised by this medal inspire men and women of goodwill in every time and place."[109]

Warsaw, Moscow, Budapest, Berlin, Prague, Sofia and Bucharest have become stages in a long pilgrimage toward liberty. It is admirable that in these events, entire peoples spoke out women, young people, men, overcoming fears, their irrepressible thirst for liberty speeded up developments, made walls tumble down and opened gates.

[52]

Pope John Paul II (1989)

Assassination attempts
As he entered St. Peter's Square to address an audience on 13 May 1981, John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Aca,[2] [46] [110] a trained expert Turkish gunman who was a member of the militant fascist group Grey Wolves.[111] The assassin used a Browning 9mm semi-automatic pistol,[112] striking him in the abdomen and perforating his colon and small intestine multiple times.[42] John Paul II was rushed into the Vatican complex and then to the Gemelli Hospital. En route to the hospital, he lost consciousness. Even though the bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, he lost nearly three-quarters of his blood. He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his massive blood loss and abdominal wounds.[113] Surgeons performed a colostomy, temporarily rerouting the upper part of the large intestine to let the damaged lower part heal.[113] When he briefly gained

Pope John Paul II consciousness before being operated on, he instructed the doctors not to remove his Brown Scapular during the operation.[114] [115] The pope stated that Our Lady of Ftima helped keep him alive throughout his ordeal.[46] [110]
[116]

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Could I forget that the event [Ali Aca's assassination attempt] in St. Peters Square took place on the day and at the hour when the first appearance of the Mother of Christ to the poor little peasants has been remembered for over sixty years at Ftima, Portugal? For in everything that happened to me on that very day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protection and care, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet.

Pope John Paul II -Memory & Identity, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, p.184

Aca was caught and restrained by a nun and other bystanders until police arrived. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Two days after Christmas in 1983, John Paul II visited the prison where his would-be assassin was being held. The two spoke privately for 20 minutes.[46] [110] John Paul II said, "What we talked about will have to remain a secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust. On 2 March 2006, an Italian parliamentary commission, the Mitrokhin Commission, set up by Silvio Berlusconi and headed by Forza Italia senator Paolo Guzzanti, concluded that the Soviet Union was behind the attempt on John Paul II's life,[111] [117] in retaliation for the pope's support of Solidarity, the Catholic, pro-democratic Polish workers' movement, a theory which had already been supported by Michael Ledeen and the United States Central Intelligence Agency at the time.[111] [117] The Italian report stated that certain Communist Bulgarian security departments were utilised to prevent the Soviet Union's role from being uncovered.[117] The report stated Soviet military intelligence (Glavnoje Razvedyvatel'noje Upravlenije)and not the KGBwas responsible.[117] Russian Foreign Intelligence Service spokesman Boris Labusov called the accusation absurd.[117] Although the Pope declared during a May 2002 visit to Bulgaria that the country's Soviet bloc-era leadership had nothing to do with the assassination attempt,[111] [117] his secretary, Cardinal Stanisaw Dziwisz, alleged in his book A Life with Karol, that the pope was convinced privately that the former Soviet Union was behind the assassination attempt.[118] Bulgaria and Russia disputed the Italian commission's conclusions, pointing out that the Pope denied the Bulgarian connection.[117] A second assassination attempt took place on 12 May 1982, just a day before the anniversary of the first attempt on his life, in Ftima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet.[119] [120] [121] He was stopped by security guards, although Stanisaw Cardinal Dziwisz later claimed that John Paul II had been injured during the attempt but managed to hide a non-life threatening wound.[119] [120] [121] The assailant, a traditionalist Spanish priest named Juan Mara Fernndez y Krohn,[119] was ordained as a priest by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of Saint Pius X and was opposed to the changes caused by the Second Vatican Council, calling the pope an agent of Communist Moscow and of the Marxist Eastern Bloc.[122] Fernndez y Krohn subsequently left the Roman Catholic priesthood and served three years of a six-year sentence.[120] [121] [122] The ex-priest was treated for mental illness and then expelled from Portugal, going on to become a solicitor in Belgium.[122] He was arrested again in July 2000 after climbing over a security barricade at the Royal Palace of Brussels, accusing the visiting Spanish King Juan Carlos of murdering his older brother Alfonso in 1956.[120] [121] [123] Pope John Paul II was one of the targets of the Al-Qaeda-funded Operation Bojinka during a visit to the Philippines in 1995. The first plan was to kill Pope John Paul II when he visited the Philippines during the World Youth Day 1995 celebrations. On 15 January 1995, a suicide bomber would dress up as a priest, while John Paul II passed in his motorcade on his way to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati City. The assassin planned to get close to the Pope, and detonate the bomb. The planned assassination of the Pope was intended to divert attention from the next phase of the operation. However, a chemical fire inadvertently started by the would-be assassins alerted police to their whereabouts, and they were arrested nearly a week before the Pope's visit.[124]

Pope John Paul II

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Social and political stances


John Paul II was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to reproduction and the ordination of women.[125] While the Pope was visiting the United States of America he said, "All human life, from the moments of conception and through all subsequent stages, is sacred."[126] A series of 129 lectures given by John Paul during his Wednesday audiences in Rome between September 1979 and November 1984 were later compiled and published as a single work entitled Theology of the Body, an extended meditation on human sexuality. He extended it to condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all uses of capital punishment,[127] calling them all a part of the "culture of death" that is pervasive in the modern world. He campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice.[35] [125] Liberation theology In 1984 and 1986, through the voice of Cardinal Ratzinger, leader of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II officially condemned aspects of Liberation theology, which has many followers in South America. scar Romero's attempt, during his visit to Europe, to obtain a Vatican condemnation of El Salvador's regime, denounced for violations of human rights and its support of death squads, was a failure. In his travel to Managua, Nicaragua in 1983, John Paul II harshly condemned what he dubbed the "popular Church"[128] (i.e. "ecclesial base communities" (CEBs) supported by the CELAM), and the Nicaraguan clergy's tendencies to support the leftist Sandinistas, reminding the clergy of their duties of obedience to the Holy See.[128] During that visit Ernesto Cardenal, a priest and minister in the Sandinista government, knelt to kiss his hand. John Paul withdrew it, wagged his finger in Cardenal's face, and told him, "You must straighten out your position with the church."[129] Jubilee 2000 campaign In 2000, he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 campaign on African debt relief fronted by Irish rock stars Bob Geldof and Bono. Iraq war In 2003, John Paul II became a prominent critic of the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq.[35] In his 2003 State of the World address, the Pope declared his opposition to the invasion by stating, "No to war! War is not always inevitable. It is always a defeat for humanity."[130] He sent former Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States Po Cardinal Laghi Saint Peter's basilica and Pope John Paul II's to talk with American President George W. Bush to express opposition image on plate in Jubilee-Year 2000 to the war. John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the international conflict through diplomacy and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of international law.

Wars generally do not resolve the problems for which they are fought and therefore... prove ultimately futile.

[45]

Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II Evolution See also: Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church and Scientific theories and the interpretation of Genesis. On 22 October 1996, in a speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences plenary session at the Vatican, Pope John Paul II said of evolution that "this theory has been progressively accepted by researchers, following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favour of this theory." The Pope qualified this by noting that, "rather than the theory of evolution, we should speak of several theories of evolution." Some of these theories, he noted, have a purely materialistic philosophical underpinning which is not compatible with the Catholic faith: "Consequently, theories of evolution which, in accordance with the philosophies inspiring them, consider the mind as emerging from the forces of living matter, or as a mere epiphenomenon of this matter, are incompatible with the truth about man.[131] [132] [133] [134] Although generally accepting the theory of evolution, John Paul II made one major exception the human soul. "If the human body has its origin in living material which pre-exists it, the spiritual soul is immediately created by God".[131] [133] [134] Views on sexuality While taking a traditional position on sexuality, defending the Church's moral opposition to marriage for same-sex couples, the pope asserted that persons with homosexual inclinations possess the same inherent dignity and rights as everybody else. In his last book, Memory and Identity, he referred to the "pressures" on the European Parliament to permit "homosexual 'marriage'". In the book, as quoted by Reuters, he wrote: "It is legitimate and necessary to ask oneself if this is not perhaps part of a new ideology of evil, perhaps more insidious and hidden, which attempts to pit human rights against the family and against man."[35] The Pope reaffirmed the Church's existing teaching on gender in relation to transsexuals, as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which he supervised, made clear that transsexuals could not serve in church positions.[35] [125] A 1997 study determined that 3% of the pope's statements were about the issue of sexual morality.[135]

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Health
When he became pope in 1978, John Paul II was still an avid sportsman. At the time, the 58-year old was extremely healthy and active, jogging in the Vatican gardens, weight training, swimming, and hiking in the mountains. He was fond of football. The media contrasted the new Pope's athleticism and trim figure to the poor health of John Paul I and Paul VI, the portliness of John XXIII and the constant claims of ailments of Pius XII. The only modern pope with a fitness regimen had been Pope Pius XI (19221939) who was an avid mountaineer.[136] [137] An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labelled John Paul II the keep-fit pope.

Vatican Gardens

John Paul II fully recovered from the first failed assassination attempt, and sported an impressive physical condition throughout the 1980s. In November 1993, he slipped on a piece of newly installed carpet and fell down several steps, breaking his right shoulder.[138] Four months later he fell over in his bath, breaking his femur, resulting in a visit to the Gemelli hospital for a hip replacement.[139] He rarely walked in

Pope John Paul II

23

public after this, and began experiencing slurred speech and difficulty in hearing. The frail pontiff was suspected of having Parkinson's disease, although it was only revealed in 2001 by Italian orthopaedic surgeon, Dr. Gianfranco Fineschi.[140] [141] The Vatican administration eventually confirmed it in 2003, after keeping it secret for 12 years.[142]

The ailing Pope John Paul II riding in the Popemobile on 22 September 2004

In February 2005, the pontiff was again taken to the Gemelli hospital with inflammation and spasm of the larynx, the result of influenza.[143] He was readmitted a few days after release because of difficulty breathing. A tracheotomy was performed, which improved the Pope's breathing but limited his speaking abilities, to his visible frustration. The Vatican confirmed he was near death in March 2005, a few days before he died.[144]

Death and funeral


On 31 March 2005 following a urinary tract infection,[145] Pope John Paul II developed septic shock, a widespread form of infection with a very high fever and profoundly low blood pressure, but was not taken to the hospital. Instead, he was offered medical monitoring by a team of consultants at his private residence. This was taken as an indication that the pope and those close to him believed that he was nearing death; it would have been in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican.[146] Later that day, Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick by his friend and secretary Stanisaw Dziwisz. During the final days of the Pope's life, the lights were kept burning through the night where he lay in the Papal apartment on the top floor of the Apostolic Palace. Tens of thousands of people assembled and held vigil in St. Peter's Square and the surrounding streets for two days. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated: "I have searched for you, and now you have come to me, and I thank you."[147]

(l-r): Then-U.S. President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former Presidents Bush and Clinton, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, pay their respects to John Paul II lying in state at St. Peter's Basilica, 6 April 2005.

On Saturday 2 April 2005, at about 15:30 CEST, John Paul II spoke his final words, "pozwlcie mi odej do domu Ojca", ("Let me depart to the house of the Father"), to his aides, and fell into a coma about four hours later.[147] [148] The mass of the vigil of the Second Sunday of Easter commemorating the canonisation of Saint Maria Faustina on 30 April 2000,[149] had just been celebrated at his bedside, presided over Crowd assembling for John Paul II's funeral mass by Stanisaw Dziwisz and two Polish associates. Present at the bedside on 8 April 2005. was a cardinal from Ukraine who served as a priest with John Paul in Poland, along with Polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, who ran the papal household. He died in his private apartment, at 21:37 CEST[142] [148] [150] (19:37 UTC) of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days short of his 85th birthday.

Pope John Paul II John Paul had no close family by the time he died, and his feelings are reflected in his words, as written in 2000, at the end of his Last Will and Testament:[151]

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As the end of my earthly life approaches, I return with my memory to its beginning, to my parents, my brother and the sister (whom I never knew because she died before my birth), to the Parish of Wadowice where I was baptised, to that city I love, to my peers, friends from elementary school, high school and the university, up to the time of the occupation when I was a worker, then in the Parish in Niegowic, to St Florian's in Krakw, to the pastoral ministry of academics, to the milieu of... to all milieux... to Krakw and to Rome... to the people who were [151] entrusted to me in a special way by the Lord.

The death of the pontiff set in motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Rite of Visitation took place from 4 to 7 April at St. Peter's Basilica. The Testament of Pope John Paul II published on 7 April[152] revealed that the pontiff contemplated being buried in his native Poland but left the final decision to The College of Cardinals, which in passing, preferred burial beneath St. Peter's Basilica, honouring the pontiff's request to be placed "in bare earth". The Mass of Requiem on 8 April was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a A view from within the congregation at the funeral.[153] [154] [155] [156] (See: List of Dignitaries). It was the single Requiem Mass, 8 April 2005 largest gathering of heads of state in history, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill (1965) and Josip Broz Tito (1980). Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended alongside the faithful.[154] It is likely to have been the largest single pilgrimage of Christianity in history, with numbers estimated in excess of four million mourners gathering in Rome.[153] [155] [156] [157] Between 250,000 and 300,000 watched the event from within the Vatican walls.[156] The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who would become the next pope, conducted the ceremony. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes. He was lowered into a tomb created in the same alcove previously occupied by the remains of Pope John XXIII. The alcove had been empty since Pope John's remains had been moved into the main body of the basilica after his beatification.

Posthumous recognition
Title "the Great"

Pope John Paul II

25

Since the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen throughout the world[42] [153] [158] have been referring to the late pontiff as "John Paul the Great"only the fourth pope to be so acclaimed, and the first since the first millennium.[42] [158] [159] [160] Scholars of Canon Law say that there is no official process for declaring a pope "Great"; the title simply establishes itself through popular and continued usage,[153] [161] [162] as is the case with celebrated secular leaders (for example, Alexander III of Macedon became popularly known as Alexander the Great). The three popes who today commonly are known as "Great" are Leo I, who reigned from 440461 and persuaded Attila the Hun to withdraw from Rome; Gregory I, 590604, after whom the Gregorian Chant is named; and Pope Nicholas I, 858867.[158] His successor, Pope Benedict XVI, referred to him as "the great Pope John Paul II" in his first address[163] from the loggia of St. Peter's Church, and Angelo Cardinal Sodano referred to Pope John Paul II as "the Great" in his published written homily for the Mass of Repose.[164] Since giving his homily at the funeral of Pope John Paul, Pope Benedict XVI has continued to refer to John Paul II as "the Great." At the 20th World Youth Day in Germany 2005, Pope Benedict XVI, speaking in Polish, John Paul's native language, said, "As the Great Pope John Paul II would say: keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people." In May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI visited John Paul's native Poland. During that visit, he repeatedly made references to "the great John Paul" and "my great predecessor".[165] In addition to the Vatican calling him "the great," numerous newspapers have done so. For example, the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera called him "the Greatest" and the South African Catholic newspaper, The Southern Cross, has called him "John Paul II The Great".[166] Some schools in the United States, such as John Paul the Great Catholic University and John Paul the Great Catholic High School, have recently been named for John Paul II using this title.
Statue of Pope John Paul II (1984) carved by local First Nations at Martyrs' Shrine, Midland, Ontario Statue of John Paul II in Czstochowa, southern Poland

Beatification Inspired by calls of "Santo Subito!" ("Saint Immediately!") from the crowds gathered during the funeral,[153] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] Benedict XVI began the beatification process for his predecessor, bypassing the normal restriction that five years must pass after a person's death before the beatification process can begin.[169] [] [172] [173] In an audience with Pope Benedict XVI, Camillo Ruini, Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome and the one responsible for promoting the Beatification of John Paul II cause for canonisation of any person who dies within that diocese, cited "exceptional circumstances" which suggested that the waiting period could be waived.[3] [153] [174] [175] This decision was announced on 13 May 2005, the Feast of Our Lady of Ftima and the 24th

Pope John Paul II

26

anniversary of the assassination attempt on John Paul II at St. Peter's Square.[176] In early 2006, it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, a French nun and a member of the Congregation of Little Sisters of Catholic Maternity Wards, confined to her bed by Parkinson's Disease,[169] [177] was reported to have experienced a "complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope John Paul II".[153] [167] [169] [178] [179] [180] As of May 2008, Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, then 46,[167] [169] was working again at a maternity hospital run by her order.[173] [177] [181]
[182]

Tomb of John Paul II in The Chapel of St. Sebastian

"I was sick and now I am cured," she told reporter Gerry Shaw. "I am cured, but it is up to the church to say whether it was a miracle or not."[177] [181] On 28 May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI said Mass before an estimated 900,000 people in John Paul II's native Poland. During his homily, he encouraged prayers for the early canonisation of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonisation would happen "in the near future."[177] [183] In January 2007, Stanisaw Cardinal Dziwisz of Krakw, his former secretary, announced that the key interviewing phase of the beatification process, in Italy and Poland, was nearing completion.[153] [177] [184] In February 2007, relics of Pope John Paul IIpieces of white papal cassocks he used to wearwere being freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause, a typical pious practice after a saintly Catholic's death.[185] [186] On 8 March 2007, the Vicariate of Rome announced that the diocesan phase of John Paul's cause for beatification was at an end. Following a ceremony on 2 April 2007 the second anniversary of the Pontiff's death the cause proceeded to the scrutiny of the committee of lay, clerical, and episcopal members of the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who will conduct an investigation of their own.[] [177]
[184]

St Peter's Square during the Beatification ceremonies

On the fourth anniversary of Pope John Paul's death, 2 April 2009, Cardinal Dziwisz, told reporters of a presumed miracle that had recently occurred at the former pope's tomb in St. Peter's Basilica.[181] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] Monument to Pope John Paul II in A nine year-old Polish boy from Gdask, Pozna who was suffering from kidney cancer and was completely unable to walk, had been visiting the tomb with his parents. On leaving St. Peter's Basilica, the boy told them, "I want to walk," and began walking normally.[181] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] On 16 November 2009, a panel of reviewers at the Congregation for the Causes of Saints voted unanimously that Pope John Paul II had lived a life of virtue.[193] [194] On 19 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI signed the first of two decrees needed for beatification and proclaimed John Paul II "Venerable", in recognition that he lived a heroic, virtuous life.[193] [194] The second vote and the second signed decree recognise the authenticity of his first miracle

Pope John Paul II (the case of Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, the French nun who was cured of Parkinson's Disease). Once the second decree is signed, the positio (the report on the cause, with documentation about his life and his writings and with information on the cause) is regarded as being complete.[194] He can then be beatified.[193] [194] Some speculated that he would be beatified sometime during (or soon after) the month of the 32nd anniversary of his 1978 election, in October 2010. As Monsignor Oder noted, this course would have been possible if the second decree were signed in time by Benedict XVI, stating that a posthumous miracle directly attributable to his intercession has occurred, completing the positio. The Vatican announced on 14 January 2011 that Pope Benedict XVI had confirmed the miracle involving Sister Marie Simon-Pierre and that John Paul II was to be beatified on 1 May, the Feast of Divine Mercy.[195] 1 May is commemorated in former communist countries, such as Poland, and some Western European countries as May Day, and Pope John Paul II was well-known, among many other things, for his crucial contributions to Central and Eastern European communist system's relatively peaceful demise, as attested by former Soviet President Gorbachev upon the pontiff's death.[42] [51] On 29 April 2011, Pope John Paul II's coffin was exhumed from the grotto beneath St. Peter's Basilica ahead of his beatification, as tens of thousands of people began arriving in Rome for one of the biggest events since his funeral in 2005.[196] The closed coffin containing John Paul II's remains was moved to a temporary place in front of the Basilica's main altar, where believers could pay their respect before and after the beatification mass in St. Peter's Square on 1 May. On 3 May 2011 Blessed Pope John Paul II's coffin was given a new resting place in the marble altar in Pier Paolo Cristofari's Chapel of St. Sebastian, which is where Blessed Pope Innocent XI was buried. This more prominent location, next to the Chapel of the Pieta, the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and statues of Popes Pius XI and Pius XII, will increase the number of pilgrims capable of viewing his memorial. The Polish mint issued gold 1,000 Polish zloty coins (equivalent to US$350) with the Pope's image to commemmorate his beatification.[197]

27

It will be a great joy for us when he is officially beatified, but as far as we are concerned he is already a Saint.

Stanisaw Cardinal Dziwisz, Archbishop of Krakw

[182]

On the same day "Non abbiate paura" ("Have no fear"), the official song dedicated to John Paul II featuring original images and words of the Pope was released. The song, authored by Giorgio Mantovan and Francesco Fiuman, was performed by Italian singer Matteo Setti and is the only musical piece for which the Vatican has given permission to use Karol Wojtyla's voice.[198]
Stages of canonization in the Catholic Church Servant of God Venerable Blessed Saint

Criticism
John Paul II was criticised for his support of the Opus Dei prelature and the 2002 canonisation of its founder, Josemara Escriv, whom he called "the saint of ordinary life."[125] [199] [200] Other movements and religious organisations of the Church went decidedly under his wing (Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the charismatic movement) and he was accused repeatedly of waving a soft hand on them, especially in the case of Rev. Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ.[125] [201] John Paul II's defence of the moral teachings of the Catholic Church regarding gender roles, sexuality, euthanasia, artificial contraception and abortion came under attack. Some feminists, as well as Catholic theologians such as John Wijngaards criticised his moral positions on the roles of women, which included rejecting women priests.[202]

Pope John Paul II Many gay rights activists and others criticised him for maintaining the Church's unbroken opposition to homosexual behaviour and same-sex marriage.[125] In addition to all the criticism from those demanding modernisation, traditionalist Catholics sometimes denounced him from the right, demanding a return to the Tridentine Mass[203] and repudiation of the reforms instituted after the Second Vatican Council, such as the use of the vernacular language in the formerly Latin Roman Rite Mass, ecumenism, and the principle of religious liberty. He was accused by these critics for allowing and appointing liberal bishops in their sees and thus silently promoting Modernism, which was firmly condemned as the "synthesis of all heresies" by his predecessor Pope St. Pius X.[125] John Paul's defence of the Catholic Church's moral teaching against the use of artificial birth control was harshly criticised by doctors and AIDS activists, who said that it led to countless deaths and millions of AIDS orphans.[204] Critics have claimed that large families are caused by lack of contraception and exacerbate Third World poverty and problems such as street children in South America.[125] The Catholic Agency for Overseas Development published a paper stating, "Any strategy that enables a person to move from a higher-risk towards the lower end of the continuum, [we] believe, is a valid risk reduction strategy."[205] Since his death, he has been criticised for failing to act on accusations of sexual child abuse by priests, including those against founder of Legion of Christ Marcial Maciel.[206]

28

Apologies
John Paul II apologised to Jews, Galileo, women, victims of the Inquisition, Muslims killed by the Crusaders, and almost everyone who had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church through the years.[35] [207] Even before he became the Pope, he was a prominent editor and supporter of initiatives like the Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops from 1965. As Pope, he officially made public apologies for over 100 of these wrongdoings, including: The legal process on the Italian scientist and philosopher Galileo Galilei, himself a devout Catholic, around 1633 (31 October 1992).[153] [208] [209] [210] Catholics' involvement with the African slave trade (9 August 1993). The Church Hierarchy's role in burnings at the stake and the religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation (May 1995, in the Czech Republic). The injustices committed against women, the violation of women's rights and for the historical denigration of women (10 July 1995, in a letter to "every woman"). The inactivity and silence of many Catholics during the Holocaust (see the article Religion in Nazi Germany) (16 March 1998).

An excuse is worse and more terrible than a lie, for an excuse is a lie guarded.

[45]

Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II

29

Honours and namesakes


Several national and municipal public projects were named in honour of the Pope: the Roma Termini station, was dedicated to Pope John Paul II by a vote of the City Council, the first municipal public object in Rome bearing the name of a non Italian. International airports named after him are John Paul II International Airport Krakw-Balice one of the principal airports of Poland and the Joo Paulo II Airport in the Azores. The Juan Pablo II Bridge is located in Chile, while John Paul II Square in Bulgaria denotes the Pope's visit to Sofia in 2002. In Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras is a popular Pope Benedict XVI is shown a map of Ioannes boulevard called "Juan Pablo II". It was named like that after the visit Paulus II Peninsula in Antarctica. of the pope to Tegucigalpa Estdio Joo Paulo II (John Paul II Stadium) is a football (soccer) stadium in Moji-Mirim in Brazil. Parvis Notre-Dame Place Jean-Paul II is a centrepiece of one of Paris' neighbourhoods. On Sunday 10 December 2006, the city of Plormel, Morbihan, western France, unveiled an 8.75m (28.71ft) tall statue of John Paul II, it was a gift by Russo-Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli. On 5 October 2011, Lyon, France, unveiled an 3 m tall statue of John Paul II near the basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvire. Pope John Paul II Park is a feature of Boston, Massachusetts[211] while Pope John Paul II Drive serves residents of Chicago, Illinois.[212] In Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, there's a Blvd. named John Paul II. Of international interest, Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands was named in honour of the Pope. The Antarctic landmark recognises his contribution to world peace and understanding among people. A museum in Czstochowa opened on 11 August 2011, and features about 5,500 medals and coins with the Pope's image. The museum was founded by the president of President Electronics Poland, Krzysztof Witkowski.[213]

Media

Freedom consists not in doing what we like, but in having the right to do what we ought.

[45]

Pope John Paul II

On 4 and 7 December 2005, CBS aired a television mini-series about the life of Pope John Paul II titled Pope John Paul II, depicting his early adult years in Poland to his death. The mini-series was written and directed by John Kent Harrison and stars Cary Elwes as the younger Wojtya and Jon Voight as the older. The film co-stars James Cromwell as Archbishop Adam Stefan Sapieha, Ben Gazzara as Agostino Casaroli and Christopher Lee as Stefan Wyszyski. Karol: A Man Who Became Pope is a 2005 TV miniseries directed by Giacomo Battiato, and created as Polish-Italian-French-German and Canadian joint cooperation project. Karol is a biography of Karol Wojtya, later known as Pope John Paul II, beginning in 1939 when Karol was only 19 years old and ending at the conclave (October 1978) that made him the Pope. Karol: The Pope, The Man is a 2006 TV miniseries chronicling Pope John Paul II's life as pope, directed by Giacomo Battiato. It is the sequel to the TV miniseries Karol: A Man Who Became Pope, which portrayed John Paul's life before the papacy. On 25 February 2011, BBC Radio 4 broadcast Conclave by Hugh Costello as part of the Friday Play series, starring David Calder as Cardinal Franz Koenig, Allison Reid as Hannah Popper, Nicholas Le Prevost as Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, Paul Nicholson as Cardinal Giuseppe Siri and Andrew Hilton as Cardinal Karol Wojtya (the

Pope John Paul II future Pope John Paul II). The play depicts John Paul II's election as Pope after John Paul I's mysterious death taking place in an atmosphere of high tension between opposing factions within the Vatican, including those who want to elect the first non-Italian Pope for over four hundred years. On May 2011, The Philippines made a documentary for Pope John Paul II named "BANAL"(Holy) aired in ABS-CBN.

30

References
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31

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Pope John Paul II

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Notes
[1] Wilde, Robert. "Pope John Paul II 19202005" (http:/ / europeanhistory. about. com/ od/ religionandthought/ a/ biojohnpaulii. htm). About.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [2] "John Paul II Biography (19202005)" (http:/ / www. biography. com/ search/ article. do?id=9355652). A&E Television Networks. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [3] "His Holiness John Paul II : Short Biography" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en. html). Vatican Press Office. 30 June 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [4] "Pope John Paul II 19202005" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ SPECIALS/ 2005/ pope/ stories/ bio1/ index. html). CNN. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [5] Roman Woronowycz Kyiv Press Bureau; Pope John Paul II has Ukrainian blood on his mother's side. (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ vexperts/ showmessage_print. asp?number=375382) [6] St. Michael Ukrainian Catholic Church in Grand Rapids; Pope John Paul II had relatives on his mothers side of the family who were Ukrainian Catholics of the Byzantine Rite. (http:/ / www. klee. us/ stmichaelgrandrapids/ easterncatholicicsm. htm) [7] "Karol Wojtya (Pope John Paul II) Timeline" (http:/ / www. cbn. com/ spirituallife/ ChurchAndMinistry/ KarolWojtylaPopeJohnPaulTimeline. aspx). Christian Broadcasting Network. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [8] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.11. ISBN0340908165. [9] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.25. ISBN0340908165. [10] "Pope John Paul the most revered human being on earth popejohnpaul.com" (http:/ / popejohnpaul. com/ php/ showContent. php?linkid=1). popejohnpaul.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [11] Kuhiwczak, Piotr (1 January 2007). "A literary Pope" (http:/ / www. thenews. pl/ news/ artykul21561. html). Polish Radio. . Retrieved 1 May 2011. [12] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.60. ISBN0340908165. [13] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.63. ISBN0340908165. [14] George Weigel, "Witness to Hope" HarperCollins Publishers 2001, page 71 [15] Davies, Norman (2004). Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw. 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL: Viking Penguin. pp.253254. ISBN0-670-03284-0. [16] George Weigel, "Witness to Hope" HarperCollins Publishers 2001, pages 7121 [17] Norman Davies, Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw Viking Penguin 2004, pages 253254 [18] Witness to Hope, George Weigel, HarperCollins (1999, 2001) ISBN 0-06-018793-X. [19] "Profile of Edith Zierier (1946)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080419140949/ http:/ / voices. iit. edu/ Profiles/ ziere_p. html). Voices of the Holocaust. 2000 Paul V. Galvin Library, Illinois Institute of Technology. Archived from the original (http:/ / voices. iit. edu/ Profiles/ ziere_p. html) on 19 April 2008. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [20] "CNN Live event transcript" (http:/ / transcripts. cnn. com/ TRANSCRIPTS/ 0504/ 08/ se. 01. html). CNN. 8 April 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [21] Roberts, Genevieve., "The death of Pope John Paul II: `He saved my life with tea, bread'" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071215035053/ http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4159/ is_20050403/ ai_n13509294), The Independent, 3 April 2005, Retrieved on 17 June 2007. [22] Cohen, Roger., " The Polish Seminary Student and the Jewish Girl He Saved" (http:/ / www. dialog. org/ hist/ JohnPaulII-EdithZierer. htm), International Herald Tribune, 6 April 2005, Retrieved on 17 June 2007. [23] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.71. ISBN0340908165. [24] "His Holiness John Paul II, Biography, Pre-Pontificate" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_prepontificato_en. html#1946). Holy See. . Retrieved 1 January 2008. [25] Maxwell-Stuart, P.G. (2006). Chronicle of the Popes. London: Thames & Hudson. p.233. ISBN978-0-500-28608-6. [26] "Pope John Paul II: A Light for the World" (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ comm/ popejohnpaulii/ biography. shtml). United States Council of Catholic Bishops. 2003. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [27] Edward Stourton, "John Paul II: Man of History" Hodder & Stoughton 2006, page 97 [28] "John Paul II to Publish First Poetic Work as Pope" (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ article-6191?l=english). ZENIT Innovative Media, Inc.. 7 January 2003. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [29] Landry, Fr. Roger J. (22 April 2005). "God, the Pope and Michelangelo" (http:/ / www. catholicity. com/ commentary/ landry/ 00452. html). CatholiCity.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [30] Wojtya, Karol. Love and Responsibility: 1981 [31] John Paul II, Pope (2004). Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way. 2004 Warner Books. ISBN0-446-57781-2. [32] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.103. ISBN0340908165. [33] "Short biography" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en. html). www.vatican.va. . Retrieved 25 October 2009. [34] Cardinal Deaconry S. Cesareo in Palatio (http:/ / www. gcatholic. com/ churches/ cardinal/ 130. htm) Giga Catholic Information [35] "John Paul II: A strong moral vision" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ SPECIALS/ 2005/ pope/ stories/ legacy/ index. html). CNN. 11 February 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009.

Pope John Paul II


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"John Paul the Great" (http:/ / www. weeklystandard. com/ Content/ Public/ Articles/ 000/ 000/ 005/ 469kzdxb. asp). Weekly Standard. pp. 12. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [43] 1978 Year in Review: The Election of Pope John Paul II (http:/ / www. upi. com/ Audio/ Year_in_Review/ Events-of-1978/ The-Election-of-Pope-John-Paul-II/ 12309251197005-5/ ) [44] "Events in the Pontificate of John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_pontificato_en. html). 30 June 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [45] "BrainyQuote: Pope John Paul II Quotes" (http:/ / www. brainyquote. com/ quotes/ authors/ p/ pope_john_paul_ii. html). BrainyMedia.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [46] Maxwell-Stuart, P.G. (2006). Chronicle of the Popes: Trying to Come Full Circle. London: Thames & Hudson. p.234. ISBN978-0-500-28608-6. 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"Mystery nun the key to Pope John Paul II's case for Sainthood" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2007/ mar/ 29/ catholicism. religion). London: 20072009 Guardian News and Media Limited. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [170] Gould, Peter (13 May 2005). "BBC News: On the fast track to Sainthood" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4545585. stm). MMVIII BBC. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [171] Owen, Richard. "Hopes raised for Pope John Paul II's beatification -Times Online" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/ article5927046. ece). The Times (UK). . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [172] "Response of His Holiness Benedict XVI for the examination of the cause for beatification and canonisation of the servant of God John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ csaints/ documents/ rc_con_csaints_doc_20050509_rescritto-gpii_en. html). Vatican News. 20052009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 9 May 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [173] "John Paul II on fast track for canonisation Framingham, MA The MetroWest Daily News" (http:/ / www. metrowestdailynews. com/ homepage/ x1864535984). www.metrowestdailynews.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [174] "John Paul II's Cause for Beatification Opens in Vatican City" (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ article-13422?l=english). ZENIT. Innovative Media, Inc.. 28 June 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [175] Kavanaugh, Jennifer (3 April 2007). "John Paul II on 'fast track' for Canonisation" (http:/ / www. metrowestdailynews. com/ homepage/ x1864535984). GateHouse Media, Inc.. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [176] "Pope Benedict forgoes waiting period, begins John Paul II beatification process" (http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com/ news/ pope_benedict_forgoes_waiting_period_begins_john_paul_ii_beatification_process/ ) Catholic News Agency 13 May 2005 Retrieved 1 May 2011 [177] Vicariato di Roma:A nun tells her story. 2009 [178] "Vatican may have found Pope John Paul's miracle" (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ news/ newsitems/ 200601/ s1558425. htm). includes material from Agence France-Presse (AFP), APTN, Reuters, CNN and the BBC World Service. 2007 ABC (Australia). 31 January 2006. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [179] "Miracle attributed to John Paul II involved Parkinson's disease" (http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ news/ features/ index. cfm?recnum=42131). Catholic World News (CWN). 2009 Trinity Communications. 30 January 2006. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [180] "Nun Who Claims Cure by John Paul II Emerges to Make Her Case" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 03/ 30/ world/ europe/ 30vatican. html?_r=2& oref=slogin). The New York Times. Agence France-Presse. 30 March 2007. . Retrieved 1 January 2009.

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[181] "French nun says life has changed since she was healed thanks to JPII" (http:/ / www. americancatholic. org/ Features/ JohnPaulII/ JPIInun. asp). 2007,2009 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [182] Willan, Philip. "No more shortcuts on Pope John Pauls road to Sainthood" (http:/ / www. sundayherald. com/ international/ shinternational/ display. var. 1329693. 0. no_more_shortcuts_on_pope_john_pauls_road_to_sainthood. php). Sunday Herald. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [183] "900,000 gather for Mass with Pope Benedict" (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2006/ 05/ 28/ news/ web. 0528pope. php). International Herald Tribune. 28 May 2006. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [184] Westcott, Kathryn (2 April 2007). "Vatican under pressure in John Paul push" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 6504233. stm). 20017-2009 BBC News (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ ). . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [185] Moore, Malcolm (25 September 2007). "Clamour for free Pope John Paul II relics" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ 1564061/ Clamour-for-free-Pope-John-Paul-II-relics. html). London: 20072009 The Telegraph Media Group Limited (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ ). . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [186] "Cause for Beatification and Canonization of The Servant of God: John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vicariatusurbis. org/ Beatificazione/ English/ HomePage. htm). 20052009 Vicariato di Roma III Piano Postulazione Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano, 6/A 00184 Roma. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [187] "Boy Walks after Praying at John Paul II's Grave World Javno" (http:/ / www. javno. com/ en-world/ boy-walks-after-praying-at-john-paul-iis-grave_248457). www.javno.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [188] "Wheelchair-boy 'miraculously walks again' at memorial visit to tomb of Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ article-1166858/ Wheelchair-boy-miraculously-walks-memorial-visit-tomb-Pope-John-Paul-II. html). The Daily Mail (UK). . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [189] "Blessed John Paul II? - Catholic.net" (http:/ / catholic. net/ index. php?size=mas& id=2673& option=dedestaca). ncregister.com. . Retrieved 7 March 2011. [190] "Child 'able to walk again' after praying at pope's tomb" (http:/ / www. archive. catholicherald. co. uk/ articles/ a0000522. shtml). Catholic Herald. . Retrieved 1 May 2011. [191] "Wheelchair-Bound Boy Walks Again After Visit to Pope John Paul II Tomb | HULIQ" (http:/ / www. huliq. com/ 3257/ 79289/ wheelchair-bound-boy-walks-again-after-visit-pope-john-paul-ii-tomb). www.huliq.com. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [192] "Wheelchair Boy 'Can Walk Thanks to Pope' [Eire Region (http:/ / vlex. co. uk/ vid/ wheelchair-boy-walk-thanks-pope-eire-60956003) Daily Mail vLex United Kingdom"]. vlex.co.uk. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [193] "Pope John Paul II's Sainthood on Fast Track The World Newser" (http:/ / blogs. abcnews. com/ theworldnewser/ 2009/ 11/ pope-john-paul-iis-sainthood-on-fast-track. html). blogs.abcnews.com. . Retrieved 18 November 2009. [194] "Catholic Culture : Latest Headlines : Beatification looms closer for John Paul II" (http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ news/ headlines/ index. cfm?storyid=4630). www.catholicculture.org. . Retrieved 18 November 2009. [195] "Pope paves way to beatification of John Paul II" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-12191423). bbc .news.co.uk. 14 January 2011. . Retrieved 14 January 2011. [196] "Pope John Paul II's body exhumed ahead of beatification" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 42819424/ ns/ world_news/ ?GT1=43001). MSNBC. . Retrieved 30 April 2011. [197] "Gold coin marks beatification of John Paul II" (http:/ / finance. yahoo. com/ news/ Gold-coin-marks-beatification-apf-2391039661. html?x=0& . v=1) Yahoo! Finance 30 March 2011 Retrieved 1 May 2011 [198] "Matteo Setti Official Site" (http:/ / www. matteosetti. com/ EnglishV/ News. html). . Retrieved 30 April 2011. [199] Martin, S.J., James (25 February 1995). "Opus Dei In the United States" (http:/ / www. americamagazine. org/ content/ articles/ martin-opusdei. cfm). 2009 America Press Inc. 106 West 56th St., New York, N.Y. 10019. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [200] "St. Josemara Escriva de Balaguer" (http:/ / www. catholic. org/ saints/ saint. php?saint_id=5603). Catholic Online. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [201] "Text of the accusation letter directed to John Paul II in Spanish (original language)" (http:/ / www. pepe-rodriguez. com/ Sexo_clero/ Casos/ Sexo_clero_M_Maciel_Leg_pedof_denuncia_Papa. htm) (in (Spanish)). Pepe-rodriguez.com. . Retrieved 12 September 2010. [202] "Mulieris Congress. Topic 1" (http:/ / www. womenpriests. org/ church/ mulcong1. asp). Womenpriests.org. 30 September 1988. . Retrieved 14 June 2010. [203] Hewitt, Hugh (04/06/2005). "Criticizing John Paul II : Yet another thing the mainstream press does not understand about the Catholic Church." (http:/ / www. weeklystandard. com/ Content/ Public/ Articles/ 000/ 000/ 005/ 454iylel. asp). News Corporation, Weekly Standard. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [204] "Top Catholics Question Condom Ban" (http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P1-107517312. html). 2005, 2009 International Herald Tribune (http:/ / www. iht. com/ ). 16 April 2005. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [205] Williams, Daniel (23 January 2005). "Pope Rejects Condoms As a Counter to AIDS" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn/ A29404-2005Jan22?language=printer). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [206] necm.com (11 Feb 2010). "Inside look at the Legionaries of Christ" (http:/ / www. necn. com/ 02/ 11/ 10/ Inside-look-at-the-Legionaries-of-Christ/ landing_newengland. html?blockID=179291& feedID=4206). . Retrieved 1 May 2011. [207] Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p.1. ISBN0340908165. [208] ThinkQuest.org (2010 [last update]). "GALILEO GALILEI(1564-1642)" (http:/ / library. thinkquest. org/ 22584/ temh3003. htm). library.thinkquest.org. . Retrieved 12 July 2011.

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[209] Adherents.com (2011 [last update]). "The religion of Galileo Galilei, astronomer and scientist" (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ people/ pg/ Galileo_Galilei. html). adherents.com. . Retrieved 12 July 2011. [210] Lycos.com search (2011 [last update]). "Galileo Galilei: Catholic Inquisition" (http:/ / www. lycos. com/ info/ galileo-galilei--catholic-inquisition. html?page=2). lycos.com. . Retrieved 12 July 2011. [211] "Pope John Paul II Park Reservation" (http:/ / www. mass. gov/ dcr/ parks/ metroboston/ pjp. htm). 2009 Department of Conservation and Recreation (http:/ / www. mass. gov/ dcr/ ) (DCR), Mass.. . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [212] "Google Maps: Pope John Paul II Dr, Chicago, IL, USA" (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?q=W+ Pope+ John+ Paul+ II+ Dr,+ Chicago,+ IL+ 60632,+ USA& sa=X& oi=map& ct=title). 2009 Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?hl=en& tab=wl). . Retrieved 1 January 2009. [213] Frukacz, Mariusz (August 19, 2011). "Museum of John Paul II Medals, Coins Opens in Poland" (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ article-33238?l=english). . Retrieved August 22, 2011. [214] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ cfaith/ documents/ rc_con_cfaith_doc_20000626_message-fatima_en. html [215] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ phome_en. htm [216] http:/ / www. vicariatusurbis. org/ Beatificazione/ English/ HomePage. htm [217] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4253415. stm [218] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ [219] http:/ / religion-cults. com/ pope/ communism. htm [220] http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ culture/ library/ view. cfm?id=3699& repos=1& subrepos=0& searchid=441440 [221] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4399189. stm [222] http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ archive/ preview/ 0,10987,925231,00. html [223] http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ [224] http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ devotionals/ mercy/ feast. htm [225] http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 7022618/ [226] http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ [227] http:/ / www1. voanews. com/ policy/ editorials/ a-41-2005-04-06-voa7-83104472. html?moddate=6 [228] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4344923. stm [229] http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ hasen/ pages/ ShArt. jhtml?itemNo=703666 [230] http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ [231] http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,1564,1538173,00. html [232] http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ [233] http:/ / www. americancatholic. org/ news/ pope/ popehospitalized/ / [234] http:/ / www. americancatholic. org/ [235] http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ article376429. ece [236] http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ [237] http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 03/ 31/ pope1/ index. html [238] http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 01/ pope1/ index. html [239] http:/ / www. avetinepress. com/ [240] http:/ / www. yale. edu/ [241] http:/ / www. indianchristianity. com/ html/ menachery/ html/ GeorgeMenachery. htm [242] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Living-Miracles-Spiritual-Sons-Great/ dp/ 1933271272 [243] http:/ / us. penguingroup. com/ nf/ Search/ QuickSearchProc/ 1,,John%20Paul%20the%20Great:%20Remembering%20a%20Spiritual%20Father,00. html?id=John%20Paul%20the%20Great:%20Remembering%20a%20Spiritual%20Father [244] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ bulletin/ B0183-XX. 01. pdf [245] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ [246] http:/ / www. bloomsbury. com/ garryoconnor [247] http:/ / www. bloomsbury. com/ [248] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=OT1oHAAACAAJ [249] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=SD1OPgAACAAJ [250] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=pXGMNrE015IC [251] http:/ / www. harpercollins. com/ [252] http:/ / www. ignatius. com/ ViewProduct. aspx?SID=1& Product_ID=450& AFID=12& [253] http:/ / www. constablerobinson. com/

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External links
The Holy See The Holy Father John Paul II (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ index. htm) A tribute to John Paul II in the occasion of his beatification (http:/ / www. johnpaulii. va/ en/ ) 'Lolek, The Boy Who Became Pope John Paul II' (http:/ / www. hramiechoffman. com/ preview/ ) Link to collected tributes, writings and commentary on John Paul II (http:/ / www. ratzingerfanclub. com/ JPII/ tributes. html) Electing a new Pope: The Conclave and all that (http:/ / www. indianchristianity. com/ html/ Books 7. htm) John Paul II Karol Wojtya Papiez z Polski (http:/ / www. papiez-pl. com/ ) Pope John Paul II to achieve sainthood (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Headlines/ Article. aspx?id=203665) John Paul II's Visit to Detroit, Michigan (http:/ / apps. detnews. com/ apps/ history/ index. php?id=40) Pope John Paul II, Time Magazine, 30 October 1978 (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ covers/ 0,16641,19781030,00. html)

John Paul II: text, concordances and frequency list (http:/ / www. intratext. com/ Catalogo/ Autori/ AUT197. HTM) John Paul II's Multilingual Opera Omnia (http:/ / www. documentacatholicaomnia. eu/ 01_01_1978-2005-_Ioannes_Paulus_II. html) Tomb of John Paul II (http:/ / www. saintpetersbasilica. org/ Grottoes/ JPII/ Tomb of John Paul II. htm)

Pope John Paul II Karol Wojtya and Benedict XVI (http:/ / www. watykan. ovh. org/ )

Pope is joyous about beatifying John Paul II (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Headlines/ Article. aspx?id=203851) Cause for the Beatification and Canonisation of John Paul II (http:/ / www. vicariatusurbis. org/ Beatificazione/ English/ HomePage. htm)

Museum of Coins and Medals Commemorating Pope John Paul II in Czstochowa (http:/ / www. jp2muzeum. pl/ en/ main-page)

Pope John Paul II (http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Society/ Religion_and_Spirituality/ Christianity/ Denominations/ Catholicism/ Popes/ J/ John_Paul_II/ / ) at the Open Directory Project

41

Biography
Biography
This article contains expanded biographical information about Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years. The first non-Italian to serve in office since the Dutch-German Pope Adrian VI died in 1523, John Paul II's reign was the third-longest in the history of the Papacy. Although John Paul II's reign was marked by a continuing decline of Catholicism in the developed countries of the West, at the same time there was an expansion of the church's role in the Third World and Communist East Europe. John Paul's election to the papacy is credited by many with fomenting the changes in eastern Europe that eventually led to the downfall of the communist states and the emergence of democratic regimes.[1] [2] [3] [4] On May 1, 2011, his successor, Pope Benedict XVI, presided over a beatification ceremony, placing John Paul one step from sainthood.[5]

Early life
Karol Wojtya was ordained a priest on 1 November 1946, age 26, by the Archbishop of Krakw, Adam Stefan Sapieha. The following day he celebrated his first Mass at Wawel Cathedral in Krakw.[6] [7] He then travelled to Rome to begin doctoral studies in the Pontifical Athenaeum of St. Thomas Aquinas, commonly known as the Angelicum. There he became well versed in theology and politics. He studied writings of pope Gregory I, the teachings of Saint John of the Cross, the phenomenology of Max Scheler. He also studied Yves Congar, an important theoretician of Karol Wojtya as a priest in Niegowi, Poland, 1948 ecumenism. He lived for two years in Rome in the Belgian College. The college was small with twenty-two resident student-priests and seminarians, among them five Americans. In this polyglot environment, Wojtya could improve his French and practice his German, while he began to study Italian and English. In his doctoral thesis, Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce (The Doctrine of Faith According to Saint John of the Cross), Wojtya emphasized the personal nature of the human encounter with God. Even though his doctoral work was unanimously approved in June 1948, he was denied the degree because he could not afford to print the text of his dissertation (an Angelicum rule). On 16 December of that year, a revised text of his dissertation was approved by the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University in Krakw, and Wojtya was finally awarded the degree.[7] He returned to Poland in the summer of 1948, and his first pastoral assignment was to the village of Niegowi, fifteen miles from Krakw. Arriving at Niegowi during harvest time, his first action was to kneel down and kiss the ground. This gesture would become one of his trademarks during his Papacy, but it was not his own, since he acknowledged that he had adopted it from a 19th-century French saint, Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney the Cur d'Ars.[8]

Biography

42

In March 1949, he was transferred to Saint Florian's parish in Krakw. He taught ethics at the Jagiellonian University in Krakw and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin. Wojtya gathered a group of fewer than twenty young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the "little family", who met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and helping the blind and sick. Rodzinka continued to grow. Wojtya's young friends began to call him Wujek (Uncle) to avoid outsiders from guessing he was a priest on outside trips.[9] As the Wojtya's circle grew, and their bond deepened, several weddings occurred in the group. Eventually there were some 200 people in his circle, which came to be called rodowisko, meaning roughly "milieu". Wojtya and his group went on both skiing and kayaking trips annually. On the annual kayaking trip, Wojtya used to have a two-man kayak and others would join him for conversation or spiritual direction. Mass was celebrated using an overturned kayak as an altar, and two paddles as a cross. Once, in 1955, the kayakers took part in an international competition through a gorge on the Dunajec River. Wujek's kayak was punctured and sank at the finish line. Fr Wojtya wrote a series of articles in Krakw's Catholic newspaper Tygodnik Powszechny ("Universal Weekly") dealing with contemporary church issues.

Karol Wojtya in Saint Florian's parish in Krakw, 1949

Wujek (uncle) Karol on kayak trip Karol Wojtya's literary work blossomed in his first [7] dozen years as a priest. War, life under communism, and his pastoral responsibilities all fed his poems and plays. These were published under two pseudonyms-Andrzej Jawie, and Stanisaw Andrzej Gruda. He used these pseudonyms firstly to distinguish his literary from his religious writings, which were published under his own name, and also so that his literary work would be considered on their own merits rather than as clerical curiosities.

He earned a second doctorate, evaluating the feasibility of a Catholic ethic based on the ethical system of phenomenologist Max Scheler (An Evaluation of the Possibility of Constructing a Christian Ethics on the Basis of the System of Max Scheler), in 1954. As was the case with the first degree, he was not granted the degree upon earning it, as the communist authorities forbade the faculty at the Jagiellonian University from granting the degree. In conjunction with his habilitation at the Catholic University of Lublin, he finally obtained the doctorate of philosophy in 1957 from that institution, where he had assumed the Chair of Ethics in 1956.[7]

Bishop and Cardinal


On 5 August 1958, while on a two-week rodowisko kayaking trip on the river Lyne in north-eastern Poland, Karol Wojtya received a letter ordering him to report immediately to the primate, Cardinal Wyszynski, in Warsaw. When he arrived at the primate's office, the cardinal informed him that he had been nominated as an auxiliary bishop to Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak, apostolic administrator of the Archdiocese of Krakw, because the archdiocese had become a sede vacante with the death of Cardinal Sapieha. Wojtya accepted the nomination and went straight to the

Biography Ursuline convent, where he knocked on the door and asked if he could come in to pray. Wojtya amazed the nuns by remaining prostrate on the floor for some time in front of the tabernacle. Pope John Paul II recounts in his book Rise, Let us be on our Way that as he entered a room full of priests, following news of his appointment as auxiliary Bishop, Archbishop Baziak had called out "Habemus papam" ("We have a Pope"). He suggests that these words may be seen as prophetic in the light of subsequent events. And so Karol Wojtya found himself, at thirty-eight, the youngest bishop in Poland. He was consecrated a bishop by Archbishop Baziak on the feast of St. Wenceslaus, 28 September 1958 in Wawel Cathedral in Krakw.[10] [11] [12] Bishop Wojtya began an annual custom, in 1959, of celebrating Christmas midnight Mass in an open field[13] in Nowa Huta, a new industrial town built by the communists not far from Krakw and the first town in Polish history deliberately built without a church. (The measured but persistent pressure by the Catholics would eventually succeed, and in 1977 a church was built in Nowa Huta.) Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July Karol Wojtya was elected as Vicar Capitular, or temporary administrator, of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop could be appointed. On 5 October 1962, Bishop Karol Wojtya departed for Rome to take part in the Second Vatican Council. Being young and having relatively low position in the hierarchy, Wojtya sat next to the door of St. Peter's basilica. Prior to the council, Bishop Wojtya had sent an essay to the commissioners preparing for the Council suggesting that the world wanted to know what the church had to say about the human person and the human condition. What was the Church's answer to modernity's widespread "despair about any and all human existence?" He made contributions to two of the most historic and influential products of the council, the Decree on Religious Freedom (in Latin, Dignitatis Humanae) and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et Spes).[7] On 30 December 1963, Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Krakw.[12] In 1960, Wojtya had published the influential book Love and Responsibility, a defence of the traditional Church teachings on sex and marriage from a new philosophical standpoint. In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae Vitae which deals with those same issues and forbids abortion and artificial birth control.[7] [14] In 1967 Pope Paul VI elevated him to cardinal,[12] named to the titulus of San Cesareo in Palatio.[15]

43

A Pope from Poland


In August 1978, following Paul's death, Cardinal Wojtya voted in the Papal Conclave that elected Albino Luciani, the Cardinal Patriarch of Venice, as Pope John Paul I. At sixty-five, Luciani was a young man by Papal standards and Wojtya, then fifty-eight, could have expected to participate in another Papal conclave before reaching the age of eighty (the upper age limit for cardinal electors). However, he could hardly have expected that his second conclave would come so soon, for on 28 September 1978, after only 33 days as Pope, John Paul I was discovered dead in the papal apartments. In October 1978 Wojtya returned to Vatican City to participate in the second conclave in less than two months. Voting in the second conclave was divided between two particularly strong candidates: Giuseppe Siri, the Archbishop of Genoa, and Giovanni Benelli, the Archbishop of Florence and a close associate of Pope John Paul I. In early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of victory. However, Wojtya secured election as a
Pope John Paul II

Biography compromise candidate, in part through the support of the Cardinal of Vienna Franz Knig and others who had previously supported Giuseppe Siri.[12] [16] [17] The next day he celebrated Mass together with the College of Cardinals in the Sistine Chapel. After the mass, he delivered his first Urbi et Orbi (a traditional blessing) message, broadcast worldwide via radio. Like his immediate predecessor, Pope John Paul II dispensed with the traditional Papal coronation and instead received ecclesiastical investiture with the simplified Papal inauguration on 22 October 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his ring, he stood up as the Polish cardinal Stefan Wyszyski knelt down, stopped him from kissing the ring, and hugged him.[18] As Bishop of Rome he took possession of his Cathedral Church, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, on 12 November 1978. The election of a cardinal from a communist country is similar to the plot of the book (1963) and film (1968) The Shoes of the Fisherman.[19]

44

Assassination attempts
As he entered St. Peter's Square to address an audience on 13 May 1981, John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Aca,[3] [20] a trained expert Turkish gunman who was a member of the militant group Grey Wolves.[21] The gunman used a Browning 9-mm semiautomatic pistol, striking him in the belly and perforating his colon and small intestine multiple times.[2] John Paul II was rushed into the Vatican complex and then to the Gemelli Hospital. En route to the hospital, he lost consciousness. Despite the fact that the bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, he lost nearly three-quarters of his blood and neared exsanguination. He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his massive blood loss and abdominal wounds. When he briefly gained consciousness before being operated on he instructed the doctors not to remove his Brown Scapular during the operation.[22] [23] The pope stated that Our Lady of Ftima helped keep him alive throughout his ordeal.[3] [24]

Could I forget that the event [Ali Aca's assassination attempt] in St. Peters Square took place on the day and at the hour when the first appearance of the Mother of Christ to the poor little peasants has been remembered for over sixty years at Ftima, Portugal? For in everything that happened to me on that very day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protection and care, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet.

Pope John Paul II -Memory & Identity, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, p.184

Aca was caught and restrained by a nun and other bystanders until police arrived. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Two days after Christmas in 1983, John Paul II visited the prison where his would-be assassin was being held. The two spoke privately for 20 minutes.[3] John Paul II said, What we talked about will have to remain a secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust. On 2 March 2006, an Italian parliamentary commission, the Mitrokhin Commission, set up by Silvio Berlusconi and headed by Forza Italia senator Paolo Guzzanti, concluded that the Soviet Union was behind the attempt on John Paul II's life,[21] [25] in retaliation for the pope's support of Solidarity, the Catholic, pro-democratic Polish workers' movement, a theory which had already been supported by Michael Ledeen and the United States Central Intelligence Agency at the time.[21] [25] The Italian report stated that certain Communist Bulgarian security departments were utilised to prevent the Soviet Union's role from being uncovered.[25] The report stated Soviet military intelligence (Glavnoje Razvedyvatel'noje Upravlenije)and not the KGBwas responsible.[25] Russian Foreign Intelligence Service spokesman Boris Labusov called the accusation absurd.[25] Although the Pope declared during a May 2002 visit to Bulgaria that the country's Soviet bloc-era leadership had nothing to do with the assassination attempt,[21] [25] his secretary, Stanisaw Dziwisz, alleged in his book A Life with Karol, that the pope was convinced privately that the former Soviet Union was behind the assassination attempt.[26] Bulgaria and Russia disputed the Italian commission's conclusions, pointing out that the Pope denied the Bulgarian connection.[25]

Biography A second assassination attempt took place on 12 May 1982, just a day before the anniversary of the first attempt on his life, in Ftima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet.[27] [28] [29] He was stopped by security guards, although Stanisaw Dziwisz later claimed that John Paul II had been injured during the attempt but managed to hide a non-life threatening wound.[27] [28] [29] The assailant, a right wing Spanish priest named Juan Mara Fernndez y Krohn,[27] was ordained as a priest by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of Saint Pius X and was opposed to the changes caused by the Second Vatican Council, calling the pope an agent of Communist Moscow and of the Marxist Eastern Bloc.[30] Fernndez y Krohn subsequently left the Roman Catholic priesthood and served three years of a six-year sentence.[28] [29] [30] The ex-priest was treated for mental illness and then expelled from Portugal, going on to become a solicitor in Belgium.[30] He was arrested again in July 2000 after climbing over a security barricade at the Royal Palace of Brussels, accusing the visiting Spanish King Juan Carlos of murdering his older brother Alfonso in 1956.[28] [29] [31] Pope John Paul II was also one of the targets of the Al-Qaeda-funded Operation Bojinka during a visit to the Philippines in 1995. The first plan was to kill Pope John Paul II when he visited the Philippines during the World Youth Day 1995 celebrations. On 15 January 1995, a suicide bomber would dress up as a priest, while John Paul II passed in his motorcade on his way to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati City. The assassin planned to get close to the Pope, and detonate the bomb. The planned assassination of the Pope was intended to divert attention from the next part of the phase. However, a chemical fire inadvertently started by the would-be assassins alerted police to their whereabouts, and they were arrested nearly a week before the Pope's visit.[32]

45

Health
As the youngest pope elected since Pope Pius IX in 1846, John Paul II entered the papacy as a healthy, relatively young man who hiked, swam and went skiing. However, after over twenty-five years on the papal throne, the 1981 assassination attempt, and a number of cancer scares, John Paul's physical health declined. He had a tumour removed from his colon in 1992, dislocated his shoulder in 1993, broke his femur in 1994, and had his appendix removed in 1996. An orthopaedic surgeon confirmed in 2001 that Pope John Paul II was suffering from Parkinson's disease, as international observers had suspected for some time; this was acknowledged publicly by the Vatican in 2003. He had difficulty speaking more than a few sentences at a time, as well as trouble hearing. He also developed severe arthritis in his right knee following a hip replacement, and therefore rarely walked in public. Nevertheless, he continued to tour the world. Those who met him late in his life said that although physically he was in poor shape, mentally he remained fully alert. Towards the end of his Papacy, there were those both within and outside the church who thought that the Pope should resign or retire. Even term limits for Popes were suggested. However, as John Paul had indicated his acceptance of God's will that he should be Pope, he was determined to stay in office until his death, although his private papers show that he gave resignation serious consideration in 2002. On 1 February 2005, the Pope was taken to the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic in Rome suffering from acute inflammation of the larynx and laryngo-spasm, brought on by a bout of influenza. The Vatican reported the following day that his condition had stabilised, but he would remain in the hospital until fully recovered. The pope appeared in public on 6 February to deliver the final lines of the Angelus blessing in a hoarse voice from the window of his hospital room. He missed the Ash Wednesday ceremonies in St Peter's on 9 February for the first time in his 26-year papacy, and returned to the Vatican on 10 February.[33] On 24 February 2005 the Pope began having trouble breathing and also had a fever, and he was rushed back to the Gemelli Hospital, where a tracheotomy was successfully performed. An aide to Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said that John Paul was "serene" after waking up following the surgery.[34] He raised his hand and attempted to say something, but his doctors advised him not to try speaking. The Pope gave 'silent blessings' from his hospital window on Sunday 27 February and Sunday 6 March, and is said to have spoken in German and Italian

Biography during a working meeting with Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) in his 10th floor suite of the Gemelli on Tuesday 1 March. Cardinal Ratzinger told international press: "the Pope spoke to me in German and Italian. He was completely lucid. I brought the Holy Father greetings from the plenary of the Congregation for the divine cult, which is meeting at this moment in the Vatican. The Holy Father will be working on material, which I gave him today. I am happy to see him fully lucid and mentally capable of saying the essential matters with his own voice. We usually speak in German. The details are unimportant--he spoke of essential matters." During the Angelus of Sunday 13 March The Pope was able to speak to pilgrims for the first time since he was readmitted to hospital. Later that day he returned to the Vatican for the first time in nearly a month.[35] On Palm Sunday (20 March) the Pope made a brief appearance at his window to greet pilgrims. He was cheered by thousands of the faithful as he silently waved an olive branch. It was the first time in his pontificate that he could not officiate at Palm Sunday Mass. He watched it on his TV in his apartment overlooking Saint Peter's Square. On 22 March, there were renewed concerns for the Pope's health after reports stated that he had taken a turn for the worse and was not responding to medication.[36] On 24 March, Colombian Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo performed the rite of the washing of the feet, in the Vatican's St Peter's Basilica. The cardinal stood in for Pope John Paul II at a Holy Thursday ceremony at the Vatican. He said the ailing Pontiff was 'serenely abandoning' himself to God's will. The Pope, whose health was precarious following the throat surgery in February, watched the service on television from his Vatican apartments. On 27 March, Easter day, the Pope appeared at his window in the Vatican for a short time. Angelo Sodano read the Urbi et Orbi message while the Pope blessed the people with his own hand. He tried to speak but he could not. By the end of the month, speculation was growing, and was finally confirmed by the Vatican officials, that he was nearing death.

46

Death
On 31 March 2005 the Pope developed a "very high fever caused by a urinary tract infection",[37] but was not taken to the hospital, apparently in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican. Later that day, Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick (informally known as Last Rites) of the Roman Catholic Church, the first time that the pontiff had received the sacrament since the 1981 assassination attempt on his life. It is unclear if he received the Apostolic Pardon as well.[38] On 1 April, his condition worsened drastically, with his heart and kidneys rapidly failing. The Pope had been fitted with a second feeding tube in his nose to help boost his nutritional intake as a result of his fever. Reports from the Vatican early that morning reported that the Pope had suffered a heart attack, but remained awake.[39] Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro Valls denied the reports of the heart attack, but said the Pope had suffered a "cardio-circulatory collapse" and called the Pope's condition "very serious".[40] Several Italian media agencies reported the Pope's death at 20:20 CEST (18:20 UTC), but soon afterwards, the Vatican denied that the Pope was dead, and stories changed. TV Sky Italia reported that his heart and brain were functioning. At around 00:37 CEST on 2 April (22:37 1 April UTC), a Vatican spokesman gave a further briefing on the Pope's health and confirmed that the Pope had had the Last Rites. He refused to be taken to the hospital, and met with his closest associates, among them Cardinal Ratzinger, who said, "he knows that he is dying and he gave me his last goodbye." The Pope also requested that he be read the meditations said on the Stations of the Cross a few days before. His final hours were marked by an overwhelming number of younger people who kept vigil outside his Vatican apartments. In his last message, specifically to the youth of the world, he said: "I have looked for you. Now you have come to me. And I thank you." Early in the evening, the Vatican announced that his condition "remains very serious. In late morning, the high fever developed." However, "when addressed by members of his household, he responds correctly."

Biography At approximately 19:00 CEST (17:00 UTC), Italian news sources claimed that Pope John Paul II had lost consciousness. At least one medical centre stated that there was no more hope for him. The Vatican published a press release refuting the claim but conceding the Pope's kidneys had stopped functioning. The ANSA news agency reported around half an hour later that he lost consciousness. According to Father Jarek Cielecki, the Pope's last word before death was "Amen"; then he closed his eyes.[41] In his private apartments, at 21:37 CEST (19:37 UTC) on 2 April, Pope John Paul II died, 46 days short of his 85th birthday. His death certificate listed septic shock and heart failure as primary causes of death.[42] [43] Present at the moment of death were his two personal secretaries, Archbishop Stanisaw Dziwisz and Mieczysaw Mokrzycki, Marian Jaworski, Archbishop Stanisaw Ryko and Father Tadeusz Stycze. The pope was assisted by his personal physician Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, with two doctors, Dr. Alessandro Barelli and Dr. Ciro D'Allo and their respective nurses who had been on call if needed. Also three nuns who were handmaidens of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, helped him in his final hours. Immediately afterwards Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano arrived, as did the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, Eduardo Martnez Somalo, Archbishop Leonardo Sandri, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and Archbishop Paolo Sardi, vice-Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Thereafter, Cardinal Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Jozef Tomko were able to enter the apartments.

47

World reactions
A crowd of over 2 million within Vatican Cit one billion Catholics worldwide, and many non-Catholics mourned John Paul II. The pope always said that his death should be celebrated as the passage to the next stage of his eternal life. The crowd in the Vatican clapped when the announcement of his death was made, following a traditional Italian custom signifying respect. In Poland, Catholics gathered at the church at Wadowice, the birthplace of the pontiff. State television cancelled all comedy-related shows beginning April 1, 2005, and began showing mass. The Poles, who had a deep sense of devotion towards the pontiff and referred to him as their "father," were particularly devastated by his death. The government declared six days of mourning for him. Many world leaders expressed their condolences and ordered flags in their countries lowered to half-staff: In Argentina students observed a moment of silence before in Krakw, Poland each class on the first school day after the Pope's death. President of Argentina Nstor Kirchner stated that "We're millions that are crying about John Paul II; his teaching is going to follow us all our life, permanently." Australian Prime Minister John Howard said Pope John Paul should be remembered as a freedom fighter against communism, and a great Christian leader.[44] In Brazil, the country with the world's largest Catholic population, President Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, expressed the sorrow of the Brazilian people. [45] The government declared a 7-day official mourning period. [46]. On the eve
Crosses built up by lighted windows at students' residence

Biography of the Pope's death, the Brazilian Senate interrupted its session and the senators recited in chorus the Lord's prayer for the Pope's recovery. After the death of the Pope, the Senate observed one minute of silence. Prime Minister of Canada Paul Martin said, "For a quarter century, Pope John Paul II served as a symbol of love and faith, peace and compassion.... Our grief today is the grief of the world."[47] On 4 April, Martin and other Canadian leaders paid tribute to the pope in the House of Commons. [48] Flags were lowered to half-staff throughout the country and at several diplomatic missions; they remained there through the day of the funeral. [49] The province of Manitoba opened a book of condolences for citizens to sign. [50]

48

Oratory Church of St Aloysius Gonzaga, Oxford, with the flag of the Vatican City flying at half-staff the day after the death of Pope John Paul II.

In Chile, the government declared a 3-day official mourning period. President Ricardo Lagos noted that "...John Paul II won't stay away from us. His name became part of our history, his thoughts will be an always present inspiration to build a more fair country and a more peaceful world for all of us."[51] Colombian president lvaro Uribe Vlez decreed that flags on government buildings and embassies would be lowered to half-staff for two days. The president's statement emphasised the late Pope's struggle for world peace.[52] Cuban authorities allowed Cardinal Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino to make a rare statement on state television: "This is a man who has carried the moral weight of the world for 26 years... turning himself into the only moral reference for humanity in recent years of wars and difficulties." Cuban Government declared three days of mourning. Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh paid tribute in the book of condolences at the Vatican Embassy in New Delhi. [53] The Indian Government declared three days of mourning. In the United Kingdom, Queen Elizabeth II expressed her "deep sorrow" at the death of Pope John Paul II and remembered his efforts at promoting peace throughout the world. Prime Minister Tony Blair said that the world has lost a religious leader who was "revered across people of all faiths and none." [54] Flags over the White House and other public buildings in the United States were ordered lowered to half-staff until sundown on the day of John Paul II's interment. [55] President George W. Bush expressed his regret at the loss of a "champion of human freedom," an "inspiration to millions of Americans" and a "hero for the ages" [56] and became the first sitting U.S. President to attend a papal funeral. His father and his predecessor (George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton) accompanied him to the funeral, while his brother, Florida Governor Jeb Bush, attended the installation of the new pope. Numerous countries with a Catholic majority declared mourning for John Paul II. The government of the Philippines declared mourning until the day of the funeral. Gabon and Paraguay declared five days of mourning, Costa Rica four. Three days of mourning were declared by the governments of Italy, Portugal (the days preceding the funeral, although national flags in public buildings were lowered on the first Monday after the Pope's death), Bolivia, Cape Verde, Croatia, East Timor, Haiti, Malawi and the Seychelles. Peru and Spain declared one day of mourning. Egypt and Lebanon were also among the countries without a Catholic majority that declared three days mourning for the Pope. Kosovo declared two days mourning, and Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina declared one day. In the Republic of Macedonia, all cultural events were cancelled on the day following the Pope's death. France and Germany ordered flags to be lowered to half-staff. In marked contrast to other large Catholic countries, Ireland's Taoiseach Bertie Ahern declared that there would be no "national day of mourning as such." This has proved controversial with a sizeable portion of the Irish population.

Biography Commentators have stated that the Irish reaction is somewhat muted and could be indicative of the Irish society and politics moving decisively away from the high esteem in which it previously held the Church. Many non-Catholic religious leaders throughout the world also expressed condolences.

49

"John Paul the Great"


Since the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican, including Cardinal Angelo Sodano in the written form of his homily at the Mass of Repose, have been referring to the late pontiff as John Paul the Great. Several books, such as Living Miracles: The Spiritual Sons of John Paul the Great [242] readily apply the title, as does the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera which called him "The Greatest". The title "The Great" has so far been reserved to two popes from the first millennium, Leo the Great and Gregory the Great. Scholars of Canon law state that there is no official process for declaring a pope "Great"; the title establishes itself through popular, and continued, usage.

Titles
John Paul II's official title was: Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of Saint Peter, Head of the College of Bishops, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servus Servorum Dei, Pope John Paul II.[12] In 2006 the title Patriarch of the West was removed from the papal list of titles by the reigning pope, Benedict XVI.

Funeral
The death of the pontiff set in motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Rite of Visitation took place from 4 April to 7 April at St. Peter's Basilica. The Testament of Pope John Paul II published on 7 April[57] revealed that the pontiff contemplated being buried in his native Poland but left the final decision to The College of Cardinals, which in passing, preferred burial beneath St. Peter's Basilica, honouring the pontiff's request to be placed "in bare earth". The Mass of Requiem on 8 April was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a funeral.[58] [59] [60] [61] (See: List of Dignitaries) It was the single largest gathering of heads of state in history, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill (1965) and Josip Broz Tito (1980). Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions were attending alongside the faithful.[59] It is also likely to have been the largest single pilgrimage of Christianity in history, with numbers estimated in excess of four million mourners gathering in Rome.[58] [60] [61] [62] From 250,000 to 300,000 watched the event from within the Vatican walls.[61] The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who would become the next pope, conducted the ceremony. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes. He was lowered into a tomb created in the same alcove previously occupied by the remains of Pope John XXIII. The alcove had been empty since Pope John's remains had been moved into the main body of the basilica after his beatification.

Biography

50

Beatification
On May 1, 2011, John Paul's successor, Pope Benedict XVI beatified the late Pope in a ceremony at St. Peter's Plaza, after having his wooden casket exhumed and placed within St. Peter's Basilica to allow the faithful to file past in veneration[63] . Delegations from 83 countries, as well as 16 heads of state attended the ceremony.

References
[1] "Pope stared down Communism in homeland - and won" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ obit/ pope/ communism_homeland. html). CBC News Online (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ ) ( 2005 Religion News Service). April 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-08. [2] Bottum, Joseph. "John Paul the Great" (http:/ / www. weeklystandard. com/ Content/ Public/ Articles/ 000/ 000/ 005/ 469kzdxb. asp). From the April 18, 2005 issue: Statesman and prophet, he overcame the poverty of the possible.. 2009 News Corporation (http:/ / www. newscorp. com/ ), Weekly Standard. pp. 12. . Retrieved 2009-01-09. [3] Maxwell-Stuart, P.G. (2006). Chronicle of the Popes: Trying to Come Full Circle. London: 1997, 2006 Thames & Hudson. pp.234. ISBN978-0-500-28608-6. [4] "Gorbachev: Pope was example to all of us" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 03/ pope. gorbachev/ index. html). Cable News Network LP (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ ) ( 2005-2009 CNN). April 4, 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [5] "John Paul II beatified in Vatican ceremony" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-13251415). BBC News. 1 May 2011. . [6] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.71. ISBN0340908165. [7] "His Holiness John Paul II, Biography, Pre-Pontificate" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_prepontificato_en. html#1946). 2004-2008 Holy See Press Office.. . Retrieved 2008-01-08. [8] Maxwell-Stuart, P.G. (2006). Chronicle of the Popes. London: 1997, 2006 Thames & Hudson. pp.233. ISBN978-0-500-28608-6. [9] "Pope John Paul II: A Light for the World" (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ comm/ popejohnpaulii/ biography. shtml). United States Council of Catholic Bishops. 2003. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [10] John Paul II, Pope. Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way. 2004 Warner Books. ISBN0-446-57781-2. [11] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.103. ISBN0340908165. [12] "His Holiness John Paul II : Short Biography" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en. html). Vatican Press Office. 2005,2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 30 June 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [13] Weigel, George (2005). Witness to Hope (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-mzOGzb2T2UC& pg=PA145& vq=huta+ mass& dq=nowa+ huta+ john+ paul+ ii& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0). HarperCollins. p.145. ISBN0060732032. . [14] "Humanae Vitae" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ paul_vi/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_p-vi_enc_25071968_humanae-vitae_en. html). 1968-07-25. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [15] Cardinal Deaconry S. Cesareo in Palatio (http:/ / www. gcatholic. com/ churches/ cardinal/ 130. htm) Giga Catholic Information [16] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.171. ISBN0340908165. [17] "New Pope Announced" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ shared/ spl/ hi/ world/ pope/ choosing/ html/ announcement. stm). 2009 BBC News Channel. . Retrieved 2009-01-13. [18] "Events in the Pontificate of John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_pontificato_en. html). 2005-06-30. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [19] "The Shoes of the Fisherman" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0063599/ plotsummary). MGM. 1968-11-14. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [20] "John Paul II Biography (19202005)" (http:/ / www. biography. com/ search/ article. do?id=9355652). 1996, 2009 A&E Television Networks (http:/ / www. aetn. com/ ). . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [21] Lee, Martin A. (14 May 2001). "The 1981 Assassination Attempt of Pope John Paul II, The Grey Wolves, and Turkish & U.S. Government Intelligence Agencies". 2001, 2009 San Francisco Bay Guardian (http:/ / www. sfbg. com/ ). pp.23, 25. [22] Lo Scapolare del Carmelo Published by Shalom, 2005 ISBN 8884040817 page 6 [23] HelpFellowship (http:/ / www. helpfellowship. org/ Pope_John_Paul_II. htm) [24] Bertone, Tarcisio: 2009 [25] Simpson, Victor L. (2 March 2006). "Italian Panel: Soviets Behind Pope Attack" (http:/ / www. breitbart. com/ article. php?id=D8G3J3J00& show_article=1). 2006 The Associated Press.. . Retrieved 2009-01-10. [26] "Late Pope 'thought of retiring'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 6288165. stm). 2007 BBC. 22 January 2007. . Retrieved 2009-01-10. [27] "Pope John Paul 'wounded' in 1982" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 7673443. stm). 1982-2009 BBC News Channel. 16 October 2008. . Retrieved 27 January 2009. [28] "Pope John Paul injured in 1982 knife attack, says aide" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ world/ story/ 2008/ 10/ 16/ pope-attack. html?ref=rss). 1982-2009 CBC News. 16 October 2008. . Retrieved 27 January 2009. [29] "John Paul was wounded in 1982 stabbing, aide reveals" (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ peopleNews/ idUSTRE49E5RM20081015). Reuters News Release ( 1982-2009 Reuters (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ )). 15 October 2008. . Retrieved 27 January 2009. [30] Hebblethwaite, Peter (1995). Pope John Paul II and the Church. London: 1995 Rowman & Littlefield. p.95. ISBN1556128142.

Biography
[31] De Gazet van Antwerpen 10 (August 2000): 11. 10 August 2000. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. gva. be/ dossiers/ -k/ koningshuis/ actua2000/ actua147. asp) on 2008-02-13. http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080213192720/ http:/ / www. gva. be/ dossiers/ -k/ koningshuis/ actua2000/ actua147. asp. Retrieved 2009-01-08. [32] McDermott, Terry (1 September 2002). "The Plot" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20030412091134/ http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ specials/ 911/ la-na-plot-1sep01. story). 2002-2009 Los Angeles Times (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ specials/ 911/ la-na-plot-1sep01. story) on 2003-04-12. . Retrieved 2009-02-03. [33] BBC News (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4253415. stm) (retrieved 10 February 2005) [34] Associated Press via MSNBC (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 7022618/ ) (retrieved 3 March 2005) [35] BBC News (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4344923. stm) (retrieved 13 March 2005) [36] Lorenzi (http:/ / dsc. discovery. com/ news/ briefs/ 20050321/ popeill. html) (retrieved 22 March 2005) [37] BBC News (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4399189. stm) (retrieved 1 April 2005) [38] CNN (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 03/ 31/ pope1/ index. html) (retrieved 31 March 2005) [39] D'Emilio, 2005 (http:/ / story. news. yahoo. com/ news?tmpl=story& cid=514& u=/ ap/ 20050401/ ap_on_re_eu/ pope_5) [40] CNN (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 01/ pope1/ index. html) (retrieved 2 April 2005) [41] La Repubblica (http:/ / www. repubblica. it/ 2005/ d/ sezioni/ esteri/ papa7/ crogiornata/ crogiornata. html) (retrieved 2 April 2005) [42] The Vatican (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ documents/ denuncia-morte-jp-ii_20050402_it. html) (retrieved 4 April 2005) [43] Reuters (http:/ / today. reuters. co. uk/ News/ newsArticle. aspx?type=worldNews& storyID=2005-04-03T121514Z_01_DEN344073_RTRUKOC_0_POPE-DEATH-CERTIFICATE. xml) (retrieved 3 April 2005) [44] ABC Radio interview transcript, Australia (http:/ / www. pm. gov. au/ news/ Interviews/ Interview1294. html) (3 April 2005) [45] http:/ / www. radiobras. gov. br/ materia_i_2004. php?materia=220693& q=1& editoria= [46] http:/ / www. radiobras. gov. br/ materia_i_2004. php?materia=220694& q=1& editoria= [47] http:/ / www. pm. gc. ca/ eng/ news. asp?id=451 [48] http:/ / cnews. canoe. ca/ CNEWS/ World/ Pope/ 2005/ 04/ 04/ 982272-cp. html [49] http:/ / www. canadianheritage. gc. ca/ progs/ cpsc-ccsp/ berne-halfmasting/ index_e. cfm [50] http:/ / www. gov. mb. ca/ chc/ press/ top/ 2005/ 04/ 2005-04-02-01. html [51] (http:/ / www. presidencia. cl/ view/ viewArticulo. asp?idArticulo=1070& seccion=Noticia Portada 1) (in Spanish) [52] (http:/ / www. presidencia. gov. co/ sne/ 2005/ abril/ 03/ 01032005. htm) (in Spanish) [53] http:/ / www. pmindia. nic. in/ prelease/ pcontent. asp?id=225 [54] http:/ / www. pm. gov. uk/ output/ Page7423. asp [55] http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov/ news/ releases/ 2005/ 04/ 20050402-3. html [56] http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov/ news/ releases/ 2005/ 04/ 20050402-4. html [57] "ZENIT: John Paul II's Last Will and Testament" (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ article-12691?l=english). 2004-2008 Innovative Media, Inc.. . Retrieved 2008-11-05. [58] Weeke, Stephen (31 March 2006). "Perhaps Saint John Paul the Great?'" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 12083308/ ). 2006-2009 msnbc World News (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ ). . Retrieved 1 February 2009. [59] "CNN.com: Pope John Paul II buried in Vatican crypt-Millions around the world watch funeral" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 08/ pope. funeral/ index. html). 2005,2009 CNN.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [60] "The Independent: Millions mourn Pope at history's largest funeral" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ europe/ millions-mourn-pope-at-historys-largest-funeral-757246. html). London: 2005,2009 Independent News and Media Limited. 8 April 2005. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [61] Holmes, Stephanie (9 April 2005). "City of Rome celebrates miracle" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4428149. stm). 2005-2009 BBC News, Rome. . Retrieved 2009-01-10. [62] "Pope John Paul II Funeral" (http:/ / www. outsidethebeltway. com/ archives/ pope_john_paul_ii_funeral/ ). 2005,2009 Outside the Beltway. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [63] "Pope John Paul II's coffin exhumed ahead of beatification" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-13243797). BBC News. 29 April 2011. .

51

Early life

52

Early life
The early life of Pope John Paul II covers the period in his life from his birth in 1920 to his ordination to the priesthood in 1946. Karol Jzef Wojtya was born on 18 May 1920 in Wadowice near the city of Krakw in southern Poland, son of a former officer in the Austrian Habsburg army whose name was also Karol Wojtya, and Emilia Kaczorowska. According to a now very popular Wadowice legend, Emilia used to tell fellow townsfolk that her Karol would be "a great man one day." As a child Karol was called Lolek by friends and family. His mother died in childbirth in 1929. On hearing of her death, he composed himself and said, "It was God's will." After Emilia's death, his father, an intensely religious man who did most of the housework, brought up Karol so that he could study. His only sister, Olga, died in infancy before Karol was born. He grew close to his brother Edmund, whom Karol had nicknamed Mundek. Edmund graduated from the Jagiellonian University in Krakw and practised as a doctor in Wadowice. There was an epidemic of scarlet fever in the winter of 1932, and he contracted the disease from one of his patients.[1] Edmund died four days later, on 5 December,[2] aged 26; Karol, now 12, was profoundly affected.[1] He reflected on this fifty years later, in a speech he made at the Jagiellonian University: These are events that became deeply engraved in my memory, my brother's death perhaps even deeper than my mother's deathequally because of the special circumstances, one may say tragic ones, and in view of my greater maturity at the time.[1] Karol's youth was influenced by numerous contacts with the vibrant and prospering Jewish community of Wadowice. He often played football (soccer), as a goalkeeper, and was a supporter of Polish club Cracovia.[3] [4] School football games were often organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and due to the anti-Jewish feelings of the time, there was a potential for events to sometimes turn nasty. Karol, however, cheerfully offered himself as a substitute goalkeeper on the Jewish side if they were short of players.[5] It was around this time that the young Karol had his first serious relationship with a girl. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress.[6] In high school, he joined and soon became president of The Society of Mary (a lay society, not to be confused with the Marianists).[7] Papal biographer George Weigel recalls that when Karol was around fifteen a young person playfully pointed a gun at him not realising that it was loaded. On pressing the trigger the gun fired and narrowly missed the target. He would escape from other near death incidents as a young seminarian and later as Pope.[8]

University
After completing his studies at the Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, in the summer of 1938, Karol Wojtya and his father left Wadowice and moved to Krakw, the former capital of Poland, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University in the autumn semester. In his freshman year, Wojtya studied Philosophy, Polish language and literature, introductory Russian, and Old Church Slavonic. He also took private lessons in French. He worked as a volunteer librarian and did compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but refused to hold or fire a weapon. At the end of the 1938-39 academic year, he played Sagittarius in a fantasy-fable, The Moonlight Cavalier, produced by an experimental theatre troupe.[9] [10] In his youth he was an athlete, actor and playwright, and learned as many as twelve languages. By the time he was Pope he spoke nine languages fluently: Polish, Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, French, German, English, Spanish and [[Portuguese language|Portuguese.

Early life

53

The Second World War


In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and the country was subsequently occupied by German and Soviet forces. At the outbreak of War, Karol and his father fled eastwards from Krakw with thousands of other Poles. They sometimes found themselves in ditches, taking cover from strafing Luftwaffe aircraft. After walking 120 miles, they learned of the Soviet invasion of Poland and were obliged to return to Krakw. In November, 184 academics of the Jagiellonian University were arrested and the university suppressed. All able-bodied males had to have a job. In the first year of the war Karol worked as a messenger for a restaurant. This light work enabled him to continue his education and theatrical career and in acts of cultural resistance. He also intensified his study of French. From the autumn of 1940 Karol worked for almost four years as a manual labourer in a limestone quarry, and was well paid. His father died in 1941 because of a heart attack. In 1942, he entered the underground seminary run by Cardinal Sapieha, the archbishop of Krakw. B'nai B'rith and other authorities have testified that he helped Jews find refuge from the Nazis. On 29 February 1944, Karol was walking home from work at the quarry when he was knocked down by a German truck. The German officers tending the injured Wojtya, and the decision to commandeer a passing truck for use as an ambulance for the unconscious patient, is in sharp contrast to the harshness normally expected from the occupying forces during this period. He spent two weeks in hospital and suffered severe concussion, numerous cuts and a shoulder injury. This accident and his survival seemed to Wojtya a confirmation of his priestly vocation.[8] In August 1944, the Warsaw uprising began, and the Gestapo swept the city of Krakw on 6 August, "Black Sunday", rounding up young men to avoid a similar uprising there. Wojtya escaped by hiding behind a door as the Gestapo searched the house he lived in, and escaped to the Archbishop's residence, where he stayed until after the war. On the night of 17 January 1945, the Germans abandoned the city without a fight. The seminarians reclaimed the old seminary, which was in ruins. Wojtya and another seminarian volunteered for the odious task of chopping up and carting away piles of frozen excrement from the lavatories.[8] In the same month of that year, Wojtya personally helped a 14 year old Jewish refugee girl named Edith Zierer[11] who had run away from a Nazi labor camp in Czstochowa. Zierer was attempting to reach her family in Krakw but had collapsed from cold and exhaustion on a train platform in Jdrzejw. No one helped but Wojtya who approached her. Wojtya gave Zierer some hot tea and food, personally carried her to a train and accompanied her to Krakw. Zierer credits Wojtya for saving her life that day. In the chaos of post-war Poland they became separated and Zierer would not hear of her benefactor again until she read that he was elected as the Pope in 1978.[12] [13] [14] B'nai B'rith and other authorities have said that Karol also helped many other Polish Jews to find refuge from the Nazis.

References
Notes
[1] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.11. ISBN0340908165. [2] "Karol Wojtya (Pope John Paul II) Timeline" (http:/ / www. cbn. com/ spirituallife/ ChurchAndMinistry/ KarolWojtylaPopeJohnPaulTimeline. aspx). 2008 Christian Broadcasting Network. . Retrieved 2009-01-06. [3] Pentin, Edward - National Catholic Register. "Faith and Football" (http:/ / www. legionariesofchrist. org/ eng/ articulos/ articulo. phtml?lc=id-15265_se-91_ca-264_te-193). Legion of Christ. . Retrieved 2007-01-06. [4] Christensen, John, " The early years: an unhappy childhood (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080316032741/ http:/ / www. cnn. com/ SPECIALS/ 1999/ pope/ bio/ early/ )," CNN. [5] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.25. ISBN0340908165. [6] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.32. ISBN0340908165. [7] Pope John Paul II - A Tribute. Innovage, Inc.. 2005. p.12. ISBN1-58805-735-6. [8] Witness to Hope, George Weigel, HarperCollins (1999, 2001) ISBN 0-06-018793-X. [9] "John Paul II Biography (19202005)" (http:/ / www. biography. com/ search/ article. do?id=9355652). 1996, 2009 A&E Television Networks (http:/ / www. aetn. com/ ). . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [10] Holy See Press Office. "His Holiness John Paul II: Short Biography" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en. html). Holy See Press Office. . Retrieved 2007-01-14.

Early life
[11] Profile of Edith Zierier (1946) (http:/ / voices. iit. edu/ Profiles/ ziere_p. html), Voices of the Holocaust (http:/ / voices. iit. edu/ index. html), Retrieved on 2007-06-17. [12] CNN Live event transcript (http:/ / transcripts. cnn. com/ TRANSCRIPTS/ 0504/ 08/ se. 01. html), CNN.com, Aired 2005-04-08, Retrieved on 2007-06-17. [13] Roberts, Genevieve., "THE DEATH OF POPE JOHN PAUL II: `He saved my life - with tea, bread'" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071215035053/ http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4159/ is_20050403/ ai_n13509294), The Independent, 2005-04-03, Retrieved on 2007-06-17. [14] Cohen, Roger., " The Polish Seminary Student and the Jewish Girl He Saved" (http:/ / www. dialog. org/ hist/ JohnPaulII-EdithZierer. htm), International Herald Tribune, 2005-04-06, Retrieved on 2007-06-17.

54

Family home

55

Family home
Holy Father John Paul II Family Home in Wadowice

Holy Father John Paul II Family Home in Wadowice Established 18 May 1984 Director Website Magdalena Strzelecka CSFN Holy Father John Paul II Family Home [1] (in English)

The Holy Father John Paul II Family Home in Wadowice was the family home of Karol Jzef Wojtya the future Pope John Paul II. It is located at 7 Kocielna Street in Wadowice, Poland. It is a historic house museum that preserves this historic structure and houses a collection of objects that belonged to the future popes family. The museum also commemorates John Paul IIs life and his work in Poland until he left Krakw for the Vatican, in 1978. Karol Wojtyas family moved to the house in 1919 where they rented two rooms with a kitchen on the first floor. Karol Wojtya was born in this house on 18 May 1920. After his mothers death on 13 April 1929 Karol and his father occupied only one smaller room and the kitchen. Karol Wojtya lived in this house until 1938 when he moved with his father to Krakw, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. The small apartment in which the Wojtya family once resided is preserved as a museum since 1984.

External links
Holy Father John Paul II Family Home - official website [1] (in English)

Holy Father John Paul II Family Home

Family home

56

Courtyard within the family home

References
[1] http:/ / www. wadowice. com/ viewpage. php?page_id=5

57

Papacy
October 1978 Conclave
Papal conclave, October 1978

Dates Location Dean Vice Dean

October 14October 16, 1978 Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Carlo Confalonieri Paolo Marella

Camerlengo Jean-Marie Villot Protodeacon Pericle Felici Ballots Pope elected after 8 ballots

Elected Pope Karol Wojtya (took name John Paul II)

The Papal conclave of October 1978 was triggered by the sudden death, after only thirty-three days in office, of Pope John Paul I on September 28. When the cardinals elected John Paul I on August 26, they expected he would reign for at least a decade. Instead they found themselves having to elect his successor within six weeks. The conclave to elect John Paul I's successor began on October 14, and ended two days later, on October 16, after eight ballots. The cardinals elected Cardinal Karol Wojtya, then Archbishop of Krakw, as the new pope. Resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes, he accepted his election and took the pontifical name of John Paul II.

October 1978 Conclave

58

Papabili and proceedings


Ten days after the funeral of Pope John Paul I, on October 14, the doors of the Sistine Chapel were sealed and the conclave commenced. It was divided between two particularly strong candidates for the papacy: Giuseppe Siri, the conservative Archbishop of Genoa, and the liberal Giovanni Benelli, the Archbishop of Florence and a close associate of John Paul I. Supporters of Benelli were confident that he would be elected. In early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes. But the scale of opposition to both papabili meant that neither was likely to receive the two-thirds plus one needed for election. Cardinal Franz Knig, the influential and widely-respected Archbishop of Vienna, individually suggested to his fellow electors a compromise candidate: the Polish Cardinal Karol Jzef Wojtya, whom Knig knew and by whom he was highly impressed. Also among those cardinals who rallied behind Wojtya were supporters of Siri, Stefan Wyszyski, most of the American cardinals (led by John Krol), and other moderate cardinals. Wojtya ultimately defeated Benelli (who was actually the supposed candidate Wojtya himself had voted for) on the eighth ballot on the third day with, according to the Italian press, 99 votes from the 111 participating electors. He accepted his election with these words: "With obedience in faith to Christ, my Lord, and with trust in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in spite of great difficulties, I accept." The Pole, in tribute to his immediate predecessor, then took the regnal name of John Paul II. He became the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Adrian VI, who reigned from 1522 to 1523.
ELECTORS Present Africa Latin America North America Asia Italians Rest of Europe Oceania Mid-East 111 111 12 19 12 9 25 30 4 0 John Paul II

At 6:18 p.m., the white smoke rose from the chimney of the Sistine Chapel, meaning that a new pope had been elected. As the senior Cardinal Deacon, a visibly excited Pericle Felici gave the traditional Latin announcement for Wojtya's election on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica. "Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: Habemus papam! Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum dominum, dominum Carolum, sanct roman Ecclesi cardinalem, Wojtya, qui sibi nomen imposuit Ioannis Pauli." When Felici pronounced the new pope's forename, some members of the crowd below thought that the aged Dean of the College of Cardinals, Carlo Confalonieri (a non-participant in the conclave because he was over the age limit), had been elected; upon hearing his surname, some also thought he was an African or even a Japanese. More confusion ensued when it was thought that the new pope was Ugo Poletti, the vicar for Rome, after an Italian newsreporter announced, Polacco ("Polish"). John Paul II appeared on the balcony at 7:15, and while gripping the balustrade, broke precedent by delivering a brief speech before his first Urbi et Orbi blessing:

October 1978 Conclave Praised be Jesus Christ! Dear brothers and sisters, we are still all very saddened by the death of the very dear Pope John Paul I. And now the most eminent cardinals have called a new bishop of Rome. They called him from a far-away country...far, but always near in the communion of faith and the Christian tradition. I was afraid in receiving this nomination, but I did it in the spirit of obedience to Our Lord and with total trust in his Mother, the Most Holy Madonna. I don't know if I can express myself well in your in our Italian language. But if I make a mistake, you will correct me. And so I introduce myself to you all, to confess our common faith, our hope, our trust in the Mother of Christ and of the Church, and also to begin again on this path of history and of the Church with the help of God and with that of men.[1] NCR Senior Correspondent John Allen has stated that during the speech, a member of the Roman Curia requested that the new pope end his speech. However, the pope ignored the admonition and continued talking. The speech, however, made a good impression on Italian listeners who were nervous at the prospect of a foreign pope.[2] This was due also to an intentional mistake made by the newly elected Pope during this speech, given in Italian language, a mistake that won immediately the applause of the crowd, releasing the tension of the event. John Paul II said (in Italian): "...se mi sbaglio mi corigerete!" (something like: "if I make a mistake, you will corict me!" The correct form would be: "mi correggerete.").[3] This was also the last conclave of the 20th century, as the next election for a pope did not occur until after the death of John Paul II in 2005.

59

Cardinals over 80 in 1978 Papal conclaves


This is a list of Roman Catholic cardinals over the age of 80 as of the death of Pope Paul VI on August 6, 1978. As such, they were ineligible to vote in the Papal conclave beginning August 25 to elect Paul's successor, according to the motu proprio Ingravescentem aetatem, of November 21, 1970 and the apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo of October 1, 1975. Because Pope John Paul I died after only thirty-three days in office without creating any cardinals, and none of the cardinals who were eligible to vote turned eighty between John Paul I's election and the beginning of the second conclave on October 14 that elected Pope John Paul II, the lists of over-age cardinals for the two 1978 conclaves are identical. The cardinals ineligible to participate in the two 1978 conclaves because they were at least eighty years old are listed below, arranged by date of promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinals elevated by Pope Pius XII


February 18, 1946 Carlos Carmelo Vasconcellos Motta, archbishop of Aparecida Josef Frings, former archbishop of Cologne Antonio Caggiano, former archbishop of Buenos Aires January 12, 1953 James Francis McIntyre, former archbishop of Los Angeles Alfredo Ottaviani, prefect emeritus of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith

October 1978 Conclave

60

Cardinals elevated by Pope John XXIII


December 15, 1958 Carlo Confalonieri, bishop of Ostia and Palestrina, archpriest of the Liberian basilica, and Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals Antonio Mara Barbieri, O.F.M., Cap. former archbishop of Montevideo Alberto di Jorio December 14, 1959 Paolo Marella, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, archpriest of the Vatican basilica, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals

Cardinals elevated by Pope Paul VI


February 22, 1965 Jozef Slipyj, archbishop major of Lviv of the Ukraines (note that many historians believe Slipyj was elevated in pectore in the consistory of March 28, 1960 but that creation would have expired when John XXIII died in 1963) Lawrence Joseph Shehan, former archbishop of Baltimore June 26, 1967 Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle, former archbishop of Washington Pietro Parente April 28, 1969 Miguel Daro Miranda y Gmez, former archbishop of Mexico City March 5, 1973 Ferdinando Giuseppe Antonelli, O.F.M

References
Notes
[1] Catholic-Pages. Pope John Paul II (http:/ / www. catholic-pages. com/ pope/ johnpaul2. asp) April 2, 2005 [2] TIME Magazine. A "Foreign" Pope (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,912229,00. html) October 30, 1978 [3] The first speech of John Paul II (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=IST42JmcdRU) on Youtube

External links
Politics and the Polish Pope (http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=redux&s=szulc102878) from The New Republic, October 28, 1978. The author discusses the election of Cardinal Wojtya, and its ramifications for communism. (Subscription required.) A "Foreign" Pope (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,912229,00.html) from Time Magazine, October 30, 1978. No subscription required.

Teachings

61

Teachings
The teachings of the Blessed Pope John Paul II are contained in a number of documents. It is widely believed that these teachings will have a long-lasting influence on the Church.[1] His philosophical and theological teachings and writings were characterised by explorations in phenomenology and personalism.[2] He was influenced by Hans Urs von Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Yves Congar, Karl Rahner, his predecessors as Archbishop of Krakw Eugeniusz Baziak and Adam Stefan Sapieha, and his predecessors as Pope- Blessed Pope John XXIII and Venerable Servants of God Popes Paul VI and John Paul I. His closest theological adviser was Cardinal Ratzinger, who would succeed him as Pope. Stanislaw Dziwisz was his personal secretary for forty years and thus one of his closest friends and advisers, and now is himself Cardinal Archbishop of Krakw, John Paul's former post. John Paul met regularly with the Cardinal prefects and presidents of Curial congregations and councils, and outlived many of them.

Pope John Paul II

Catechism of the Catholic Church


A significant achievement of John Paul II was the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which became an international best-seller . Its purpose, according to the Pope's Apostolic Constitution Fidei Depositum was to be "a statement of the Church's faith and of Catholic doctrine, attested to or illumined by Sacred Scripture, the Apostolic Tradition and the Church's Magisterium." He declared "it to be a sure norm for teaching the faith" to "serve the renewal" of the Church.[3]

Holiness and morality


Right after being elected as Pope, he told the cardinals who elected him that he saw that his main work was to implement the teachings of the Second Vatican Council, an important centrepiece of which is a universal call to holiness. This is the basis for his canonization of saints from all walks of life, as well as for establishing and supporting the personal prelature of Opus Dei, whose mission is to spread this call to laity and to secular priests through its association, the Priestly Society of the Holy Cross. His first encyclical letters focused on the Triune God; the very first was on Jesus the Redeemer ("Redemptor Hominis"). He maintained this intellectual focus on God throughout his pontificate. In The Splendor of Truth ("Veritatis Splendor"), a papal encyclical concerning morality, he emphasised the dependence of man on God and his law ("Without the Creator, the creature disappears") and the "dependence of freedom on the truth." He warned that man "giving himself over to relativism and scepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself."

Teachings

62

Master plan
In his master plan for the new millennium, the Apostolic Letter At the beginning of the third millennium, ("Novo Millennio Ineunte") a "program for all times", he emphasised the importance of "starting afresh from Christ": "No, we shall not be saved by a formula but by a Person." Thus, the first priority for the Church is holiness: "All Christian faithful...are called to the fullness of the Christian life." Christians, he writes, contradict this when they "settle for a life of mediocrity, marked by a minimalist ethic and a shallow religiosity." He highlighted "the radical message of the gospels," whose demands should not be watered down. The "training in holiness calls for a Christian life distinguished above all in the art of prayer." His last Encyclical is on the Holy Eucharist, which he says "contains the Church's entire spiritual wealth: Christ himself." Building on his master plan further, he emphasised the need to "rekindle amazement" on the Eucharist and to "contemplate the face of Christ."

Mariology
Pope John Paul II's strong Marian devotion was highly influenced by the Mariology of Saint Louis de Montfort. According to his Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae, the pontif's personal motto "Totus Tuus" was inspired by St. Louis' doctrine on total consecration to the Virgin Mary, which he quoted: Our entire perfection consists in being conformed, united and consecrated to Jesus Christ. Hence the most perfect of all devotions is undoubtedly that which conforms, unites and consecrates us most perfectly to Jesus Christ. Now, since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ, it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary, his Holy Mother, and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ."[4]

Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The letter M in the Marian Cross is for Mary, Jesus' mother.

In an address to the Montfortian Fathers, the pontiff also said that his reading Saint Louis de Montfort's work The True Devotion to Mary was a "decisive turning point" in his life.[5] On September 19, 1996, Pope John-Paul II made a papal trip to Saint-Laurent-sur-Svre to meditate and pray on the adjacent tombs of Saint Louis de Montfort and Blessed Marie Louise Trichet, whom he beatified himself. His encyclical Redemptoris Mater further emphasizes his focus on Mariology.[6]

Social and family doctrine


John Paul II also wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals and which the Vatican brought to the fore through the recently published Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. Through his encyclicals, John Paul also talked about the dignity of women and the importance of the family for the future of humanity. Other important documents include the encyclicals The Gospel of Life ("Evangelium Vitae") and Faith and Reason ("Fides et Ratio"), and the Apostolic Letter Orientale Lumen ("Light of the East"). John Paul II reaffirmed the Church's clear opposition to contraceptive methods, abortion and homosexual activity. His book Memory and Identity claimed that the push for same-sex marriage might be part of a "new ideology of evil... which attempts to pit human rights against the family and against man." He refined some of these positions in their theological context in his Theology of the Body lectures. John Paul II, who was present and very influential at the Vatican II (196265), affirmed the teachings of that Council and did much to implement them. Nevertheless, his critics often wished aloud that he would embrace the so-called "progressive" agenda that some hoped would evolve as a result of the Council. In fact, the Council did not advocate "progressive" changes in these areas, e.g., still condemning the taking of unborn human life through abortion as an

Teachings "unspeakable crime". John Paul II continued to declare that contraception, abortion, and homosexual acts were gravely sinful, and, with Joseph Ratzinger (future Pope Benedict XVI), opposed Liberation theology. He believed in the Church's exaltation of the marital act of sexual intercourse between a baptised man and woman within sacramental marriage as proper and exclusive to the sacrament of marriage that was, in every instance, profaned by contraception, abortion, divorce followed by a 'second' marriage, and by homosexual acts. Often mistakenly assumed to be a rejection against women, he definitively explained and asserted in 1994 for all time the Church's lack of authority to ordain women to the priesthood, without such authority such ordination is not legitimately compatible with fidelity to Christ. This was also deemed a repudiation of calls to break with the constant tradition of the Church by ordaining women to the priesthood. (Apostolic Letter 'Ordinatio Sacerdotalis' [7]) In addition, John Paul II chose not to end the discipline of mandatory priestly celibacy, although in a small number of unusual circumstances, he did allow certain married clergymen of other Christian traditions who later became Catholic to be ordained as Catholic priests. John Paul II, as a writer of philosophical and theological thought, was characterized by his explorations in phenomenology and personalism. He is also known for his development of the Theology of the Body. Philosophers and theologians influenced by him include-among countless others: his successor, Pope Benedict XVI, Jrgen Habermas, John Haas, Andrew Greeley, Rocco Buttiglione, Hans Kchler, George Weigel, Scott Hahn, Mary Beth Bonacci, Deirdre McQuade, Antoinette Bosco, Hans Kng, Yves Congar, Avery Dulles, John J. Myers, Raymond Leo Burke, Joseph Bernardin, Francis George, Timothy Dolan, Edward Egan, John O'Connor, Fabian Bruskewitz, Christoph Schnborn, Stanisaw Dziwisz, Franciszek Macharski, Jzef Glemp, Peter Hans Kolvenbach, Paolo Dezza, Pedro Arrupe, scar Romero, Mother Teresa, Walter Kasper, Michael Fitzgerald, Jean-Marie Lustiger, Andr Vingt-Trois, Jarosaw Gowin, Christopher West and Elio Sgreccia.

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John Paul IIs statue in Koice, Slovakia. The statue was unveiled by Cardinal Stanisaw Dziwisz, who had been Pope John Paul II private secretary.

Monument to Pope John Paul II in Pozna

References
Notes
[1] Weigel, George (1999, 2001). Witness to Hope. HarperCollins. ISBN0-06-018793-X. [2] Hans Kchler, "The Phenomenology of Karol Wojtyla. On the Problem of the Phenomenological Foundation of Anthropology," in: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 42 (1982), pp. 326-334. [3] http:/ / www. scborromeo. org/ ccc. htm [4] Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ apost_letters/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en. html [5] Pope John Paul II on de Montfort http:/ / www. catholicregister. org/ content/ view/ 1402/ 857/ [6] Pope John Paul II's encyclical Redemptoris Mater http:/ / www. cin. org/ jp2ency/ jp2mot. html [7] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ apost_letters/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_apl_22051994_ordinatio-sacerdotalis_en. html

Relations with Eastern Orthodox Church

64

Relations with Eastern Orthodox Church


Pope John Paul II's relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church were marked by a significant improvement in relations between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.

Romania
In May 1999, Pope John Paul II visited Romania on the invitation from Patriarch Teoctist of the Romanian Orthodox Church. This was the first time a Pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the East-West Schism in 1054, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism. On his arrival, the Patriarch and the President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, greeted the Pope. The Patriarch stated, "The second millennium of Christian history began with a painful wounding of the unity of the Church; the end of this millennium has seen a real commitment to restoring Christian unity."

Patriarch of Constantinople

Pentecost: The spread of Christianity begins.

On 9 May, the Pope and the Patriarch each attended a worship service conducted by the other (an Orthodox Liturgy and a Catholic Mass, respectively). A crowd of hundreds of thousands of people turned up to attend the worship services, which were held in the open air. The Pope told the crowd, "I am here among you pushed only by the desire of authentic unity. Not long ago it was unthinkable that the bishop of Rome could visit his brothers and sisters in the faith who live in Romania. Today, after a long winter of suffering and persecution, we can finally exchange the kiss of peace and together praise the Lord." A large part of Romania's Orthodox population has shown itself warm to the idea of Christian reunification.

Greece
During his 2001 travels, John Paul II became the first Pope to visit Greece in 1291 years.[1] [2] In Athens, the Pope met with Archbishop Christodoulos, the head of the Greek Orthodox Church.[1] After a private 30 minute meeting, the two spoke publicly. Christodoulos read a list of "13 offences" of the Roman Catholic Church against the Eastern Orthodox Church since the Great Schism,[1] including the pillaging of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204, and bemoaned the lack of any apology from the Roman Catholic Church, saying Until now, there has not been heard a single request for pardon for the maniacal crusaders of the 13th century.[1] The Pope responded by saying For the occasions past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us forgiveness, to which Christodoulos immediately applauded. John Paul II also said that the sacking of Constantinople was a source of profound regret for Catholics.[1] Later John Paul and Christodoulos met on a spot where Saint Paul had once preached to Athenian Christians. They issued a common declaration, saying We shall do everything in our power, so that the Christian roots of Europe and its Christian soul may be preserved. We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion[1] The two leaders then said the Lord's Prayer together, breaking an Orthodox taboo against praying with Catholics.[1]

Relations with Eastern Orthodox Church

65

Bulgaria
During the 2002 travels between May 23 - 26, Pope John Paul II visited Bulgaria and met with the Bulgarian patriarch Maxim. He visited Sofia, Plovdiv and the Rila monastery and told Bulgarian president Georgi Parvanov he never believed that the country participated in organization of the 1981 assassination attempt.

Ukraine
John Paul II visited another heavily Orthodox area, Ukraine on 2327 June 2001 at the invitation of the President of Ukraine and bishops of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine.[3] This visit has had a great influence on society of Ukraine. The Pope spoke to leaders of the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches and Religious Organisations, pleading for "open, tolerant and honest dialogue".[3] About 200 thousand people attended the liturgies celebrated by the Pope in Kiev, and the liturgy in Lviv gathered nearly one and a half million faithful.[3] John Paul II stated that an end to the Great Schism was one of his fondest wishes.[3] Healing divisions between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches regarding Latin and Byzantine traditions was clearly of great personal interest. For a number of years John Paul II actively sought to facilitate dialogue and unity stating as early as 1988 in Euntes in mundum that "Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe easily until it uses both of them". John Paul II visited other heavily Orthodox areas such as Bulgaria, despite an occasional lukewarm welcome, and he said that an end to the Schism was one of his fondest wishes.

Serbia
With regard to relations with the Serb Orthodox Church, Pope John Paul II could not escape the controversy of the involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustasa regime of World War II. In 1998, he beatified Aloysius Stepinac, the Croatian war-time Archbishop of Zagreb, a move seen negatively by those who believe that he was an active collaborator with the Ustae fascist regime, which committed genocide against Serbs as well as Jews. On June 22, 2003, he visited Banja Luka in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a city inhabited by many Catholics before the 1992-1995 war, but since then predominantly Orthodox. He held a mass at the Petrievac monastery, a place of considerable controversy and distress, both during World War II and during the Yugoslav wars. [4]

Belarus
Catholics in Belarus (at least 10-15% of the population) had hoped for the Pope to visit their country, a trip he himself wished to make. Resistance from the Russian Orthodox Church and Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, however, meant the visit never happened.

Russia
The Pope had been also saying during his entire pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred. He had made several attempts to solve the problems which arose over a period of centuries between the Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, like giving back the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in August 2004. However, the Orthodox side was not that enthusiastic, making statements like: "The question of the visit of the Pope in Russia is not connected by the journalists with the problems between the Churches, which are now unreal to solve, but with giving back one of many sacred things, which were illegally stolen from Russia." (Vsevolod Chaplin).

Relations with Eastern Orthodox Church

66

References
Notes==
[1] "Macedonian Press Agency: News in English, 2001-05-04b" (http:/ / www. hri. org/ news/ greek/ mpa/ 2001/ 01-05-04_1. mpa. html). 2001- 2009 The Macedonian Press Agency (http:/ / www. ana-mpa. gr/ anaweb/ ) (Hellenic Resources Network). 4 May 2001. . Retrieved 9 February 2009. [2] Stephanopoulos, Nikki (28 January 2008). "Archbishop Christodoulos of Athens" (http:/ / directionstoorthodoxy. org/ n/ archbishop_christodoulos_of_athens_and_all_greece_falls_asleep_i. html). 2008,2009 Associated Press. . Retrieved 9 February 2009. [3] "Visit of Pope John Paul II to Ukraine" (http:/ / www. ucu. edu. ua/ irs/ eng_partnproekt4). 2003-2009 The Institute of Religion and Society, 17 Sventsitskoho Street, Lviv. . Retrieved 9 February 2009. [4] http:/ / www. nationalcatholicreporter. org/ word/ word0627. htm

Pope John Paul II and Judaism


Pope John Paul II worked to improve relations between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism. He built solid ties with the Jewish community in the hope of promoting Christian-Jewish reconciliation.

Youth experience
As a child, Karol Wojtya had played sports with his many Jewish neighbours.[1] [2] In 1979 he became the first Pope to visit the Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, where many of his countrymen (mostly Polish Jews) had perished during the German Nazi occupation. He was one of the few popes to have grown up in a climate of flourishing Jewish culture, one of the key components of pre-war Krakw, his interest in Jewish life dated from early youth. He wrote and delivered a number of speeches on the subject of the Church's relationship with Jews, and often paid homage to the victims of the Holocaust in many nations. In 1998 he issued "We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah" which outlined his thinking on the Holocaust.[3]

Visit to synagogue
He also became the first pope known to have made an official papal visit to a synagogue,[4] when he visited the Great Synagogue of Rome on 13 April 1986.[5] [6] [7] The Pope has said that Jews are "our elder brothers." (see dual-covenant theology)

Auschwitz
He was the first pope to visit the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, in 1979 and his visit to The Great Synagogue of Rome in April 1986 was the first known visit to a synagogue by a modern pope. He visited the Holocaust memorial Yad Vashem in Israel in March 2000, and touched the holiest outward remaining shrine of the Jewish people, the Western Wall in Jerusalem. He placed in the Western Wall a prayer that read: God of our fathers, you chose Abraham and his descendants to bring your name to the nations. We are deeply saddened by the behavior of those who, in the course of history, have caused these children of yours to suffer.[8]

Pope John Paul II and Judaism

67

Relations with Israel


In 1994, John Paul II established formal diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel, acknowledging its centrality in Jewish life and faith.[5] [9] In honour of this event, Pope John Paul II hosted The Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust. This concert, which was conceived and conducted by American Maestro Gilbert Levine, was attended by the Chief Rabbi of Rome, the President of Italy, and survivors of the Holocaust from around the world.[10] [11] The Pope played a role in the 1990s peace negotiations in the hopes of finding a diplomatic solution between Israelis and Palestinians. However, the 1993 fundamental accord was not put into application during his papacy because of lingering problems over tax issues.

The issue of the Carmelite Nun convent at Auschwitz


Efforts at reconciliation took a step back when the Polish national Catholic bishops conferences supported the Carmelite Nuns in their attempt to establish a convent at the former World War II Nazi-run death camp located at Auschwitz, a very sensitive site in the memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. The proposed location of this convent provoked hostility from some sectors of the Jewish community to the idea of building the Catholic institution on the ground where mass genocide of Jews and the deaths of millions of Poles was carried out. Jewish groups believed that this was inappropriate, and some groups engaged in peaceful protest. The nuns at the convent accused Modern Orthodox Rabbi Avi Weiss, of Riverdale, Bronx, NY, of attempting to assault them. The Vatican did not support this convent, but noted that since Vatican II each national bishop's conference had local autonomy. Rabbi Leon Klenicki, founding member the of Interfaith Theological Forum of the John Paul II Center in Washington, D.C., said: Since Vatican II, each national bishops conference has its freedom to deal with local issues. Once the nuns took that place, that was under the jurisdiction of the Polish national bishops conference, not the Vatican. The pope couldnt say anything. The pope intervened when the bishops conference was not strong enough to stop the convent. When he realized that nothing was being done, he issued an order for the nuns to move. (Lipman, 2005)

Pius IX and Pius XII


Some Jews were also upset at the beatification of Pius IX in 2000 because of memories of the Mortara Affair. Relations also soured after the emerging problems over Pius XII at Yad Vashem.

Visit to Israel
In March 2000, John Paul II visited Yad Vashem, (the Israeli national Holocaust memorial) in Israel and later made history by touching the holiest site in Judaism, the Western Wall in Jerusalem,[12] placing a letter inside it (in which he prayed for forgiveness for the actions against Jews in the past).[5] [12] [13] [14] In part of his address he said: I assure the Jewish people the Catholic Church ... is deeply saddened by the hatred, acts of persecution and displays of anti-Semitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any time and in any place, he added that there were no words strong enough to deplore the terrible tragedy of the Holocaust.[12] [13] Israeli cabinet minister Rabbi Michael Melchior, who hosted the Pope's visit, said he was very moved by the Pope's gesture.[12] [13]

It was beyond history, beyond memory

[13]

Rabbi Michael Melchior(26 March 2000)

Pope John Paul II and Judaism

68

We are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant.

[14] [15] Pope John Paul II (12 March 2000) from a note left by the Pope at the Western Wall in Jerusalem

Intercommunity praise
In October 2003, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued a statement congratulating Pope John Paul II on entering the 25th year of his papacy: His deep commitment to reconciliation between the Catholic Church and the Jewish people has been fundamental to his papacy. Jews throughout the world are deeply grateful to the Pope. He has defended the Jewish people at all times, as a priest in his native Poland and during his pontificate... We pray that he remains healthy for many years to come, that he achieves much success in his holy work and that Catholic-Jewish relations continue to flourish.[16] Immediately after the pope's death, the ADL issued a statement that Pope John Paul II had revolutionised Catholic-Jewish relations, saying that more change for the better took place in his 27 year Papacy than in the nearly 2,000 years before.[17] In another statement issued by the Australia, Israel & Jewish Affairs Council, Director Dr. Colin Rubenstein said,The Pope will be remembered for his inspiring spiritual leadership in the cause of freedom and humanity. He achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the Jewish people and the State of Israel than any other figure in the history of the Catholic Church[5]

With Judaism, therefore, we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion. You are our dearly beloved brothers, and in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers. Pope John Paul II (13 April 1986)

[18]

References
[1] Pentin, Edward - National Catholic Register. ""Faith and Football"" (http:/ / www. legionariesofchrist. org/ eng/ articulos/ articulo. phtml?lc=id-15265_se-91_ca-264_te-193). Legion of Christ. . Retrieved 2007-01-06. [2] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.25. ISBN0340908165. [3] Cassidy, Cardinal Edward Idris (16 March 1998). "We Remember: A Reflection on The Shoah" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ pontifical_councils/ chrstuni/ documents/ rc_pc_chrstuni_doc_16031998_shoah_en. html). Vatican archives. 2005,2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [4] "A Blessing to One Another - Pope John Paul II & The Jewish People" (http:/ / www. blessingexhibit. org/ ). 2007,2009 A Blessing to One Another. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [5] "AIJAC expresses sorrow at Pope's passing" (http:/ / www. aijac. org. au/ ?id=articles& _action=showArticleDetails& articleID=526). 2005, 2009 Australia, Israel & Jewish Affairs Council (http:/ / www. aijac. org. au/ ). 4 April 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [6] "Great Synagogue, Rome" (http:/ / www. sacred-destinations. com/ italy/ rome-great-synagogue. htm). 2009 Sacred Destinations. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [7] "Boston College: Address at the Great Synagogue of Rome 13 April 1986" (http:/ / www. bc. edu/ research/ cjl/ meta-elements/ texts/ cjrelations/ resources/ documents/ catholic/ johnpaulii/ romesynagogue. htm). 2009 The Trustees of Boston College. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [8] Pope John Paul II Visits the Holy Land (http:/ / www. sacredheart. edu/ pages/ 12234_a_pilgrimage_of_peace_pope_john_paul_ii_visit_the_holy_land. cfm) [9] "Pope John Paul II: In His Own Words" (http:/ / www. adl. org/ Pope/ pope_intro. asp). . 2004,2009 Anti-Defamation League (http:/ / www. adl. org/ ). . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [10] "Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust Synopsis" (http:/ / www. fandango. com/ papalconcerttocommemoratetheholocaust_v204415/ summary). 2009 Fandango (http:/ / www. fandango. com/ ). . Retrieved 4 February 2009. [11] "Nightline: Paying Respect" (http:/ / abcnewsstore. go. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ DSIProductDisplay?catalogId=11002& storeId=20051& productId=2004330& langId=-1& categoryId=100031). 2005,2009 ABCNews (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ ) Internet Ventures. 4 May 2005. . Retrieved 4 February 2009.

Pope John Paul II and Judaism


[12] Klenicki, Rabbi Leon (13 April 2006). "Pope John Paul II's Visit to Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority: A Pilgrimage of Prayer, Hope and Reconciliation" (http:/ / www. adl. org/ interfaith/ JohnPaul_II_Visit. pdf). 2006-2009 Anti-Defamation League (http:/ / www. adl. org/ ). . Retrieved 15 February 2009. [13] "2000: Pope prays for Holocaust forgiveness" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/ march/ 26/ newsid_4168000/ 4168803. stm). 2000-2009 BBC News. 26 March 2000. . Retrieved 2009-01-10. [14] "A Blessing to One Another: Pope John Paul II and the Jewish People" (http:/ / www. polishculture-nyc. org/ pope_exhibition. htm). 2007,2009 A Blessing to One Another. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [15] "Online News Hour - A Papal Apology" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ newshour/ bb/ religion/ jan-june00/ apology_3-13. html). 1996-2009 MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.. . Retrieved 2009-01-05. [16] Statement on the 25th Anniversary of Pope John Paul II's Papacy (http:/ / www. adl. org/ PresRele/ VaticanJewish_96/ 4371_96. htm) Anti-Defamation League, 2003-10-15 [17] Jacobson, Kenneth (2 April 2005). "Pope John Paul II: An Appreciation: A Visionary Remembered" (http:/ / www. aijac. org. au/ updates/ Apr-05/ 040405. html#Article 2). 2004,2009 Anti-Defamation League (http:/ / www. adl. org/ ). . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [18] "BrainyQuote: Pope John Paul II Quotes" (http:/ / www. brainyquote. com/ quotes/ authors/ p/ pope_john_paul_ii. html). 2007,2009 BrainyMedia.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-11.

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Assassination attempt

70

Assassination attempt
Pope John Paul II assassination attempt

The location of the shooting, marked by a stone tablet, in St. Peter's Square. Location Date Target Attack type Weapon(s) Injured Perpetrator St. Peter's Square, Vatican City May 13, 1981 Pope John Paul II Shooting Browning Hi-Power 3 Grey Wolves, Mehmet Ali Aca

The first attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II took place on Wednesday, May 13, 1981, in St. Peter's Square at Vatican City. The Pope was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Aca while he was entering the square. The Pope was struck 4 times, and suffered severe blood loss. Aca was apprehended immediately, and later sentenced to life in prison by an Italian court. The Pope later forgave Aca for the assassination attempt. He was pardoned by Italian president Carlo Azeglio Ciampi at the Pope's request and was deported to Turkey on June 2000.

Pope John Paul II

Assassination attempt

71

Attempted assassination of the Pope


Beginning in August 1980 Aca, under the alias of Vilperi, began criss-crossing the Mediterranean region, changing passports and identities, perhaps to hide his point of origin in Sofia, Bulgaria. He entered Rome on May 10, 1981, coming by train from Milan. According to Aca's later testimony, he met with three accomplices in Rome, one a fellow Turk and two Bulgarians, with operation being commanded by Zilo Vassilev, the Bulgarian military attach in Italy. He said that he was assigned this mission by Turkish mafioso Bekir elenk in Bulgaria.[1] According to Aca, the plan was for him and the back-up gunman Oral elik to open fire on the pope in St. Peter's Square and escape to the The site of the shooting is marked by a small Bulgarian embassy under the cover of the panic generated by a small marble tablet bearing John Paul's papal coat of explosion. On May 13 they sat in the square, writing postcards waiting arms and the date in Roman numerals. for the Pope to arrive. When the Pope passed, Aca fired several shots[2] with a Browning Hi-Power semi-automatic pistol, and critically wounded him, but was grabbed by Vatican security chief Camillo Cibin,[3] a nun, and several spectators who prevented him from either firing more shots or escaping. Four bullets hit John Paul II, two of them lodging in his lower intestine, the others hitting his left hand and right arm. Two bystanders were also hit by stray assassin's bullets; Ann Odre, of Buffalo, New York, was struck in the chest while Rose Hill, of Jamaica, was slightly wounded in the arm. elik panicked and fled without setting off his bomb or opening fire. The Pope was transferred from the car to the Apostolic Palace for an initial assessment because the wound did not externally appear serious. Once the Pope's pulse and blood pressure were assessed, it became clear the Pope was in danger, and an ambulance was summoned. He was taken to the hospital. The general surgeon who operated on the Pope at the hospital, where he was in charge of one of the operating theatres, Professor Dr. Francesco Crucitti, was at another hospital at the time of the attack but was told by a nun there of the attempt. He raced down the wrong way of a street in his vehicle, and was stopped by a policeman with an Uzi machine gun, and managed to convince him to give him an escort to the hospital, where he was immediately prepped for emergency surgery, the Pope having just been anointed by his secretary. The Pope, despite the fact that the bullet avoided both his abdominal aorta and the mesenteric artery, lost nearly three-quarters of his blood and thus suffered shock from near-exsanguination due to the intestinal perforation. He underwent almost six hours of emergency intestinal surgery, which required transfusions and a temporary colostomy (which later had to be reversed), at the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic (the trauma center affiliated with the medical school of the University of the Sacred Heart), which always keeps a suite of rooms reserved for the Pope's use. Several months later, he came down with a cytomegalovirus infection due to receiving some blood that was fresh and that had not been sufficiently prepared- because of the emergency, there had been no time. Upon encountering the Pope in Rome's Rebibbia Prison for the first time following the attempt, Aca, a professional assassin, asked him how he had managed to survive. The Pope, who was conscious until going into surgery, suspected that he would live, thanks to what he earnestly believed to be the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady of Fatima (who, in one of her appearances to the three children, had prophesied that a "Bishop in white" would be attacked). Pope John Paul II was extremely grateful to Dr. Crucitti and the rest of his medical staff who he had consulted (including his old friend and personal physician, the Polish immunologist Professor Dr. Gabriel Turowski, who had come to Italy to give his expertise and who diagnosed the CMV infection, and who became a grandfather during the crisis, and Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, the official Papal physician, who would again seek out Dr. Crucitti's advice when the Pope developed a benign colonic tumor). The Pope personally returned from his vacation at Castel Gandolfo in August of 1998 to deliver his condolences to the family when Dr. Crucitti passed away, and later personally celebrated his funeral and gave the homily (the doctor had a reputation for

Assassination attempt mentoring many future prominent physicians and surgeons at the Polyclinic, one of Italy's best hospitals).

72

Incarceration of Aca
Aca was sentenced, in July 1981, to life imprisonment in Italy for the assassination attempt, but was pardoned by president Carlo Azeglio Ciampi in June 2000 at the Pope's request. He was then extradited to Turkey, where he was imprisoned for the 1979 murder of left-wing journalist Abdi peki and two bank raids carried out in the 1970s. Despite a plea for early release in November 2004, a Turkish court announced that he would not be eligible for release until 2010. Nonetheless he was released on parole on January 12, 2006.[4] However, on January 20, 2006, the Turkish Supreme Court ruled that his time served in Italy could not be deducted from his Turkish sentence and he was returned to jail.[5] Aca was released from prison on January 18, 2010, after almost 29 years behind bars.[6]

Relationship with Pope John Paul


Following the shooting, Pope John Paul II asked people to "pray for my brother [Aca] ... whom I have sincerely forgiven."[7] In 1983, he and Aca met and spoke privately at the prison where Aca was being held. Agca reportedly kissed the Pope's ring at the conclusion of their visit. The Pope was also in touch with Aca's family over the years, meeting his mother in 1987 and his brother a decade later. Although Aca had been quoted as saying that "to me [the Pope] was the incarnation of all that is capitalism", and attempting to murder him, Aca developed a friendship with the pontiff. In early February 2005, during the Pope's illness, Aca sent a letter to the Pope wishing him well.

Motivations for the assassination attempt


Several theories exist concerning Mehmet Ali Aca's assassination attempt. One, strongly advocated since the early 1980s by Michael Ledeen among others, is that the assassination attempt had originated from Moscow and that the KGB had instructed the Bulgarian and East German secret services to carry out the mission. The Bulgarian Secret Service was allegedly instructed by the KGB to assassinate the Pope because of his support of Poland's Solidarity movement, seeing it as one of the most significant threats to Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe. Aca himself has given multiple conflicting statements on the assassination at different times. Attorney Antonio Marini stated: "Aca has manipulated all of us, telling hundreds of lies, continually changing versions, forcing us to open tens of different investigations".[8] Originally Aca claimed to be a member of the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), but they denied any ties to him.

Grey Wolves
Some people, notably Edward S. Herman, co-author with Frank Brodhead of The Rise and Fall of the Bulgarian Connection (1986), and Michael Parenti, felt Aca's story was dubious, noting that Aca made no claims of Bulgarian involvement until he had been isolated in solitary confinement and visited by Italian Military Intelligence (SISMI) agents. On September 25, 1991, former CIA analyst Melvin A. Goodman (now Senior Fellow at the Center for International Policy) revealed that his colleagues, following hierarchical orders, had falsified their analysis in order to support the accusation. He declared to the US Senate intelligence committee that "the CIA hadn't any proof" concerning this alleged "Bulgarian connection".[1] Neither the Severino Santiapichi court, nor the investigation by judge Franco Ionta, found evidence that that SISMI planted Aca's story. A French lawyer, Christian Roulette, who authored books blaming Western intelligence agencies for the assassination attempt, testified in court that documentary evidence he referred to actually did not exist.[9] [10] [11] [12] The Bulgarian secret services have always protested their alleged involvement and argued that Aca's story was an anti-Communist plant placed by the Grey Wolves, the Italian secret service, and the CIA - all three of whom had co-operated in NATO's secret Gladio network. Gladio was at the time involved in Italy's strategy of tension, also

Assassination attempt followed in Turkey by Counter-Guerrilla, the Turkish branch of Gladio. The Pope's assassination would hereafter have taken place in this frame. Edward Herman has argued that Michael Ledeen, who was involved in the Iran-Contra Affair and had alleged ties to the Italian P2 masonic lodge also linked to Gladio, was employed by the CIA to propagate the Bulgarian theory.[13] Indeed, Le Monde diplomatique alleged that Abdullah atl, a leader of the Grey Wolves, had organized the assassination attempt "in exchange for the sum of 3 million German Marks" for the Grey Wolves.[14] In Rome, Catli declared to the judge in 1985 "that he had been contacted by the BND, the German intelligence agency, which would have promised him a nice sum of money if he implicated the Russian and Bulgarian services in the assassination attempt against the Pope". According to colonel Alparslan Trkes, the founder of the Grey Wolves, "Catli has cooperated in the frame of a secret service working for the good of the state".[1]

73

The "Bulgarian Connection"


Then KGB Director Yuri Andropov, was Anglo-German conspiracy orchestrated by Poland and ultimately to precipitate the pilgrimage to Warsaw fueled Andropov's schoolteachers:[15] convinced that the Pope John Paul II's election was the product of an Zbigniew Brzezinski to undermine Soviet hegemony in largely Catholic collapse of the entire Soviet Union. The Pope's announcement of a apprehension, with Andropov issuing a secret memorandum to Soviet

The Pope is our enemy. . . . Due to his uncommon skills and great sense of humor he is dangerous, because he charms everyone, especially journalists. Besides, he goes for cheap gestures in his relations with the crowd, for instance, [he] puts on a highlander's hat, shakes all hands, kisses children, etc. . . . It is modeled on American presidential campaigns. . . . Because of the activities of the Church in Poland our activities designed to atheize the youth not only cannot diminish but must intensely develop. . . . In this respect all means are allowed and we cannot afford sentiments.[15] Ali Agca had made several trips to Sofia, Bulgaria, and stayed in a hotel favored by the Bulgarian (DS). In Rome he had also had contacts with a Bulgarian agent whose cover was the Bulgarian national airline office. Soon after the shooting, Sergei Antonov, a Bulgarian working in Rome for Balkan Air, was arrested based on Aca's testimony and accused of being the Bulgarian agent who masterminded the plot. In 1986, after a three-year trial, he was found not guilty. According to the CIA's chief of staff in Turkey, Paul Henze, he later stated that in Sofia, he was once approached by the Bulgarian Secret Service and Turkish mafiosi, who offered him three million German mark to assassinate the Pope.[16] American journalist Arnaud de Borchgrave claimed that the Bulgarians chose Aca to supply themselves with plausible deniability; choosing a member of the Grey Wolves that had allegedly been involved with the local KGB in drug smuggling routes through Bulgaria to Western Europe would distance themselves because of the implausibility of the link.[17]

The Mitrokhin Commission's claims


Further information: Italian Mitrokhin Commission According to Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera, documents recovered from former East German intelligence services confirm the 1981 assassination attempt against Pope John Paul II was ordered by the Soviet KGB and assigned to Bulgarian and East German agents with the Stasi to coordinate the operation and cover up the traces afterwards, however, Markus Wolf, former Stasi spy-master, has denied any links, and claimed the files had already been sent in 1995.[18] In March 2006, the controversial Mitrokhin Commission, set up by Silvio Berlusconi and headed by Forza Italia senator Paolo Guzzanti, supported once again the Bulgarian theory, which had been denounced by John Paul II during his travel to Bulgaria. Senator Guzzanti claimed that "leaders of the former Soviet Union were behind the assassination attempt", alleging that "the leadership of the Soviet Union took the initiative to eliminate Pope John

Assassination attempt Paul" because of his support for Solidarity, relaying "this decision to the military secret services" (and not the KGB).[19] The report's claims were based on recent computer analysis of photographs that purported to demonstrate Antonov's presence in St Peter's Square during the shooting and on information brought by the French anti-terrorist judge Jean-Louis Bruguire, a controversial figure whose last feat was to indict Rwandese president Paul Kagame, claiming he had deliberately provoked the 1994 Rwandan Genocide against his own ethnic group in order to take the power.[20] According to Le Figaro, Bruguire, who is in close contacts as well with Moscow as with Washington, D.C., including intelligence agents, has been accused by many of his colleagues of "privileging the reason of state over law."[21] Both Russia and Bulgaria condemned the report. "For Bulgaria, this case closed with the court decision in Rome in March 1986", Foreign Ministry spokesman Dimitar Tsanchev said, while also recalling the Pope's comments during his May 2002 visit to Bulgaria.[22] Senator Guzzanti said that the commission had decided to re-open the report's chapter on the assassination attempt in 2005, after the Pope wrote about it in his last book, Memory and Identity: Conversations Between Millenniums. The Pope wrote that he was convinced the shooting was not Aca's initiative and that "someone else masterminded it and someone else commissioned it". The Mitrokhin Commission also claimed Romano Prodi, a former Prime Minister of Italy, was the "KGB's man in Italy". At the end of December 2006, Mario Scaramella, one of the main informer of senator Guzzanti, was arrested and charged, among other things, of defamation. Rome's prosecutor Pietro Salvitti, in charge of the investigations concerning Mario Scaramella, cited by La Repubblica, showed that Nicol Pollari, head of SISMI, the Italian military intelligence agency and indicted in the Imam Rapito affair, as well as SISMI n2, Marco Mancini, arrested in July 2006 for the same reason, were some of the informers, alongside Mario Scaramella, of senator Paolo Guzzanti. Beside targeting Romano Prodi and his staff, this "network", according to Pietro Salvitti's words, also aimed at defaming General Giuseppe Cucchi (current director of the CESIS), Milan's judges Armando Spataro, in charge of the Imam Rapito case, and Guido Salvini, as well as La Repubblica reporters Carlo Bonini and Giuseppe D'Avanzo, who discovered the Yellowcake forgery affair.[23] The investigation also showed a connection between Scaramella and the CIA, in particular through Filippo Marino, one of Scaramella's closest partners since the 1990s and co-founder of the ECPP, who lives today in the US. Marino has acknowledged in an interview an association with former and active CIA officers, including Robert Lady, former CIA station chief in Milan, indicted by prosecutor Armando Spataro for having coordinated the abduction of Abu Omar, the Imam Rapito affair [24]

74

Spies in the Vatican


In 2009 journalist and former army intelligence officer John Koehler published Spies in the Vatican: The Soviet Union's Cold War Against the Catholic Church.[25] Mining mostly East German and Polish secret police archives, Koehler says the attempt was "KGB-backed" and gives details.[26]

A Vatican connection?
On June 26, 2000 Pope John Paul II released the "Third Secret of Fatima" in which he said that Aca's assassination attempt was the fulfillment of this Secret. May 13 (the date of the assassination attempt) is the anniversary of the first apparition of the Virgin Mary to the three children of Fatima, something the Pope has always regarded as significant, attributing his survival on that day to her protection. Some doubt the Church's full disclosure of the contents of this Secret, believing that it actually predicted the Apocalypse. While in prison on remand, Aca was widely reported to have developed an obsession with Fatima and during the trial claimed that he was the second coming of Jesus Christ and called on the Vatican to release the Third Secret. On March 31, 2005, just two days prior to the Pope's death, Aca gave an interview to the Italian newspaper La Repubblica.[27] He claimed to be working on a book about the assassination attempt. La Repubblica quoted Aca claiming at length that he had accomplices in the Vatican who helped him with the assassination attempt, saying "the devil is inside Vatican's wall". He also said:

Assassination attempt "Many calculating politicians are worried about what revealing the complete truth would do. Some of them fear that the Vatican will have a spiritual collapse like the Berlin Wall. Let me ask, why don't the CIA, the Sismi, the Sisde and other intelligence agencies reveal the truth about the Orlandi case? Q: They say it's because there is still some uncertainty in the Emanuela Orlandi case. Aca: In the 1980's, certain Vatican supporters believed that I was the new messiah and to free me they organized all the intrigue about Emanuela Orlandi and the other incidents they won't reveal." Emanuela Orlandi, the daughter of a Vatican employee, disappeared at age 15 on June 22, 1983. Anonymous phone calls offered her release in exchange for the release of Aca. Archbishop Paul Marcinkus was alleged to be part of the kidnapping, although no charges were ever laid. A week after this interview, Associated Press reported Aca denying having made such claims.[28] In November 2010, Aca publicly asserted that Cardinal Agostino Casaroli had been the man behind the assassination attempt on John Paul II in 1981.[29]

75

In fiction
The plot from the Tom Clancy novel Red Rabbit is largely centralised around the attempt on the Pope's life which is ordered by the KGB and carried out by a Bulgarian assassin also responsible for the murder of Georgi Markov. Mention of this assassination attempt was at the end of the anime Chrono Crusade.

References
[1] Lee, Martin A. (3 March 1997 (French)). "Les liaisons dangereuses de la police turque" (http:/ / www. monde-diplomatique. fr/ 1997/ 03/ LEE/ 8019. html). Le Monde diplomatique. . [2] "1981 Year in Review: Pope John Paul II Assassination (sic) Attempt" (http:/ / www. upi. com/ Audio/ Year_in_Review/ Events-of-1981/ Pope-John-Paul-II-Assasination-Attempt/ 12311754163167-6/ ). United Press International (UPI)). 1981. . [3] "Security Chief for the Vatican Was 'Guardian Angel' to Pope" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB125746370679932197. html). Wall Street Journal. 2009-11-06. . Retrieved 2009-11-06. [4] Newton, Paula (2006-01-12). "Man who shot pope freed" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060114175840/ http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 01/ 12/ turkey. pope. gunman/ index. html). CNN.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 01/ 12/ turkey. pope. gunman/ index. html) on 2006-01-14. . Retrieved 2008-10-26. [5] Goktas, Hidir (2006-01-20). "Man who shot pope must return to jail: Turkish court" (http:/ / www. redorbit. com/ news/ general/ 364655/ man_who_shot_pope_must_return_to_jail_turkish_court/ ). Reuters. Archived from the original (http:/ / today. reuters. com/ news/ newsArticle. aspx?type=topNews& storyID=2006-01-20T175931Z_01_L20474065_RTRUKOC_0_US-TURKEY-POPE-AGCA. xml) on 2006-01-20. . [6] "Man who shot pope released from prison" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2010/ WORLD/ europe/ 01/ 18/ turkey. pope. gunman/ ). CNN. 2010-01-18. . Retrieved 2010-01-18. [7] "Holy See defers to courts on possible release of would-be Papal assassin". Vatican City: Catholic News Agency. January 9, 2006. [8] 'Ali Aga revient la libert avec ses secrets' (http:/ / press. jrc. it/ NewsExplorer/ clusteredition/ fr/ 20060110,Liberation-9042b199be1f6c21f39cd707d2fc2832. html), January 12, 2006, Libration(French)] [9] "Italian Judge Said to Drop Probe of Agca Being Coached" (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ washingtonpost_historical/ access/ 139140832. html?dids=139140832:139140832& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:AI& date=Dec+ 19,+ 1985& author=By+ Loren+ Jenkins+ Washington+ Post+ Foreign+ Service& pub=The+ Washington+ Post+ + (1974-Current+ file)& edition=& startpage=A31& desc=Italian+ Judge+ Said+ to+ Drop+ Probe+ of+ Agca+ Being+ Coached). Washington Post. 1985-12-22. . [10] Crovitz, Gordon (1986-01-08). "Pope Trial: What Secret Files?". Wall Street Journal. [11] Tagliabue, John (1986-01-15). "Court in Pope plot won't extend trial to hear testimony in U.S." (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?sec=health& res=9A0DEEDE1E3DF936A25752C0A960948260). New York Times. . [12] Christian Roulette (1984). Giovanni Paolo II, Antonov, Agca. La pista. Rome: Edito da Napoleone. [13] Lobe, Jim (2003-06-23). "Veteran neo-con advisor moves on Iran" (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ atimes/ Middle_East/ EF26Ak03. html). Asia Times. . [14] Nezan, Kendal (July 1998). "Turkey's pivotal role in the international drug trade" (http:/ / mondediplo. com/ 1998/ 07/ 05turkey). Le Monde diplomatique. . [15] Remnick, David. " John Paul II (http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ talk/ content/ articles/ 050411ta_talk_remnick)", The New Yorker Magazine. April 11, 2004. [16] Paul B. Henze. The Plot to Kill the Pope, Holiday House, 1985.

Assassination attempt
[17] Arnaud de Borchgrave, The Attempted Assassination of John Paul II (http:/ / www. newsmax. com/ archives/ articles/ 2005/ 4/ 5/ 160320. shtml), April 6, 2005. [18] " Stasi Files Implicate KGB in Pope Shooting (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,1564,1538173,00. html)", Deutsche Welle, January 4, 2005. [19] "Soviets 'had Pope shot for backing Solidarity'" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 03/ 03/ wpope03. xml& sSheet=/ news/ 2006/ 03/ 03/ ixworld. html). Daily Telegraph. 2006-03-03. . [20] Rwanda : Bruguire incrimine Paul Kagam (http:/ / www. lefigaro. fr/ international/ 20061121. FIG000000175_rwanda_bruguiere_incrimine_paul_kagame. html), Le Figaro, 21 November 2006 (French) [21] "Un juge provocateur", Le Figaro, 22 November 2006, p.2 [22] "Soviet Union ordered Pope shooting: Italy commission" (http:/ / today. reuters. com/ news/ newsarticle. aspx?type=topNews& storyid=2006-03-02T154206Z_01_L02207710_RTRUKOC_0_US-POPE-ASSASSINATION. xml& rpc=22). Reuters. March 2, 2006. . [23] Il falso dossier di Scaramella - "Cos la Russia manipola Prodi" (http:/ / www. repubblica. it/ 2007/ 01/ sezioni/ cronaca/ caso-scaramella/ caso-scaramella/ caso-scaramella. html), La Repubblica, 11 January 2007 (Italian) [24] " How one man insinuated himself into poisoning case (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2007/ 01/ 09/ news/ mario. php)", International Herald Tribune, 9 January 2007. [25] John Koehler, Spies in the Vatican, Pegasus, 2009. ISBN 978-1-60598-050-8 [26] Publishers Weekly, review of 'Spies in the Vatican', May 11, 2009 [27] "L'ultima verit di Ali Agca 'Avevo dei complici in Vaticano'" (http:/ / www. repubblica. it/ 2005/ c/ sezioni/ esteri/ papa4/ nuovagca/ nuovagca. html) (in Italian). La Repubblica. 2005-03-31. . ( English translation (http:/ / www. weblog. ro/ soj/ 2005-03-31. html#28411) with some commentary: "The Latest Truth From Ali Agca: 'I had accomplices in the Vatican'") [28] "Agca Denies Accusing Vatican of Complicity in Pope Shooting" (http:/ / www. turkishweekly. net/ news. php?id=7341). Turkish Weekly. Associated Press. 2005-04-04. . [29] ['Vatican ordered hit on Pope John Paul II' http:/ / www. presstv. ir/ detail/ 150432. html]

76

Further viewing
Jon Blair (2005). Zero Hour - The Plot to Kill the Pope (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0397850/). 3BM Television. Meissen, Randall J. Living Miracles: The Spiritual Sons of John Paul the Great (http://www.amazon.com/dp/ 1933271272/), Alpharetta, GA, Mission Network: 2011. Several sections of this work discuss the assassination, its cultural impact on Catholic seminarians, and the protection of the pope attributed to Our Lady of Fatima.

External links
Records of the RFE Rome Bureau on Antonov trial (boxes 1619) (http://www.osaarchivum.org/db/fa/ 300-1-1-1.htm), Open Society Archives

Pastoral trips

77

Pastoral trips
During his reign, Pope John Paul II ("The Pilgrim Pope") made 104 foreign trips, more than all previous popes combined. In total he logged more than unknown operator: u','unknown operator: u','unknown operator: u',' (unknown operator: u'strong'unknown operator: u','mi). He consistently attracted large crowds on his travels, some amongst the largest ever assembled. While some of his trips (such as to the United States and the Holy Land) were to places previously visited by Pope Paul VI (the first pope to travel widely), many others were to places that no pope had ever previously visited. Pope John Paul IIs World Travels:[1]
1979

1. January 25February 1 Dominican Republic and Mexico 2. June 210 Poland 3. September 29October 7 Ireland and United States 4. November 2830 Turkey

1980

5. May 212 Zaire, Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ghana, Republic of Upper Volta and Ivory Coast 6. May 30June 2 France 7. June 30July 12 Brazil 8. November 1519 West Germany

1981

9. February 1627 Philippines, Guam, and Japan

1982

10. February 1219 Nigeria, Benin, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea 11. May 1215 Portugal (including Ftima) 12. May 28June 2 Great Britain 13. June 1013 Argentina 14. June 15 Switzerland 15. August 29 San Marino 16. October 31November 9 Spain

Pastoral trips
1983

78

17. March 210 Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Haiti 18. June 1623 Poland 19. August 1415 Lourdes in France 20. September 1013 Austria

1984

21. May 212 South Korea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Thailand 22. June 1217 Switzerland 23. September 920 Canada 24. October 1012 Spain, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico

1985

25. January 26February 6 Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago 26. May 1121 Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg 27. August 819 Togo, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Zaire, Kenya, Morocco 28. September 8 Liechtenstein

1986

29. February 1February 10 India 30. July 18 Colombia, St. Lucia 31. October 47 France 32. November 19December 1 Australia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Fiji, Singapore, Seychelles

1987

33. March 31April 13 Uruguay, Chile, Argentina 34. April 30May 4 West Germany 35. June 814 Poland 36. September 1020 United States and Canada

Pastoral trips
1988

79

37. May 718 Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay 38. June 2327 Austria 39. September 1019 Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, detour through South Africa 40. October 811 France

1989

41. April 28May 6 Madagascar, Runion, Zambia, and Malawi 42. June 110 Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark, Sweden 43. August 1921 Spain 44. October 616 South Korea, Indonesia, East Timor, Mauritius

1990

45. January 25February 1 Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad 46. April 2122 Czechoslovakia 47. May 613 Mexico, Curaao 48. May 2527 Malta 49. September 110 Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Ivory Coast

1991

50. May 1013 Portugal 51. June 19 Poland 52. August 1320 Poland, Hungary 53. October 1221 Brazil

1992

54. February 1926 Senegal, Gambia, Guinea 55. June 410 Angola, So Tom and Prncipe 56. October 914 Dominican Republic

Pastoral trips
1993

80

57. February 310 Benin, Uganda, Sudan 58. April 25 Albania 59. June 1217 Spain 60. August 916 Jamaica, Mexico, United States 61. September 410 Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia

1994

62. September 1011 Croatia

1995

63. January 1221 Philippines, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka 64. May 2022 Czech Republic, Poland 65. June 34 Belgium 66. June 30 Slovakia 67. September 1420 Cameroon, Kenya, South Africa 68. October 48 United States

1996

69. February 512 Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Venezuela 70. April 14 Tunisia 71. May 1719 Slovenia 72. June 2123 Germany 73. September 67 Hungary 74. September 1922 France

1997

75. April 1213 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 76. April 2527 Czech Republic

Pastoral trips
77. May 1011 Lebanon 78. May 31June 10 Poland 79. August 2124 France 80. October 25 Brazil

81

1998

81. January 2125 Cuba 82. March 2123 Nigeria 83. June 1921 Austria 84. October 24 Croatia

1999

85. January 2225 Mexico City in Mexico January 2627 St. Louis, Missouri 86. May 79 Romania 87. June 517 Poland 88. September 19 Slovenia 89. November 59 New Delhi, India, and Tbilisi in Georgia

2000

90. Feb. 2426 Egypt 91. March 2026 Jordan, Israel and Palestinian Autonomous Territories 92. May 1213 Ftima in Portugal

2001

93.(a) May 45 Athens in Greece 93.(b) May 56 Syria 93.(c) May 89 Malta 94. June 2327 Ukraine

Pastoral trips
95. September 2227 Armenia and Kazakhstan

82

2002

96. May 2226 Azerbaijan and Bulgaria 97. July 23August 1 Canada, Guatemala, and Mexico 98. August 1619 Poland

2003

99. May 34 Spain 100. June 59 Croatia 101. June 22 Bosnia and Herzegovina 102.September 11-14 Slovakia

2004

103. June 5-6 Switzerland 104. August 14-15 Lourdes in France

1970s
Two of John Paul II's earliest official visits were to Mexico in January 1979 and Poland in June 1979.[2] While there he held Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw before 3 million of his countrymen.

Nations visited by Pope John Paul II

Pastoral trips

83

He made his first visit to the United States in October 1979, where he became the first Pope to visit the White House. He was greeted warmly by then-President Jimmy Carter, and they met privately in the Oval Office. The pope also made a stop in Chicago, where he celebrated Mass in Grant Park, meeting with civic leaders as well as Chicago's Polish community. Chicago was the largest Catholic archdiocese in the United States at the time and the home of the largest Polish community outside of Poland.[3]
Pope John Paul II, during his first U.S. visit in 1979, at Yankee Stadium, New York City

1980s
On June 2, 1980, he made a pilgrimage to Lisieux in northern France, the home town of St. Therese of the Child Jesus of the Holy Face.[4] In 1997 he declared St. Therese the third woman Doctor of the Church.[5] He became the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom in 1982, where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. This trip was in danger of being cancelled due to the then current Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlntico Sur), against which he spoke out during the visit. In a dramatic symbolic gesture, he knelt in prayer alongside the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the See of the Church of England, Canterbury Cathedral, founded by St Augustine of The Pope with American President Ronald Canterbury. They prayed at the site of the martyrdom of St. Thomas Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan, 1982 Becket, meant as a show of friendship between the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. This visit had to be balanced for fairness with an unscheduled trip to Argentina that June. Pope John Paul II was the first Ponfiff to visit Scotland. His visit was uplifting to the Roman Catholic minority in that country; 300,000 of whom celebrated Mass with the Holy Father at Bellahoustan Park, who, due to the "Act of Settlement 1701" are prohibited from being head of state. On this visit the Pope faced protest from Protestant extremist Pastor Jack Glass and his followers. Throughout his trips, he stressed his devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary through visits to various shrines to the Virgin Mary, notably Knock in Ireland, Ftima in Portugal, Guadalupe in Mexico, and Lourdes in France. His public visits were centred on large Papal Masses; 1,250,000 people, one quarter of the population of the island of Ireland, (one third of the population of Republic of Ireland)[6] attended his Mass in Dublin's Phoenix Park in 1979. In 1984, John Paul became the first Pope to visit Puerto Rico. Stands were specially erected for him at Luis Mu oz Marn International Airport in San Juan, where he met with governor Carlos Romero Barcel, and at Plaza Las Americas. The pope made a pastoral trip to Singapore in 1986, and he was warmly received by the then-Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew in the Istana. Following that, the Pope made pastoral speeches concerning the Catholic doctrines in the National Stadium of Singapore, which was viewed by a large audience, mainly Catholics.

1990s
There was a plot to assassinate the Pope during his visit to Manila in January 1995, as part of Operation Bojinka, a mass terrorist attack that was developed by Al-Qaeda members Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Sheik Mohammed. A suicide bomber dressed as a priest and planned to use the disguise to get closer to the Pope's motorcade so that he could kill the Pope by detonating himself. Before January 15, the day on which the men were to attack the Pope during his Philippine visit, an apartment fire brought investigators led by Aida Fariscal to Yousef's laptop computer,

Pastoral trips which had terrorist plans on it, as well as clothes and items that suggested an assassination plot. Yousef was arrested in Pakistan about a month later, but Khalid Sheik Mohammed was not arrested until 2003. During this trip to Philippines, on 15 January 1995, he offered Mass to an estimated crowd of 45 million in Luneta Park, Manila, the largest papal crowd ever.[7] [8] Pope John Paul II's strong Marian devotion was highly influenced by the Mariology of Saint Louis de Montfort and according to his Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae, the pontif's personal motto "Totus Tuus" was inspired by St. Louis' doctrine on total consecration to the Virgin Mary.[9] [10] Accordingly, on September 19, 1996, Pope John-Paul II made a trip to Saint-Laurent-sur-Svre in France to meditate and pray on the adjacent tombs of Saint Louis de Montfort and Blessed Marie Louise Trichet, whom he beatified himself. On March 22, 1998, during his second Papal visit to Nigeria, he beatified the Nigerian monk[11] Cyprian Michael Tansi. This was a beatification that greatly endeared the Pope to many African Catholics. Also in 1999, John Paul II made a final trip to the United States, this time celebrating Mass in St. Louis in the Edward Jones Dome. Over 104,000 people attended the January 27 Mass, making it the biggest indoor gathering in United States history.

84

21st Century
In 2000, he became the first modern Catholic pope to visit Egypt, where he met with the Coptic Pope and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. In May 2001, the Pontiff took a pilgrimage that would trace the steps of his co-namesake, Saint Paul, across the Mediterranean, from Greece to Syria to Malta. John Paul II became the first Pope to visit Greece in 1291 years. The visit was controversial, and the Pontiff was met with protests and snubbed by Eastern Orthodox leaders, none of whom met his arrival. In Athens, the Pope met with Archbishop Christodoulos, the head of the Greek Orthodox Church in Greece. After a private 30 minute meeting, the two spoke publicly. Christodoulos read a list of "13 offences" of the Roman Catholic Church against the Orthodox Church since the Great Schism, including the pillaging of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204. He also bemoaned the lack of any apology from the Roman Catholic Church, saying that "until now, there has not been heard a single request for pardon" for the "maniacal crusaders of the 13th century". The Pope responded by saying, "For the occasions past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us forgiveness", to which Christodoulos immediately applauded. John Paul also said that the sacking of Constantinople was a source of "deep regret" for Catholics. Later, John Paul and Christodoulos met on a spot where Saint Paul had once preached to Athenian Christians. They issued a "common declaration", saying, "We shall do everything in our power, so that the Christian roots of Europe and its Christian soul may be preserved. ... We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion." The two leaders then said the Lord's Prayer together, breaking an Orthodox taboo against praying with Catholics. He was the first Roman Catholic Pope to visit and pray in an Islamic Mosque, in Damascus, Syria. He visited Umayyad Mosque, where John the Baptist is believed to be interred. In September 2001 amid post-September 11 concerns, he travelled to Kazakhstan, with an audience of largely Muslims, and to Armenia, to participate in the celebration of the 1700 years of Christianity in that nation.[12] He fluently said Mass in local languages during some visits, including Swahili at a Mass in Nairobi, Kenya in 1995 and in Tetum in East Timor.

Pastoral trips

85

References
Notes
[1] "The Holy See: Jubilee Pilgrimages of the Holy Father" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ travels/ index. htm). 2005,2009 The Holy See. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [2] "BBC ON THIS DAY | 2 | 1979: Millions cheer as the Pope comes home" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/ june/ 2/ newsid_3972000/ 3972361. stm). BBC News. 2005-04-02. . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [3] Davis, Robert. "Pope John Paul II in Chicago" (http:/ / www. chicagotribune. com/ news/ politics/ chi-chicagodays-pope-story,0,3834966. story). Chicago Tribune. . [4] "Saint Therese of Lisieux - Pope John Paul II visits Lisieux, June 2, 1980" (http:/ / www. thereseoflisieux. org/ pope-john-paul-ii-visits-lisie/ ). Thereseoflisieux.org. 1980-06-02. . Retrieved 2009-06-16. [5] "Saint Therese of Lisieux - Doctor of the Universal Church" (http:/ / www. thereseoflisieux. org/ doctor-of-the-universal-church/ ). Thereseoflisieux.org. . Retrieved 2009-06-16. [6] The figure 1,250,000 is mentioned on the commemorative stone at the Papal Cross in the Phoenix Park, Dublin [7] (http:/ / www. guinnessworldrecords. com/ index. asp?ID=54161) [8] Macdonald, Charles J-H. (2000). Pesigan, Guillermo Mangubat. ed. Old ties and new solidarities: studies on Philippine communities (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=x-OAJJNfD_kC& lpg=PA192& ots=CH_sgGtm5y& dq="Little Manilas"& lr& pg=PA193#v=onepage& q& f=false). Loyola Heights, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p.193. ISBN9789715503518. . Retrieved 27 April 2011. [9] * Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ apost_letters/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en. html [10] Pope John Paul II on de Montfort http:/ / www. catholicregister. org/ content/ view/ 1402/ 857/ [11] Chidi (1998-03-22). "Blessed Cyprian Michael Iwene Tansi" (http:/ / www. afrikaworld. net/ tansi/ index. html). Afrikaworld.net. . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [12] Henneberger, Melinda (21 September 2001). "Pope to Leave for Kazakhstan and Armenia This Weekend" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9F02E2DA113BF932A1575AC0A9679C8B63). 2001, 2009 The New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-01-11.

List of visits
Pope John Paul II made a total of 104 pastoral visits outside Italy. By the time of his death in 2005, he had made more foreign trips than any other pontiff.

Countries visited
[1]

Millions cheer Pope John Paul II during his first visit to Poland as pontiff

List of visits

86

11 June 1987 Pope John Paul II arriving at the military airport at Gdynia on his third Papal visit to Poland.

Pope John Paul II visited 129 [2] countries during his time as pope: Nine visits[3] [4] [5] [6] [7] to Poland Eight visits to France (including one visit to Runion) Seven visits to the United States (including two stopovers in Alaska) Five visits to Mexico and Spain
Pastoral trips of Pope John Paul II

Four visits to Brazil, Portugal, and Switzerland

Three visits to Austria, Canada, Cte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Czech Republic (including one visit to Czechoslovakia), Dominican Republic, Germany, Guatemala, Kenya, Malta (including one stopover in Luqa[8] [9] ), and Slovakia (including one visit to Czechoslovakia), Two visits to Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Benin, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Hungary, India, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Slovenia, South Korea, Uruguay, and Venezuela One visit to Albania, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaao (then part of the Netherlands Antilles), Denmark, East Timor (then part of Indonesia), Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guam, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Palestinian territories, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, So Tom and Prncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Zambia, and Zimbabwe

List of visits

87

Chronological list
[10] [3]

1979
1. January 25 February 1, 1979 Dominican Republic, Mexico, and The Bahamas 2. June 2 June 10, 1979 - Poland 3. September 29 October 8, 1979 Ireland and the United States (Boston, New York City, United Nations, Philadelphia, Des Moines, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.) 4. November 28 November 30, 1979 Turkey
Map details visits outside of Europe (Polish language)

1980
1. 2. 3. 4. May 2 May 12, 1980 - Zare, Congo, Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Cte d'Ivoire May 30 June 2, 1980 - France June 30 July 12, 1980 - Brazil November 15 November 19, 1980 - Germany[11]

1981
1. February 16 February 27, 1981 - Pakistan (stopover in Karachi), the Philippines, Guam, Japan, and the United States (stopover in Anchorage)

1982
1. February 12 February 19, 1982 - Nigeria, Benin, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea 2. May 12 May 15, 1982 - Portugal (pilgrimage to the Marian shrine in Ftima on the first anniversary of the assassination attempt against the pope) 3. May 28 June 2, 1982 - United Kingdom 4. June 10 June 13, 1982 - Brazil (stopover in Rio de Janeiro) and Argentina 5. June 15, 1982 - Switzerland 6. August 29, 1982 - San Marino 7. October 31 November 9, 1982 - Spain

List of visits

88

1983
1. March 2 March 10, 1983 - Portugal (stopover in Lisbon), Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, and Haiti 2. June 16 June 23, 1983 - Poland 3. August 14 August 15, 1983 - France (pilgrimage to the Marian shrine in Lourdes) 4. September 10 September 13, 1983 - Austria

1984
1. May 2 May 12, 1984 - the United States (stopover in Fairbanks),[12] South Korea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Thailand 2. June 12 June 17, 1984 - Switzerland 3. September 9 September 21, 1984 - Canada 4. October 10 October 13, 1984 - Spain, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico

1985
1. January 26 February 6, 1985 - Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago 2. May 11 May 21, 1985 - Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium 3. August 8 August 19, 1985 - Togo, Cte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Zare, Kenya, and Morocco 4. September 8, 1985 - Switzerland and Liechtenstein

1986
1. 2. 3. 4. January 31 February 11, 1986 - India July 1 July 8, 1986 - Colombia and Saint Lucia October 4 October 7, 1986 - France November 18 December 1, 1986 - Bangladesh, Singapore, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, and the Seychelles

1987
1. 2. 3. 4. March 31 April 13, 1987 - Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina (celebration of World Youth Day in Buenos Aires) April 30 May 4, 1987 - Germany June 8 June 14, 1987 - Poland September 10 September 21, 1987 - United States (Miami, Columbia, New Orleans, San Antonio, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, Detroit),[13] and Canada (Fort Simpson, NT)

1988
1. 2. 3. 4. May 7 May 18, 1988 - Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay, June 23 June 27, 1988 - Austria September 10 September 19, 1988 - Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Mozambique October 8 October 11, 1988 - France

1989
1. April 28 May 6, 1989 - Madagascar, Runion, Zambia, and Malawi 2. June 1 June 10, 1989 - Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark, and Sweden 3. August 19 August 21, 1989 - Spain (celebration of World Youth Day in Santiago de Compostela) 4. October 6 October 16, 1989 - South Korea, Indonesia (including East Timor), and Mauritius

List of visits

89

1990
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. January 25 February 1, 1990 - Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Chad April 21 April 22, 1990 - Czechoslovakia May 6 May 14, 1990 - Mexico and Curaao May 25 May 27, 1990 - Malta September 1 September 10, 1990 - Malta (stopover in Luqa), Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, and Cte d'Ivoire (consecration of the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro)

1991
1. May 5 May 13, 1991 - Portugal (pilgrimage to the Marian shrine in Ftima on the tenth anniversary of the assassination attempt against the pope) 2. June 1 June 9, 1991 - Poland 3. August 13 August 20, 1991 - Poland (celebration of World Youth Day in Czstochowa) and Hungary 4. October 12 October 21, 1991 - Brazil

1992
1. February 19 February 26, 1992 - Senegal, Gambia, and Guinea 2. June 4 June 10, 1992 - Angola and So Tom and Prncipe 3. October 9 October 14, 1992 - Dominican Republic

1993
1. 2. 3. 4. February 3 February 10, 1993 - Benin, Uganda, and Sudan April 25, 1993 - Albania June 12 June 17, 1993 - Spain August 9 August 16, 1993 - Jamaica, Mexico, and the United States (celebration of World Youth Day in Denver) 5. September 4 September 10, 1993 - Lithuania (visit to the Hill of Crosses), Latvia, and Estonia

1994
1. September 10 September 11, 1994 - Croatia

1995
1. January 11 January 21, 1995 - Philippines (celebration of World Youth Day 1995 in Manila), Papua New Guinea, Australia, and Sri Lanka 2. May 20 May 22, 1995 - Czech Republic and Poland 3. June 3 June 4, 1995 - Belgium 4. June 30 July 3, 1995 - Slovakia 5. September 14 September 20, 1995 - Cameroon, South Africa, and Kenya 6. October 4 October 9, 1995 - United States (Newark, East Rutherford, New York City, United Nations,[14] Yonkers, Baltimore)

List of visits

90

1996
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. February 5 February 12, 1996 - Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Venezuela April 14, 1996 - Tunisia May 17 May 19, 1996 - Slovenia June 21 June 23, 1996 - Germany September 6 September 7, 1996 - Hungary September 19 September 22, 1996 - France

1997
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. April 12 April 13, 1997 - Bosnia and Herzegovina April 25 April 27, 1997 - Czech Republic May 10 May 11, 1997 - Lebanon May 31 June 10, 1997 - Poland August 21 August 24, 1997 - France (celebration of World Youth Day in Paris) October 2 October 6, 1997 - Brazil

1998
1. 2. 3. 4. January 21 January 26, 1998 - Cuba March 21 March 23, 1998 - Nigeria June 19 June 21, 1998 - Austria October 2 October 4, 1998 - Croatia

1999
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. January 22 January 28, 1999 - Mexico and United States (St. Louis) May 7 May 9, 1999 - Romania June 5 June 17, 1999 - Poland September 19, 1999 - Slovenia October 5 October 9, 1999 - India and Georgia

2000
1. February 24 February 26, 2000 - Egypt (Great Jubilee pilgrimage to Mount Sinai) 2. March 20 March 26, 2000 - Jordan, the Palestinian territories, and Israel (Great Jubilee pilgrimage to the Holy Land) 3. May 12 May 13, 2000 - Portugal (Great Jubilee pilgrimage to the Marian shrine in Ftima)

2001
1. May 5 May 9, 2001 - Greece, Syria, and Malta 2. June 23 June 27, 2001 - Ukraine 3. September 22 September 27, 2001 - Kazakhstan and Armenia

List of visits

91

2002
1. May 22 May 26, 2002 - Azerbaijan and Bulgaria 2. July 23 August 2, 2002 - Canada (celebration of World Youth Day 2002 in Toronto), Guatemala, and Mexico 3. August 16 August 19, 2002 - Poland

2003
1. 2. 3. 4. May 3 May 4, 2003 - Spain June 5 June 9, 2003 - Croatia June 22, 2003 - Bosnia and Herzegovina September 11 September 14, 2003 - Slovakia

2004
1. June 5, 2004 - Switzerland 2. August 14 August 15, 2004 - France (pilgrimage to the Marian shrine in Lourdes)

References
Notes
[1] List of travels of Pope John Paul II (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ travels/ index. htm) from the Vatican WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630RxuCz7) [2] Vatican News Services (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ viaggi/ viaggi_santo_padre_statistiche_fuori-italia_globale_it. html) (in Italian) WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630SGpyAI) [3] "Aug. 16-19, 2002 -- John Paul II makes his ninth trip to Poland" "Pope John Paul II Timeline" (http:/ / www. cbn. com/ spirituallife/ ChurchAndMinistry/ PopeJohnPaulIITimeline. aspx) Christian Broadcasting Network Retrieved 4 May 2011 WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630SWf99a) [4] "Pope John Paul II visited 129 countries during his time as pope, including nine visits to his native Poland" "Pope John Paul II to be Beatified at the Vatican on Sunday" (http:/ / theamericano. com/ 2011/ 04/ 29/ pope-john-paul-ii-beatified-vatican-sunday/ ) The Americano 29 April 2011 Retrieved 4 May 2011 WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630SrCoXs) [5] "John Paul II's ninth pilgrimage to Poland (Aug. 16-19, 2002) was one of his shortest" Strybel, Robert "Did You Know - Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. wnypolonia. com/ news/ 000106. shtml) Polonia.com 1 April 2005 Retrieved 4 May 2011 WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630T59mU5) [6] "This has been the ninth trip to Poland during his pontificate." "Pope John Paul II Visits Poland" (http:/ / www. life. com/ image/ 1342669) Life 19 August 2002 Retrieved 4 May 2011 WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630TKAFBC) [7] "The pope, 82, who faces a daily battle against the effects of Parkinson's disease and arthritis, is making his ninth papal visit to Poland." "Poles prepare for Papal homecoming" (http:/ / articles. cnn. com/ 2002-08-13/ world/ pope_1_papal-homecoming-papal-visit-pope-john-paul?_s=PM:WORLD) CNN 13 August 2002 Retrieved 4 May 2011 WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630TXik5e) [8] "Quite unexpectedly, Pope John Paul II was in Malta again for a couple of hours during a stopover at Luqa Airport while on his way to Tanzania on 1 September 1990." Bonavia, Carmel G. "MaltaPost Pope Benedict XVI commemorative stamp set" (http:/ / www. independent. com. mt/ news. asp?newsitemid=104755) The Malta Independent WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630U0Qut6) [9] "Apostolic Journeys of His Holiness Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ viaggi/ viaggi_santo_padre_statistiche_fuori-italia_elenco_cronologico_it. html#1990) (in Italian) WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630US7bjN) [10] "Events in the Pontificate of John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_pontificato_en. html) from the Vatican WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630UizQQi) [11] Grave, Werner (1980). "Gemeinsam Zeugnis geben": Johannes Paul II. in Deutschland. Butzon & Bercker. ISBN3766691449. [12] Archives "Remarks at the Welcoming Ceremony for Pope John Paul II in Fairbanks, Alaska May 2, 1984" (http:/ / www. reagan. utexas. edu/ archives/ speeches/ 1984/ 50284a. htm) Ronald Reagan Presidential Library WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630Vcytqt) [13] Walsh, Mary Ann "Pope John Paul IIs Travels Visits to the United States" (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ about/ leadership/ holy-see/ pope-john-paul-ii/ pope-john-paul-ii-visits-to-the-united-states. cfm) United States Conference of Catholic Bishops WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630W91pbv)

List of visits
[14] United Nations General Assembly Report meeting 20 session 50 (http:/ / www. undemocracy. com/ meeting/ A-50-PV. 20& #35;pg002-bk05''Verbotim) page 2, His Holiness Pope John Paul II Holy See on 5 October 1995 (retrieved 2008-07-01) WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 630WM9C8w)

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External links
1987 Papal visit to Fort Simpson NWT (http://www.pwnhc.ca/timeline/1975/Pope_1987.html)

1982 visit to Britain


Pope John Paul II's visit to the United Kingdom in 1982 was the first visit to that country by a reigning pope. John Paul arrived in the UK on 28 May 1982, and during his time there visited 9 cities, delivering 16 major addresses. Among significant events were a meeting with Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, a joint service alongside the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the See of the Church of England, Canterbury Cathedral, and three large open air Masses in London, Edinburgh and Cardiff. Following his six day visit which took him to locations in England, Scotland and Wales, he returned to the Vatican on 2 June. Unlike the 2010 papal visit of his successor, Pope Benedict XVI, John Paul's was a pastoral rather than a state visit, and was consequently funded by the Church rather than the Government. The trip was almost cancelled because Britain was then at war with Argentina following that country's invasion of the Falkland Islands. This visit had to be balanced for fairness with an unscheduled trip to Argentina that June. Over 2 million people attended events hosted by the Pope, with the visit said to be the biggest event for British Catholics since their emancipation.

Background
The visit, the first to the United Kingdom made by a reigning pope,[1] was organised, and largely funded, by the Roman Catholic Church at an estimated cost of around 7million (the equivalent of about 20M in 2010). In contrast to the 2010 visit by Pope Benedict XVI, it was a pastoral rather than a state visit. The Church offered the public free access to all papal events.[1] There were concerns about the Pope's health following an attempt on his life the previous year,[2] and security was of utmost importance during the visit.[3] The itinerary for the visit was drafted 42 times before the Vatican finally approved it.[2] However, John Paul's trip was nearly cancelled after Argentina's invasion of the Falkland Islands, and the subsequent war between Britain and Argentina just weeks before it was scheduled to take place.[1] The visit only went ahead after intervention from Archbishop of Liverpool, Derek Worlock,[4] and an agreement that the pontiff would not meet Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.[1]

The visit
The visit was noteworthy for its reconciliatory character towards the Church of England.[5] When the Pope arrived at Gatwick Airport, the person in the greeting line after Cardinal Basil Hume and Bishop O'Connor of Arundel (in which Roman Catholic diocese the airport is located) was Anglican Bishop Kemp of Chichester (in which Diocese the airport is also located). John Paul II arrived in the United Kingdom on the morning of 28 May 1982, landing at Gatwick Airport. After kissing the runway, he was greeted there by 3,500 singing children. During his first day in Britain he departed from his prepared text on three occasions, calling for peace in the Falklands and in Northern Ireland.[6] Also on that day he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[5] [7] On 29 May John Paul visited Canterbury Cathedral, becoming the first pontiff to do so. In what was an historic occasion he met with Charles, Prince of Wales before attending a ceremony with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Robert Runcie. During the service, the two church leaders renewed their baptismal vows together, knelt in silent prayer at the spot where Thomas Becket was murdered in 1170, and issued a common declaration, thanking God for "the

1982 visit to Britain progress that has been made in the work of reconciliation" between the Catholic Church and the Church of England. Later in the afternoon, he delivered a mass at Wembley Stadium attended by 80,000 people. The crowd gave him a standing ovation, and sang "He's Got the Whole World in His Hands".[2] He visited Coventry on 30 May, delivering a speech at the city's Baginton Airport which was attended by some 300,000 people. In his address, he described Coventry as a city devastated by war but rebuilt in hope.[8] On his arrival in Liverpool in excess of a million spectators lined the route of his journey from the airport at Speke to the city. He attended services at the city's Metropolitan Cathedral and the Anglican Cathedral, choosing to walk between the two. Two thousand people attended his mass at the Metropolitan Cathedral.[4] On a visit to Manchester on the morning of the following day, he met the Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom, Sir Immanuel Jakobovits at the Convent of the Poor Sisters of Nazareth, before travelling to Heaton Park where he said Mass and ordained twelve men to the priesthood in front of a crowd of more than 200,000 people. He told the new priests; You must be men of God, his close friends. You must develop daily patterns of prayer, and penance must be a regular part of your life.[9] He moved on to Scotland, landing at RAF Turnhouse, and attended several venues in Edinburgh and Glasgow on 31 May and 1 June. The centrepiece of this was an open-air Mass in Glasgow on 1 June. On 31 May he addressed 45,000 young people at Murrayfield and greeted patients at St Joseph's Hospital in Rosewell. The following day he journeyed to Glasgow where he visited the former priests' training college at St Andrew's College, before making his way to Bellahouston Park for the open-air Mass. The Mass was attended by 300,000 people, and saw the Pope presented with several symbolic gifts during the service, including a pipe banner with the Pope's coat of arms, a piece of Caithness glass, a firkin of whisky and a Scotland football shirt. He told worshippers: "As believers, we are constantly exposed to pressures by modern society which would compel us to conform to the standards of this secular age, substitute new proprieties, restrict our aspirations at risk of compromising our Christian conscience."[6] The Welsh leg of the trip occurred on 2 June with the Pope's arrival in Cardiff. After being awarded the Freedom of Cardiff, John Paul travelled to Ninian Park, home of Cardiff City F.C., where he said Mass and gave a public address. During the service he once again called for peace in the South Atlantic, then called on the young people of Britain, including the crowd of 33,000 in the stadium, to launch a crusade of prayer. He also delivered a message to crowds gathered at Pontcanna Fields, speaking briefly in Welsh to declare "Bendith Duw arnoch" - "the blessing of God be on you" - which was received with enthusiastic applause.[10] In a direct reference to King Henry VIII's book In Defense of the Seven Sacraments for which he received the title Fidei defensor - Defender of the Faith - from Pope Leo X, one of the Sacraments was highlighted at each papal venue. And while the Pope avoided any political meetings during his visit, he nevertheless accepted, in Wales, the civic honour of Freeman of the City of Cardiff. Cardiff received its royal charter from Queen Elizabeth I in 1581, several years after she had been declared deposed by Pope Pius V in his bull Regnans in Excelsis. The speeches for John Paul's visit were written following consultation with British clerics, including the current Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols. These were largely well received by the public, with some two million people attending venues to see the Pope and hear him speak. According to the BBC's Michael Hirst, John Paul II's visit to the United Kingdom was the biggest event for British Catholics since their emancipation during the 19th century.[1] In contrast to the generally positive reaction, there were a small number of demonstrations, mostly by supporters of the Northern Ireland Democratic Unionist Party leader, the Rev. Ian Paisley, and other small groups.[5]

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1982 visit to Britain

94

References
[1] Hirst, Michael (8 September 2010). "The UK visits of Benedict XVI and John Paul II compared" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-11186463). BBC News (BBC). . Retrieved 18 September 2010. [2] "1982: Pope makes historic visit to Canterbury" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/ may/ 29/ newsid_4171000/ 4171657. stm). BBC On This Day (BBC). 29 May 1982. . Retrieved 18 September 2010. [3] "Pope John Paul II visit recalled by security chief" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ local/ essex/ hi/ people_and_places/ religion_and_ethics/ newsid_8996000/ 8996965. stm). BBC News (BBC). 14 September 2010. . Retrieved 18 September 2010. [4] "Liverpool remembers Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ liverpool/ content/ articles/ 2005/ 04/ 02/ pope_feature. shtml). BBC Radio Merseyside (BBC). 2 April 2005. . Retrieved 18 September 2010. [5] "Different pope, different times for British trip" (http:/ / www. thehimalayantimes. com/ fullNews. php?headline=Different+ pope,+ different+ times+ for+ British+ trip& NewsID=257526). The Himalayan Times. 12 September 2010. . Retrieved 19 September 2010. [6] "The first visit: Looking back at Pope John Paul II's mass at Bellahouston Park" (http:/ / www. dailyrecord. co. uk/ pope/ pope-news/ 2010/ 09/ 14/ the-first-visit-looking-back-at-pope-john-paul-ii-s-mass-at-bellahouston-park-86908-22560585/ ). Daily Record (Trinity Mirror). 14 September 2010. . Retrieved 18 September 2010. [7] "28 May 1982: Pope John Paul II becomes first pontiff to visit Britain" (http:/ / www. popejohnpaulii. org. uk/ ). Bishops Conference of England and Wales (http:/ / www. catholic-ew. org. uk/ ). . Retrieved 18 September 2010. [8] Dimmer, Sam (17 May 2010). "Coventry Catholic church leaders delighted at Pope visit to Coventry" (http:/ / www. coventrytelegraph. net/ news/ coventry-news/ 2010/ 03/ 17/ coventry-catholic-church-leaders-delighted-at-pope-visit-to-coventry-92746-26049233/ ). Coventry Telegraph (Trinity Mirror). . Retrieved 19 September 2010. [9] "John Paul II at Heaton Park" (http:/ / www. thepapalvisit. org. uk/ 2010-Visit/ A-Retrospective-of-the-1982-Visit/ Manchester). Pope Benedict XVI visit to the United Kingdom. Catholic Communications Network. . Retrieved 19 September 2010. [10] "Pope John Paul II's visit to Wales in 1982" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ blogs/ waleshistory/ 2010/ 09/ pope_john_paul_ii_visit_to_wales_1982. html). BBC Wales History (BBC). 15 September 2010. . Retrieved 19 September 2010.

1983 visit to Nicaragua


In March 1983 Pope John Paul II made a pastoral visit to Nicaragua. The visit took place amidst the ongoing Contra war. This was a period of extreme polarization between the Nicaraguan Catholic hierarchy and popular sectors of the Nicaraguan Church and heightened tensions between the hierarchy and Sandinista state.[1] Both the Nicaraguan Catholic Church and the Sandinista government eagerly anticipated the arrival of the Pope. The hierarchy believed that the Pope would give moral legitimacy to their efforts to combat the "godless communism" of the Sandinista government. On the other hand, the government hoped that the Pope would offer support for the peace process by acting as a mediator and by formally voicing his opposition toward American aid to the contras. Consequently, the Sandinistas made a tremendous effort to encourage Nicaraguans to attend the two papal masses that were held in Len and Managua. The day of the Pope's visit was declared a national holiday and citizens were offered free transportation to the masses. Rather than helping to alleviate the hierarchy-state tensions, the Pope's visit exacerbated them even further. The Pope stressed the importance of Church unity as the best way to prevent Nicaragua from being corrupted by "godless communism". He spoke out against the growing division within the Church between the "popular church" and the institutional hierarchical Church. He also advocated the authority of the Bishops, and the importance of religious education. The Pope affirmed the Vatican's support for the conservative Archbishop Miguel Obando y Bravo and spoke out against the five Nicaraguan priests who held government positions. The Pope's visit convinced the vast majority of Nicaraguan people that the Vatican was not in tune with their problem. For instance, the day before the Pope's visit to Managua a funeral service was held to commemorate the lives of seventeen Sandinista supporters who were killed by the Contras in the same plaza where the Pope's mass took place. The Pope completely ignored the incident and did not offer any words of condolence for the mothers of the fallen men.[2] The Pope's visit was a significant event in the revolutionary struggle of the Nicaraguan nation. It deepened tensions between the Sandinistas and the many Nicaraguan Catholics who supported the Sandinistas. The controversial visit

1983 visit to Nicaragua was also used by the contras as a form of propaganda to give their organization moral legitimacy.

95

References
[1] The Jesuits: The Society of Jesus and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1987 ISBN 0671545051 [2] (http:/ / ssdc. ucsd. edu/ news/ notisur/ h96/ notisur. 19960216. html)

This article states that "The Pope's visit convinced the vast majority of Nicaraguan people that the Vatican was not in tune with their problem." There is no valid reference for such a statement. We have -however- films and historical evidence supporting the notion that the Sandinistas abused power and while proclaiming to stand 'for the people' in fact they stood 'for a Marxist-Leninists doctrine. A ruthless one at that -as shown by their failed attempt to murder the Bishop of the Costa Atlantica and the Misquito communities. These people made it to Honduras, where they took refuge. You can read more in this link (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1986/ 07/ 29/ movies/ on-13-sandinistas-vs-miskitos. html). The people of Nicaragua were extremely happy and appreciative of the Papal visit at a time when the Nicaraguan People were being oppressed by Marxist-Leninist revolutionaries.

Apologies
This article contains expanded biography information about Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years.

Apologies
Pope John Paul II made many apologies. During his long reign as Pope, he apologized to Jews, Galileo, women, victims of the Inquisition, Muslims slaughtered by the Crusaders and almost everyone who had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church through the years.[1] Even before he became the Pope, he was a prominent editor and supporter of initiatives like the Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops from 1965. As Pope, he officially made public apologies for over 100 of these wrongdoings, including:

Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)

The conquest of Mesoamerica by Spain in the name of the Church The legal process on the Italian scientist and philosopher Galileo Galilei, himself a devout Catholic, around 1633 (31 October 1992). Catholics' involvement with the African slave trade (9 August 1993). The Church Hierarchy's role in burnings at the stake and the religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation (May 1995, in the Czech Republic). The injustices committed against women, the violation of women's rights and for the historical denigration of women (10 July 1995, in a letter to "every woman"). The inactivity and silence of many Catholics during the Holocaust (16 March 1998) For the execution of Jan Hus in 1415 (18 December 1999 in Prague). When John Paul II visited Prague in 1990s, he requested experts in this matter "to define with greater clarity the position held by Jan Hus among the Church's reformers, and acknowledged that "independently of the theological convictions he defended, Hus cannot be denied integrity in his personal life and commitment to the nation's moral education." It was another step in building a bridge between Catholics and Protestants.

Apologies For the sins of Catholics throughout the ages for violating "the rights of ethnic groups and peoples, and [for showing] contempt for their cultures and religious traditions". (12 March 2000, during a public Mass of Pardons). For the sins of the Crusader attack on Constantinople in 1204. (4 May 2001, to the Patriarch of Constantinople).

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References
Notes

An excuse is worse and more terrible than a lie, for an excuse is a lie guarded.

[2]

Pope John Paul II

[1] Stourton, Edward. John Paul II: Man of History. London: 2006 Hodder & Stoughton. p.1. ISBN0340908165. [2] "BrainyQuote: Pope John Paul II Quotes" (http:/ / www. brainyquote. com/ quotes/ authors/ p/ pope_john_paul_ii. html). 2007,2009 BrainyMedia.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-11.

Social and political stances


This article contains expanded information about Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years. He was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to reproduction and the ordination of women. A series of 129 lectures given by John Paul during his Wednesday audiences in Rome between September 1979 and November 1984 were later compiled and published as a single work entitled Theology of the Body, an extended meditation on the nature of human sexuality. He also extended it to condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all uses of capital punishment, calling them all a part of the "culture of death" that is pervasive in the modern world. He campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice.

Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)

Relations with dictatorships


In 1984 and 1986, through the voice of Cardinal Ratzinger, leader of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II officially condemned the Liberation theology which had many followers in South America. scar Romero's attempt, during his visit to Europe, to obtain a Vatican condemnation of El Salvador's regime, denounced for violations of human rights and its support of death squads, was a failure. In his travel to Managua, Nicaragua in 1983, John Paul II harshly condemned what he dubbed the "popular Church" (i.e. "ecclesial base communities" (CEBs) supported by the CELAM), and the Nicaraguan clergy's tendencies to support the leftist Sandinistas, reminding the clergy of their duties of obedience to the Holy See. John Paul II was criticised for visiting Augusto Pinochet in Chile. He invited him to restore democracy, but, critics claim, not in as firm terms as the ones he used against communist countries. John Paul also allegedly endorsed Po Cardinal Laghi, who critics say supported the "Dirty War" in Argentina and was on friendly terms with the Argentine generals of the military dictatorship, allegedly playing regular tennis matches with general Jorge Rafael

Social and political stances Videla. However, the Pope has been linked to the fall of Jean-Claude Duvalier's dictatorship in Haiti. He was also critical of the Chinese government and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association running the church and appointing bishops without the consent of the Holy See, and maintained strong ties with underground Catholic groups. The pope, who began his papacy when the Soviets controlled his native country of Poland, as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, was a harsh critic of communism, and supported the Polish Solidarity movement. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev once said the collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II.[1] In later years, after having harshly condemned Liberation theology, John Paul II criticised some of the more extreme versions of capitalism. "Unfortunately, not everything the West proposes as a theoretical vision or as a concrete lifestyle reflects Gospel values." He saw in capitalism certain "viruses": secularism, indifferentism, hedonistic consumerism, practical materialism, and also formal atheism.

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Jubilee 2000 campaign


In 2000 he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 campaign on African debt relief fronted by Irish rock stars Bob Geldof and Bono. It was reported that during this period, U2's recording sessions were repeatedly interrupted by phone calls from the Pope, wanting to discuss the campaign with Bono.

Iraq war
In 2003 John Paul II also became a prominent critic of the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq. In his 2003 State of the World address the Pope declared his opposition to the invasion by stating, "No to war! War is not always inevitable. It is always a defeat for humanity."[2] He sent former Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States Po Cardinal Laghi to talk with American President George W. Bush to express opposition to the war. John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the international conflict through diplomacy and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of international law.

Wars generally do not resolve the problems for which they are fought and therefore... prove ultimately futile.

[3]

Pope John Paul II

European Constitutional Treaty


In European Union negotiations for a new European Constitutional Treaty in 2003 and 2004, the Vatican's representatives failed to secure any mention of Europe's "Christian heritage"one of the Pope's cherished goals.

Sexuality
While taking a traditional position on sexuality, defending the Church's moral opposition to marriage for same-sex couples, the pope asserted that persons with homosexual inclinations possess the same inherent dignity and rights as everybody else. In his last book, Memory and Identity, he referred to the "pressures" on the European Parliament to permit "homosexual 'marriage'". In the book, as quoted by Reuters, he wrote: It is legitimate and necessary to ask oneself if this is not perhaps part of a new ideology of evil, perhaps more insidious and hidden, which attempts to pit human rights against the family and against man. The Pope also reaffirmed the Church's existing teaching on gender in relation to transsexuals, as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which he supervised, made clear that transsexuals could not serve in church positions.

Social and political stances

98

Scientific theories and the interpretation of Genesis


See also: Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church. In an address on 22 October 1996, to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Pope John Paul II reaffirmed the Church's openness to the theory of evolution:[4] [5] [6] [7] "In his encyclical Humani Generis (1950), my predecessor Pius XII has already affirmed that there is no conflict between evolution and the doctrine of the faith regarding man and his vocation, provided that we do not lose sight of certain fixed points....Today, more than a half-century after the appearance of that encyclical, some new findings lead us toward the recognition of evolution as more than an hypothesis. In fact it is remarkable that this theory has had progressively greater influence on the spirit of researchers, following a series of discoveries in different scholarly disciplines. The convergence in the results of these independent studies -- which was neither planned nor sought -- constitutes in itself a significant argument in favour of the theory." (John Paul II, Message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on Evolution [8]) In the same address, the Pope rejected any theory of evolution that provides a materialistic explanation for the human soul: "Theories of evolution which, because of the philosophies which inspire them, regard the spirit either as emerging from the forces of living matter, or as a simple epiphenomenon of that matter, are incompatible with the truth about man."[4] [6] [7] John Paul II also wrote to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on the subject of cosmology and how to interpret Genesis: "Cosmogony and cosmology have always aroused great interest among peoples and religions. The Bible itself speaks to us of the origin of the universe and its make-up, not in order to provide us with a scientific treatise, but in order to state the correct relationships of man with God and with the universe. Sacred Scripture wishes simply to declare that the world was created by God, and in order to teach this truth it expresses itself in the terms of the cosmology in use at the time of the writer. The Sacred Book likewise wishes to tell men that the world was not created as the seat of the gods, as was taught by other cosmogonies and cosmologies, but was rather created for the service of man and the glory of God. Any other teaching about the origin and make-up of the universe is alien to the intentions of the Bible, which does not wish to teach how heaven was made but how one goes to heaven." (Pope John Paul II, 3 October 1981 to the Pontifical Academy of Science, "Cosmology and Fundamental Physics" [9])

References
Notes
[1] "Gorbachev: Pope was example to all of us" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 03/ pope. gorbachev/ index. html). Cable News Network LP (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ ). 2005-2009 CNN. April 4, 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [2] John Paul II, " Address to the Diplomatic Corps (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ speeches/ 2003/ january/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_spe_20030113_diplomatic-corps_en. html)," Vatican, 13 January 2003 (accessed 7 February 2007). [3] "BrainyQuote: Pope John Paul II Quotes" (http:/ / www. brainyquote. com/ quotes/ authors/ p/ pope_john_paul_ii. html). 2007,2009 BrainyMedia.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [4] "Message to Pontifical Academy of Sciences October 22, 1996" (http:/ / www. cin. org/ jp2evolu. html). 1997-2009 Catholic Information Network (CIN) (http:/ / www. cin. org/ ). October 24, 1997. . Retrieved 15 February 2009. [5] Linder, Doug (13 April 2004). "The Vatican's View of Evolution: The Story of Two Popes" (http:/ / www. law. umkc. edu/ faculty/ projects/ ftrials/ conlaw/ vaticanview. html). 2005-2009 University Missouri-Kansas City School of Law (http:/ / www. law. umkc. edu/ ). . Retrieved 15 February 2009. [6] "Magisterium Is Concerned with Question of Evolution For It Involves Conception of Man" (http:/ / ncse. com/ media/ voices/ roman-catholic-church-1996). 1996-2009 National Center for Science Education (http:/ / ncse. com/ ). 24 October 1996. . Retrieved 2009-11-12. [7] Tagliabue, John (25 October 1996). "Pope Bolsters Church Support for Evolution" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9800E3D81130F936A15753C1A960958260). 1996-2009 The New York Times (http:/ / nytimes. com/ ). . Retrieved 15 February

Social and political stances


2009. [8] http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ PAPALDOC/ JP961022. HTM [9] http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ PAPALDOC/ JP2COSM. HTM

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Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict


The Beagle Conflict Main: Beagle conflict

18811970: Beagle Channel cartography 1958: Snipe incident

19711977: Beagle Channel Arbitration 19771978: Direct Negotiations 1978: Operation Soberana

19791984: Papal Mediation 1984: Treaty of Peace and Friendship

The Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict followed the failure of negotiations between Chile and Argentina, when, on 22 December 1978, the Argentinian Junta started Operation Soberana, to invade Cape Horn and islands awarded to Chile by the Beagle Channel Arbitration. Soon after the event, Pope John Paul II, offered to mediate and sent his personal envoy Cardinal Antonio Samor to Buenos Aires. Argentina, in acceptance of the authority of the Pope over the overwhelmingly Catholic Argentine population, called off the military operation and accepted the mediation. On 9 January 1979 Chile and Argentina signed the Act of [1] Montevideo formally requesting mediation by the Vatican and renouncing the use of force.

Signing of the agreement in Rome: Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs Dante Caputo (left); Agostino Casaroli (middle); Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs Jaime del Valle (right)

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict

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Interests of the parties


The mediator acted to defuse the situation by negotiating an agreement that stopped the immediate military crisis. Then, the Vatican crafted a six-year process that allowed the parties to grapple with increasingly difficult issues, including navigation rights, sovereignty over other islands in the Fuegian Archipelago, delimitation of the Straits of Magellan, and maritime boundaries south to Cape Horn and beyond. Chile considered the Arbitral Award of 1977 "fully operative and obligatory in law" as expressed by the Court of Arbitration after the Argentine Refusal.[2] Argentina repudiated the International Arbitral Award that the government of Alejandro Lanusse had solicited in 1971.
Ral Alfonsn led Argentina to the Treaty of 1984

Argentina extended its claim to all territories southward of Tierra del Fuego and eastward of the Cape Horn-meridian. That is, Argentina claimed the islands Horn, Wollastone, Deceit, Barnevelt, Evouts, Herschell, etc. The 1978 military mobilization revealed other latent international relations issues between the two countries that had been previously overlooked or ignored.

Augusto Pinochet led Chile to the Treaty of 1984

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict

101

Mediator
By the beginning of November 1978, Chile and Argentina no longer had any mechanism for working toward a peaceful settlement and the situation began to destabilize rapidly. It was at this point, with direct talks dead and a judicial settlement refused by Argentina, that Chile suggested mediation. Argentina accepted the proposal and the two foreign ministers agreed to meet in Buenos Aires on December 12 for the purpose of selecting a mediator and the terms of mediation. Possible candidates were[3] Jimmy Carter, President of the United States of America the Organization of American States, Juan Carlos I of Spain, King of Spain a European president Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II mediator between Chile and Argentina

The ministers concurred on the issue that the Pope should mediate the dispute, but their agreement proved ephemeral. In the evening, as the Chilean delegation was studying the documents for signature, the Argentine minister called the Chilean minister Cubillos to tell him that President Videla, who had approved their choice of mediator, had been stripped of his authority by the junta. On 22 December 1978, Argentina launched Operation Soberania to occupy the islands militarily. On the morning of December 22, Pope John Paul II, on his own initiative, contacted both governments directly to communicate that he was sending a personal envoy to Buenos Aires and Santiago.

The Act of Montevideo


In Montevideo, Uruguay, on 8 January 1979 both countries signed the Act of Montevideo. In this treaty the parties agreed to: no restrictions whatsoever over the mediation (textual: they will raise no objection to the expression by the Holy See, during these proceedings, of such ideas as its thorough studies on a disputed aspects of the problem of the southern zone may suggest to it, with a view to contributing to a peaceful settlement acceptable to both Parties) Antonio Cardinal Samor asks that that request [of mediation] should be accompanied by an undertaking that the two States will not resort to the use of force in their mutual relations, will bring about a gradual return to the military situation existing at the beginning of 1977 and will refrain from adopting measures that might impair harmony in any sector.. The treaty gave the mediator a broad framework in which to negotiate without any geographical data or temporal restrictions.

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict

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List of members of the Chilean Delegation in Rome:

Pope John Paul II, the Chilean and The Argentine Delegations at the Beginning of the Mediation, 1979. From left to right: Monse or Faustino Sanz Mu oz, Susana Ruiz Ceruti, Consejero Riccieri, Doctora Hortensia Gutirrez Posse, General Ricardo Echeberry Boneo, Embassador Carlos Ortiz de Rozas, Cardenal Antonio Samor, Pope Johannes Paul II, Monse or Gabriel Montalero, Embassador Enrique Berstein, Subsecretary Ernesto Videla, Julio Philippi, Embassador Santiago Benadava, Helmut Brunner, Ministro Consejero Patricio Pozo, Patricio Prieto, Osvaldo Mu oz, Consejero Fernndo Perez and Secretary Maximiliano Jarpa

Enrique Bernstein Francisco Orrego Julio Philippi [4]

[4]

Patricio Prieto

[5] [5] [7]

[6]

Osvaldo Mu oz

Fernando Prez Egert Maximiliano Jarpa

[4] Ernesto Videla [4] Santiago Benadava Helmut Brunner [6]

[7]

List of members of the Argentine Delegation in Rome:


General (R) Ricardo Echeverry Boneo Marcelo Depech Guillermo Moncayo Carlos Ortiz de Rozas Guillermo Moncayo Hugo Gobbi Susana Ruiz

Cardinal Antonio Samor's principal assistant was the Spanish priest Monsignor Faustino Sainz Mu oz.

The four phases of the mediation


Mark Laudy[8] sees four phases during the mediation: The first phase was the shortest and most critical period of the entire mediation and began with Samor's arrival in Buenos Aires on 25 December 1978. This was purely a crisis intervention to prevent a war and secure an agreement to submit the matter to mediation. In a shuttle diplomacy, Samor flew between Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires until the objectives were achieved with the signing of the Act of Montevideo on January 8, 1979. The second period ran from May 1979, when the Chilean and Argentine delegations arrived in Rome, through December 1980, when the Pope presented the parties with his proposal for settling the dispute. This first proposal was rejected by Argentina.

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict The third and longest phase, running from the beginning of 1981 until December 1983, after Argentina's return to democracy, was characterized by long periods of stalled negotiations. The most significant developments during this period were the Argentine repudiation of the 1972 General Treaty; the subsequent effort to fill the juridical vacuum resulting from that repudiation; and the Falklands war, which set the stage for the return to democracy in Argentina. The final phase began when Ral Alfonsn assumed the presidency in Buenos Aires at the end of 1983 and ended with the signing of the 1984 Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

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The papal proposal of 1980


On December 12, 1980, the Pope received both delegations and communicated to them his proposal for resolving the controversy, the terms of which had been developed entirely in secret and should be kept secret in order to avoid debilitating public debate that might diminish confidence in the proceedings and limit the freedom of action of both governments. But on 22 August 1981 the Argentine newspaper La Nacin published the terms of the proposal. Chile would retain all of the islands and Argentina would be entitled to maintain certain limited facilities (common The papal proposal of 1980. Radar and Weather stations) on some islands and would receive important navigation rights. Most important, however, was the creation of an ocean area known as the Sea of Peace. In this area, extending to the east and southeast from the disputed chain of islands, Chilean territorial waters would be limited to a narrow territorial sea, in which it would be obliged to share with Argentina equal participation in resource exploitation, scientific investigation, and environmental management. Beyond the Chilean territorial waters would be a much broader band of ocean subject to Argentine jurisdiction, but also subject to the same sharing provisions that applied in Chilean waters. Chile accepted the papal proposal, despite some reservations. Argentina never formally replied to the proposal. However, on March 17, 1981, Argentina delivered a note to the Vatican expressing grave misgivings about the proposal, both because it failed to award any islands to Argentina and because it allowed Chile to maintain a presence so far into the Atlantic.

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict

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Argentina renounced a 1972 Arbitration treaty


On January 21, 1982 Argentina announced the withdrawal from the 1972 bilateral treaty providing for recourse to the International Court of Justice in case of disputes. In Argentina the judicial process had become an anathema, particularly in view of the adverse 1977 arbitration award.[9] Chile reserved the right to go to the ICJ unilaterally before the treaty ended on 27 December 1982.[10]

To the Falklands war


After the papal proposal, negotiations remained stalled and meanwhile, a train wreck of incidents in Chile and Argentina strained relations between the two countries. On 28 April 1981 General Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri, (then Argentine army chief, later, during the Falklands war, President of Argentina), closed the border to Chile without any consultation with his own president.[11] In March 1982, five weeks before the beginning of the Falklands war, a ship of the Argentine navy, ARA Francisco de Gurruchaga, anchored at the Deceit island, de facto under Chilean sovereignty since 1881, and refused to abandon the bay despite Chilean demands[12] On 2 April 1982 Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands. The Argentine plan included indeed the military occupation of the British Marines surrender their weapons to Argentine disputed islands at the Beagle channel after the invasion of the commandos Falklands, as stated by Brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo, chief of the Argentine Air Force during the Falklands war, in an interview with the Argentine magazine Perfil: L.F. Galtieri:"[Chile] have to know that what we are doing now, because they will be the next in turn..[13] Also scar Camilin, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Argentina from 29 March 1981 to 11 December 1981, in his "Memorias Polticas", confirms the plan of Argentine military: "The military planning was, with the Falklands in Argentine hand, to invade the disputed islands in the Beagle Channel. That was the determination of the [Argentine] navy".[14] Pope John Paul II made an unscheduled visit to Buenos Aires on June 14, 1982 in an attempt to prevent further hostilities between Britain and Argentina. Chile became the only major Latin American country to support Britain indirectly by providing a military and naval diversion, but "in private many [Latin American] governments were pleased with the outcome of the war".[15]

The final phase


After the war, yet despite the renewal of the 1972 Treaty on 15 September 1982, the distension after ARA-Gurruchaga incident and the spy-exchanging, the mediation continued to move very slowly. Following the war Chile evinced a greater willingness to negotiate modifications to the papal proposal, but by then it had become clear that the Argentine junta, reeling from its defeat in the war, was too weak to achieve an agreement. Cardinal Antonio Samor died in Rome at age 77 in February 1983. President Ral Alfonsn's new government was firmly committed to resolve the conflict as quickly as possible. Based on this commitment and additional discussions, the parties were able to lay much of the groundwork for a settlement. In April 1984, Vatican Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli asked separately the two delegations for their proposals for a final solution.

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict By October 1984, both countries reached a complete understanding, and the revised text of the treaty was finalized on October 18. Chile accepted, again, the papal proposal. In Argentina, Alfonsin held a consultative referendum. The official returns showed 10,391,019 voted in favor of the proposed treaty while 2,105,663 opposed it. A margin of 82 percent to 16 percent opposed, with 2 percent casting blank or null ballots.[16] The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina went a long way before enacted: on 30 December 1984 the treaty passed the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, on 15 March 1985 the treaty passed the Argentine Senate, on 16 March 1985 was signed by representant of the President of Argentina, who was abroad, on 11 April 1985 the treaty passed the Chilean junta, on 12 April 1985 was signed by Augusto Pinochet, on 2 May 1985 both ministers exchanged instruments

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Aftermath
The Cardenal Antonio Samor Pass crossing the border was renamed to honour the mediator.

Presidents Cristina Fernndez and Michelle Bachelet with Pope Benedict XVI in 2009 conmemorating the 30 years of the mediation. In 1984, Ms. Fernandez and her late husband Nstor [17] Kirchner were opposed to the Treaty.

Notes
[1] http:/ / www. un. org/ Depts/ los/ LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/ PDFFILES/ TREATIES/ CHL-ARG1979AM. PDF [2] See "Der Schiedsspruch in der Beagle-Kanal-Streitigkeit", Karin Oellers-Frahm, Page 353 [3] See Alejandro Luis Corbacho: Predicting the Probability of War During Brinkmanship Crises: The Beagle and the Malvinas Conflicts, Universidad del CEMA, Argentina, Documento de Trabajo No. 244, September 2003, page 8 [4] See article of Pedro Daza Valenzuela in (http:/ / www. gobernabilidad. cl/ modules. php?name=News& file=print& sid=212) [5] See book by Enrique Bernstein Carabantes "Recuerdos de un diplomtico", Vol. 4, pg. 65 [6] See "Pasion de Servicio: Julio Philippi Izquierdo" in (http:/ / www. cepchile. cl/ dms/ archivo_3747_1940/ r101_infante_pasion. pdf) of Ren Millar Carvacho [7] Ver "Chile-argentina, ms all de sus fronteras: Crnicas de un diplomtico" de Eduardo Rodrguez Guarachi, RIL Editores, 2004 ISBN 956-284-389-0, 978-956-284-389-8,233 pginas, en pgina 102 [8] Mark Laudy, "The Vatican Mediation of the Beagle Channel Dispute: Crisis Intervention and Forum Building" (http:/ / wwics. si. edu/ subsites/ ccpdc/ pubs/ words/ 11. pdf) [9] See Michael Morris, "The Strait of Magellan", Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989, page 85 [10] See article Argentina denuncia el tratado con Chile sobre el Beagle (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ internacional/ CHILE/ LATINOAMERICA/ ARGENTINA/ Argentina/ denuncia/ tratado/ Chile/ Beagle/ elpepiint/ 19820123elpepiint_13/ Tes) in Spanish newspaper El Pas on 23 January 1982 (in spanish language). [11] See article Historia de la santa mediacin (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ suplementos/ zona/ 1998/ 12/ 20/ i-00801e. htm) in Argentine newspaper Clarn, Buenos Aires, on 20 December 1998: Me calent, se justific Galtieri ante el fastidiado comandante de la Marina, almirante Lambruschini, quien le pregunt: Pero se da usted cuenta que el pas se encuentra as envuelto en una peligrosa escalada? (Translation; I lost my cool, justify himself Galtieri, as the annoyed Chief of the Argentine Navy, Admiral Lambruschini, asked him: Don't you notice that it bring the country in a dangerous escalation?) [12] See article Pinochet ordena el acuartelamiento de las tropas chilenas por el conflicto con Argentina sobre el canal de Beagle (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ internacional/ CHILE/ CANAL_DE_BEAGLE/ LATINOAMERICA/ ARGENTINA/ Pinochet/ ordena/ acuartelamiento/ tropas/ chilenas/ conflicto/ Argentina/ canal/ Beagle/ elpepiint/ 19820306elpepiint_4/ Tes) in spanish newspaper El Pas on 6 March 1982 (in Spanish language). [13] Argentine magazine Perfil (http:/ / www. diarioperfil. com. ar/ edimp/ 0420/ articulo. php?art=18309& ed=0420) on 22 November 2009, retrieved on 22 November 2009:

Para colmo, Galtieri dijo en un discurso: "Que saquen el ejemplo de lo que estamos haciendo ahora porque despus les toca a ellos".

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict


[14] Editorial Planeta, Buenos Aires, 1999, page 281Los planes militares eran, en la hiptesis de resolver el caso Malvinas, invadir las islas en disputa en el Beagle. Esa era la decisin de la Armada See also Kalevi Jaakko Holsti, The State, War, and the State of War Cambridge Studies in International Relations, 1996, 271 pages, ISBN 0-521-57790-X. See also here (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=1ag1riTcc2MC& printsec=frontcover) On page 160:

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Displaying the mentality of the Argentine military regime in the 1970s, as another example, there was "Plan Rosario" accordingto which Argentina would attack the Malvinas and then turn to settle the Beagle Channel problem by force. The sequence, according to the plan, could also be reversed.
See also article of Manfred Schnfeld in La Prensa (Buenos Aires) on 2. Juni 1982 about the Argentine Course of Action after the War:

Para nosotros no lo estar [terminada la guerra], porque, inmediatamente despus de barrido el enemigo de las Malvinas, debe serlo de las Georgias, Sandwich del Sur y de todos los dems archipilagos australes argentinos, ...
All articles of M. Schnfeld in "La Prensa" from 10. January 1982 to 2. August 1982 are in "La Guerra Austral", Manfred Schnfeld, Desafo Editores S.A., 1982, ISBN 950-02-0500-9 [15] See K.J. Holsti, "The state, war, and the state of war", page 176 [16] See article Beagle Channel Treaty Approved in Argentina (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=990DE7D61638F935A15752C1A962948260) in USA-newspaper The New York Times on 26 November 1984 [17] See newspaper Clarin of Buenos Aires on Los Kirchner rechazaban el acuerdo (http:/ / edant. clarin. com/ diario/ 2009/ 11/ 28/ elpais/ p-02050640. htm) (tranl.: "The Kirchners rejected the agreement") on Saturday 28, November 2009, retrieved on 17 August 2010

References
Beagle Channel Arbitration between the Republic of Argentina and the Republic of Chile, Report and Decision of the Court of Arbitration (http://untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_XXI/53-264.pdf) Mark Laudy: The Vatican Mediation of the Beagle Channel Dispute: Crisis Intervention and Forum Building (http://wwics.si.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/words/11.pdf) in Words Over War (http://wwics.si.edu/ subsites/ccpdc/pubs/words/frame.htm) of Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Alejandro Luis Corbacho: Predicting the Probability of War During Brinkmanship Crises: The Beagle and the Malvinas Conflicts (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1016843), Universidad del CEMA, Argentina, Documento de Trabajo No. 244, September 2003, Spanish Language Karin Oellers-Frahm: Der Schiedsspruch in der Beagle-Kanal-Streitigkeit (http://www.zaoerv.de/39_1979/ 39_1979_2_b_341_354.pdf), Berichte und Urkunden: Max-Planck-Institut fr auslndisches ffentliches Recht und Vlkerrecht, German Language Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Chile: Relaciones Chileno-Argentinas, La controversia del Beagle. Genf 1979, English and Spanish Language Andrea Wagner: Der argentinisch-chilenische Konflikt um den Beagle-Kanal. Ein Beitrag zu den Methoden friedlicher Streiterledigung. Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt a.M. 1992, ISBN 3-631-43590-8, German Language Karl Hernekamp: Der argentinisch-chilenisch Grenzstreit am Beagle-Kanal. Institut fr Iberoamerika-Kunde, Hamburg 1980, German Language Andrs Cisneros y Carlos Escud, "Historia general de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Repblica Argentina", Las relaciones con Chile (http://www.cema.edu.ar/ceieg/arg-rree/14/14-057.htm), Cema, Argentina, Buenos Aires. Spanish Language Annegret I. Haffa: Beagle-Konflikt und Falkland (Malwinen)-Krieg. Zur Auenpolitik der Argentinischen Militarregierung 19761983. Weltforum Verlag, Mnchen/Kln/London 1987, ISBN 3-8039-0348-3, German Language Isaac F. Rojas und Arturo Medrano: Argentina en el Atlntico Chile en el Pacfico. Editorial Nemont, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1979, in spanischer Sprache. Isaac F. Rojas, La Argentina en el Beagle y Atlntico sur 1. Parte. Editorial Diagraf, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Spanish Language Carlos Escud und Andrs Cisneros: Historia general de las relaciones exteriores de la Repblica Argentina ( here (http://www.cema.edu.ar/ceieg/arg-rree/6/6-090.htm)), in spanischer Sprache.

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict Fabio Vio Valdivieso: La mediacin de su S.S. el Papa Juan Pablo II, Editorial Aconcagua, Santiago de Chile, 1984, Spanish Language Alberto Marn Madrid: El arbitraje del Beagle y la actitud Argentina. 1984, Editorial Moiss Garrido Urrea, id = A-1374-84 XIII, Spanisch Language Luis Alberto Romero, Argentina in the twentieth Century. Pennsylvania State University Press, translated by James P. Brennan, 1994, ISBN 0-271-02191-8 Divisionsgeneral (a.D.) Juan E. Gugliamelli: Cuestin del Beagle. Negociacin directa o dilogo de armas (Trans.:The Beagle-Question, direct Negotiations or Dialog of the Weapons), in Spanish Language. (Book compiled from articles of Argentine Magazin "Estrategia", Buenos Aires Nr:49/50, enero-febrero 1978, erschienen sind.) General Martn Antonio Balza und Mariano Grondona: Dejo Constancia: memorias de un general argentino. Editorial Planeta, Buenos Aires 2001, ISBN 950-49-0813-6, Spanish Language Francisco Bulnes Serrano und Patricia Arancibia Clavel: La Escuadra En Accin. Chile, Editorial Grijalbo, 2004, ISBN 956-258-211-6, Spanish Language

107

External links
Chilean Telecast of Televisin Nacional de Chile "Informe Especial", Theme El ao que vivimos en peligro, (sometimes in YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0T8R46h0DuU)), Spanish Language Argentine Telecast of History Channel: Operativo Soberana YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=z6-PfcAxDcQ), Spanish Language Special edition of El Mercurio (http://www.emol.com/especiales/tratado_chileargentina/guerra.htm), Santiago de Chile, 2 September 2005, Spanish Language. There are Interviews with contemporary witness like Ernesto Videla, Jaime Del Valle, Helmut Brunner, Marcelo Delpech und Luciano Benjamn Menndez. Spanish Language. Interview with the (later, in the nineties) Chief Commander of the Argentine Army Martn Balza in El Mercurio (http://www.emol.com/noticias/todas/detalle/detallenoticias.asp?idnoticia=194207) de Santiago de Chile, 2 September 2005, Spanish Language Interview with Sergio Onofre Jarpa, Chile's Ambassador in Argentina 1978 to 1982 in La Tercera (http://www. quepasa.cl/medio/articulo/0,0,3255_5714_1663242,00.html), Santiago, Chile, 17 March 2002, Spanish Language Interview with Argentine General Luciano Benjamn Menndez, Commandant of the III Army Corps in El Mercurio (http://www.emol.com/especiales/tratado_chileargentina/entrev_menendez.htm) de Santiago de Chile, (from the Argentine Magazine "Somos"), Spanish Language Interview with Pio Laghi, Nuntius in Argentina, 1978, in Clarn (http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/zona/ 1998/12/20/i-01001e.htm), Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998. Spanish Language Interview with the Ambassador of the United States of America in Argentina, Ral Hctor Castro, in Clarn (http:/ /www.clarin.com/suplementos/zona/1998/12/20/i-01101e.htm) Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language Interview with the former Chief of the "Secretara General del Ejrcito" (a Think-Tank of the Argentine Army), General Reynaldo Bignone, President of Argentina after the Falkland War, in Clarn (http://www.clarin.com/ suplementos/zona/1998/12/20/i-01102e.htm), Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language Article Cartas desde el Abismo, Clarn (http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/zona/1998/12/20/i-00701e. htm), Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language Article El belicismo de los dictadores Clarn (http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/zona/1998/12/20/ i-00401e.htm), Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language Article Beagle: historia secreta de la guerra que no fue La Nacin (http://www.ser2000.org.ar/protect/ Archivo/d000ce03.htm), Buenos Aires, 12. August 1996, Spanish Language

Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict Article Historia de la santa mediacin en Clarn (http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/zona/1998/12/20/ i-00801e.htm), Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language Chile-Argentina Relations (http://www.uvm.cl/sitio_iri/monografias2005/RECIPROCIDAD EN LAS RELACIONES CHILE ARGENTINA - Andrs Oelckers.pdf), Spanish Language Toma de decisiones polticas y la influencia de los discursos oficialistas durante el Connflicto del Beagle: Chile Argentina 19771979 (http://www.puc.cl/icp/webcp/img/pdf/defensa/def19.pdf), Spanish Language Text of the Tratado de Paz y Amistad de 1984 (http://www.difrol.cl/Paz-Amistad-4.htm), Direccin de Fronteras y Lmites de Chile, Spanish Language Text of the Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1984 (http://www.un.org/Depts/los/ LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/PDFFILES/TREATIES/CHL-ARG1984PF.PDF), Copy to the United Nations, English Language

108

Criticism of John Paul II


Pope John Paul II was criticised, amongst other things,[1] for his views against the ordination of women and contraception, his support for the Second Vatican Council and its reform of the Liturgy, and his stance for the sanctity of marriage.[2] [3]

Opus Dei controversies


John Paul II was criticised for his support of the Opus Dei prelature and the 2002 canonisation of its founder, Josemara Escriv, whom he called the saint of ordinary life.[4] [5] Other movements and religious organisations of the Church went decidedly under his wing (Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the charismatic movement, etc.) and he was accused repeatedly of waving a soft hand on them, especially in the case of Rev. Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ.[6]

Birth control and gender roles


John Paul II's defense of traditional moral teachings of the Catholic Church regarding gender roles, sexuality, euthanasia, artificial contraception and abortion came under attack. Some feminists criticised his traditional positions on the roles of women, which included rejecting women priests.

The legacy of Pope John Paul II is vibrant and extraordinary, yet painfully inconsistent. The contradiction in his legacy lies in his teaching and actions on the dignity of women. John Paul II called for women to be included as decision makers in secular governments. However, when it came to bringing women into the decision making bodies of his church, he slammed the door in our faces, barring us from ordination and locking the door by stating the discussion about womens ordination is closed.

[7]

Aisha Taylor (Women's Ordination Conference 2005)

Criticism of John Paul II

109

Gay rights activists


Many gay rights activists and others criticised him for maintaining the Church's unbroken opposition to homosexual behavior and same-sex marriage.

Problems with Traditionalists


In addition to all the criticism from those demanding modernisation, traditionalist Catholics sometimes denounced him as well. These issues included demanding a return to the Tridentine Mass[8] and repudiation of the reforms instituted after the Second Vatican Council, such as the use of the vernacular language in the formerly Latin Roman Rite Mass, ecumenism, and the principle of religious liberty. He was also accused by these critics for allowing and appointing liberal bishops in their sees and thus silently promoting Modernism, which was firmly condemned as the "synthesis of all heresies" by his predecessor Pope St. Pius X. In 1988, the controversial traditionalist Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, founder of the Society of St. Pius X (1970), was excommunicated under John Paul II because of the unapproved ordination of four bishops, which was called by the Holy See a "schismatic act". The World Day of Prayer for Peace,[9] with a meeting in Assisi, Italy, in 1986, in which the Pope prayed only with the Christians,[10] was heavily criticised as giving the impression that syncretism and indifferentism were openly embraced by the Papal Magisterium. When a second Day of Prayer for Peace in the World[11] was held, in 2002, it was condemned as confusing the laity and compromising to "false religions". Likewise criticised were his kissing[12] of the Qur'an in Damascus, Syria, on one of his travels on 6 May 2001. His call for religious freedom was not always supported; bishops like Antnio de Castro Mayer promoted religious tolerance, but at the same time rejected the Vatican II principle of religious liberty as being liberalist and already condemned by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus errorum (1864) and at the First Vatican Council. Some Catholics oppose his beatification and potential canonization for the above reasons.[13]

Religion and AIDS


John Paul's position against artificial birth control, including the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV,[3] was harshly criticised by doctors and AIDS activists, who said that it led to countless deaths and millions of AIDS orphans.[14] Critics have also claimed that large families are caused by lack of contraception and exacerbate Third World poverty and problems such as street children in South America. The Catholic Agency for Overseas Development published a paper stating, "Any strategy that enables a person to move from a higher-risk towards the lower end of the continuum, [we] believe, is a valid risk reduction strategy."[15]

Abuse scandals
John Paul II was also criticised for failing to respond quickly enough to the sex abuse crisis. In his response, he stated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young".[16] The Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees[17] and, because a significant majority of victims were teenage boys, disallowing ordination of men with "deepseated homosexual tendencies".[18] [19] They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.[17] [20] In 2008, the Church asserted that the scandal was a very serious problem and estimated that it was "probably caused by 'no more than 1 per cent' " (or 5,000) of the over 500,000 Catholic priests worldwide.[21] [22]

Criticism of John Paul II

110

Centralization
He was criticised for recentralising power back to the Vatican following what some viewed as a decentralisation by Pope John XXIII. As such he was regarded by some as a strict authoritarian. Conversely, he was also criticised for spending far too much time preparing for and undertaking foreign travel. The frequency of his trips, it was said, not only undermined the "specialness" of papal visits, but took him away from important business at the Vatican and allowed the Church, administratively speaking, to drift.

Social programs
There was strong criticism of the pope for the controversy surrounding the alleged use of charitable social programs as a means of converting people in the Third World to Catholicism.[23] [24] The Pope created an uproar in the Indian subcontinent when he suggested that a great harvest of faith would be witnessed on the subcontinent in the third Christian millennium.[25]

Opposition to his beatification


Some Catholic theologians disagree with the call for beatification of Pope John Paul II. Eleven dissident theologians, including Jesuit professor Jose Maria Castillo and Italian theologian Giovanni Franzoni raised seven points, including his stance against contraception and the ordination of women as well as the Church scandals that presented "facts which according to their consciences and convictions should be an obstacle to beatification".[26]

Protestant fundamentalists
In 1988, when the Pope delivered a speech to the European Parliament, the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party, Ian Paisley, shouted "I denounce you as the Antichrist!" and held up a poster reading "Pope John Paul II Antichrist". The Pope continued with his address after Paisley was ejected from the auditorium.[27] [28]

References
[1] "BBC - Religion & Ethics - John Paul II" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ religion/ religions/ christianity/ pope/ johnpaulii_1. shtml). 2006,2009 by BBC (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ ). . Retrieved 6 February 2009. [2] "John Paul II Biography (19202005)" (http:/ / www. biography. com/ search/ article. do?id=9355652). 1996, 2009 A&E Television Networks (http:/ / www. aetn. com/ ). . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [3] "Catholic Church to Ease Ban on Condom Use" (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,2144,1979145,00. html). 2006, 2009 Deutsche Welle (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ ). 24 April 2006. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [4] Martin, S.J., James (25 February 1995). "Opus Dei In the United States" (http:/ / www. americamagazine. org/ content/ articles/ martin-opusdei. cfm). 2009 America Press Inc. 106 West 56th St., New York, N.Y. 10019. . Retrieved 10 January 2009. [5] "St. Josemara Escriva de Balaguer" (http:/ / www. catholic. org/ saints/ saint. php?saint_id=5603). Catholic Online. . Retrieved 27 November 2006. [6] Text of the accusation letter directed to John Paul II in Spanish (original language) (http:/ / www. pepe-rodriguez. com/ Sexo_clero/ Casos/ Sexo_clero_M_Maciel_Leg_pedof_denuncia_Papa. htm) [7] Taylor, Aisha (4 April 2005). "Young Catholic Feminists Compare Legacy of MLK and John Paul II" (http:/ / www. womensordination. org/ content/ view/ 121/ 42/ ). 2008 Women's Ordination Conference. . Retrieved 10 January 2009. [8] Hewitt, Hugh (04/06/2005). "Criticizing John Paul II : Yet another thing the mainstream press does not understand about the Catholic Church." (http:/ / www. weeklystandard. com/ Content/ Public/ Articles/ 000/ 000/ 005/ 454iylel. asp). Copyright 2009, News Corporation (http:/ / www. newscorp. com/ ), Weekly Standard. . Retrieved 10 January 2009. [9] "Address to the representatives of the Christian Churches and ecclesial communities and of the world religions" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ speeches/ 1986/ october/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_spe_19861027_prayer-peace-assisi-final_en. html). Vatican archives. 1986,2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 27 October 1986. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [10] "Address to the representatives of the other Christian Churches and ecclesial communities" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ speeches/ 1986/ october/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_spe_19861027_san-rufino-assisi_en. html). 1986,2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 27 October 1986. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [11] "Day of Prayer for Peace in the World" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ liturgy/ documents/ ns_lit_doc_20020124_assisi-giornata_en. html). Vatican archives. 1986,2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 24 January 2002. . Retrieved 12

Criticism of John Paul II


January 2009. [12] "John Paul II kisses the Koran (Qu'ran) at the Vatican." (http:/ / www. traditioninaction. org/ RevolutionPhotos/ A055rcKoran. htm). FIDES News Service. 2002, 2009 Tradition in Action, Inc (http:/ / www. traditioninaction. org). 14 May 1999. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [13] Michael J. Matt (2011-03-21). "A Statement of Reservations Concerning the Impending Beatification of Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. remnantnewspaper. com/ 2011-0331-statement-of-reservations-beatification. htm). The Remnant. . Retrieved 2011-05-02. [14] "Top Catholics Question Condom Ban" (http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P1-107517312. html). 2005, 2009 International Herald Tribune (http:/ / www. iht. com/ ). 16 April 2005. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [15] Williams, Daniel (23 January 2005). "Pope Rejects Condoms As a Counter to AIDS" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn/ A29404-2005Jan22?language=printer). 2005, 2009 Washington Post Foreign Service (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ). . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [16] Walsh, John Paul II: A Light for the World (2003), p. 62 [17] United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (2005). "Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People" (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ ocyp/ charter. shtml). United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. . Retrieved 8 October 2007. [18] Pope Benedict XVI (2005). "Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ ccatheduc/ documents/ rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_20051104_istruzione_en. html). Vatican. . Retrieved 9 March 2008. [19] Filteau, Jerry (2004). "Report says clergy sexual abuse brought 'smoke of Satan' into church" (http:/ / www. catholicnews. com/ data/ abuse/ abuse08. htm). Catholic News Service. . Retrieved 10 March 2008. [20] "Scandals in the church: The Bishops' Decisions; The Bishops' Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9906EFDA133CF936A25755C0A9649C8B63& scp=1& sq=Charter+ for+ the+ Protection+ of+ Children+ and+ Young+ People& st=nyt). The New York Times. 15 June 2002. . Retrieved 12 February 2008. [21] Owen, Richard (7 January 2008). "Pope calls for continuous prayer to rid priesthood of paedophilia" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/ article3142511. ece). Times Online UK edition. London: Times Newspapers Ltd. . Retrieved 31 March 2008. [22] Terry, Karen et al. (2004). "John Jay Report" (http:/ / www. bishop-accountability. org/ reports/ 2004_02_27_JohnJay/ index. html). John Jay College of Criminal Justice. . Retrieved 9 February 2008. [23] Carvalho, Nirmala (8 December 2005). "INDIA Hindu extremists against grants to missionaries, it's only money to convert they say" (http:/ / www. asianews. it/ view. php?l=en& art=4009). 2005, 2009 AsiaNews (http:/ / www. asianews. it/ ) C.F. 00889190153. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [24] Shah, Dhiru. "Mother Teresa's Hidden Mission in India: Conversion to Christianity" (http:/ / www. indiastar. com/ DhiruShah. htm). 2004, 2009 IndiaStar (http:/ / www. indiastar. com/ ). . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [25] Allen Jr., John L.. "The Death of the Pope: Analysis of Pope John Paul II's reign" (http:/ / www. nationalcatholicreporter. org/ update/ conclave/ jp_obit_main. htm). 2005, 2009 The National Catholic Reporter (http:/ / ncronline3. org/ drupal/ ) Publishing Company. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [26] December, 2005#10 "Dissident theologians participate in the canonisation process of Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com/ showarchive. php?date=6). 2005-2009 Catholic News Agency (http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com). 6 December 2005. December, 2005#10. Retrieved 11 January 2009. [27] MacDonald, Susan (2 October 1988). "Paisley ejected for insulting Pope". The Times. [28] Chrisafis, Angelique (16 September 2004 (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ Northern_Ireland/ Story/ 0,2763,1305503,00. html)). "The Return of Dr. No". The Guardian.

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Health

112

Health
Pope John Paul II entered the papacy as an avid sportsman, enjoying hiking and swimming. The 58-year old was extremely healthy and active, jogging in the Vatican gardens to the horror of Vatican staff, who informed him that his jogging could be seen by tourists climbing to the summit of the dome of St. Peter's Basilica. The pope's response, according to media reports, was "so what?" When the cost of installing a swimming pool in his summer residence was queried by cardinals, John Paul joked that it was "cheaper than another conclave". John Paul's obvious physical fitness and looks earned much comment in the media following his election, which compared his health and trim figure to the poor health of John Paul I and Paul VI, the portliness of Pope John XXIII and the constant claims of ailments of Pius XII. The only modern pope with a keep-fit regime had been Pope Pius XI (r: 1922-1939) who was an avid mountain climber. An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labelled John Paul "the keep-fit pope".

John Paul II during a general audience on 29 September 2004

However, after over twenty-five years on the papal throne, two assassination attempts (one of which resulted in severe physical injury to the Pope), and a number of cancer scares, John Paul's physical health declined. The 1981 assassination attempt was costlier to his overall health than was generally known by the public at the time. Rushed to the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic to undergo emergency surgery, he experienced profound bleeding leading to a dangerous fall in blood pressure and to cardiac arrest, which was however successfully defibrillated. He received the Anointing of the Sick (formerly known as "Last Rites"). Despite difficulties with extensive blood transfusions, which are speculated to have transmitted cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, surgery was eventually successful. The bullet had passed completely through the body, puncturing the intestines and necessitating a colostomy. Seven weeks later, discussions were held about reversing the colostomy and eight of nine doctors voted against it, arguing the Pope was still too weak from the CMV infection. Saying "I don't want to continue half dead and half alive", the Pope effectively overruled his physicians and the reversal was done successfully on August 5, 1981. Despite the shooting and the complications during recovery, John Paul remained in impressive physical condition throughout the 1980s, and remained active as well. During the 1990s John Paul's health began to decline. A benign intestinal tumor was removed from him in 1992, he experienced two falls in 1993 and 1994 which dislocated his shoulder and broke his femur respectively, and underwent an appendectomy in 1996. An orthopaedic surgeon confirmed in 2001 that Pope John Paul II was suffering from Parkinson's disease, as international observers had suspected for some time; this was acknowledged publicly by the Vatican in 2003. Despite difficulty speaking more than a few sentences at a time, trouble hearing and severe osteoarthrosis, he continued to tour the world, although rarely walking in public. Some of those who met him late in his life said that although physically he was in poor shape, mentally he remained fully alert. However that claim was disputed by among others Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Mary McAleese, the President of Ireland, in their accounts of meetings with him in 2003. After John Paul II's death, Williams told The Sunday Times of a meeting with the Pope, during which he had paid tribute to one of John Paul's encyclicals. According to Williams, John Paul II showed no recognition . An aide whispered in the pope's ear, but was overheard reminding John Paul about the encyclical . However the Pope still showed no recognition. Papal critic John Cornwell claimed that, after Williams and his entourage left, the Pope turned to an aide and asked "tell me, who were those people?"[1]

Health According to Cornwell, Mary McAleese told the British Catholic newspaper The Universe of a visit as President of Ireland to John Paul where he struggled to talk about the Irish College in Rome, where Irish seminarians in the city are trained and to which the Pope prior to his election had often travelled. "He wanted to be reminded of where the Irish College was, and when he heard that it was very close to St. John Lateran's basilica he wanted to be reminded where that was too."[2] towards the end of his pontificate. On 1 February 2005, the Pope was taken to the Gemelli Hospital suffering from acute inflammation and spasm of the larynx, brought on by a bout of influenza. He was released, but in late February 2005 he began having trouble breathing, and he was rushed back. A tracheotomy was performed, allowing him to breathe more easily, but limiting his speaking ability, to which he reacted with evident frustration during a failed attempt at public speaking from the window of the hospital ward. On Palm Sunday (20 March 2005) the Pope made a brief appearance at his window and silently waved an olive branch to pilgrims. Two days later there were renewed concerns for his health after reports stated that he had taken a turn for the worse and was not responding to medication. By the end of the month, speculation was growing, and was finally confirmed by the Vatican officials, that he was nearing death. He was not rushed to the hospital again, however, and equipment for medical monitoring was brought to his residence in the Vatican, where he was followed by a team of top physicians. He developed sepsis and multiple organ failure, and died in his apartment on 2 April 2005.

113

References
[1] John Cornwell, The Pope in Winter: The Dark Side of John Paul II's Papacy (Penguin, 2005) p. 267. [2] John Cornwell, The Pope in Winter: The Dark Side of John Paul II's Papacy (Penguin, 2005) p. 267.

114

Death and legacy


Funeral
Funeral of Pope John Paul II

The body of Pope John Paul II lying in state. Participants The College of Cardinals (led by then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger), various dignitaries worldwide, worldwide Catholics Location Date St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City April 8, 2005

The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on 8 April 2005, six days after his death on 2 April. The funeral was followed by the novemdiales devotional in which the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches observe nine days of mourning.[1] On 22 February 1996, Pope John Paul II introduced revisions to the centuries-old ceremonies surrounding papal death, repose and burial. The revisions enacted through the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis applied to his own funeral.[2] Pope John Paul's funeral brought together the single largest gathering in history of heads of state outside the United Nations,[3] surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill (1965) and Josip Broz Tito (1980). Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended, alongside the faithful.[4] It is likely to have been the largest single gathering of Christianity in history, with numbers estimated in excess of four million mourners gathering in Rome.[5] [6] [7] Coinciding with the funeral in Vatican City, archbishops and bishops at cathedrals throughout the world celebrated memorial Masses for grieving Catholics. In a historical rarity, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Christian leaders, as well as leaders in Judaism, Islam and Buddhism, offered memorials and prayers of their own for their congregants sharing in the grief of Catholics. At the funeral itself, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I attended in the honorary first seat in the sector reserved for delegations from churches not in full communion with Rome; this was the first time an Ecumenical Patriarch attended a papal funeral since the Great Schism.[8] The Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, was present at a papal funeral for the first time since the Church of England broke with the papacy in the 16th century. Also for the first time ever, the head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church, Patriarch Abune Paulos attended a papal funeral.

Funeral

115

Rite of papal death


Centuries of sacred rituals are set in motion upon the death of a pope. Such rituals are administered by the Cardinal Camerlengo. When John Paul II died, the Camerlengo Eduardo Martnez Somalo removed the Pope's Ring of the Fisherman from his finger, then ceremonially crushed it with the ceremonial silver hammer in the presence of members of the College of Cardinals.[9] This was done to prevent the creation of forged, backdated documents, which would appear to have been approved by John Paul II. After the ring's destruction, Cardinal Martnez Somalo cordoned off and placed wax seals on the entrances to the Pope's private bedroom and study. This tradition originates from ruthless cardinals looting the papal chambers upon the death of past popes. The Pope's formal death certificate was signed by Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, Director of the Department of Health and Sanitation of Vatican City, on the evening of his death. Cardinal Martnez Somalo then ceremonially ordered the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Ratzinger, to summon the cardinals of the world to Vatican City to elect a new pope. While his predecessors had been embalmed after death, the Vatican claimed that Pope John Paul II was not embalmed and lay in state without normal treatment for preservation, which is evident by the grey colour taken on by the body. Also, it was customary for popes to have their organs removed after death. Pope Saint Pius X ended this practice during his reign, and the wish of some Poles that John Paul II's heart be buried in Poland was not obliged.[1]

Vestments
Pope John Paul II's body was clothed in the familiar white soutane, over which was placed a plain white alb. A stole, the symbol of ordained ministry, was placed around his neck. Over the inner vestments, Pope John Paul II was clothed in a red chasuble. An ancient Byzantine custom, red is the colour of mourning for Popes. Around his collar, the pallium of white lamb's wool was draped. A white zucchetto and a white bishop's mitre adorned Pope John Paul II's head. In his arm rested Paul VI's famous pastoral cross-staff, used by popes in place of the crosier. His hands clasped a rosary. At first, he lay in state in his favourite pair of Polish-made brown leather shoes, size 44-1/2, which he wore on his travels throughout the world. Later, following the example of his immediate predecessors, these were changed to plain red leather papal shoes.

Mass of Repose
A first Mass of Repose, such as is offered for anyone baptised in the Catholic Church, was led by Cardinal Eduardo Martnez Somalo on 3 April 2005. That Sunday service coincided with the celebration of the Feast of Divine Mercy, a memorial feast instituted by Pope John Paul II.[10] The Mass of Repose, commemorating the sending of the soul to God, was followed by the recitation of the Regina Coeli.

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Rite of Visitation
The body of Pope John Paul II was dressed in his vestments and moved to the Clementine Hall on the third level (considered the second floor) of the Apostolic Palace on April 3.[1] His body was laid on a sloped olive-sheeted catafalque and his head propped on a stack of three gold pillows. Near the catafalque was a wooden crucifix and a paschal candle symbolic of Jesus Christ as the light of the world in the face of darkness and death. His body was guarded by the Swiss Guard, a corps of men which has sworn to protect the pope through several centuries. During a period of private visitation Vatican officials and a contingent of officials from the Italian government viewed the body of Pope John PaulII.

On 4 April, the body of Pope John Paul II was moved onto a red velvet catafalque, with his head propped on three red pillows. The Papal Gentlemen, regaled in black morning coats and white gloves, were chosen as pallbearers and stood along the sides of the pope's bier. Cardinal Martnez Somalo, dressed in red and gold vestments, officiated the asperges rite. He blessed the pope with the holy waters of baptism three times: to the right of the pope, at his head and then to his left. An acolyte then brought to the Camerlengo a thurible and boat. Cardinal Martnez Somalo incensed the pope three times. A long procession was begun in order to transfer the body of Pope John Paul II from the Clementine Hall, through the colonnades of the Apostolic Palace and into St. Peter's Square among the waiting people. Traditionally, the pope's body is then brought to either St. Peter's Basilica or the papal cathedral, St. John Lateran Basilica. A procession of monks, priests and bishops paced slowly along a route towards St. Peter's Basilica. The College of Cardinals trailed by Cardinal Ratzinger and Cardinal Martnez Somalo followed them. As the ritual dating back to the medieval era proceeded, Gregorian chants were sung by several religious orders with the people responding to each verse with the ancient Greek prayer, "Lord, have mercy" or "Kyrie eleison." The Litany of the Saints was sung. After each name of a martyr or saint was chanted, invoking his or her intercession between God and the people, participants in the procession sang the Latin words, "Ora pro eo," meaning "Pray for him." This is a departure from the traditional, "Pray for us" or "Ora pro nobis."
By April 6, a million people had seen Pope John Paul II's remains lying in state in St. Peter's Basilica. An estimated total of four million people, in addition to the over three million residents of Rome, were expected to make the pilgrimage to see the pope.

Pope John Paul II's body is laid in the Apostolic Palace for private visitation by Vatican officials and foreign dignitaries. Among the Americans in the photograph are George W. Bush, Laura Bush, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Andrew Card.

When the body of the pope was hoisted upon the steps of St. Peter's Basilica, the Papal Gentlemen turned the bier and lifted the pope's head to face the tens of thousands of people that filled St. Peter's Square. Cardinal Martnez Somalo noted it as the pope's symbolic last look at the devoted followers that had filled St. Peter's Square throughout the papacy of John Paul II.

The procession ended with the seating of the College of Cardinals and the placement of the bier carrying the body of John Paul on a catafalque in front of the steps leading to the altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The paschal candle was lit and the body of the Pope was incensed again by Cardinal Martnez Somalo. Prayers were said and a reading from the Gospels was performed by a deacon. After the College of Cardinals paid their respects and left the sanctuary, the

Funeral basilica was closed and then reopened for the official lying in state to last until the day of the Mass of Requiem and subsequent interment.

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Requiem Mass
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger led the Mass of Requiem on April 8 at 10:00 a.m. CEST (08:00 UTC), by virtue of his office as Dean of the College of Cardinals.[11] He was also one of Pope John Paul II's closest friends and carried out most of the Pope's duties during his final illness. Concelebrating in the Mass of Requiem were the College of Cardinals (the number of members that were present has been variously given as 157 and 164) and the patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches. As the pope must be buried between the fourth and sixth day after his death, Friday was chosen as the last possible date. The Mass at St. Peter's Basilica was the first Mass of Requiem for a pope to be televised live in almost every nation in the world.
The Papal Gentlemen carry the coffin into St. Peter's Square. Standing in the front row are, from left to right, President Chen Shui-bian of Republic of China, First Lady Marisa Letcia da Silva and President Luiz Incio Lula da Silva of Brazil, President Georgi Parvanov of Bulgaria, President Borislav Paravac of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and First Lady Elvira Salinas de Mesa and President Carlos Mesa of Bolivia.

The event had an estimated viewership of over 2 billion people; the Catholic Church claims only 1.3 billion among its members. The funeral of John Paul II was by far the largest funeral in the history of the world. In lieu of a public viewing at the Basilica of St. John Lateran, as was tradition, immense digital screens instead broadcast the Mass of Requiem and subsequent Rite of Interment to those in the pope's cathedral church outside the confines of Vatican City. The same digital screens were hoisted at several sites in Rome, including the Circus Maximus, and at specially designated campsites outside the city for the millions of pilgrims who descended on the city.[1] The funeral was perhaps the most-watched live event in the history of television. Because people in North America understood that the service took place during the early morning hours on their side of the Atlantic, many awoke to view the funeral, and others taped it for a historical record. In addition, several television networks in the Americas rebroadcast the funeral later in the day.

Processional
As the Mass of Requiem began, the doors of St. Peter's Basilica were locked with dignitaries asked to stand outside the church. Only the College of Cardinals and the patriarchs and presiding metropolitans of the Eastern Catholic Churches were allowed inside for a private ceremony in which John Paul was placed in a cypress coffin, the first of three.[12] Before being laid in the coffin, Archbishop Stanisaw Dziwisz had the honor of placing a white silk veil over the face of the pope (a tradition started by Leo XIII). It was his last official act of service to the pope as his papal secretary.[8] The body was lowered into Archbishop Piero Marini, the master of ceremonies for papal liturgical celebrations, a cypress coffin, which served as the innermost coffin. Along with the venerates the casket of John Paul body was a sealed document, the Rogito, a eulogy detailing the life and works of Pope John Paul II, read aloud in Latin by Archbishop Marini and signed by those present during the funeral. Three bags containing gold, silver, and copper euro coins were placed beside the body. Each bag contained one coin for each year in Pope John Paul II's reign, the only monetary

Funeral compensation he received for his service as pope, which totaled to about 100 (worth US$141). After the private ceremony, the doors of St. Peter's Basilica were opened while dignitaries were seated. Cardinal Ratzinger and his concelebrants prepared for their procession from inside the basilica to a marble apron in the middle of St. Peter's Square where the Mass of Requiem was held. The procession began with the introductory chant, "Requiem Aeternam" ("Eternal Rest Grant Him, O Lord"), which includes verses from Psalm 64 (65), "To You We Owe Our Hymn of Praise, O God of Zion." Carried on the shoulders of the Papal Gentlemen, the coffin bearing the image of Pope John Paul II's coat-of-arms burned onto the lid, the pope was carried into St. Peter's Square onto the marble apron. An acolyte holding a red leather-bound Book of the Gospel led the coffin. The Papal Gentlemen laid the coffin onto a red carpet directly front in the altar

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Liturgy of the Word


The Liturgy of the Word began with a reading from the Acts of the Apostles, 10:3443, read by Chilean Alejandra Correa in Spanish. The responsorial was Psalm 22(23). The second reading was read by John McDonald in English, taken from the Letters of Saint Paul to the Philippians, 3:204:1. It was entitled, "But our citizenship is in heaven." The reader ended by singing, "Verbum Domini" ("The Word of the Lord.") Congregants replied in chant, "Deo gratias" ("Thanks be to God.")
The front of St. Peter's Square was filled with

Congregants stood for the proclamation of the Gospel, heralded by the cardinals, bishops, priests, and foreign dignitaries singing of Alleluia. After being blessed by Cardinal Ratzinger, an English deacon of the Archdiocese of Birmingham, Paul Moss (who has now been ordained priest and is currently serving as Vocations Director for the Archdiocese of Birmingham), processed with the Book of the Gospels to the ambo or lectern. He began by singing, "The Gospel according to John." Congregants replied, "Glory to you, O Lord." Moss then incensed the Book of the Gospel and then sang the reading in Latin. The reading came from John chapter 6, verse 40, stating, "For this is the will of my father that everyone who sees the son and believes in him may have eternal life." Moss then read from John chapter 21, verses 15 through 19, which is an account of a dialogue between Jesus and Saint Peter. Jesus asked three times, "Do you love me?" He then told his disciple, "Follow me." The deacon raised the Book of the Gospel and sang, "Verbum Domini" or "The Word of the Lord." Congregants replied in chant, "Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ."

Homily
After kissing the text of the Book of the Gospels, Cardinal Ratzinger stood before the congregants to offer the homily which included references to the life and service of Pope John Paul. He spoke in Italian, first greeting the many political figures and religious leaders that had gathered, and then told the story of how the young Karol had answered the Lord's call, and became a priest after the persecution of the Nazis, the answer of the command: "Follow me!" Cardinal Ratzinger also told of John Paul's life as a bishop, cardinal, and pope, frequently applying scripture to the pope's life. Finally, he told of the pope's devotion to Mary and the Divine Mercy of Christ. The cardinal's last words were about the final hours of Pope John Paul II: None of us can ever forget how in that last Easter Sunday of his life, the Holy Father, marked by suffering, came once more to the window of the Apostolic Palace and one last time gave his blessing Urbi et Orbi. We can be sure that our beloved pope is standing today at the window of the Father's house that he sees us and blesses us. Yes, bless us, Holy Father. We entrust your dear soul to the Mother of God, your Mother, who guided you each day and who will guide you now to the eternal glory of her Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.

Funeral Some construed the ending of the homily to mean that the pope had already entered into heaven, and had become a saint.[13] Cardinal Ratzinger became emotional at certain parts of his homily, especially in reflection of the inability of Pope John Paul to speak in the last days of his life. Altogether, the homily was interrupted approximately ten times with outbursts of applause by the congregants. The Nicene Creed sung in the Latin language followed the homily. The prayers of the faithful were offered in Italian, French, Swahili, Tagalog, Polish, German, and Portuguese.

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Liturgy of the Eucharist


The part of the Mass of Requiem called the Liturgy of the Eucharist began. Cardinal Ratzinger and the concelebrating cardinals gathered around the altar to consecrate the bread and wine. Catholics believe the Biblical truth that at the Consecration of the Mass (when the priest re-presents Jesus' Last Supper's and Death on the Cross, saying "This is my body" and "This is my blood"), the substance of the bread and wine is changed into that of Jesus Christ. This change is called transubstantiation. Because the Church believes the Eucharist is really and truly Christ Himself under the appearances of bread and wine, Catholics worship Jesus in the Eucharist.

Borne on the shoulders of the Papal Gentlemen, the coffin of Pope John Paul II is taken from the altar for the Rite of Interment

After the Eucharistic Prayer (the point in the Mass during which the Consecration occurs), the Lord's Prayer was sung followed later by the brief Latin litany, "Agnus Dei". The Eucharist was then taken to the congregation in St. Peter's Square to be distributed among the faithful. As the congregation received the Blessed Sacrament, Psalm 129 (in some Biblical versions Psalm 130) was sung. Its lyrics proclaimed, "Out of the depths I cry to you, O Lord; Lord, hear my voice." After the Liturgy of the Eucharist, the crowds in the streets of Vatican City burst into applause, waving flags and banners chanting, "Santo Subito!" which means "Saint now!" and "Giovanni Paolo Santo" or "Saint John Paul!". A few also repeatedly chanted "Magnus" or "Great", spontaneously declaring that he should be John Paul the Great.

Commendation
After the congregants received Communion, Cardinal Ratzinger led the Rite of Final Commendation and Farewell. He asked the College of Cardinals and patriarchs of the Eastern Rite to converge on the casket of Pope John Paul II. The congregants were called to prayer, "Dear brothers and sisters let us entrust to the most gentle mercy of God, the soul of our Pope John Paul II." He continued, "May the Blessed Virgin Mary... intercede with God so that he might show the face of his blessed Son to our Pope, and console the church with the light of the resurrection."
A view from within the congregation

The choir sang the Litany of the Saints; the same song was sung during the procession that transferred the body of Pope John Paul II from the Clementine Hall of the Apostolic Palace to St. Peter's Basilica. Breaking with tradition for the sacred prayer, the names of the saints canonised by Pope John Paul II, such as Faustina Kowalska and Josemara Escriv, were allowed to be included in the litany. Names of saints included in the more traditional litany were also included along with the newer saints.

Funeral After the singing of the Litany of the Saints, the patriarchs, archbishops and metropolitans of the Eastern Catholic Churches approached the coffin of Pope John Paul II for their own rituals of commendation and farewell (panikhida). They incensed the casket and chanted the Easter proclamation, "Christ is risen from the dead, trampling down death by His death", three times, and the rest of the Eastern memorial service. The Eastern patriarchs together with the entire College of Cardinals witnessed the sprinkling of the casket with the waters used in the sacrament of baptism. Incense was used once again, when Ratzinger, assisted by an Italian deacon of the Pontifical Major Seminary in Rome, father Nello Luongo, incensed and prayed for the dead Pope at the very end of the Mass. The Prayer of the Eastern Churches from the Parastas (Office of the Dead) of the Byzantine Rite was chanted in Greek and in Arabic by Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch Gregory III Laham, ending with "Your memory is eternal, our brother, dignified with blessings and unforgettable." The Mass of Requiem was officially ended with congregation standing, singing the words, "May the angels accompany you into heaven, may the martyrs welcome you when you arrive, and lead you to Holy Jerusalem." The Papal Gentlemen carried the coffin of Pope John Paul II for interment. As they carried the Pope toward the entrance of St. Peter's, the congregation in attendance broke out into applause and cheered as their final farewell. The coffin was then turned 180 degrees to face the congregation and the cameras, and the crowd applauded and cheered with more fervour before it was taken out of the public view for the last time. Cardinal Ratzinger handed over authority of the Rite of Interment to Cardinal Martnez Somalo, the Camerlengo.

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Rite of Interment
The people of Poland had wished for the heart of Pope John Paul II to be removed from his body and transferred to Wawel Cathedral to be buried alongside the greatest of Poland's monarchs and National heroes. Cardinal Martnez Somalo said that the request would not be obliged. An underground grotto beside the former shrine of the now glass-entombed and preserved body of Blessed Pope John XXIII was chosen for the interment of Pope John Paul II. He was lowered into a tomb that had been prepared following the transfer of Blessed Pope John XXIII's remains from the grotto to the main floor of the basilica after his beatification. The vault that originally held John XXIII's body had been removed so a new tomb could be built. The College of Cardinals decided to keep John Paul II beneath the altar of St. Peter's Basilica, citing the possibility of future beatification and canonization into sainthood. Pallbearers took the coffin through the central door of St. Peter's Basilica. At that point a single bell tolled. The pallbearers took the coffin through the Santa Marta Door, under the Monument to Alexander VII, to the outside (South) of the Basilica. They entered the grottoes, a cemetery underneath the Basilica where Saint Peter is believed to be buried, through the door now used as the grottoes' exit. After passing beneath low ceilings and through long corridors, the pallbearers stopped at the crypt of Pope John Paul II.

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Cardinal Martnez Somalo, Camerlengo of the Roman Church, then presided over the Rite of Interment. It was a private service witnessed only by the highest-ranking members of the College of Cardinals. As is custom, Pope John Paul II was entombed in three nested coffins. The cypress coffin was sealed and tied with three red silk ribbons.[14] The cypress casket was lowered into a larger solid zinc (traditionally lead) casket, which was soldered shut. This coffin was adorned with three bronze plaques: a simple cross at the head of the coffin, a middle plaque with the Pope's name and the length of his life and pontificate, and a third with Pope John Paul II's personal coat of arms at the foot. The zinc casket was finally lowered into a larger walnut (traditionally elm) casket, bearing three identical plaques, which was shut with nails of pure gold. The middle plaques bear the following statement in Latin: CORPUS IOANNIS PAULI II P.M. VIXIT ANNOS LXXXIV MENSES X DIES XV ECCLESIAE UNIVERSAE PRAEFUIT ANNOS XXVI MENSES V DIES XVII

English Translation: Body of John Paul II, Supreme Pontiff He lived 84 years, 10 months, 15 days He presided over the Universal Church 26 years, 5 months, 17 days

Pope John Paul II was buried at 2:30PM Vatican time in this simple underground crypt according to his wishes, His remains were removed from this crypt in 2011 in preparation for his beatification.

The unified coffin was lowered into the ground, as the Pope requested, and covered with a plain stone slab featuring his name and dates of his pontificate. Pope John Paul II asked that his burial be like that of Pope Paul VI, not in an elaborate sarcophagus and ornate above-ground tomb, but in "bare earth".[15] Cardinal Martnez Somalo ended the Rite of Interment with the words, "Lord, grant him eternal rest, and may perpetual light shine upon him." Those present sang "Salve Regina" or "Hail Holy Queen."

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Dignitaries
Before the College of Cardinals could offer official customary invitations to the various heads of state and government, over 200 foreign officials had expressed their desire to attend the Mass of Requiem. Among the most familiar faces worldwide were the President of the United States and former Presidents of the United States, the current and former Presidents of Brazil, the President of Poland, the President of France, the President of Ireland, the Taoiseach of Ireland, the King and Queen of Spain, King Albert II and Queen Paola of Belgium, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the Chancellor of Germany and the President of Germany, the Prince of Wales (who postponed his wedding to Camilla Parker-Bowles by 24 hours, to attend), the Prime Minister of Canada, the King and Queen of Jordan, the President of Afghanistan, and the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Also attending were Mohammad Khatami of Iran and Israeli President Moshe Katsav. Kings and Queens from Denmark, Sweden, Belgium and Norway were also present.

Dignitaries from around the world pray during the funeral; as seen: Albert II & Queen Paola of Belgium, Prince Henrik of Denmark, President Jacques Chirac of France and Ms. Bernadette Chirac, President Jorge Sampaio of Portugal, President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush of the United States, President Arnold Rtel of Estonia, and President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo of the Philippines

The dignitaries were seated alphabetically according to the French spelling of their country's name and arranged according to diplomatic protocol, with heads of state and their spouses taking precedence over heads of government. The largest delegations were the Italian (sitting in the first honorary seats were the President of Italy and other high Italian dignitaries) and Polish ones. As such, Israeli President Moshe Katsav sat only two seats away from the president of a traditional enemy of Israel, Khatami of Iran. Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe defied a European Union travel ban to attend the funeral. Taiwanese President Chen Shui-bian made an unprecedented appearance and was seated in the front row as the head of state of China, due to the existence of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the Republic of China. The People's Republic of China was not invited to the funeral and protested to Italy for allowing Chen passage to the Vatican. Altogether, the Mass of Requiem was deemed to be the largest gathering of statesmen in world history, exceeding the gathering at the state funeral of Sir Winston Churchill in London in 1965. Some of the dignitaries who attended the funeral also attended the installation Mass for Pope Benedict XVI on April 24, 2005.

Novemdiales
After the Rite of Interment, nine official days of mourning began. The devotional called novemdiales features a Mass of Requiem on each of the nine days at St. Peter's Basilica. Several cardinals were chosen by Cardinal Ratzinger to have the honour of presiding over each Mass. One of the most controversial honourees was Bernard Francis Law, Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, scheduled to preside a novemdiales on April 11. During his tenure as Archbishop of Boston, Cardinal Law was accused of having mishandled cases of sexual abuse at the hands of diocesan priests. The event sparked the nationwide Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal in the dioceses of the United States.[16] Several members of the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) flew to Rome to protest saying Cardinal Law's place of honor was painful to sexual abuse victims and embarrassing to Catholics. Just as the group's members arrived at St. Peter's Basilica, led by founder Barbara Blaine, police officers escorted them outside the confines of St. Peter's Square. Blaine was unable to pass out fliers to people walking into the Mass offered by Cardinal Law.[16]

Funeral Blaine had earlier told reporters in a press conference, "We are the sons and daughters of the Catholic family who were raped, sodomized and sexually molested by priests. At this time, we should be able to focus on the Holy Father's death, instead of Cardinal Law's prominence."[16] The College of Cardinals responded by stating that Cardinal Law was honoured as a matter of his being the ordinary of one of the most important basilicas of the Roman Catholic Church. The 14 April novemdiales Mass at St. Peter's Basilica replaced traditional hymns and prayers with those of the Maronite Rite, one of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Cardinal Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir, Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, presided over the Mass. It was the first time a cardinal patriarch of an Eastern Catholic Church offered a novemdiales Mass, in his own rite, for a pope.

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Security
The immensity of the pilgrim presence in Rome and the vast diplomatic contingent from nations around the world raised concerns by the College of Cardinals that the funeral, conclave and installation of a new pope would make Vatican City a target for terrorism. The anti-terrorism task forces responsible for securing the funeral considered international terrorists the primary potential threat because of the attending dignitaries; domestic terrorism from Italian political extremists was considered less likely. On April 6in advent of the arrival of the United States delegation aboard Air Force One, protected by a military escortthe Italian government issued a no-fly zone within a five-mile radius of Rome. The Italian government considered the President of the United States, the first sitting American president to attend a papal funeral, as the most tempting target for terrorists. Official diplomatic delegations from other nations began arriving at the same time. The Aeronautica Militare Italiana (Italian air force) prepared their aircraft to be launched at a moment's notice in case of a terrorist strike. The Italian Army deployed anti-aircraft missiles around Vatican City, to the grudging dismay of the College of Cardinals. Marina Militare (Italian navy) warships were positioned along the shorelines of Italy armed with torpedoes. Gunboats ran up and down the rivers and waterways of Rome, including the Tiber River which flows around Vatican City. One thousand snipers were positioned on strategic rooftops throughout the Italian capital as Carabinieri military police task forces swept aqueducts and drains for explosives. Helicopters were dispatched to scan the city streets from above. Plans to close Ciampino Airport from commercial flights and divert air traffic to and from Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Fiumicino were finalized for the day of the Mass of Requiem and Interment of Pope John Paul II. Other smaller civilian commuter and recreational airports were also shut down. Some of the same security measures that were in effect for the funeral were also in effect for the installation Mass of Pope Benedict XVI on 24 April.

References
Daily Bulletin of the Holy See Press Office - No. 0184 [17] The Apostolic Constitution of John Paul II, Supreme Pontiff, Universi Dominici Gregis: on the vacancy of the Apostolic See and the election of the Roman Pontiff [18] Archived films of events during the Vacant See (including the funeral) [19] (Vatican TV) Venerable resting place for the Pope [20] John Paul buried in St Peter's crypt on April 8th 2005 at 2:30pm [21] Link to official funeral rites programme from the Vatican in PDF format, including portions of the liturgies not witnessed by the public. Text mainly in Latin and Italian, including other languages heard in the service [22] Text of eulogy buried with Pope John Paul II (Latin) [23] Text of eulogy buried with Pope John Paul II (English translation) [24]

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Notes
[1] "CNN Transcript from 4 April 2005" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ TRANSCRIPTS/ 0504/ 04/ ltm. 01. html). . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [2] "Universi Dominici Gregis" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ apost_constitutions/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis_en. html). . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [3] "The Ultimate Photo Shoot" (http:/ / www. vad1. com/ photo/ ultimate-photo-shoot/ ). . Retrieved 2010-08-09. [4] "CNN.com: "Pope John Paul II buried in Vatican crypt-Millions around the world watch funeral"" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080316102402/ http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 08/ pope. funeral/ index. html). CNN.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 08/ pope. funeral/ index. html) on 2008-03-16. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [5] "The Independent: "Millions mourn Pope at history's largest funeral"" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ europe/ millions-mourn-pope-at-historys-largest-funeral-757246. html). London: Independent News and Media Limited. 2005-04-08. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [6] Holmes, Stephanie (2005-04-09). "BBC 4428149" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4428149. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [7] ""Pope John Paul II Funeral"" (http:/ / www. outsidethebeltway. com/ archives/ pope_john_paul_ii_funeral/ ). Outside the Beltway. . Retrieved 2008-10-20. [8] "American Morning report, April 8, 2005" (http:/ / www. accessmylibrary. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-6529535_ITM). International Wire. 2005-04-08. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [9] "Europe | Pontiff's seal and ring destroyed" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4451483. stm). BBC News. 2005-04-16. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [10] "Eucharistic Concelebration for the Repose of the Soul of Pope John Paul II: Homily of Card. Angelo Sodano" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ documents/ sodano-suffragio-jp-ii_20050403_en. html). 2005,2009 The Holy See. 3 April 2005. . Retrieved 1 February 2009. [11] "Chicago Tribune" (http:/ / www. accessmylibrary. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-32320385_ITM). . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [12] "BBC 8 April 2005" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4424477. stm). BBC News. 2005-04-08. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [13] Wakin, Daniel J. (2005-04-12). "Cardinals Lobby for Swift Sainthood for John Paul II" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 04/ 12/ international/ worldspecial2/ 13saintcnd. html?hp& ex=1113364800& en=d6e61bcccdb2b7bb& ei=5094& partner=homepage). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-05-03. [14] "World | Europe | Pope buried in St Peter's crypt" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4424477. stm). BBC News. 2005-04-08. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [15] Willey, David (2005-04-13). "World | Europe | Venerable resting place for the Pope" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4442523. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [16] "BBC: Victims protest against Rome Mass" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4432283. stm). BBC News. 2005-04-11. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [17] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ bulletin/ B0184-XX. 02. pdf [18] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ apost_constitutions/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis_en. html [19] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ television/ multimedia/ archivio_en. html [20] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4442523. stm [21] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4424477. stm [22] http:/ / www. jimmyakin. org/ 2005/ 04/ the_funeral_of_. html [23] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ documents/ rogito-jp-ii_20050408_lt. html [24] http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ JohnPaul2/ _mourning/ proclamation. asp

List of dignitaries

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List of dignitaries
This is a list of dignitaries at the funeral of Pope John Paul II. After the death of Pope John Paul II on April 2, 2005 in Vatican City, and before official invitations were sent by the College of Cardinals, almost 200 countries expressed interest in sending representatives to the funeral of Pope John Paul II. The funeral took place on April 8, 2005, and was the largest gathering of statesmen in history. Some of the dignitaries later attended the installation of Pope Benedict XVI on April 24, 2005.

Map indicating countries that sent official dignitaries at the funeral of Pope John Paul II

In order to accommodate all interested parties wishing to receive a seat during the Mass of Requiem, the Holy See limited the number of members in each official diplomatic delegation to only five people, except for the Polish delegation which, being John Paul II's homeland, was allowed ten people, and the delegation from Italy. The limit did not exclude other people of any nationality from attaining individual invitations, unrelated to the individual's country's delegation: for example, the attendance of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former president of Brazil, had no connection with the Brazilian delegation. In addition to a country's official delegation, any number of government officials were permitted to attend as pilgrim travellers, remaining outside the basilica during the Mass of Requiem with the general public. For example, the United States delegation included the president and first lady, two former presidents, and the secretary of state, and they all had seats in the basilica during the Mass of Requiem. Dozens of members of the U.S. Congress attended the Mass of Requiem, congregating among the general public outside the basilica. At the funeral, the dignitaries were seated alphabetically according to the French spelling of their country's name and arranged according to diplomatic protocol.
: Official delegations: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z International organizations Religious leaders Unofficial delegations External links

List of official delegations (in French alphabetical order, incomplete)


A

List of dignitaries

126

Country (order per French spelling) Afghanistan

Flag

Official delegation Hamid Karzai Abdullah Abdullah Zalmay Rasul Mostapha Zaher Mohammad Nadir Hatami Jacob Zuma Lenin Shope N.J. Baloyi Alfred Moisiu Fatos Nano Sali Berisha Rexhep Meidani Mirella Moisiu Abdelaziz Bouteflika Bouabdalla Ghoulamallah Mokhtar Reguieg Horst Khler Wolfgang Thierse Gerhard Schrder Joschka Fischer Dieter Althaus Joan Enric Vives Siclia Jacques Chirac Marc Forn Moln Maria Lluisa Gispert de Forn Juli Minoves-Triquell Josep Angel Morts Pons Jos Eduardo dos Santos Ana Paula Dos Santos Joo Bernardo de Miranda Boaventura da Silva Cardoso Jos Filipe Carl Roberts Abdulmohsin bin Abdulaziz Al-Akkas Hamad Al-Hajri Ibrahim Al-Manie Daniel Scioli Rafael Bielsa Guillermo Rodolfo Oliveri

Titles President of the Republic Minister of Foreign Affairs Counsellor for National Security Ambassador First Secretary Vice President of the Republic Ambassador Vice President's advisor President of the Republic Prime Minister Former President of the Republic Former President of the Republic Daughter of the President of the Republic President of the Republic Minister of Religious Affairs Ambassador President President of the Bundestag Chancellor Minister of Foreign Affairs Vice-President of the Bundesrat Co-Prince Co-Prince Head of Government Consort of the Head of Government Minister of Foreign Affairs Vice-President of Parliament President of the Republic Consort of the President of the Republic Minister of Foreign Affairs Minister of Culture Chief of Protocol of the Presidency Ambassador Minister of Social Affairs

South Africa (Afrique du sud)

Albania (Albanie)

Algeria (Algrie)

Germany (Allemagne)

Andorra (Andorre)

Angola

Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua et Barbuda) Saudi Arabia (Arabie Saoudite)

Argentina (Argentine)

Vice-President of the Republic Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Religious Affairs Secretary of State for Religious Affairs Prime Minister Ambassador to the Holy See Ambassador Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs First Assistant to the Prime Minister Governor-General Consort of the Governor-General Embassy Counsellor

Armenia (Armnie)

Andranik Markaryan Edward Nalbandian Rouben Shugarian Armen Bayburtian Gevorg Hakobian Michael Jeffery Marlena Jeffery Maria Cicutto Robert Hunter Ted Knez

Australia (Australie)

List of dignitaries

127
Ahmed Qurei Ghazi Hanania Afif Safieh Nimer Hammad Mustafa Abu El-Rub Prime Minister Spokesman for the Legislative Council Director of the Diplomatic Representation to the Holy See General Delegate in Italy Assistant to the Prime Minister Federal President First Lady Federal Chancellor Vice-Chancellor President of the Chamber of Deputies

Palestinian National Authority (Authorit nationale palestinienne)

Austria (Autriche)

Heinz Fischer Margit Fischer Wolfgang Schssel Hubert Gorbach Andreas Khol

B
Country (order per French spelling) Bangladesh Belgium (Belgique) Flag Official delegation Title

Chowdhury Kamal Ibne Yusuf Food and Disaster Management Minister HM King Albert II HM Queen Paola Guy Verhofstadt Didier Reynders Herman De Croo Gennady Novitsky Vladimir Korolev Aleksei Skripko King of the Belgians Queen Consort Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister President of the Lower House President of the Council of the Republic of Belarus Ambassador to the Vatican Ambassador Ambassador Archbishop of Rangoon President of the Republic First Lady Ambassador President of the Presidency President of Parliament Deputy Prime Minister President of the Republic Former President Former President Former President First Lady President of the Senate President of the House of Representatives President of the Supreme Court President of the Republic

Belarus (Bilorussie)

Burma (Birmanie)

Khin Maung Aye Charles Bo Carlos Mesa Elvira Salinas de Mesa Jos Ignacio Siles Borislav Paravac efik Daferovi Baria olak Luiz Incio Lula da Silva Fernando Henrique Cardoso Itamar Franco Jos Sarney Marisa Letcia da Silva Renan Calheiros Severino Cavalcanti Nelson Jobim Georgi Parvanov

Blivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnie-Herzgovine)

Brazil (Brsil)

Bulgaria (Bulgarie)

List of dignitaries

128

Country (order per French spelling) Flag Canada

Official delegation Paul Martin Sheila Martin Stephen Harper Phil Fontaine Ignacio Walker Sergio Romero Jos Antonio Viera Gallo Gabriel Ascencio Pablo Longueira Chen Shui-bian Chen Tang-san Francisco Santos Calderon Mara Victoria Santos Joseph Kabila Jean-Pierre Bemba Lee Hai-chan Abel Pacheco Roberto Tovar Faja Stipe Mesi Ivo Sanader Ricardo Alarcn de Quesada Caridad Diego Ral Roa Kour Tassos Papadopoulos George Poulides Tasos Tzionis

Title Prime Minister Wife of the Prime Minister Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition Head of the Assembly of First Nations Minister of Foreign Affairs President of the Senate Socialist senator President of the Chamber of Deputies UDI deputy President Minister of Foreign Affairs Vice-President of the Republic Spouse of Vice-President of the Republic President of the Republic Vice-President of the Republic Prime Minister President of the Republic Minister of Foreign Affairs President of the Republic Prime Minister president of the National Assembly Chief of Religious Affairs of the Communist Party of Cuba Ambassador to the Holy See President of the Republic Ambassador to the Holy See Director of the Diplomatic Office of the President

Chile (Chili)

China (Chine) China Colombia (Colombie)

Congo (Democratic Republic)

South Korea (Core du Sud) Costa Rica

Croatia (Croatie)

Cuba

Cyprus

D
Country (order per French spelling) Denmark (Danemark) Flag Official delegation HM Queen Margrethe II HRH Prince Henrik Anders Fogh Rasmussen Margarita Cede o de Fernndez Alejandrina Germn Carlos Rafael Marin-Landais Title Queen of Denmark Prince Consort Prime Minister of Denmark First Lady Secretary of Education Ambassador to the Holy See

Dominican Republic (Rpublique dominicaine)

List of dignitaries

129

Country (order per French spelling) Egypt (gypte) United Arab Emirates (mirats arabes unis) Spain (Espagne)

Flag

Official delegation Farouk Hosni

Title Minister of Culture

Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan Minister of Information HM King Juan Carlos I HM Queen Sofa Jos Luis Rodrguez Zapatero Miguel ngel Moratinos Mariano Rajoy Arnold Rtel Lucio Gutirrez Ximena Bohrquez Patricio Zuquilanda George W. Bush Laura Bush Condoleezza Rice George H. W. Bush Bill Clinton King of Spain Queen Prime Minister Minister of Foreign Affairs Leader of the Opposition President of the Republic president of the Republic first lady Minister of Foreign Affairs President of the United States First Lady U.S. Secretary of State Former President Former President

Estonia (Estonie) Ecuador (quateur)

United States (tats-Unis d'Amrique)

F
Country (order per French spelling) Flag Official delegation Finland (Finlande) France Matti Vanhanen Jacques Chirac Bernadette Chirac Prime Minister President of the Republic Spouse of the President of the Republic Title

G
Country (order per French spelling) Ghana Greece (Grce) Flag Official delegation John Kufuor Karolos Papoulias Panagiotis Skandalakis Konstantinos Georgiou Title President of the Republic President of the Republic Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs General Secretary of the Presidency President of the Republic First Lady Minister of Foreign Affairs Nobel Peace Prize Laureate 1992 Minister of Foreign Affairs

Guatemala

scar Berger Wendy de Berger Jorge Briz Abularach Rigoberta Mench Sidib Fatoumata Kaba

Guinea (Guine) Equatorial Guinea (Guine quatoriale)

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo President of the Republic

List of dignitaries

130

H
Country (order per French spelling) Flag Official delegation Haiti (Hati) Honduras Hungary (Hongrie) Grard Latortue Ricardo Maduro Ferenc Mdl Dalma Mdl Ferenc Gyurcsny Viktor Orbn Katalin Szili Title Prime Minister President of the Republic President of the Republic First Lady Prime Minister Former Prime Minister President of Parliament

I
Country (order per French spelling) Flag India (Inde) Official delegation Bhairon Singh Shekhawat P.R. Kyndiah Oscar Fernandes Alwi Shihab Maftuh Basyuni Freddy Numberi Mohammad Khatami Mary McAleese Bertie Ahern Mary Harney Moshe Katsav Silvan Shalom Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Franca Ciampi Silvio Berlusconi Gaetano Gifuni Antonio Puri Purini Gianfranco Mazzuoli Marcello Pera Pier Ferdinando Casini Piero Alberto Capotosti Gianfranco Fini Title Vice President of India Minister of Tribal Issues and the Development of the North-East Minister of Relations with the Parliament

Indonesia (Indonsie)

Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare Minister of Religious Affairs Minister of Fisheries and Maritime Affairs, former Ambassador to Italy President of Iran President of Ireland Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Tnaiste (Deputy-Prime Minister) President of Israel Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs President of the Italian Republic Wife of the President Prime Minister of Italy Counsellor of State, General Secretary of the Presidency Diplomatic Counsellor to the Presidency Counsellor Coordinator at the Presidency President of the Senate President of the Chamber of Deputies President of the Constitutional Court Minister of Foreign Affairs

Iran Ireland (Irlande)

Israel (Isral)

Italy (Italie)

List of dignitaries

131

Country (order per French spelling) Flag Japan (Japon) Jordan (Jordanie)

Official delegation Yoriko Kawaguchi HM King Abdullah II HM Queen Rania

Title Advisor to the Prime Minister King of Jordan Queen of Jordan

K
Country (order per French spelling) Flag Kenya Kuwait (Kowet) Official delegation Chirau Ali Mwakwere Title minister of foreign affairs

Jaber Al Abdullah Al Jaber Al Sabah member of the royal family

L
Country (order per French spelling) Flag Lesotho Official delegation HM King Letsie III Monyane Moleleki Vaira V-e-Freiberga mile Lahoud Omar Karami Issam Fares Nabih Berri HSH Prince Hans-Adam II HSH Princess Marie HSH Prince Nikolaus HRH Princess Margaretha Title King of Lesotho minister of foreign affairs president of the Republic president of the Republic prime minister deputy prime minister speaker of parliament The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein Princess Consort Prince of Liechtenstein Princess of Liechtenstein president of the Republic Grand Duke of Luxembourg Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Prime Minister of Luxembourg

Latvia (Lettonie) Lebanon (Liban)

Liechtenstein

Lithuania (Lituanie) Luxembourg

Valdas Adamkus HRH Grand Duke Henri HRH Grand Duchess Maria Teresa Jean-Claude Juncker

List of dignitaries

132

Country (order per French spelling) Flag Macedonia (Macdoine) Madagascar Malta

Official delegation Branko Crvenkovski Marc Ravalomanana Eddie Fenech Adami Mary Fenech Adami Lawrence Gonzi Kate Gonzi Michael Frendo Guido de Marco Violet de Marco Anton Tabone Alfred Sant president president

Title

President of Malta First Lady of Malta Prime Minister of Malta Spouse of the Prime Minister Minister of Foreign Affairs Former President of Malta Former First Lady Speaker of the Parliament Leader of the Opposition

Morocco (Maroc) Mauritius (Maurice) Mexico (Mexique)

HRH Prince Moulay Rachid prince and brother of king Muhammad VI Paul Brenger Vicente Fox Marta Sahagn Patrick Leclercq prime minister President of Mexico First Lady of Mexico minister of state

Monaco Monaco

N
Country (order per French spelling) Flag Nicaragua Official delegation Enrique Bola os Norman Jos Caldera Cardenal Armando Luna Jos Cuadra Olusegun Obasanjo HM Queen Sonja Kjell Magne Bondevik Dame Silvia Cartwright Peter Cartwright Title president of the Republic minister of foreign affairs ambassador to the Holy See ambassador to Italy

Nigeria Norway (Norvge)

president Queen Consort Prime Minister of Norway Governor-General Spouse of Governor General

New Zealand (Nouvelle-Zlande)

O
Country (order per French spelling) Flag Official delegation Uganda (Ouganda) Gilbert Bukenya Title vice-president of the Republic

List of dignitaries

133

Country (order per French spelling) Pakistan Panama

Flag

Official delegation

Title

Mohammad Ejaz-ul-Haq Martn Torrijos Vivian Fernndez de Torrijos Luis Castiglioni Leila Rachid de Cowles Jan Peter Balkenende Manuel Rodrguez Cuadros Eliane Karp Eduardo Salhuana Antero Flores Aroz Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Evangelina Lourdes Arroyo Thelmo Cunanan Georgina de Venecia Howard Dee Aleksander Kwaniewski Jolanta Kwaniewska Lech Wasa Danuta Wasa Marek Belka Wodzimierz Cimoszewicz Longin Pastusiak Hanna Suchocka Tadeusz Mazowiecki Wiesaw Chrzanowski Artur Boruc

minister of religious affairs president First lady vice-president of the Republic minister of foreign affairs prime minister Minister of Foreign Affairs First Lady Minister of Justice President of the Congress of the Republic President of the Philippines Presidential Daughter SSS chairman (former ambassador to Cambodia) wife of House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr. former ambassador to the Holy See president of the Republic first lady former president of the Republic former first lady prime minister marshal of the Sejm marshal of the Senate ambassador to the Holy See former prime minister former marshal of the Sejm former goalkeeper of Glasgow Celtic, also known as "The Holy Goalie" president of the Republic first lady minister of foreign affairs former president of the Republic

Paraguay

Netherlands (Pays-Bas) Peru (Prou)

Philippines

Poland (Pologne)

Portugal

Jorge Sampaio Maria Jose Ritta Diogo Freitas do Amaral Antnio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes

Q
Country Flag Qatar Official delegation Title

Hamad ibn Khalifa Al Thani Emir

List of dignitaries

134

Country (order per French spelling) Flag Romania (Roumanie)

Official delegation Traian Bsescu Clin Popescu-Triceanu HM King Michael I Emil Constantinescu Ion Iliescu HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales Tony Blair Cherie Blair Michael Howard Charles Kennedy Mikhail Fradkov Charles Murigande

Title president of the Republic prime minister former Head of State former president of the Republic former president of the Republic Heir-apparent, Prince of Wales Prime Minister Spouse of Prime Minister Leader of Her Majesty's Opposition Liberal Democrat leader prime minister minister of foreign affairs

United Kingdom (Royaume-Uni)

Russia (Russie) Rwanda

S
Country (order per French spelling) San Marino (Saint-Marin) Flag Official delegation Fausta Simona Morganti Cesare Antonio Gasperoni Fabio Berardi Giovanni Galassi Marcello Beccari Title Captain Regent Captain Regent secretary of state for foreign and political affairs ambassador to the Holy See chief of state Protocol minister of foreign affairs first lady minister of the Interior former ambassador to the Holy See former minister of foreign affairs president of the Republic president of the Republic minister of foreign affairs president of Serbia president of Montenegro president of Kosovo prime minister of Kosovo president of parliament of Kosovo deputy prime minister, minister of Law ambassador to the Holy See first secretary president of the Republic president of Parliament minister of foreign affairs president of the Republic prime minister prime minister minister of Christian affairs King of Sweden Queen Consort Prime Minister of Sweden

El Salvador (Salvador)

Francisco Lanez Ana Ligia de Saca Ren Figueroa Roberto Simn Mara Eugenia Brizuela de vila Abdoulaye Wade Svetozar Marovi Vuk Drakovi Boris Tadi Filip Vujanovi Ibrahim Rugova Bajram Kosumi Nexhat Daci Shunmugam Jayakumar Walter Woon Alexander Lim Ivan Gaparovi Pavol Hruovsk Eduard Kukan Janez Drnovek Janez Jana Mahinda Rajapakse Milroy Fernando HM King Carl XVI Gustaf HM Queen Silvia Gran Persson

Senegal Serbia and Montenegro (Serbie-et-Montngro)

Singapore

Slovakia (Slovaquie)

Slovenia (Slovnie)

Sri Lanka

Sweden (Sude)

List of dignitaries

135
Samuel Schmid Bashar al-Assad Asma al-Assad president of the Confederation president of the Republic first lady

Switzerland (Suisse) Syria (Syrie)

T
Country (order per French spelling) Tanzania (Tanzanie) Czech Republic (Rpublique Tchque) Flag Official delegation George Kahama Vclav Klaus Cyril Svoboda Surakiart Sathirathai Title Minister for Cooperative Development president of the Republic minister of foreign affairs deputy prime minister

Thailand (Thalande) Tunisia (Tunisie) Turkey (Turquie)

Mohamed Ghannouchi prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoan Mehmet Aydin prime minister minister of state

U
Country Flag Ukraine Official delegation Viktor Yushchenko Kateryna Yushchenko Title President First Lady

Uruguay

Mara Auxiliadora Delgado de Vzquez First Lady

V
Country Venezuela Flag Official delegation Al Rodrguez Jorge Giordanni Rodrigo Chvez Roy Chaderton Title minister of foreign affairs minister of planning ambassador to Italy ambassador to France

Z
Country Zimbabwe Flag Official delegation Robert Mugabe Herbert Murerwa Mr Bimha Mr Chihuri Mary Margaret Muchada Title president minister of advanced education secretary to foreign affairs, ambassador personal assistant to the President ambassador

List of dignitaries

136

Notes
1. Commonly known as Taiwan: "China" refers to the Government of the Republic of China (ROC), rather than the Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which does not have relations with the Holy See and did not receive any invitations to the funeral. Although the ROC Government resettled on Taiwan at the end of the Chinese Civil War, the Holy See still recognizes the ROC, but not the PRC, as "China". [1] 2. The low representation of Monaco is due to the death of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco. Monaco's head of state died two days before the funeral of the Pope.

International organizations
Organization Sovereign Military Order of the Knights of Malta Flag Official delegation Fra' Andrew Bertie Fra Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto Count Jacques de Liedekerke Marquis Gian Luca Chiavari Jean-Pierre Mazery Terry Davis Adam Daniel Rotfeld Rene van der Linden Giovanni di Stasi Title Grand Master Grand Commander Grand Chancellor Receiver of the Common Treasure Member of the Sovereign Council

Council of Europe

secretary-general prsident du Comit des ministres prsident de l'Assemble parlementaire prsident du Congrs des pouvoirs locaux et rgionaux secretary-general Chief of Protocol, Ambassador Member of the Office of the Secretary General secretary-general Spouse of the Secretary General

Arab League

Amr Moussa Mohamed Ali Nasser Hala Gad Kofi Annan Nane Annan Donald Patterson Jos Manuel Barroso Jean-Claude Juncker Josep Borrell Danuta Hbner Franco Frattini Benita Ferrero-Waldner Jaap de Hoop Scheffer Jeannine de Hoop Scheffer Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo Dimitrij Rupel Jn Kubis Tatjana Pirc

United Nations

European Union

president of the European Commission president of the European Council president of the European Parliament commissioner in charge of Regional Policy commissioner in charge of Justice commissioner in charge of external relations secretary-general Consort of the Secretary General Vice-Secretary General, Ambassador foreign minister of Slovenia, acting president of the OSCE secretary general of the OSCE second secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs of Slovenia Director General Coordinator for Relations with the Holy See Office Head Director General Adjunct Director General Head of the Office of the Director General Director General Office Member

NATO

OSCE

ILO

Juan Somavia Dominique Peccoud Maria Angelica Ducci Jacques Diouf David Harsharik Michel Savini Kochiro Matsuura Krista Pikkat

FAO

UNESCO

List of dignitaries

137
Lennart Bge Ewa Westman Bge Cyril Enweze Kamel Morjane Walter Irvine Michele Manca di Nissa President Consort of the President Vice-President Assistant to the High Commissioner Delegate for Italy, Malta, San Marino and the Holy See Vice-Delegate for Italy, Malta, San Marino and the Holy See Executive Director Adjunct Executive Director Adjunct Executive Director Executive Director of UNODC

IFAD

Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees

World Food Programme

James T. Morris John Powell Susana Malcorra Antonio Maria Costa

U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime

Religious leaders
Eastern Christian Churches
Bartholomew I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Karekin II, Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church Abune Paulos, Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Mesrob II Mutafyan, Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul and Turkey Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens Anastasios , Archbishop of Tirana, Durrs, and all Albania Jovan, Metropolitan of Zagreb-Ljubljana and All-Italy of the Serbian Orthodox Church Kirill, Metropolitan of Smolensk-Kaliningrad, head of the Department of Interchurch relations of the Russian Orthodox Church Lavrentije, Bishop of abac and Valjevo of the Serbian Orthodox Church Leo, Archbishop of Karelia and All Finland Seraphim, Bishop of Ottawa, of the Orthodox Church in America

Protestant Churches
Dr Alison Elliot, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland K. G. Hammar, Archbishop of Uppsala, Head of the Church of Sweden Jukka Paarma, Archbishop of Turku, Head of the Church of Finland Finn Wagle, Bishop of Nidaros and Primus of the Norwegian Lutheran State Church (part of Norwegian official delegation) Rowan Williams, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the Anglican Communion

List of dignitaries

138

Jewish religious leaders


Oded Viener, representing the Chief Rabbis of Israel Shear-Yishuv Cohen, Chief Rabbi of Haifa Riccardo Di Segni, Chief Rabbi of Rome

Unofficial delegations
A selection of dignitaries not seated in the section for official national delegations during the funeral:

Brazil
Individually invited (by the Holy See): Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former President of Brazil Itamar Franco, Brazilian Ambassador to Italy; former President of Brazil Bishop Odilo Scherer, secretary-general of the CNBB (Assembly of the Brazilian Bishops) Presidential delegation (invited by the President, but did not seat for Mass of Requiem): Jos Sarney, Brazilian senator; former President of Brazil and former president of the Brazilian Senate Henry Sobel, leading Rabbi of the Brazilian Jewish community Sheik Armando Hussein Saleh, of the "Brazilian Mosque" (representing the Muslims of Brazil) Rolf Schunemann, of the Brazilian Lutheran Church (representing the Protestants of Brazil) Father Joo viz, Archbishop of Braslia Father Jos Ernanne, representing the Brazilian clergy

Canada
All representing Quebec Grald Tremblay, Mayor of Montreal Louise Harel, Representative of the Parti Qubcois Mario Dumont, Member of the National Assembly of Quebec

Philippines
Leonida Vera, ambassador to the Holy See Hermilando Mandanas, Batangas congressman

United States
Members of Congress and other dignitaries (not part of the official delegation, thus no VIP treatment): John Kerry, Senator from Massachusetts Bill Frist, Senate Majority Leader, Republican, from Tennessee Ted Kennedy, Senator from Massachusetts, last living brother of John F. Kennedy (the only Catholic to be a US President). White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card New York Governor George Pataki New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg

List of dignitaries

139

External links
Official (Religious and Political) Delegations in attendance [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ corpo-diplomatico/ corpo-diplomatico_stati_elenco_en. html [2] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ documents/ delegazioni-uff-esequie-jp-ii_20050408_en. html

2005 Conclave

140

2005 Conclave
Papal conclave, April 2005

Dates Location Dean Vice Dean

1819 April 2005 Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Joseph Ratzinger Angelo Sodano

Camerlengo Eduardo Martnez Somalo Protodeacon Jorge Medina Estvez Secretary Ballots Francesco Monterisi Pope elected after 4 ballots

Elected Pope Joseph Ratzinger (took name Benedict XVI)

The Papal conclave of 2005 was convened as a result of the death of Pope John Paul II on 2 April 2005. After his death, the cardinals who were in Rome met and set a date for the beginning of the conclave to elect John Paul's successor. The conclave began on 18 April 2005 and ended on the following day after four ballots. Eligible members of the College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church (those who were younger than 80 years of age at the time of the death of Pope John Paul II) met and elected Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Dean of the College of Cardinals as the new Pope. After accepting his election, he took the regnal name Benedict XVI. The first ballot, on the evening of 18 April, produced black smoke from the chimney of the Sistine Chapel, meaning no pope had been elected. More black smoke followed the two morning ballots of 19 April. White smoke emerged in the afternoon but the fact that initially the bells of St. Peter's Basilica did not ring left some uncertainty as to what this meant. Shortly after 6 p.m, they did begin pealing, thus confirming that a new pope had been elected.

Papal election process for 2005


Presiding over the conclave was the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Ratzinger from Germany. Given that Ratzinger himself was elected Pope, the duty of asking if he would accept the election and what name he would adopt (duties normally performed by the Dean) fell, in accordance with the law, to the vice-dean Angelo Sodano. It fell to the Cardinal Protodeacon, Jorge Medina Estvez, to make the solemn announcement of the election of Cardinal Ratzinger as Pope Benedict XVI. This was the first Papal election governed under provisions made by John Paul II in his Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, promulgated on 22 February 1996. According to tradition and declaration of the Camerlengo, Eduardo Martnez Somalo, Benedict XVI is the 265th Bishop of Rome, head of both the Latin Catholic

2005 Conclave Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. In a break with recent tradition, Universi Dominici Gregis provided that the cardinals were not to be locked under key in the Sistine Chapel precincts throughout the conclave. Instead they were to be lodged within the confines of the Vatican City State at the Domus Sanctae Marthae when not in session, where they did not have access to newspapers, television, radio, the Internet, or telephones for the duration of the election process. Proceedings on 18 April began with a morning Mass for the Election of the Roman Pontiff (Latin Pro Eligendo Romano Pontifice). In the afternoon the Cardinal electors assembled in the Hall of Blessings in St. Peter's Basilica and from there went in solemn procession to the Sistine Chapel, where, after the singing of the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus, each cardinal took the prescribed oath. After these and other formalities for the start of the Conclave had been observed, Archbishop Piero Marini, Papal Master of Ceremonies, gave the traditional command extra omnes (everybody out). The doors were then locked, and the actual Conclave began. In accordance with the law, one round of balloting was held on that evening. Thereafter balloting was to continue until a new Pope was elected, on a schedule of two ballots each morning and two each afternoon. The ballot slips were to be burned at noon and 7 p.m. Rome time (10:00 and 17:00 UTC) each day. The traditional procedure is that smoke from this, in times past reinforced by adding handfuls of dry or damp straw, emerged from a temporary chimney on the chapel roof as for a conclusive vote (white smoke) or an as yet undecided one (black smoke). Nowadays the straw is replaced by chemically-produced smoke. On 24 April, 5 days after Benedict XVI's election, he was ceremonially installed. Since Pope John Paul I, the historical Papal Coronation has been replaced by a simple investiture with the pallium and Papal Inauguration Mass. Many dignitaries of various countries, some of whom had attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II, also attended this function.

141

The cardinal electors


For a full list, see cardinal electors in Papal conclave, 2005. For a list of those deemed likely to be elected see List of papabili in the 2005 papal conclave.
Electors Absent 117 total 2 *Jaime Sin, (Manila), *Adolfo Surez Rivera, (Monterrey) 115 11 11 58 2 35 John Paul II (Karol Wojtya) Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger)

Present Africa Asia & Middle East Europe Oceania Americas DECEASED POPE NEW POPE

Although there were 183 cardinals in all, cardinals age 80 years or more at the time the papacy fell vacant were ineligible to vote in the conclave according to rules enacted by Pope Paul VI in 1971 and modified slightly in 1996 by John Paul II. Pope Paul also limited the number of cardinal electors to a maximum of 120, though John Paul sometimes disregarded this limit when elevating cardinals. At the time of John Paul's death, there were 117 cardinals under the age of 80 and therefore eligible to vote in the conclave. The late pope appointed another cardinal secretly (in pectore) in 2003, but his identity was never made public; since John Paul did not reveal the name of this cardinal before he died, the in pectore cardinalate expired on 2 April.

2005 Conclave All the electors were appointed by Pope John Paul II, except Jaime Sin, William Wakefield Baum and Joseph Ratzinger. The result of this (with Cardinal Sin unable to attend) was that Cardinals Baum and Ratzinger were the only cardinals in the conclave with practical experience in the papal election process, having participated in the conclaves electing John Paul I and John Paul II. This state of affairs is not unparalleled in modern conclaves: the 1903 conclave had only one elector with previous experience in electing a pope, and the 1823 conclave only two. This was due to the long pontificates which immediately preceded such conclaves. The cardinal electors came from slightly over fifty nations (up slightly from the 49 represented in 1978) around the world, about 30 of which have only a single representative. The Italian electors were the most numerous at 20, followed by the contingent from the United States of America with 11. It was officially announced on April 9 that two of the 117 cardinal electors, Jaime Sin of the Philippines and Adolfo Antonio Surez Rivera of Mexico, would not be attending the conclave due to poor health, though some reports had said Cardinal Sin had hoped for medical clearance to travel. Sin died in June. Even two short of the full number, with 115 cardinals attending, this conclave saw the largest number of cardinals ever to elect a pope; both conclaves in 1978 had 111 electors present. The supporting votes of two-thirds of the cardinals attending a conclave are needed to elect a new pope in the initial phases of the process: in this case, 77 votes.

142

Course of balloting
Pre-balloting activities
On Saturday, 9 April, in Rome, 130 cardinals meeting in the "General Congregation" (including some non-voting cardinals) voted not to talk to the press until after the conclave. The cardinal electors listened to two exhortations to the conclave cardinals before passing on to the first election on the afternoon of 18 April. The first of these exhortations on the state of the Church was delivered on the morning of Thursday, 14 April, in one of the daily general congregations. The preacher was Raniero Cantalamessa, a Capuchin friar and scholar in Church history, who has for several years preached the lenten sermons to the pope and his curial staff. The text of Cantalamessa's lecture was apparently leaked to the Italian press, who quoted him as having told the cardinals they "must guard against transforming Pentecost into a Babel, as happens when one looks for personal affirmation ... They ought to only search for the glory of God and the realisation of his reign." The second exhortation was delivered by Tom pidlk in the Sistine Chapel after the extra omnes on the afternoon of Monday 18 April, and the closing off of the conclave area to outsiders.

First day
On 18 April, after concelebrated Mass in St. Peters, the cardinals proceeded to the Sistine Chapel while the Litany of Saints was chanted. After taking their places the "Veni Creator Spiritus" ("Come, Creator Spirit") was sung. At the first conclave since their restoration, Michelangelo's Last Judgement and ceiling appeared in their full glory. The occasion was very solemn. The Cardinal Dean of the Sacred College, Joseph Ratzinger, then read the oath: We, the cardinal electors present in this election of the Supreme Pontiff promise, vow and swear, as individuals and as a group, to observe faithfully and scrupulously the prescriptions contained in the Apostolic Constitution of the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II, Universi Dominici Gregis, published on 22 February 1996. We likewise promise, pledge and swear that whichever of us by divine disposition is elected Roman Pontiff will commit himself faithfully to carrying out the munus Petrinum of Pastor of the Universal Church and will not fail to affirm and defend strenuously the spiritual and temporal rights and the liberty of the Holy See. In a particular way, we promise and swear to observe with the greatest fidelity and with all persons, clerical or lay, secrecy regarding everything that in any way relates to the election of the Roman Pontiff and regarding what occurs in the place of the election, directly or indirectly related to the results of the voting; we promise and swear not to break this secret in any way,

2005 Conclave either during or after the election of the new Pontiff, unless explicit authorization is granted by the same Pontiff; and never to lend support or favor to any interference, opposition or any other form of intervention, whereby secular authorities of whatever order and degree or any group of people or individuals might wish to intervene in the election of the Roman Pontiff. Each cardinal elector affirmed the oath by placing his hands on the book of the Gospels saying aloud: And I, (name), do so promise, pledge and swear. So help me God and these Holy Gospels which I touch with my hand. Cardinal Ratzinger, as Dean of the Sacred College, was first to go forward. He was followed by the Vice Dean, Angelo Sodano, and all the other cardinals in order of seniority. Two cardinals were striking by their different attire in the sea of red and white: Cardinals Ignatius I Daoud of the Syrian Catholic Church and Lubomyr Husar of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. After Archbishop Piero Marini (the Papal Master of Ceremonies) intoned the words extra omnes (Latin, "everybody out!"), the members of the choir, security guards, and others left the chapel and the doors of the Sistine Chapel were closed, leaving the cardinals in conclave. Results of the first ballot On the first ballot, according to the Italian daily Il Messaggero, Carlo Maria Martini obtained 40 votes, Ratzinger obtained 38 votes, and Camillo Ruini a substantial number of votes, the rest of the votes being dispersed. Alternatively, an anonymous cardinal's diary suggested Cardinal Martini only received 9 votes during the first ballot and Ratzinger in fact received as many as 47.[1] Nonetheless, both totals fell short of the required threshold and Black Smoke (fumata nera) emerged from the top of the Sistine Chapel at around 20:00 Rome time. This signaled that the first ballot had been held and that no new pope had been elected.

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Second day
The morning session of the second day ended with the Sistine Chapel chimney emitting black smoke once again (even this time it was much lighter in the first few seconds; experts say this was because the stove was new and too clean), meaning that no new pope had been elected. According to the Italian newspapers, Ratzinger had supposedly indeed reached or even exceeded the required 77 votes during the third ballot, but he asked for a vote of confirmation in the afternoon. If he had, it would have been consistent with the actions of John Paul I, who is said to have made the same request. However, according to some interpretations this would not be in conformity with the laws governing the conclave. The cardinals left for lunch before returning for the afternoon session of balloting. Tens of thousands of people, waiting in St Peter's Square for the result, were quiet at the result and the reaction was very different from the first day. At 15:50 UTC, white smoke rose above the Sistine Chapel followed by the pealing of bells ten minutes later. Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger) had been elected after four ballots. Indications given by the Italian press suggest that he obtained between 95 and 107 votes for this fourth and last ballot. Things were not glitch free as the voting slips and notes were lit after that ballot. "All of a sudden, the whole Sistine Chapel was filled with smoke," Adrianus Johannes Simonis was quoted as saying by La Stampa and La Repubblica.
The new pope Benedict XVI.

2005 Conclave "Fortunately, there were no art historians present," joked Christoph Schnborn, in a reference to the priceless paintings and other treasures in the building. The Apostolic Constitution promulgated by John Paul II, which governed the rules of the conclave, had mandated that the bells of St. Peter's were to ring following the election of a new pope. This was intended to avoid the confusion that ensued at the conclusion of the 1978 conclave when the color of the smoke was ambiguous following the successful election of John Paul II on the eighth ballot. However, the bells confirming the election of Benedict XVI began to ring only after a fourteen minute delay. Archbishop Renato Boccardo, the Vatican City Secretary-General, stated that there was a lack of coordination in the minutes following the election of the new pope. In the confusion, the Vatican official inside the conclave responsible for activating the bells failed to transfer the keys to the ringing mechanism to the appropriate person at St. Peter's Basilica in a timely fashion.

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Vote counts from a "leaked" diary


On 23 September 2005 a text purporting to be the unauthorized diary of a cardinal was published by the Italian magazine Limes. The diary gave the impression that Ratzinger more or less scraped in, and that his chief rival in the election was not Martini, but rather Jorge Bergoglio of Buenos Aires. The story was covered by several agencies. In reality the document little resembles a real diary and its credibility runs into other problems, not the least of which is that any notes taken in the voting sessions had to be handed over and burned after each ballot.[2] Furthermore, the diary's detailing of Bergoglio's support was nothing new; prominent Catholic journalist John Allen discovered and reported on Bergoglio's candidacyseveral months before the release in the alleged diaryin his book The Rise of Benedict XVI. Also, in the same book, Allen explained that, according to his interviews, Ratzinger's electoral victory was met with a large margin that had steadily gained momentum. Many believe that the alleged diary was merely a re-hashing of already-known information, then sensationalistically trumpeted by the media as a breach in the Cardinals' oath of confidentiality.

Notes
[1] "Article based on diary says German cardinal became pope with 84 votes" (http:/ / www. catholicnews. com/ data/ stories/ cns/ 0505401. htm). Catholicnews.com. . Retrieved 2011-05-03. [2] "Catholic World News : Unknown cardinal breaks secrecy, describes conclave" (http:/ / www. cwnews. com/ news/ viewstory. cfm?recnum=39784). Cwnews.com. 2005-09-23. . Retrieved 2011-05-03.

References
Allen, John L., Jr. 2005. The Rise of Benedict XVI: The inside story of how the pope was elected and where it will take the Catholic Church. Doubleday Religion. ISBN 0385513208. Greeley, Andrew M. 2005. The Making of the Pope: 2005. Brown, Little. ISBN 0316861499. Weigel, George. 2005. God's Choice: Pope Benedict XVI and the Future of the Catholic Church. HarperCollins. ISBN 0066213312.

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External links
Vacancy of the Apostolic See (http://www.vatican.va/gpII/documents/index_en.htm) (official website) Procedures and news Universi Dominici Gregis the rules governing the election (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/ apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis_en.html) Conclave procedures (http://www.time.com/time/daily/special/papacy/how.html) (Time) Hacking the Papal Election (http://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2005/04/hacking_the_pap.html), about the security of the election process Cardinal Ratzinger's homily to the pre-Papal Mass (http://www.oecumene.radiovaticana.org/en1/Articolo. asp?id=33987) Punditry and predictions Article concerning Candidates for succession (http://slate.msn.com/id/2089815/) (Slate.com)

Canonisation
Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27years. Since his death on 2 April 2005, many thousands of people have been supporting the case for beatifying and canonising the late Pope John Paul II as a saint.[1] [2] [3] [4] His formal beatification ceremony took place on 1 May 2011 [5] despite concerns over his part in the child sex abuse problem.[6]

Beatification
John Paul II's official title was: Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of Saint Peter, Head of the College of Bishops, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servus Servorum Dei, Pope John Paul II. [7] In 2006 the title Patriarch of the West was removed from the papal list of titles by the reigning pope, Benedict XVI, due to its obsolescence. On 9 May 2005, Benedict XVI began the beatification Beatification of John Paul II process for his predecessor. Normally five years must pass after a person's death before the beatification process can begin. However, in an audience with Pope Benedict XVI, Cardinal Vicar Camillo Ruini, the one responsible for promoting the cause for canonisation of any person who dies within the diocese of Rome, cited "exceptional circumstances" which suggested that the waiting period could be waived.[8] The "exceptional circumstances" may possibly refer to the people's cries of "Santo Subito!" ("Saint Now!" in Italian) during the late pontiff's funeral.[8] [9] [10] [11] Therefore the new Pope waived the five year rule "so that the cause of

Canonisation Beatification and Canonisation of the same Servant of God can begin immediately".[12] The decision was announced on 13 May 2005, the Feast of Our Lady of Ftima and the 24th anniversary of the assassination attempt on John Paul II at St. Peter's Square.[13] John Paul II often credited Our Lady of Ftima for preserving him on that day. Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar general for the diocese of Rome, officially opened the cause for beatification in the Lateran Basilica on 28 June 2005.[7] [14] [15] [16] In early 2006, it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. A French nun, confined to her bed by Parkinson's Disease or a neurological condition with similar symptoms which can go into remission, is reported to have experienced a "complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope John Paul II".[8] [17] [18] The nun was later identified as Sister Marie Simon-Pierre. Sister Marie Simon Pierre is a member of the Congregation of Little Sisters of Catholic Maternity Wards from Puyricard, near Aix-en-Provence.[19] Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, 46, is working again, now in Paris at a maternity hospital run by her order.[20] She met reporters 30 March 2006 in Aix-en-Provence, during a press conference with Archbishop of Aix Claude Feidt.[21] [22] I was sick and now I am cured, she told reporters. I am cured, but it is up to the church to say whether it was a miracle or not.[21] It has been suggested,[23] however, that Sister Marie Simon-Pierre did not have Parkinson's Disease as there is no easy way to accurately diagnose the disease short of medical autopsy. Sister Marie Simon-Pierre also suffered a relapse [24] though the Episcopal Conference of France disputed that the relapse (which would have thrown the purportedly miraculous nature of the cure into doubt) was anything more than a rumor. On 28 May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI said Mass before an estimated 900,000 people in John Paul II's native Poland. During his homily he encouraged prayers for the early canonisation of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonisation would happen "in the near future". In January 2007, it was announced by Cardinal Stanisaw Dziwisz of Krakw, his former secretary, that the key interviewing phase in Italy and Poland of the beatification process was nearing completion.[8] [25] The relics of Pope John Paul IIpieces of white papal cassocks he used to wearwere being freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause to interested parties; this distribution and prayerful use of relics is a typical praiseworthy pious practice after a saintly Catholic's death.[26] On 8 March 2007 the Vicariate of Rome announced that the diocesan phase of John Paul's cause for beatification is at an end. Following a ceremony on 2 April 2007 the second anniversary of the Pontiff's death the cause proceeded to the scrutiny of the committee of lay, clerical, and episcopal members of the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who will conduct an investigation of their own.[10] [25] On the fourth anniversary of Pope John Paul's death, 2 April 2009, Dziwisz told reporters of a presumed miracle that had recently occurred at the former pope's tomb in St. Peter's Basilica.[21] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] A nine year-old Polish boy from Gdask, who was suffering from kidney cancer and was completely unable to walk, had been visiting the tomb with his parents. On leaving St. Peter's Basilica, the boy told them, "I want to walk", and began walking normally.[27] [28] [30] [31] [32] In October 2009, Rome's mayor Gianni Alemanno said that the beatification, likely to draw huge crowds, was expected to take place in 2010, but on 4 November 2009 Monsignor Slawomir Oder, postulator of the cause of beatification, said that it was not yet known when study of the case could be concluded.[33] On 16 November 2009, a panel of reviewers at the Congregation for the Causes of Saints voted unanimously that Pope John Paul II had lived a life of virtue.[34] [35] If Pope Benedict XVI agrees, he will sign the first of two decrees needed for beatification. The first recognises that he lived a heroic, virtuous life and enables him to be called "Venerable", the next step in the sainthood process.[34] [35] That decree was signed by Pope Benedict XVI on Saturday, December 19, 2009.[36] The second vote and the second signed decree would recognise the authenticity of his first miracle (most likely, the case of Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, the French nun who was cured of Parkinson's

146

Canonisation Disease). Once the second decree is signed, the positio (the report on the cause, with documentation about his life and his writings and with information on the cause) is regarded as being complete.[35] He can then be beatified. John Paul II was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI on May 1, 2011.[37] In the course of the beatification process, Monsignor Slawomir Oder, postulator of the cause, wrote a book on Pope John Paul II called Why A Saint. Oder described how the late Pope flagellated himself with a whip that he also took to his holiday home in Castelgandolfo.[38] [39] The book publishes the testimony of 114 witnesses. Oder also mentions that when the Pope was shot in Vatican Square, he initially thought the group Brigate Rosse was responsible. Sometime before the shooting, the Pope's secret service reported a Brigate Rosse plan to kidnap him. Prior to the announcement of his beatification, some ecclesiastical authorities had expressed concern that the cure of Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, and perhaps the cure of the boy who had cancer, may not be complete and lasting, as it has not been that long since the supposed miracles.[40] [41] Sister Marie's symptoms were analyzed very thoroughly before the beatification was announced (by the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints and its medical panel for the Pope's case) to make sure they were not actually psychogenic, or related to another disease. The medical miracle was given a positive affirmation by the Congregation and its medical and theological panels, and by Pope Benedict. It would not have counted as a miracle if the cause was psychogenic and if the immediate physiological cure had not been judged to be definitive, total, and permanent, as well as directly attributable to his intercession. It will be a great joy for us when he is officially beatified, but as far as we are concerned he is already a Saint. Stanisaw Dziwisz [20]

147

Ceremony
The beatification ceremony of Pope John Paul II was held on 1 May 2011 and was presided over by Pope Benedict XVI.[42] A vigil in preparation for the celebration was held the night before in the Circus Maximus.[43] [44] The casket in which he was interred was exhumed and placed before Saint Peter's tomb on 29 April 2011.[45] It was placed in front of the main altar for public veneration during the ceremony. After the ceremony, the casket was reinterred in the Chapel of St Sebastian.[5] A vial containing the late Pope's blood, taken during the final days of his life, was displayed as a relic for veneration.[46] The reliquary in which the vial was kept during the ceremony was carried by Sister Marie, and Sister Tobiann (who nursed the Pope during his illness).[5] [47] A total of 87 international delegations attended the ceremony, Statue of Pope John Paul II outside the Catedral de la Almudena (Madrid, Spain). Made by sculptor Juan de including 22 world leaders.[45] Amid controversy, President valos (19112006) in 1998. Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe also attended the ceremony despite a European Union-wide travel ban imposed on him. He was able to travel freely into the Vatican via Rome due to a treaty that allows individuals wanting to travel to the Vatican to pass through Italy.[48] His travel ban was waived by the EU.[49] One million Catholics gathered for the mass at Saint Peter's Square,[50] where a giant portrait of the former Pope was set up.[47] [51] The city of Rome plastered 30,000 posters around the city. A no-fly zone was enforced over Saint Peter's Square.[51]

Canonisation

148

On May 2, 2011, following a two day viewing by hundreds of thousands of pilgrims, John Paul II's coffin was sealed within St Peters under the Altar of St. Sebastian.[52]

Criticism of beatification
Some Catholics question the validity of the beatification.[53] [54] Calling into question both the validity of the purported miracle and also asking whether the purported miracle should be attributed to John Paul II rather than the prayers of Sister Marie Simon-Pierre to any other saint.[55] There has been criticism of the rapidity of the beatification in light of the sexual abuse scandals.[56]

Much of the abuse, or its alleged cover-up, occurred while John Paul II was Pope, from 1979-2005, and the Church has been criticised for not doing enough to punish those found responsible.[6]

St Peter's Square during the Beatification Ceremonies

John Paul II has been criticised (more than perhaps any other issue) for not recognising the full severity of the Catholic sex abuse cases until they erupted in America in 2002. He has also been criticised for not recognising the dual life of the late Father Marcial Maciel Degollado, and for allowing diocesan bishops to transfer pedophile priests from one parish to another instead of reporting their crimes to the authorities. John Paul further stands accused of hindering Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger who allegedly was attempting to prevent sex abuse.[57]

List of dignitaries at the Beatification


Albania: President Bamir Topi[58] Belgium: HM The King of the Belgians[58] Brazil: Vice-President Michel Temer, representing President Dilma Rousseff Bulgaria: Chairwoman of the National Assembly Tsetska Tsacheva[59] Congo: President Denis Sassou Nguesso[58] Estonia: President Toomas Hendrik Ilves[58] European Union: President of the European Commission Jos Manuel Barroso[58] France: Prime Minister Franois Fillon[58] Honduras: President Porfirio Lobo Sosa[58] Hungary: Prime Minister Viktor Orbn Ireland: Government Chief Whip Paul Kehoe[60] Israel: Minister without portfolio Yossi Peled Italy: President Giorgio Napolitano, President of the Senate Renato Schifani, President of the Chamber of Deputies Gianfranco Fini, and Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi Lithuania: Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius[58] Mexico: President of Mexico Felipe Caldern[58] Palestinian Authority: Minister without portfolio Ziad El Bandak Poland: President Bronisaw Komorowski,[58] former President and leader of Solidarity, Lech Wasa Spain: TRH The Prince and Princess of Asturias,[58] Minister of the Presidency Ramn Jauregui Republic of China: Minister of the Interior Jiang Yi-huah, representing President Ma Ying-jeou United Kingdom: HRH The Duke of Gloucester, representing HM The Queen Zimbabwe: President Robert Mugabe

Canonisation

149

Title "the Great"


Since the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen throughout the world[8] [61] [62] have been referring to the late pontiff as "John Paul the Great"only the fourth pope to be so acclaimed, and the first since the first millennium.[61] [62] [63] [64] Scholars of Canon Law say that there is no official process for declaring a pope "Great"; the title simply establishes itself through popular and continued usage.[8] [65] [66] The three popes who today commonly are known as "Great" are: Leo I, who reigned from 440461 and persuaded Attila the Hun to withdraw from Rome; Gregory I, 590604, after whom the Gregorian Chant is named; and Pope Nicholas I, 858-867.[62] His successor, Pope Benedict XVI, referred to him as "the great Pope John Paul II" in his first address[67] from the loggia of St Peter's Church, and he referred to Pope John Paul II as "the Great" in his published written homily for the Mass of Repose.[68] Since giving his homily at the funeral of Pope John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI has continued to refer to John Paul II as "the Great". At the 2005 World Youth Day in Germany, Pope Benedict XVI, speaking in Polish, John Paul's native language, said, "As the great Pope John Paul II would say: keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people." In May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI visited John Paul's native Poland. During that visit he repeatedly made references to "the great John Paul" and "my great predecessor". In addition to the Vatican calling him "the great", numerous books and newspapers have also done so. Journalist Peggy Noonan readily titled her book John Paul the Great: Remembering a Spiritual Father,[69] and Catholic writer Randall Meissen subtitles his book about the late pope's influence on Catholic culture, The Spiritual Sons of John Paul the Great [70].[71] Also, the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera called him "the Greatest" and the South African Catholic newspaper, The Southern Cross, has called him "John Paul II The Great".
Stages of canonization in the Catholic Church Servant of God Venerable Blessed Saint

References
"Cause for Beatification and Canonization of The Servant of God: John Paul II" Roma - 00184 Roma. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
[72]

. 2005-2011 Vicariato di

[1] "BBC News - Pope John Paul II and Pius XII move closer to sainthood" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ 8422474. stm). news.bbc.co.uk. 2009-12-19. . Retrieved 2010-01-07. [2] "Cause for Beatification and Canonization of The Servant of God John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vicariatusurbis. org/ Beatificazione/ English/ HomePage. htm). www.vicariatusurbis.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-07. [3] "CNS STORY: For Pope John Paul II, beatification process may be on final lap" (http:/ / www. catholicnews. com/ data/ stories/ cns/ 0901522. htm). www.catholicnews.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-07. [4] "Polish press reports John Paul II to be beatified on April 2, 2010 :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)" (http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com/ news/ polish_press_reports_john_paul_ii_to_be_beatified_on_april_2_2010/ ). www.catholicnewsagency.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-07. [5] "Q&A: John Paul II's beatification" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-12194694). BBC News. 2011-04-29. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [6] "John Paul II beatified in Vatican ceremony" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-13251415). BBC News. 2011-05-01. . [7] "His Holiness John Paul II : Short Biography" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en. html). Vatican Press Office. 2005,2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. June 30, 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [8] Weeke, Stephen (2006-03-31). "Perhaps Saint John Paul the Great?'" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 12083308/ ). 2006-2009 msnbc World News (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ ). . Retrieved February 1, 2009. [9] Gould, Peter (2005-05-13). "BBC News: On the fast track to Sainthood" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4545585. stm). MMVIII BBC. . Retrieved 2008-11-03. [10] Iain Hollingshead, Iain Hollingshead (April 1, 2006). "Whatever happened to ... canonising John Paul II?" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2006/ apr/ 01/ catholicism. religion). London: 2006-2009 Guardian News and Media. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [11] Owen, Richard (2009-03-17). "Hopes raised for Pope John Paul II's beatification -Times Online" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/ article5927046. ece). London: timesonline.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-10-10.

Canonisation
[12] "Response of His Holiness Benedict XVI for the examination of the cause for beatification and canonisation of the servant of God John Paul II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ csaints/ documents/ rc_con_csaints_doc_20050509_rescritto-gpii_en. html). Vatican News. 2005-2009 Libreria Editrice Vaticana. May 9, 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [13] "Waiting Period Waived for John Paul II Benedict XVI Opens Predecessor's Cause of Beatification ROME" (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ english/ visualizza. phtml?sid=70889). Innovative Media, Inc.. . Retrieved 2009-01-08. [14] "John Paul II Biography (19202005)" (http:/ / www. biography. com/ search/ article. do?id=9355652). 1996, 2009 A&E Television Networks (http:/ / www. aetn. com/ ). . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [15] "Catholic Church to Ease Ban on Condom Use" (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,2144,1979145,00. html). 2006, 2009 Deitsche Welle (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ ). April 24, 2006. . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [16] "John Paul II's Cause for Beatification Opens in Vatican City" (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ article-13422?l=english). ZENIT (http:/ / www. zenit. org/ ). 2005-2009 Innovative Media, Inc.. 28 June 2005. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [17] "Vatican may have found Pope John Paul's miracle" (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ news/ newsitems/ 200601/ s1558425. htm). includes material from Agence France-Presse (AFP), APTN, Reuters, CNN and the BBC World Service. 2007 ABC (Australia). January 31, 2006. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [18] "Miracle attributed to John Paul II involved Parkinson's disease" (http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ news/ features/ index. cfm?recnum=42131). Catholic World News (CWN). 2009 Trinity Communications. January 30, 2006. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [19] "Nun Who Claims Cure by John Paul II Emerges to Make Her Case" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 03/ 30/ world/ europe/ 30vatican. html?_r=2& oref=slogin). Agence France-Presse ( 2007-2009 The New York Times). March 30, 2007. . Retrieved 2009-01-11. [20] Willan, Philip. "No more shortcuts on Pope John Pauls road to Sainthood" (http:/ / www. sundayherald. com/ international/ shinternational/ display. var. 1329693. 0. no_more_shortcuts_on_pope_john_pauls_road_to_sainthood. php). 2009 Newsquest (Sunday Herald) Limited (http:/ / www. sundayherald. com/ ). . Retrieved 1 February 2009. [21] "French nun says life has changed since she was healed thanks to JPII" (http:/ / www. americancatholic. org/ Features/ JohnPaulII/ JPIInun. asp). 2007,2009 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. . Retrieved 2008-11-11. [22] "John Paul II on fast track for canonization - Framingham, MA - The MetroWest Daily News" (http:/ / www. metrowestdailynews. com/ homepage/ x1864535984). www.metrowestdailynews.com. . Retrieved 2009-10-10. [23] (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2010/ 03/ 29/ world/ main6343263. shtml) CBS news report on miracle [24] (http:/ / www. aolnews. com/ 2011/ 01/ 14/ sister-marie-simon-pierre-5-facts-about-pope-john-paul-iis-mi/ ) AOL news report on miracle [25] Westcott, Kathryn (2 April 2007). "Vatican under pressure in John Paul push" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 6504233. stm). 20017-2009 BBC News (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ ). . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [26] Moore, Malcolm (September 25, 2007). "Clamour for free Pope John Paul II relics" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ 1564061/ Clamour-for-free-Pope-John-Paul-II-relics. html). London: 2007-2009 The Telegraph Media Group Limited (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ ). . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [27] "Boy Walks after Praying at John Paul II's Grave - World - Javno" (http:/ / www. javno. com/ en-world/ boy-walks-after-praying-at-john-paul-iis-grave_248457). www.javno.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [28] "Wheelchair-boy 'miraculously walks again' at memorial visit to tomb of Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ article-1166858/ Wheelchair-boy-miraculously-walks-memorial-visit-tomb-Pope-John-Paul-II. html). London: www.dailymail.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [29] "Blessed John Paul II?" (http:/ / catholic. net/ index. php?size=mas& id=2673& option=dedestaca). www.catholic.net. . Retrieved 2011-03-07. [30] "Child 'able to walk again' after praying at pope's tomb - Catholic Herald Online" (http:/ / www. catholicherald. co. uk/ articles/ a0000522. shtml). www.catholicherald.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [31] "Wheelchair-Bound Boy Walks Again After Visit to Pope John Paul II Tomb" (http:/ / www. huliq. com/ 3257/ 79289/ wheelchair-bound-boy-walks-again-after-visit-pope-john-paul-ii-tomb). www.huliq.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [32] "Wheelchair Boy 'Can Walk Thanks to Pope' [Eire Region (http:/ / vlex. co. uk/ vid/ wheelchair-boy-walk-thanks-pope-eire-60956003) Daily Mail - vLex United Kingdom"]. vlex.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [33] Catholic News Service, 2009-11-05 (http:/ / www. catholicnews. com/ data/ stories/ cns/ 0904922. htm) [34] "Pope John Paul II's Sainthood on Fast Track - The World Newser" (http:/ / blogs. abcnews. com/ theworldnewser/ 2009/ 11/ pope-john-paul-iis-sainthood-on-fast-track. html). blogs.abcnews.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. [35] "Catholic Culture : Latest Headlines : Beatification looms closer for John Paul II" (http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ news/ headlines/ index. cfm?storyid=4630). www.catholicculture.org. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. [36] "Pope John Paul II a Step Closer to Sainthood - International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,580634,00. html). FOXNews.com. 2009-12-19. . Retrieved 2010-01-07. [37] "Pope paves way to beatification of John Paul II" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-12191423). bbc.news.co.uk. 2011-01-14. . Retrieved 2011-01-14. [38] Pope John Paul II Practiced Flagellation?? (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2010/ 01/ 26/ world/ main6143579. shtml) CBSNews.com, 2010-01-26, page found 2010-12-11. [39] See also Mortification in Roman Catholic teaching. [40] Day, Michael (2010-03-06). "'Miracle' doubts delay sainthood for John Paul II" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ europe/ miracle-doubts-delay-sainthood-for-john-paul-ii-1917069. html). The Independent (London). .

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[41] "Pope paves way to beatification of John Paul II" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-12191423). BBC News. 2011-01-14. . [42] Antonius Ca izares Llovera. "DECREE CONCERNING LITURGICAL WORSHIP IN HONOUR OF BLESSED JOHN PAUL II" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ ccdds/ documents/ rc_con_ccdds_doc_20110402_dec-gpii_en. html). Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. The Holy See. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [43] "A Tribute to John Paul II: Calendar of the Beatification" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ special/ anniversario_gpii/ documents/ index_en. htm). The Holy See. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [44] "The Vigil: testimonies and prayer" Radio Vaticana, April 30, 2011 (http:/ / www. radiovaticana. org/ en1/ Articolo. asp?c=483148) [45] "John Paul II's coffin brought out before beatification" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-13240878). BBC News. 2011-04-29. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [46] "Blood of Pope John Paul II to go on display at Vatican" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-13205862). BBC News. 2011-04-27. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [47] "Late Polish-Born Pontiff to Be Declared Blessed on May 1" (http:/ / www. warsawvoice. pl/ WVpage/ pages/ article. php/ 16529/ news). Warsaw Voice. 2011-04-29. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [48] Jakachira, Kevin (2011-04-29). "Mugabe to attend special Vatican Mass" (http:/ / www. newsday. co. zw/ article/ 2011-04-29-mugabe-to-attend-special-vatican-mass). News Day. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [49] "Beatification of John Paul II celebrated across Poland" (http:/ / www. wbj. pl/ article-54352-beatification-of-john-paul-ii-celebrated-across-poland. html?typ=wbj). Warsaw Business Journal. 2011-05-02. . Retrieved 2011-05-02. [50] "One million go to beatification of Pope" (http:/ / previous. presstv. ir/ detail. aspx?id=177668& sectionid=351020606). 2011-05-01. . [51] Messia, Hada; Thompson, Nick (2011-04-28). "Rome prepares for beatification of John Paul II" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2011/ WORLD/ europe/ 04/ 28/ vatican. john. paul. beatification/ index. html?hpt=T2). CNN. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. [52] http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ afp/ article/ ALeqM5ipnKgEJIlW3WXYQIgZ0E9ly2zeTw?docId=CNG. f330bf79cb1a8819bbcd05c6144f6673. 8e1 [53] December, 2005#10 "Dissident theologians participate in the canonisation process of Pope John Paul II" (http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com/ showarchive. php?date=6). Catholic News Agency. 6 December 2005. December, 2005#10. Retrieved 11 January 2009. [54] (http:/ / www. remnantnewspaper. com/ 2011-0331-statement-of-reservations-beatification. htm) Catholic newspaper discusses reservations over beatification [55] (http:/ / ncronline. org/ blogs/ ncr-today/ conservative-catholics-question-beatification-john-paul-ii) Catholics question beatification [56] Newsweek article criticising the beatification (http:/ / www. newsweek. com/ 2011/ 04/ 17/ fast-track-saint. html) [57] Pancevski, Bojan; Follain, John (2010-04-04). "John Paul ignored abuse of 2000 boys" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/ article7086738. ece). The Times (London). . [58] "Expected attendance of 87 delegations to beatification of Juan pablo II" (http:/ / sandiegoshotels. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 04/ expected-attendance-of-87-delegations. html). The Informer. 2011-04-29. . Retrieved 2011-05-04. [59] " II " Visit Info (http:/ / www. dveri. bg/ content/ view/ 13214/ 33/ ) [60] "John Paul II beatified before huge Rome crowd" (http:/ / www. rte. ie/ news/ 2011/ 0501/ pope. html). RT. 2011-05-01. . Retrieved 2011-05-04. [61] Bottum, Joseph. "John Paul the Great" (http:/ / www. weeklystandard. com/ Content/ Public/ Articles/ 000/ 000/ 005/ 469kzdxb. asp). From the 18 April 2005 issue: Statesman and prophet, he overcame the poverty of the possible.. 2009 News Corporation (http:/ / www. newscorp. com/ ), Weekly Standard. pp. 12. . Retrieved 2009-01-09. [62] Saunders, Fr. William. "John Paul the Great" (http:/ / www. catholiceducation. org/ articles/ religion/ re0795. html). CatholicHerald.Com (http:/ / www. catholicherald. com/ ). 2005 Arlington Catholic Herald. . Retrieved 2009-01-09. [63] O'Reilly, David (2005-04-04). "Papal Legacy: Will history use name John Paul the Great?". Knight Ridder Newspapers (Detroit Free Press). "Pope John Paul the Great was a name suggested by many for Karol Jzef Wojtya. Through all its long history, the Catholic Church has conferred the posthumous title of "Great" on just two popes: Leo I and Gregory I, both of whom reigned in the first thousand years of Christianity" [64] Murphy, Brian (2005-04-05). "Faithful hold key to 'the Great' honour for John Paul". Associated Press. [65] Noonan, Peggy (August 2, 2002). "John Paul the Great: What the 12 million know--and I found out too" (http:/ / www. opinionjournal. com/ columnists/ pnoonan/ ?id=110002074). The Wall Street Journal. 2002, 2009 Dow Jones & Company. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [66] Noonan, Peggy (November 2005). John Paul the Great: Remembering a Spiritual Father (http:/ / us. penguingroup. com/ nf/ Search/ QuickSearchProc/ 1,,John Paul the Great: Remembering a Spiritual Father,00. html?id=John Paul the Great: Remembering a Spiritual Father). New York: Penguin Group (USA). ISBN9780670037483. . Retrieved January 31, 2009. [67] "Text: Benedict XVI's first speech" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4462443. stm). 2005 BBC. 2005-04-19. . Retrieved 2009-01-09. "Dear brothers and sisters, after the great Pope John Paul II, the cardinals have elected me, a simple and humble worker in the Lord's vineyard. The fact that the Lord can work and act even with insufficient means consoles me, and above all I entrust myself to your prayers. In the joy of the resurrected Lord, we go on with his help. He is going to help us and Mary will be on our side. Thank you." [68] "Eucharistic Concelebration for the Repose of the Soul of Pope John Paul II: Homily of Card. Angelo Sodano" (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ gpII/ documents/ sodano-suffragio-jp-ii_20050403_en. html). 2005,2009 The Holy See. April 3, 2005. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [69] Noonan, Peggy. John Paul the Great: Remembering a Spiritual Father. New York: Viking, 2005. Print. [70] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Living-Miracles-Spiritual-Sons-Great/ dp/ 1933271272/

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[71] Living Miracles: The Spiritual Sons of John Paul the Great Living Miracles (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Living-Miracles-Spiritual-Sons-Great/ dp/ 1933271272/ ), the book focuses especially on the influence of John Paul II on Catholic culture from the perspective of priests, bishops, and seminarians. [72] http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com/ resource. php?n=1458

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Places named after him


Pope John Paul II was celebrated during his lifetime and later posthumously with several honours and as the namesake of several places and institutions. Such places often bear the name John Paul II but newer institutions are using the name John Paul the Great. The historic house museum located in his family home in Wadowice, Poland is called the Holy Father John Paul II Family Home in Wadowice. Educational and cultural centres named in honour of the Pope include the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family whose largest campuses are located Pope Benedict XVI is shown a map of Ioannes Paulus II at the Lateran University in Rome, Italy and Catholic Peninsula in Antarctica. University of America in Washington, DC, United States. Affiliated campuses are found in Australia, Benin, Brazil, India, Mexico and Spain. There is also a Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in the United States capital. John Paul the Great Catholic University is a rededicated degree-granting institution in San Diego, California.[1] Several John Paul II Catholic Centres may be found on college and university campuses around the world, usually serving students and staff as Roman Catholic chapels.[2] Several elementary and secondary schools also use the name John Paul II or John Paul the Great, like Pope John Paul the Great Catholic High School in Prince William County, Virginia,[3] administered by the Dominican Sisters of Saint Cecilia or "Nashville Dominicans." (The tabernacle and cornerstone of the school were blessed by Pope Benedict XVI during Mass at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. on 17 April 2008.) Several national and municipal public projects were named in honour of the Pope. Rome's main railway station, the Roma Termini station, was dedicated to Pope John Paul II by a vote of the City Council, a first municipal public object in Rome bearing the name of a non Italian. International airports named after him are John Paul II International Airport Krakw-Balice one of the principal airports of Polandand the Joo Paulo II Airport in the Azores. The Juan Pablo II Bridge is located in Chile, while John Paul II Square in Bulgaria denotes the Pope's visit to Sofia in 2002. Estdio Joo Paulo II (John Paul II Stadium) is a football (soccer) stadium in Mogi-Mirim in Brazil. Parvis Notre-Dame - Place Jean-Paul II is a centrepiece of one of Paris' neighbourhoods. Pope John Paul II Park is a feature of Boston, Massachusetts[4] while Pope John Paul II Drive serves residents of Chicago, Illinois.[5] In San Diego, California, New Catholic University has renamed itself John Paul the Great Catholic University.[6] In the Philippines, the Parish of Jesus, the Way the Truth and the Life mear SM Mall of Asia in Pasay City is also called the John Paul II International Youth Centre. When the Vatican's Secretary for Relations with States, Archbishop Jean Louis Tauran went to the country, he was greeted by the youth from all the Suffragan Dioceses of the Archdiocese of Manila there. In Pasig Catholic College, one of the main exit gates for High School Students is named "Pope John Paul II Gate". This gate immediately leads to the Bishop's estate and The Immaculate Conception Cathedral. In Bacolod City, a tower was dedicated to him at the Reclamation area near SM City Bacolod and was named The Pope John Paul II Tower. It is the city's highest structure.

Places named after him Of international interest, Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands was named in honour of the Pope. The Antarctic landmark recognises his contribution to world peace and understanding among people.

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Buildings
Churches and chapels
Kaple bl. Jana Pavla II., a chapel of the Hospice of Saint John Neumann in Prachatice, Czech Republic, since 2011-05-01 (dedication celebration began on 4:00 p. m.)[7] [8]

Schools
Australia John Paul II Catholic Primary School [9] Clarendon Vale, Hobart, Tasmania John Paul College [10] in Daisy Hill, Queensland St Andrews College - John Paul II Campus [11], Marayong, NSW John Paul II Institute for Marriage and Family [12] in Melbourne, Australia

Brazil In Brasilia, there is a Marist School: Colgio Marista Joo Paulo II. Canada In Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. (John Paul II Catholic High School) In Okotoks, Alberta. (Pope John Paul II Collegiate) In Barrie, Ontario. (Pope John Paul II Catholic School) In London, Ontario. (John Paul II Catholic Secondary School) In Hamilton, Ontario. (Pope John Paul II Catholic Elementary School) In Oakville, Ontario. (Pope John Paul II Catholic Elementary School) In Richmond Hill, Ontario. (Pope John Paul II Catholic Elementary School) In Scarborough, Ontario. (Pope John Paul II Secondary School) In Thunder Bay, Ontario. (Pope John Paul II School) In North Battleford, Saskatchewan. (John Paul II Collegiate)

Czech Republic In Prague: Crkevn stedn zdravotnick kola Jana Pavla II. (Church Secondary Paramedical School of John Paul II), New Town, Jen street, established by Prague Archbishopry In Hradec Krlov: Zkladn kola a matesk kola Jana Pavla II. (Elementary School and Kindergarten of John Paul II), a church school established by Hradec Krlov Bishopry Uganda In Gulu, Northern Uganda . (Pope John Paul II College, Gulu) In Uganda, East Africa, (Pope John Paul II College, Gulu)

Places named after him India Pope John Paul II College of Education, Puducherry Italy In Cesena. In Ostia. In Lecce. In Cimbro-Cuirone, in the Province of Varese; it's the first school named Giovanni Paolo II (since 2005-12-28).[13] In Peschiera del Garda, in the Province of Verona. In Tropea, in the Province of Vibo Valentia. Mexico In Puebla, in the province of Tehuacan, Colegio Karol Wojtyla [14] New Zealand John Paul II High School (Greymouth) in Greymouth John Paul College, Rotorua Poland John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin Elementary school in Oksa, in Jdrzejw County Elementary school in Dalachw, in the Opole Voivodeship. Economic High School in Zotw Elementary School in oma Elementary School in ochowo http://www.lochowo.cominfo.pl/news.php Secondary School in Sochaczew Elementary School in Zielonki Elementary school in Nowy Scz in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship

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Slovakia Elementary school (Z) in Koice, Slovakia, was renamed in 2007, consequently with renaming the street from Lechkho to Jna Pavla II, to Zkladn kola Ulica Jna Pavla II. In 2010, the school was renamed back according to Matej Lechk, this once to the honorary name Z Mateja Lechkho according to the musician and education innovator Matj Lechk, but the street remains named by John Paul II.[15] Zkladn kola Jna Pavla II., Bratislava, an elementary school established by Bratislava Archdiocese

Places named after him United Kingdom Secondary school in Glasgow, Scotland. John Paul II Catholic School [16] in London United States John Paul the Great Catholic University in San Diego, California See Pope John Paul II High School John Paul II Catholic School (Houston, Texas) in Houston, Texas John Paul II High School in Plano, Texas Official webpage [17] Pope John Paul the 2nd School in Wilmington, Delaware John Paul II Polish Saturday School (Polska Szkoa Sobotnia im. Jana Pawa II) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin John Paul II Academy in Racine, Wisconsin Pope John Paul II High School in Nashville, Tennessee John Paul II Elementary in Mitchell, South Dakota Pope John Paul II Regional School in Willingboro, New Jersey John Paul the Great Catholic High School in Dumfries, Virginia Pope John Paul II High School in Hyannis, Massachusetts John Paul II Catholic School [18] in Gillette, Wyoming Pope John Paul II High School [19] in Royersford, Pennsylvania Pope John Paul II Regional Catholic School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pope John Paul II School Toledo, Ohio

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Philippines In Valenzuela City, a building in Our Lady of Fatima University Valenzuela (main) campus is named Pope John Paul II (PJP) Building. Similarly, another building of the same school in Quezon City (Lagro annex) also bears the same name. In Davao City, John Paul II College of Davao was also named after him and the campus was launched in 2000.

Hospitals
District Hospital in Bartoszyce, Poland Szpital Powiatowy im. Jana Pawa II Provincial Hospital in Bechatw, Poland Szpital Wojewdzki im. Jana Pawa II Eye Hospital in Bielsko-Biaa, Poland Beskidzkie Centrum Onkologii im. Jana Pawa II Hospital in Gogw, Poland Szpital Miejski im. Jana Pawa II Hospital in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Poland Szpital Zachodni im. Jana Pawa II Hospital in Gryfino, Poland Szpital im. Jana Pawa II Children's Hospital in Katowice, Poland Grnolskie Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka im. Jana Pawa II Geriatrics Hospital in Katowice, Poland Szpital Geriatryczny im. Jana Pawa II Hospital in Krakw, Poland Krakowski Szpital Specjalistyczny im. Jana Pawa II[20] Hospital in Nowy Targ, Poland Podhalaski Szpital Specjalistyczny im. Jana Pawa II Pediatrics Hospital in Sosnowiec, Poland Centrum Pediatrii im. Jana Pawa II w Sosnowcu District Hospital in Wadowice, Poland Szpital Powiatowy im. Jana Pawa II District Hospital in Wiele, Poland Szpital Powiatowy im. Jana Pawa II Hospitium in Katowice, Poland Archidiecezjalny Dom Hospicyjny im. Jana Pawa II Hospitium in ory, Poland Stowarzyszenie Przyjaci Chorych Hospicjum im. Jana Pawa II

Places named after him

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Public areas
Parks and green areas
Medelln, Colombia; 1986. Parque Juan Pablo II, or Aeroparque Juan Pablo II is a water park, located in the Colombian city of Medelln, near the Olaya Herrera Airport. It has a variety of pools, with pulleys, slides, wave. It also has a trail for sports on wheels. It has a coliseum and an acoustical shell, used for shows. Cremona; on 6 May 2006.[21] Milan; on 19 January 2007.[22] Pisa; on 20 March 2006.[23] Rimini; on 9 January 2007.[24] Verona; on 20 December 2006[25] Dorchester, Massachusetts, USA; in June, 2001.[26] Ruomberok, Slovakia, Park Jna Pavla II., at Andrej Hlinka Square, since 2011-05-01[27] Vodany, Czech Republic: Park Jana Pavla II., since Summer 2005[28] [29]

Squares
Poland In Biella. In Czechowice-Dziedzice, Poland Plac Jana Pawa II In Katowice, Poland Plac Jana Pawa II In Pruszkw, Poland Plac Jana Pawa II In Ruda lska, Poland Plac Jana Pawa II In Wadowice, Poland Plac Jana Pawa II In Wrocaw, Poland Plac Jana Pawa II

Slovakia In Bratislava, Slovakia Nmestie Jna Pavla II., since 2005-09-22[30] In ilina, Slovakia Nmestie Jna Pavla II., since 2006-06-03[31] In Michalovce, Slovakia Nmestie Jna Pavla II., since 2011-05-01, formerly Nmestie SNP[32] Hungary In Dunajvros, Hungary II. Jnos Pl ppa tr.[33] In Gyr, Hungary II. Jnos Pl ppa tr In Budapest, Hungary II. Jnos Pl ppa tr
[34]

Places named after him Croatia In Zaprei, Croatia Trg pape Ivana Pavla II. In Osijek, Croatia Trg pape Ivana Pavla II. Czech Republic In Hradec Krlov, Czech Republic Nmst Jana Pavla II., since 2005-04-27, formerly Decanal Square[35] Other countries In Palermo. In Ponte San Nicol in the Province of Padua. In Cesena in the Province of Forl-Cesena. In Frosinone since 2005-04-20 to commemorate the mass which the Pope celebrated in.[36] In Montescaglioso, in the Province of Matera, since 2007-01-06.[37]

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In Paris, on 15 August 2006; the place du Parvis-Notre-Dame (French for "Notre-Dame square") was renamed Parvis Notre-Dame - Place Jean-Paul II ("Notre-Dame - John Paul II square") after a ceremony and a religious procession with the Archbishop of Paris Andr Vingt-Trois and the mayor Bertrand Delano. In the squere now is located a stone where is written: "Amour et Vrit se rencontrent. Justice et Paix s'embrassent" L'hommage du monde et de Cambrai. In Metz, the parvise of Saint-Stephen cathedral In Sofia the John Paul II Square was named for him on the occasion of his visit to Bulgaria in 2002. In Jersey City, NJ at St. Peter's Preparatory School, the section of Warren Street between the streets of Grand and York was renamed Pope John Paul II Square. In Coimbra, Portugal, "Praa Joo Paulo II",[38] inaugurated 15 May 1982, on the first visit to Portugal. In Las Condes, Santiago de Chile: "Plaza Juan Pablo II", named after his visit to the southern country.

Streets, roads and avenues


Poland In Czstochowa, Poland, John Paul II Avenue (Aleja Jana Pawa II). In Zotw, Poland, John Paul II Roundabout (Rondo Jana Pawa II). In Radom, Poland, John Paul II Street (Ulica Jana Pawa II) In Ostrowiec witokrzyski, Poland, John Paul II Avenue ("Aleja Jana Pawa II"). In Warsaw, Poland, John Paul II Avenue. In Jdrzejw, Poland, John Paul II street. In Tomaszw Lubelski, Poland, John Paul II Street (Ulica Jana Pawa II) Most Polish cities have a street named after John Paul II.
Street named after John Paul II in Otranto

Places named after him Slovakia In Preov, Slovakia: ulica Jna Pavla II. Since June 2005[39] In Koice, Slovakia: ulica Jna Pavla II. (formerly Lechkho street), since 2007-05-22[40] In Detva, Slovakia: ulica Jna Pavla II., since 2007-05-18[41] In Poprad, Slovakia: nbreie Jna Pavla II., since 2007-01-01[42]

158

Other countries In Aachen, Germany - a section of the Klostergasse (near the city's cathedral was renamed Johannes-Paul-II.-Strae. In Altopascio in the Province of Lucca. In Noceto in the Province of Parma.[43] In Montevago, Province of Agrigento. In Otranto. In Dubrovnik as the avenue bordering the main port. He offered mass in a church on this street, when he blessed the city [44] In Pieve a Nievole, in the Province of Pistoia. In Vercelli. In Puebla City, Mexico: John Paul II Circuit (Circuito Juan Pablo II) In Mexico City, Mexico: John Paul II street (Avenida Juan Pablo II) is the residence where he used to stay at his four visits to the city. In Guadalajara, Mexico: John Paul II Ave. (Avenida Juan Pablo II) In El Alto, Bolivia: John Paul II Avenue (Avenida Juan Pablo II.) In Chicago, Illinois, United States: Pope John Paul II Drive In San Salvador, El salvador: Alameda Juan Pablo II In Lisbon, Portugal (neighbourghood of Chelas): Avenida Joo Paulo II Drive.[45] In Funchal, Madeira, Portugal: Rua Joo Paulo II. In Fiumefreddo di Sicilia, in the Province of Catania: Pope John Paul II street ("Via Giovanni Paolo II"). In Solarino, in the Province of Syracuse: Pope John Paul II street ("Via Giovanni Paolo II"). In Chihuahua, Chihuahua, in Mexico: John Paul II Boulevard ("Blvd. Juan Pablo II"). In Trujillo, Peru, the avenue John Paul II, near the Papal Square ("Ovalo Papal") were the pope offered a mass during his trip to Peru. In Victoria, Gozo, John Paul II street ("Triq Gwanni Pawlu II") In Pcs, Hungary, John Paul II street, the road on which John Paul II entered the city on his visit in 1991. In Yonkers, New York, John Paul II Boulevard. In Jersey City, New Jersey, on the campus of Saint Peter's Preparatory High School, Pope John Paul II Plaza. In Sherbrooke (Rue Jean-Paul-II) In Montral (Rue Jean-Paul-II) In Cholet (Rue Jean-Paul II and Parvis Jean-Paul II) In Chicago, Illinois, Pope John Paul II Drive A street in Victoria the capital of Gozo (Malta) was named after Pope John Paul II and a monument with his figure was erected at its beginning. The street leads to the national shrine dedicated to Our Lady of ta' Pinu.

Places named after him

159

Bridges
Juan Pablo II Bridge in Chile Third Millennium John Paul II Bridge in Gdask, Poland Most im. Jana Pawa II[46] John Paul II Bridge, Puawy in Puawy, Poland Most im. Jana Pawa II[47]

Transport terminals
Airports
The airport of Bari, in Italy, is named Bari "Karol Wojtyla" International Airport; (IATA: BRI,ICAO: LIBD). The airport of Krakw is named John Paul II International Airport Krakw-Balice; (IATA: KRK,ICAO: EPKK). The airport of Ponta Delgada, in Portugal, is named Joo Paulo II Airport because he visited that city; (IATA: PDL,ICAO: LPPD).

Railway stations
The train station of Roma Termini was entitled to him on 23 December 2006.[48]

Natural places
In 2005, a 2424m (7953ft) peak previously named "The Gendarme" was renamed "Pope John Paul II" at a ceremony celebrated by the Cardinal Jos Saraiva Martins in a medieval chapel on what would have been the Pope's 85th birthday.[49] [50] The Pope who felt mountains were "a special place to meet God" often visited the Gran Sasso saying it reminded him of the mountains of his native Poland. After that dedicatio was born the association "cima Giovanni Paolo II" chairman by Gianni Alemanno. Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Pope John Paul II in recognition of his outstanding contribution to world peace and understanding among people.

Other
The Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in Washington, D.C. is named for and dedicated to him. The John Paul II Center at the Basilica of St. Josaphat in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is dedicated to Blessed Pope John Paul II. The public canteen of the needy in Rome was named for him by Pope Benedict XVI. The main library of the National University of Ireland, Maynooth is named after Pope John Paul II to mark his visit to the college Pope John Paul II Newman Center at Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois Centrum vonho asu Jna Pavla II. (Center of Leisure Time of John Paul II - a youth center), Preov, Slovakia

Places named after him

160

Venezuela
After Pope John Paul II first visit to Venezuela in 1985, a set residential is named in his honor, this due a mass conducted by him in the urbanization Montalban, located in west Caracas, about two million people attended that mass.

Not places
Other organizations etc. Spevcky zbor Jna Pavla II., Choir of John Paul II in Bratislava-Vajnory, Slovakia, established 1990[51]

Notes
[1] "John Paul the Great Catholic University" (http:/ / www. jpcatholic. com). 2005-2008, John Paul the Great Catholic University. . Retrieved 8 January 2009. [2] "John Paul II Newman Center" (http:/ / www. jp2newman. com/ ). 2009 John Paul II Newman Center, Chicago, IL 60607. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [3] "Catholic Diocese of Arlington" (http:/ / www. arlingtondiocese. org/ ). 2009 Catholic Diocese of Arlington. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [4] "Pope John Paul II Park Reservation" (http:/ / www. mass. gov/ dcr/ parks/ metroboston/ pjp. htm). 2009 Department of Conservation and Recreation (http:/ / www. mass. gov/ dcr/ ) (DCR), Mass.. . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [5] "Google Maps: Pope John Paul II Dr, Chicago, IL, USA" (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?q=W+ Pope+ John+ Paul+ II+ Dr,+ Chicago,+ IL+ 60632,+ USA& sa=X& oi=map& ct=title). 2009 Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?hl=en& tab=wl). . Retrieved 12 January 2009. [6] "New Catholic University changes name to John Paul the Great Catholic University" (http:/ / www. jpcatholic. com/ NCUNews/ Jun2005. php). 2005-2009, John Paul the Great Catholic University.. 6 June 2005. . Retrieved 11 January 2009. [7] Ji Prinz: Prvn kaple bl. Jana Pavla II. v esku (http:/ / tisk. cirkev. cz/ z-domova/ prvni-kaple-bl-jana-pavla-ii-v-cesku), press center of the Czech Episcopal Conference, 2011-05-03 [8] Ren Kekely: Kaple v prachatickm hospici ponese jmno bvalho papee Jana Pavla II. (http:/ / web. volny. cz/ noviny/ z-domova/ clanek/ ~volny/ IDC/ 162068/ kaple-v-prachatickem-hospici-ponese-jmeno-byvaleho-papeze-jana-pavla-ii. html), Voln.cz, 2011-04-19, source: Mediafax [9] http:/ / www. johnpaul. tas. edu. au/ [10] http:/ / www. jpc. qld. edu. au/ Pages/ home. aspx [11] http:/ / www. parra. catholic. edu. au/ Our-Schools/ School-Profiles/ School-Profile. aspx?SchoolName=St+ Andrews+ College+ -+ John+ Paul+ II+ Campus%2C+ Marayong [12] http:/ / www. jp2institute. org/ info. html [13] (Italian) Comune di Vergiate, "Intitolazione della scuola primaria di Cimbro/Cuirone a Karol Wojtyla" (http:/ / www. comune. vergiate. va. it/ atti/ Delibere_giunta/ G_2006_1. pdf). [14] http:/ / colegiokarol. com [15] kola ponesie meno Mateja Lechkho (http:/ / korzar. sme. sk/ c/ 5543712/ skola-ponesie-meno-mateja-lechkeho. html), Korzr.sk. 2010-09-11 [16] http:/ / www. ldcsb. on. ca/ schools/ jp2/ [17] http:/ / www. johnpauliihs. org/ [18] http:/ / johnpauliicatholicschool. com/ index. php [19] http:/ / www. pjphs. org/ [20] Hospital official webpage (http:/ / www. szpitaljp2. krakow. pl/ eng/ ) [21] (Italian) e-Cremona, "Comune: i giardini pubblici saranno intitolati a Giovanni Paolo II" (http:/ / www. e-cremona. it/ article. php?sid=9) 5 May 2006. [22] (Italian) Comune di Milano, "Toponomastica. Milano dedica una via a De Andr e Gaber, un parco a Giovanni Paolo II e Oriana Fallaci" (http:/ / www. comune. milano. it/ webcity/ comunicati. nsf/ weball/ 10FAF3D9BE5E13AEC125726800508AF2). [23] (Italian) Comune di Pisa, "Delibera n22" (http:/ / www. comune. pisa. it/ doc/ sit-pisa/ stradario/ del22_2006. htm). [24] (Italian) rimini.com, "Al Papa Giovanni Paolo II dedicato il parco del PEEP Fiera" (http:/ / www. rimini. com/ news/ index/ notizia-7990-titolo-Al+ Papa+ Giovanni+ Paolo+ II+ dedicato+ il+ parco+ del+ PEEP+ Fiera). [25] (Italian) Comune di Verona, "Delibera Giunta comunale del giorno 20 Dicembre 2006" (http:/ / www. comune. verona. it/ internet/ VeronaWE. nsf/ 01f93b9492d1e7c74125670d0032ee89/ f42d82aa3701454b4125725300371b3c?OpenDocument). [26] "Mass Dept. of Conservation and Recreation" Retrieved on 22 June 2008 (http:/ / www. mass. gov/ dcr/ parks/ metroboston/ pjp. htm) [27] Katolcka univerzita otvorila Park Jna Pavla II. (http:/ / www. fuu. sk/ 2011/ 05/ 89819-katolicka-univerzita-otvorila-park-jana-pavla-ii), F.sk, 2011-05-01, from SITA - Webnoviny

Places named after him


[28] Olga Rbov: Podpora cestovnho ruchu na Vodansku (http:/ / theses. cz/ id/ 514i7a/ downloadPraceContent_adipIdno_8742), a bachelor these, Jihoesk univerzita v eskch Budjovicch, Ekonomick fakulta, Katedra obchodu a cestovnho ruchu, 2008. P. 20, source: Vodany a Vodansko - turistick prvodce [29] Ve Vodanech chtj pojmenovat park po bvalm papei (http:/ / www. rozhlas. cz/ cb/ zpravodajstvi/ _zprava/ ve-vodnanech-chteji-pojmenovat-park-po-byvalem-papezi--179748), esk rozhlas (Czech Radio), 2007-05-14 [30] Petralka m Nmestie Jna Pavla II. (http:/ / www. topky. sk/ ?sid=1& cid=85603), Topky.sk. 2005-09-23, from Nov as [31] Nmestie Jna Pavla II. (http:/ / zilina-gallery. sk/ picture. php?/ 1590/ category/ 142), ilina Gallery [32] Michalovce bud ma od nedele nmestie Jna Pavla II. (http:/ / bratislava. virtualne. sk/ spravodajstvo/ michalovce-budu-mat-od-nedele-namestie-jana-pavla-ii-. html), 2011-04-30, Bratislava virtuln, SITA [33] (Hungarian) Announcement of the City of Dunajvros http:/ / www. dunaujvaros. hu/ hir. php?newsid=296 [34] (English)http:/ / www. politics. hu/ 20110426/ us-embassy-says-understands-renaming-budapests-roosevelt-square/ [35] Nmst Jana Pavla II. v Hradci Krlov (http:/ / www. diecezehk. cz/ aktuality/ zpravy/ 345-namesti-jana-pavla-ii. -v-hradci-kralove. html), Bishopry of Hradec Krlov, 2005-04-28 [36] (Italian) Comune di Frosinone, (http:/ / www. comune. frosinone. it/ primo_piano/ gpII/ intro_gpII. htm). [37] (Italian) montescaglioso.net, "Inaugurazione piazza: Giovanni Paolo II" (http:/ / www. montescaglioso. net/ node/ 1405). [38] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com/ ?ie=UTF8& ll=40. 207246,-8. 419905& spn=0. 003925,0. 010042& z=17) [39] VZN 141/2005, ktorm sa uruj nzvy novch ulc a verejnho priestranstva v meste Preov (http:/ / www. presov. sk/ portal/ ?c=12& id=3952), 2005-06-01 [40] Veobecne zvzn nariadenie . 92: O zmene nzvu ulice Lechkho ulica (http:/ / www. kosice. sk/ vzn. asp?id=100), vyhlsen: 07.05.2007, platn od: 22.05.2007, City of Koice [41] Veobecne zvzn nariadenie mesta Detva . 5/2007, o uren nzvu novovzniknutej ulice v asti IBV Dolinky Ulica Jna Pavla II. (http:/ / www. detva. sk/ download_file_f. php?id=102189), Mesto Detva, 2007-05-18 [42] Popradsk nbreie sa premenuje na Nbreie Jna Pavla II. (http:/ / mesto. sk/ prispevky_velke/ poprad/ popradskenabrezies1147951620. phtml), Sita, 2006-05-18, [43] (Italian) noceto.it, "Manifestazione in memoria di Giovanni Paolo II" (http:/ / www. comune. noceto. pr. it/ online/ page. asp?IDCategoria=2316& IDSezione=0& IDOggetto=4863& Tipo=APPUNTAMENTO). [44] KATOLIKA CRKVA - NADBISKUPIJA RIJEKA (1970-01-01). "Obala papa ivana pavla II - Google Maps" (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?hl=en& client=safari& rls=en& q=Obala+ papa+ ivana+ pavla+ II& um=1& ie=UTF-8& sa=N& tab=wl). Maps.google.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-16. [45] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?hl=en& safe=off& q=w+ pope+ john-paul-ii+ drive+ chicago+ il& ie=UTF8& ll=41. 815146,-87. 693644& spn=0. 016856,0. 029011& z=15& iwloc=addr& om=1) [46] > Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?f=q& source=s_q& hl=en& geocode=& q=Most+ Jana+ Pawa+ II+ ,+ Gdask,+ Poland& sll=54. 354856,18. 692894& sspn=0. 031612,0. 038452& ie=UTF8& hq=& hnear=most+ Jana+ Pawa+ II,+ Gdask,+ Pomorskie,+ Poland& ll=54. 355584,18. 694503& spn=0. 001976,0. 002403& z=18& iwloc=A) [47] > Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?f=q& source=s_q& hl=en& geocode=& q=Most+ Jana+ Pawa+ II+ ,+ Puawy,+ Poland& sll=54. 355584,18. 694503& sspn=0. 001976,0. 002403& ie=UTF8& hq=& hnear=most+ im. + Jana+ Pawa+ II,+ Puawy,+ Puawski,+ Lubelskie,+ Poland& z=16& iwloc=A) [48] (Italian) News on italian railways official website. (http:/ / www. ferroviedellostato. it/ ferrovie/ v/ index. jsp?vgnextoid=78bf91b5184cf010VgnVCM1000001c42fe0aRCRD) [49] "Peak is named after late pontiff" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4377651. stm). BBC News. 18 May 2005. . [50] (Italian) Corpo Forestale dello Stato, "Comunicato stampa. Cima Giovanni Paolo II" (http:/ / prototipo. corpoforestaledellostato. it/ portal/ page/ categoryItem?contentId=16344). [51] Spevcky zbor Jna Pavla II.-Vajnory (http:/ / www. vajnory. sk/ index. php?id=424), City District of Bratislava-Vajnory

161

Pope John Paul II Cultural Center

162

Pope John Paul II Cultural Center


Pope John Paul II Cultural Center

Established Location

2001 3900 Harewood Road NE Washington, D.C. 20017 - 4471 Religious museum

Type

Public transit access BrooklandCUA (Washington Metro) Website www.jp2cc.org [1]

The Pope John Paul II Cultural Center was established to house a Roman Catholic museum and think tank in Washington, D.C. The concept for the center began at a meeting between Pope John Paul II and then-Bishop Adam Maida in 1988. The 130000-square-foot (12000m2) building is set on 12 acres (4.9 ha) adjacent to The Catholic University of America and the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception. The center was opened to the public in a ceremony in March 2001, attended by President George W. Bush, several cardinals, members of Congress and other dignitaries. The Center's original purpose was to explore the intersection of faith and culture through interactive displays, academic discussion and research, and museum exhibits. The academic discussions and special events reportedly have been successful.[2] However, the center could not overcome optimistic attendance and financial projections that were based upon anticipated paid admissions. The new center was affected by a downturn in visitors following the 9/11 attack in the Washington, DC region just six months after opening and then an economic recession. The building eventually was open by appointment only and put up for sale. Pope Benedict XVI met with about 200 representatives of Islam, Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism at the Pope John Paul II Cultural Center on April 17, 2008.[3] Carl Anderson, Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus, announced on August 2, 2011 plans to purchase the Cultural Center. The intent is to "create a shrine and museum honoring the life of Blessed Pope John Paul II."[4] . The news was welcomed by Rev. Steven Boguslawski, O.P., executive director of the Pope John Paul II Cultural Foundation, which owns the building. He said the purchase would "bring a new vibrancy" to the building and that the papal memorabilia owned by the Foundation would continue to be displayed in an expanded exhibit managed by the new owner.[5]

Pope John Paul II Cultural Center

163

Notes
[1] http:/ / www. jp2cc. org/ [2] "Overview of the Pope John Paul II Cultural Foundation" (http:/ / www. jp2cf. org/ images/ JP2CF_background. pdf). John Paul II Cultural Foundation. . Retrieved 19 Aug 2011. [3] CNS STORY: Pope meets interreligious leaders, says dialogue discovers truth (http:/ / www. catholicnews. com/ data/ stories/ cns/ 0802110. htm) [4] "Knights of Columbus to Buy JPII Cultural Center in Washington, DC" (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ vnews/ getstory. asp?number=114666). Catholic News Agency. . Retrieved 03 Aug 2011. [5] "Overview of the Pope John Paul II Cultural Foundation" (http:/ / www. jp2cf. org/ images/ JP2CF_background. pdf). John Paul II Cultural Foundation. . Retrieved 19 Aug 2011.

External links
Pope John Paul II Cultural Center (http://www.jp2cc.org/) "Knights of Columbus to purchase Pope John Paul II center" (http://ncronline.org/news/faith-parish/ knights-columbus-purchase-pope-john-paul-ii-center) National Catholic Reporter (August 3, 2011) "Knights of Columbus to Take Over JPII Center in Washington" (http://www.ncregister.com/daily-news/ knights-of-columbus-to-take-over-jpii-center-in-washington/) National Catholic Register (August 14, 2011) "D.C. Papal Museum Struggles For Financial Foothold, Focus: 5-Year-Old Catholic Center Facing Debt, Low Attendance" (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/11/AR2006021100843_pf. html) Washington Post (February 12, 2006) "Papal centers spiral costly" (http://freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2006603160555) Detroit Free Press (March 16, 2006) "Papal center problems" (http://freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060316/NEWS05/603160554) Detroit Free Press (March 16, 2006) "Of Business Practices and accountability" (http://ncronline.org/NCR_Online/archives2/2006a/030306/ 030306za.htm) National Catholic Reporter (March 3, 2006) "How can Maida salvage his $75 million gamble?" (http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/ 20060225/NEWS05/602250348/-1/BUSINESS07) Detroit Free Press (February 25, 2006) "DC Catholic center falling shy of vision" (http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/ chi-0602200174feb20,1,4809344.story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-hed) Chicago Tribune (February 20, 2006) "Detroit archdiocese investment goes sour" (http://detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?aID=/20060219/ LIFESTYLE04/602190382/1041/LIFESTYLE) Detroit News (February 19, 2006) "Maida says JPII Center received $40 million from Detroit" (http://ncronline.org/NCR_Online/archives2/ 2006a/021706/021706k.php) National Catholic Reporter (February 17, 2006) "Maida letter details DC site debt" (http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060204/NEWS05/ 602040306/-1/BUSINESS07) Detroit Free Press (February 4, 2006) "Financially strapped Archdiocese subsidizes troubled Center" (http://ncronline.org/NCR_Online/archives2/ 2006a/021006/021006h.php) National Catholic Reporter (February 10, 2006)

Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula

164

Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula


Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula (Bulgarian: II Poluostrov Yoan Pavel II Bulgarian pronunciation:[polustrov joan pave ftri]) is an ice-covered peninsula on the north coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica that is bounded by Hero Bay to the east and Barclay Bay to the west. It extends 13km in length in north-south direction and is 8km wide. Its north extremity is formed by the ice-free Cape Shirreff, an area visited by early 19th century sealers. The peninsula's interior is occupied by Oryahovo Heights. The feature is named after Pope John Paul II (19202005) for his contribution to world peace and understanding among people.

Location of Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

Location
The peninsula is located at 623143S 604558W (British mapping in 1822 and 1968, Chilean in 1971, Argentine in 1980, Spanish mapping in 1991, and Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05 and mapping in 2005 and 2009).

Maps
L.L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Sofia: Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, 2005. L.L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert, Snow and Smith Islands [1]. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wrner Foundation, 2009. ISBN 978-954-92032-6-4

Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula (in the background) from Kuzman Knoll.

Reference
SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. [2] This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria [3] which is used with permission.
H.H. Benedict XVI views the peninsula on the 2005 Bulgarian map of Livingston Island.

Livingston Island peninsulas.

Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula

165

References
[1] http:/ / id-team. org/ apc/ Apcbg-Web-New_files/ image023. jpg [2] http:/ / data. aad. gov. au/ aadc/ gaz/ scar/ [3] http:/ / id-team. org/ apc/ Apcbg-Web-New. htm

John Paul II Collection Museum


Muzeum Kolekcji Jana Pawa II w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland dedicated to Pope John Paul II. It was established in 1986.

166

Encyclicals
List of Encyclicals
This article contains a list of Encyclicals of Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II issued 14 Papal Encyclicals during his reign as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for over 26 years, from his election on 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005. An encyclical (from Latin encyclia, from the Greek "en kyklo, ", meaning "general" or "encircling") was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. For the modern Roman Catholic Church, a Papal Encyclical, in the strictest sense, is a letter sent by the Pope which is explicitly addressed to Roman Catholic bishops of a particular area or to the world, usually treating some aspect of Catholic doctrine. A Papal Encyclical is generally used for significant issues, and is second in importance only to the highest ranking document now issued by popes, an Apostolic Constitution. The title of a Papal Encyclical is usually taken from its first few words.

Encyclicals
No. Latin 1. Redemptor Hominis Dives in Misericordia Laborem Exercens Slavorum Apostoli Dominum et Vivificantem Redemptoris Mater Sollicitudo Rei Socialis Redemptoris Missio Title Englishtranslation "The Redeemer of Man" On Jesus' Redemption of the world; the central importance of the human person; the Pope's plan of governance "Rich in Mercy" On God's mercy given to the Church and the world 4 March 1979 Subject Date

2.

30 November 1980 14 September 1981 2 June 1985

3.

"On Human Work"

On the 90th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum; the conflict of labour and capital, and the rights of workers In commemoration of Saints Cyril and Methodius

4.

"The Apostles of the Slavs" "The Lord and Giver of Life" "Mother of the Redeemer" "On Social Concerns"

5.

On the Holy Spirit in the life of the Church and the world

18 May 1986

6.

On the Blessed Virgin Mary in the life of the Pilgrim Church

25 March 1987 30 December 1987 7 December 1990 1 May 1991

7.

On the 20th anniversary of Pope Paul VI's encyclical Populorum Progressio; on the social concerns and teachings of the Church On the permanent validity of the Church's missionary mandate

8.

"Mission of the Redeemer"

9.

Centesimus Annus "The Hundredth Year"

On the 100th anniversary of Rerum Novarum; on capital and labour; and on Catholic social teaching

10.

Veritatis Splendor Evangelium Vitae Ut Unum Sint

"The Splendor of Truth" On fundamental questions of the Church's moral teaching

6 August 1993 25 March 1995 25 May 1995

11.

"The Gospel of Life"

On the value and inviolability of human life

12.

"That They May Be One"

On commitment to ecumenism

List of Encyclicals

167
"Faith and Reason" On the relationship between faith and reason; condemning both atheism and faith unsupported by reason; affirming the place of reason and philosophy in religion On the Eucharist in its relationship to the Church 14 September 1998

13.

Fides et Ratio

14.

Ecclesia de Eucharistia

"The Church of the Eucharist"

17 April 2003

References
Pope John Paul II Encyclicals, with Study Tool [1] (most in English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish; one also in Arabic and Latin) - from the Papal Archive at the internet site of the Holy See. Retrieved 13 December 2006.

External links
PapalEncyclicals.net - Pope John Paul II [2] - online copies Works of John Paul II [3] at the Open Directory Project

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ index. htm [2] http:/ / www. papalencyclicals. net/ JP02/ [3] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Society/ Religion_and_Spirituality/ Christianity/ Denominations/ Catholicism/ Popes/ J/ John_Paul_II/ Works/

The Redeemer of Man


Redemptor Hominis (Latin for "The Redeemer of Man") is the name of the first encyclical written by Pope John Paul II. It lays a blueprint for his pontificate in its exploration of contemporary human problems and especially their proposed solutions found in a deeper understanding of the human person. The encyclical was promulgated on March 4, 1979, less than 5 months after his installation as pope.

Summary of the encyclical


This first encyclical of Pope John Paul II examines major problems confronting the world at the time. John Paul II began his papacy during a crisis of self-doubt and internal criticism in the Catholic Church. He alludes to this in the encyclical's introduction, stating his confidence that the new movement of life in the Church "is much stronger than the symptoms of doubt, collapse, and crisis." He says that Jesus is real and living. Redemptor Hominis proposes that the solution to these problems may be found through a fuller understanding of the person: both of the human person, and that of Christ. As such, his first encyclical repeatedly stresses the pope's favored philosophical approach of personalism, an approach that he used repeatedly throughout the rest of his papacy. The encyclical also works to prepare the Church for the upcoming third millennium, calling the remaining years of the 20th century "a season of a new Advent, a season of expectation" in preparation for the new millennium.

The Redeemer of Man

168

The humanity of the mystery of the redemption


John Paul II points to the central doctrines of the Incarnation and the Redemption as, above all, evidence of God's love for humanity: "Man cannot live without love.... This ... is why Christ the Redeemer fully reveals man to himself." In response, anyone, no matter how weak, wishing to understand himself thoroughly, must "assimilate the whole of the reality of the Incarnation and Redemption in order to find himself."

Critique of atheist governments


Without naming it explicitly, Redemptor Hominis confronts the system of atheist-based Communism, such as that found in his native Poland, an "atheism that is programmed, organized, and structured as a political system." John Paul confronts this on the philosophical level as inherently inhuman. Citing Augustine's famous quote of "You made us for yourself, Lord, and our heart is restless until it rests in you," John Paul argues that the human person naturally strives for God (as understood through whatever religion) as the full dimension of humanity. Thus, he states, systems such as Communism that deny this essential aspect of human nature are fundamentally flawed and inherently unable to satisfy the deepest human longings for the fullest expression of human life. This lays a philosophical underpinning to the pope's own remarkably successful actions confronting Communism in the political field. He specifically denounces governments opposed to freedom of religion as an attack on man's inherent dignity: "the curtailment of the religious freedom of individuals and communities is not only a painful experience but it is above all an attack on man's very dignity."

Missionary message and religious freedom


Foreshadowing his many successful travels around the world, John Paul stresses the need of bringing the message of God to "all cultures, all ideological concepts, all people of good will" with a proper "missionary attitude." This attitude, he insists, must first begin with a proper regard of "what is in man," again stressing the personalist theme. He stresses that a proper expression of the missionary attitude is not destructive, but rather begins with building on what is already there. John Paul uses this as a foundation to another of the central themes of his papacy: that of religious freedom. Building on the declaration of the Second Vatican Council in Dignitatis Humanae (Declaration on Religious Freedom), Pope John Paul teaches that any missionizing work by the Church must begin with a "deep esteem for man, for his intellect, his will, his conscience and his freedom." He goes on to the Catholic Church as the true repository of human freedom, while stressing the Church's respect for other religions; this is yet another implicit rebuke to Communist governments that suppress freedom of worship.

Christ's union with each person


In another aspect of the personalist theme, John Paul writes that it is insufficient to talk of Christ's union with man as an impersonal union of Christ with mankind as an undifferentiated conglomerate: "We are not dealing with the 'abstract man,' but the real, 'concrete,' 'historical' man. We are dealing with 'each' man...." Rather, he insists that Christ reaches out to each person as an individual. Thus each person on his own may walk his own path of life and reach his fullest potential from that personal experience of Christ's love for him as an individual. In the same way, the Church's mission must also be to reach out personally to each and every person: "Since this man is the way for the Church, the way for her daily life and experience, for her mission and toil, the Church of today must be aware in an always new manner of man's 'situation.'"

The Redeemer of Man

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Man's fears
John Paul writes that some of man's greatest fears are the result of his own creations: the ecological damage wrought by untrammeled exploitation of the earth, and the fear brought on by ever-increasing military power with its accompanying threat of widespread destruction, "an unimaginable self-destruction, compared with which all the cataclysms and catastrophes of history known to us seem to fade away." John Paul points out that although man's technological and material accomplishments certainly stand as authentic signs of man's greatness, they provoke a disquieting question: "Does this progress, which has man for its author and promoter, make human life on earth 'more human' in every aspect of that life? Does it make it more 'worthy of man?'" Yet again, the true measure of good is the effect on the human person, not just mere accomplishment and accumulation. The encyclical teaches that even if contrary to its intention, any purely materialistic system that essentially ignores the human person must in the end condemn man to being a slave of his own production. Denouncing the imbalance of economic resources, another oft-repeated theme of his papacy, John Paul encourages an increased concern for the problems of the poor. Once more, he stresses that the key to this is an increased moral responsibility built on a deeper understanding of the dignity of the human person, as taught by Christ himself in his description of the Last Judgment in the Gospel of Matthew.

The Church's teaching mission


Anticipating a theme that he would develop at much greater length in his 1993 encyclical Veritatis Splendor, John Paul emphasizes the responsibility of the Church in its prophetic mission to teach the truth to the world. He also indicates the importance of catechesis -- teaching the doctrines of the faith -- which found fruit in his papacy, most notably in his promulgation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

The sacraments of Eucharist and Penance


The encyclical reaches its final sections with a section on the Eucharist, yet another theme that would mark John Paul's papacy. Emphasizing that "the Eucharist is the centre and summit of the whole of sacramental life," John Paul stresses the familiar Catholic theme of personal union with Christ brought so intimately through the reality of Christ's own person being offered to every person through the Eucharist. John Paul also brings in the personalist theme in his manner of responding to a controversy of the post-Vatican II Church: the issue of communal penance. In some cases, the sacrament of Penance at the time was being offered to groups of people together, without individual confession. John Paul insists against this that confession as an individual is "man's right to a more personal encounter with the crucified forgiving Christ."

Mary
Beginning a pattern that marked all of his subsequent encyclicals, John Paul focuses on Mary in the final section. In particular, he invites the Church (by which he means all members of the church, not only the hierarchy) to take Mary as mother, as its model for nourishing the world.

References
Weigel, George, Witness to Hope: The Biography of John Paul II, Harper Collins, New York, 1999, ISBN 0-06-093286-4.

The Redeemer of Man

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External links
Complete text of the encyclical from the Vatican website [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_04031979_redemptor-hominis_en. html

Rich in Mercy
Dives in Misericordia (Latin for "Rich in Mercy") is the name of the second encyclical written by Pope John Paul II.[1] It is a deeply theological examination of the role of mercy both God's mercy, and also the need for human mercy introducing the biblical parable of the Prodigal Son as a central theme. The encyclical was promulgated on November 30, 1980.

Background for the encyclical


The idea of God's mercy is an intensely personal one for John Paul II. He had a strong love for the Divine Mercy, a devotion revealed by his fellow Pole, Sister Faustina Kowalska (b.1905 - d.1938), a devotion that he later instituted for the entire Catholic Church in 2000 as Divine Mercy Sunday during the vigil of which, in 2005, he died. He told his biographer George Weigel that he felt spiritually "very near" to Sister Faustina when he began the encyclical. Pope John Paul II's second encyclical continues to examine the world problems brought up in his first encyclical, Redemptor Hominis, including rising militarization, tyranny, starvation, and daily problems of personal life. He teaches that the only authentic Christian response to these rising problems is through love informed by God's mercy, especially as revealed in the love of the Father in the Trinity.

Introduction of the Encyclical


Just as in his previous encyclical, John Paul motivates his discussion by examining many problems in the world. He posits that many in today's world are made uneasy by the idea of mercy. In opposition to an impersonal, technology-driven dominion over the world that "seems to have no room for mercy," John Paul appeals to the world to turn to the mercy of God: "I wish them to be a heartfelt appeal by the Church to mercy, which humanity and the modern world need so much. And they need mercy even though they often do not realize it."

Jesus' message of mercy


The Pope places a special emphasis on Jesus' teaching mission to the poor, the sick, the sinners and the outcast: "Especially through His lifestyle and through His actions, Jesus revealed that love is present in the world in which we live.... This love makes itself particularly noticed in contact with suffering." Tying this with Jesus' claim that "He who has seen me has seen the Father," John Paul points out that this reveals a similar merciful love for all in the world, especially those who suffer. To discuss Jesus' teachings on mercy, John Paul puts forth the Parable of the Prodigal Son as an especially vivid illustration of God's mercy for man. John Paul stresses the interior need of the son that brings about his need for reconciliation. Above all, he enlarges on the reaction of the son's father, who welcomes him with unbounded merciful love, rather than a mere insistence on justice. John Paul points out that the father's reaction is based on more than mere sentiment, but on a deeper understanding of what his son really needs: "Notice, the father is aware that a fundamental good has been saved: the good of his son's humanity. Although the son has squandered the inheritance, nevertheless his humanity is saved." The Pope makes the point that this parable illustrates that mercy is best judged not from the mere externals, but from a deeper examination of what it does to the interior of man.

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Background in the Old Testament


The Pope traces the message of divine mercy back to earlier books in the Bible. He discusses the repeated instances of God returning to his people after their abandoning him. John Paul also takes of the issue of contrasting mercy with justice: "in many cases [mercy] is shown to be not only more powerful than that justice but also more profound." He writes that Scripture shows that "Mercy differs from justice, but is not in opposition to it, if we admit in the history of man ... the presence of God, who already as Creator has linked Himself to His creature with a particular love."

Mercy as revealed in the Crucifixion and Resurrection


John Paul then turns to the central message of Christianity: Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection, and examines them for their implications on God's mercy. In his Passion, Christ appeals for mercy, but he himself is not spared. Pope John Paul calls this a "superabundance" of God's justice as reparation for the sins of man, yet springing from the supreme love of the Father for man. Thus, he writes, in Jesus' crucifixion, justice is simultaneously fulfilled and revealed by a deeper love: "The divine dimension of redemption is put into effect not only by bringing justice to bear upon sin, but also by restoring to love that creative power in man thanks also which he once more has access to the fullness of life and holiness that come from God. In this way, redemption involves the revelation of mercy in its fullness."

References
[1] Vatican website: Dives in Misericordia (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_30111980_dives-in-misericordia_en. html)

External links
Divine Mercy Shrine in Plock (http://www.divinemercyshrine.blogspot.com/) Complete text of the encyclical from the Vatican website (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_30111980_dives-in-misericordia_en.html) Catechism of the Catholic Church (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM) from the official website of the Vatican

On Human Work

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On Human Work
Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. It is part of a larger body of doctrine known as Catholic social teaching, which traces its origin to another encyclical, Rerum Novarum, issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891.

External links
English version (Vatican) [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_14091981_laborem-exercens_en. html

The Apostles of the Slavs


Slavorum Apostoli (Latin for Apostles of the Slavs) is an encyclical written by the late Pope John Paul II in 1985. In it he talks about two saintly brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius, and how they preached the gospel to the Slavs.

Table of contents
I. Introduction II. Biographical Sketch III. Heralds of the Gospel IV. They Planted the Church of God V.Catholic Sense of the Church VI. The Gospel and Culture VII. The Significance and Influence of the Christian Millennium in the Slav World VIII. Conclusion

External links
Text Of Slavorum Apostoli [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_19850602_slavorum-apostoli_en. html/

The Lord and Giver of Life

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The Lord and Giver of Life


Dominum et Vivificantem ("The Lord and Giver of Life") is the name of the fifth encyclical written by Pope John Paul II. The encyclical was promulgated on May 18, 1986. It is a theological examination of the role of the Holy Spirit as it pertains to the modern world and the church and the use of spiritual prayer to renew one's spiritual life.

External links
Complete text [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ library/ docs_jp02dv. htm

Mother of the Redeemer


Redemptoris Mater is the title of a Mariological encyclical by Pope John Paul II, delivered on March 25, 1987 in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. This encyclical is subtitled On the Blessed Virgin Mary in the life of the Pilgrim Church and deals with a number of issues in Mariology. It is a somewhat detailed encyclical with three main parts, as well as an introductory section and a conclusions section.

Contents
The encyclical starts by discussing the special place of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the plan of salvation and continues to focus on Mary's role in the Mystery of Christ in Part I of the encyclical. Part II discusses Mary's role as the Mother of God at the center of the Pilgrim Church. This is built on later in Part III where Pope John Paul II confirmed the title, Mother of the Church, proclaimed by Pope Paul VI at the Second Vatican Council on November 21, 1964. This encyclical states: Mary embraces each and every one in the Church, and embraces each and every one through the Church. In this sense Mary, Mother of the Church, is also the Church's model. Part III also deals with Maternal Mediation and the role of the Virgin Mary as a Mediatrix. The pontif said: Thus there is a mediation: Mary places herself between her Son and mankind in the reality of their wants, needs and sufferings. She puts herself "in the middle," that is to say she acts as a mediatrix not as an outsider, but in her position as mother. She knows that as such she can point out to her Son the needs of mankind, and in fact, she "has the right" to do so. Her mediation is thus in the nature of intercession: Mary "intercedes" for mankind.

Influences
This encyclical reflects the influence of Saint Louis de Montfort's Marian teachings on Pope John Paul II. The pontiff singled out Saint Louis (who also inspired the pontiff's moto Totus Tuus) in this encyclical, saying that: I would like to recall, among the many witnesses and teachers of this spirituality, the figure of Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort who proposes consecration to Christ through the hands of Mary, as an effective means for Christians to live faithfully their baptismal commitments.

Mother of the Redeemer The seeds of this encyclical may be traced to the statement by Pope John Paul II that as a young seminarian he "read and reread many times and with great spiritual profit" a work of Saint Louis de Montfort and that:[1] [2] "Then I understood that I could not exclude the Lord's Mother from my life without neglecting the will of God-Trinity" In the conclusion to the encyclical the pontif stated: "The Church sees the Blessed Mother of God in the saving mystery of Christ and in her own mystery".

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References
[1] Behold Your Mother by Stephen J. Rossetti 2007 ISBN 1594710287 page 30 [2] Pope Reveals Mary'S Role In His Life (http:/ / www. zeitun-eg. org/ jp2. htm)

External links
Redemptoris Mater (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_25031987_redemptoris-mater_en.html) (English text from the Vatican website)

On Social Concerns
Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II on 30 December 1987. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis was written in regard to 'Social Concern' for the 20th anniversary of 'Populorum Progressio'.

External links
Text of Sollicitudo Rei Socialis [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_30121987_sollicitudo-rei-socialis_en. html

Mission of the Redeemer

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Mission of the Redeemer


Redemptoris Missio (Latin for Mission of the Redeemer), subtitled On the permanent validity of the Church's missionary mandate, is a Papal encyclical by Pope John Paul II published on December 7, 1990 devoted to the subject of "the urgency of missionary activity"[1] and in which he wished "to invite the Church to renew her missionary commitment."[2]

Table of contents
Blessing
John Paul II opens the encyclical with the words: Venerable Brothers, Beloved Sons and Daughters, Health and the Apostolic Blessing![3]

Introduction
In the introduction John Paul II expresses what he perceives to be as the urgency of evangelism.

References
[1] Introduction, 1. [2] Introduction, 2. [3] Blessing.

External links
Redemptoris Missio (http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0219/_INDEX.HTM)

The Hundredth Year

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The Hundredth Year


Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for "hundredth year") was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. It is part of a larger body of writings known as Catholic social teaching, that trace their origin to Rerum Novarum, which was issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891, and ultimately the New Testament.

Overview
Written in 1991, during the last days of the Cold War, Centesimus Annus specifically examined contemporaneous political and economic issues. The encyclical is partially a refutation of Marxist/communist ideology and a condemnation of the dictatorial regimes that practiced it. The particular historical context in which it was written prompted Pope John Paul II to condemn the horrors of the communist regimes throughout the world. However, the Pope also reserved condemnation for reactionary regimes that persecuted their populations, ostensibly to combat Marxism/communism. The encyclical also expounds on issues of social and economic justice. The encyclical does include a defense of private property rights and the right to form private associations, including labor unions. These however, are not the primary focus of the encyclicals message. The reoccurring themes of social and economic justice mentioned in Centesimus Annus articulate foundational beliefs in the social teaching of the Catholic Church. Throughout the encyclical the Pope calls on the State to be the agent of justice for the poor and to protect human rights of all its citizens, repeating a theme from Pope Leo XIII Rerum Novarum.[1] Addressing the question of the States obligation to defend human rights, Pope John Paul II states: "When there is question of defending the rights of individuals, the defenceless and the poor have a claim to special consideration. The richer class has many ways of shielding itself, and stands less in need of help from the State; whereas the mass of the poor have no resources of their own to fall back on, and must chiefly depend on the assistance of the State. It is for this reason that wage-earners, since they mostly belong to the latter class, should be specially cared for and protected by the Government"[2]

Principles
The dignity and rights of the worker. # 3 The right to establish professional associations of employers and workers. # 3 The right to private property. # 6 The right to living liberally and not just temporally. The right to discharge freely ones religious duties/ freedom of religion. The right to a just wage. # 8 The kingdom of God cannot be confused with any temporal kingdom. # 25 To defend and promote the dignity and rights of human persons regardless of personal convictions. #22 Solidarity Empathizing with those around you a way to make their good your good which allows for a common pursuit of the common good. #10 Man cannot be understood on the basis of economics alone nor defined by class membership, but within culture. #24 Total recognition must be given to the rights of the human conscience. # 29 The law is sovereign and not the arbitrary will of individuals. #44

The Hundredth Year Subsidiarity: A community of a higher order should not interfere in the internal life of a community of a lower order, depriving the latter of its functions, but rather should support it in case of need and help to coordinate its activity with the activities of the rest of society, always with a view to the common good. # 48

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Synopsis
Introduction
Rerum Novarum is of great importance for the Church; the vital energies it unleashed continue to increase (#1). Rerum Novarum can be used to help look back at fundamental principles, look around at new events, and look to the future (#3). An analysis of history and current events is essential to the Churchs mission of evangelization (#3). Characteristics of Rerum Novarum. Rerum Novarum attempted to respond to the conflict between capital and labor (#5). Leo XIII gave the Church a paradigm and a corpus to analyze, judge, and indicate directions for social realities (#5). To teach and spread her social doctrine is an essential part of the Churchs evangelizing mission (#5). There can be no genuine solution to the social question apart from the Gospel (#5). Rerum Novarum strongly affirms the dignity of work and the rights to private property, private associations, a just wage, and to discharge freely religious duties (#6-9). Rerum Novarums criticism of socialism and liberalism is still relevant today (#10). Rerum Novarums emphasis on the rights of the poor and the defenseless gives testimony to the continuity of the option for the poor (#11). The guiding light of Rerum Novarum is its view of human dignity (#11).

Toward the New Things of Today


The fundamental error of socialism is its misunderstanding of the human person as simply an element (#13). This error springs from atheism and results in a distortion of law and human freedom (#13). Atheism and contempt for the human person cause class struggle and militarism (#14) The State, respectful of the principle of subsidiarity, has a positive role to play in determining the juridical framework of economic affairs (#15). The role of the workers movement in economic reform has been an important one (#16). Rerum Novarum opposed ideologies of hatred and showed how violence could be overcome by justice (#17). Since 1945, in Europe, there has been a situation of non-war but not genuine peace: many people lost the ability to control their own destiny; an insane arms race swallowed up vital resources; violent extremist groups found ready support; the atomic threat oppressed the world (#18). After World War II, decolonization occurred. Genuine independence of developing nations is impeded by foreign economic and political control and the lack of a competent professional class (#20). Since 1945, the awareness of human rightswith the United Nations as a focal pointhas grown (#21). The UN has not yet succeeded in establishing a continuously favorable development aid policy or an effective system of conflict resolution as an alternative to war (#21)

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End of the Cold War


In 1989: in Eastern Europe, oppressive regimes fell; some Third World countries began a transition to more just and participatory structures (#22). The Churchs commitment to defend and promote human rights was an important contribution to the events of 1989 (#22). Factors that contributed to the fall of oppressive regimes: violation of workers rights (#23); inefficiency of the economic system (#24); spiritual void brought about by atheism (#24). Non-violent, peaceful protest accomplished almost all of the changes in Eastern Europe (#23). The events of 1989 would be unthinkable without prayer and trust in God (#25). The events of 1989 illustrate opportunities for human freedom to cooperate with the plan of God who acts in history (#26). In some countries, the events of 1989 resulted from an encounter between the Church and the workers movement (#26). The events of 1989 illustrated that the Churchs social doctrine of (as well as concrete commitment to) integral human liberation does not necessitate an impossible compromise between Christianity and Marxism (#26). International structures that can help rebuild, economically and morally, the countries that have abandoned communism are needed (#27). Marxisms fall has highlighted human interdependence (#27). Peace and prosperity are goods that belong to the whole human race (#27). Aid for Eastern Europe, without a slackening of aid for the Third World, is needed (#28). There must be a change in priorities and values on which economic and political choices are made (#28). The advancement of the poor is an opportunity for the moral, cultural, and economic growth of all humanity (#28). Development must be seen in fully human, and not merely economic, terms (#29).

Private Property and the Universality of Material Goods


Catholic social teaching affirms a right to private property that is limited by the common purpose of goods (#30). Work, which is in our day work with and for others, is the human response to Gods gifts (#31). The possession of know-how, technology, and skill is surpassing land as the decisive factor of production (#32). The majority of people today do not have the means or the possibility of acquiring the basic knowledge to enter the world of technology and intercommunication. They are thus exploited or marginalized (#33). The human inadequacies of capitalism are far from disappearing (#33). Many human needs are not satisfied in a free market economy (#34). It is a strict duty of justice and truth and a requirement of dignity to help needy people acquire expertise and develop the skill to enter the modern economy (#34). The State needs to control the market to guarantee that the basic needs of society are satisfied (#35). A business firm is a community of persons, endeavoring to meet their basic needs, who form a group at the service of society (#35). Human and moral factors are just as important as profit to the life of a business (#35). The defeat of Real Socialism does not leave capitalism as the only model of economic organization (#35). Stronger nations must offer weaker nations the opportunity to take their place in the international order (#35). The foreign debt of poorer countries needs to be handled in a way that respects the rights of peoples to subsistence and progress (#35).

The Hundredth Year Consumerism has created attitudes and lifestyles which damage the physical and spiritual health of human beings (#36). It is necessary to create lifestyles in which the quest for truth, beauty, goodness, and the common good determine choices (#36). The mass media has a special role to play in fostering a sense of general responsibility (#36). The ecological question emphasizes human responsibility to future generations (#37). Social structures can create environments conducive to sin which impede full human realization (#38). The family, founded on marriage, is the sanctuary of life (#39). True human alienation happens when a person refuses to transcend the self and live a self-giving life in an authentic human community that is oriented toward God (#41). The Marxist solution has failed, but marginalization, exploitation, and alienation still exist in the Third World (#42). The Churchs social teaching should serve as an orientation, rather than as a model, toward solving problems (#43).

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State and Culture


The root of modem totalitarianism is found in its denial of the transcendental dignity of the human person (#44). In defending her own freedom, the Church defends the dignity of the human person (#45). The Church values any democratic system that ensures its citizens ability to participate in it (#46). Democratic systems need to solidify their foundations by explicitly recognizing certain rights, especially the rights to life, to work, and to establish a family (#47). Some democracies have lost the ability to make decisions for the common good (#48). States, respecting subsidiarity, need to guarantee freedom, security, and human rights (#48). The Social Assistance State leads to a loss of human energies; an inordinate increase in bureaucratic public agencies is not the best way to solve these problems (#48). The Churchthrough charity, solidarity, and volunteer workhas always been among the needy (#49). A culture achieves its character through the search for truth (#50). The Churchs contribution to culture is to form human hearts for peace and justice (#51). A culture of peace needs to promote development and provide the poor with realistic opportunities (#52). This task may necessitate changes in lifestyle that reduce the waste of resources (#52).

Humans as the Way of the Church


The Churchs purpose is the care and responsibility not only for humankind, but also for each individual (#53). The Churchs social teaching is an instrument of evangelization for salvation (#54). The Church receives the meaning of humankind from Divine Revelation (#55). The Western countries run the risk of seeing the collapse of Real Socialism as a victory for their own systems and may fail to make necessary changes in those systems (#56). The social basis of the Gospel must function as a basis and motivation for action because witnessing for justice and peace is more credible than logical arguments (#57). The option for the poor is not limited to material poverty but encompasses cultural and material poverty as well (#57). Love is made concrete in the promotion of justice which requires changes in lifestyles, models of produc tion and consumption, and structures of power (#58).

The Hundredth Year Grace is needed for the demands of justice to be met (#59). The Churchs social teaching enters into dialogue with the other disciplines concerned with humankind (#59). People who profess no religious beliefs can contribute to providing the social question an ethical foundation (#60). The Church feels obliged to denounce poverty and injustice although her call will not find favor with all (#61).[3]

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Impact
Unlike Pope Leo XIII, Pope John Paul II writes to all people of good will. The Document begins by pointing out various events that happened in the year of 1989 but more importantly how it embraced a longer period of the 1800s with dictatorial and oppressive regimes. This chapter expresses the importance of using moral, peaceful and visibility of the truth to diminish dictatorship or whatever they may have had which was negative to society as a whole. This approach was opposite of what the Marxists thought ought to be followed. Marxist believed that only by social conflict would such matters be able to be resolved. The inefficiency of the economic system in different dimensions was greatly looked down upon as well. It was made clear that no political society should ever be confused with the kingdom of God because many firms because of the industrial developments had a sense of possibly obtaining a kingdom due to the wealth and the financial level that they were placed made them feel at a certain stage of perfection. Overall this chapter is an overview of how the events of 1989 had a worldwide importance because of the negative and positive outcomes that it brought upon the whole human society.

About the Pope


Pope John Paul II Karol Jzef Wojtya, known as John Paul II since his October 1978 election to the papacy, was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, a small city 50 kilometers from Krakow, on May 18, 1920. He was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtya and Emilia Kaczorowska. His mother died in 1929. His eldest brother Edmund, a doctor, died in 1932 and his father, a non-commissioned army officer died in 1941. A sister, Olga, had died before he was born. He was baptized on June 20, 1920 in the parish church of Wadowice by Fr. Franciszek Zak, made his First Holy Communion at age 9 and was confirmed at 18. Upon graduation from Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, he enrolled in Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938 and in a school for drama. The Nazi occupation forces closed the university in 1939 and young Karol had to work in a quarry (1940-1944) and then in the Solvay chemical factory to earn his living and to avoid being deported to Germany. In 1942, aware of his call to the priesthood, he began courses in the clandestine seminary of Krakow, run by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Krakow. At the same time, Karol Wojtya was one of the pioneers of the "Rhapsodic Theatre," also clandestine. After the Second World War, he continued his studies in the major seminary of Krakow, once it had re-opened, and in the faculty of theology of the Jagiellonian University. He was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Sapieha in Krakow on November 1, 1946. Shortly afterwards, Cardinal Sapieha sent him to Rome where he worked under the guidance of the French Dominican, Garrigou-Lagrange. He finished his doctorate in theology in 1948 with a thesis on the subject of faith in the works of St. John of the Cross (Doctrina de fide apud Sanctum Ioannem a Cruce). At that time, during his vacations, he exercised his pastoral ministry among the Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and Holland. In 1948 he returned to Poland and was vicar of various parishes in Krakow as well as chaplain to university students. This period lasted until 1951 when he again took up his studies in philosophy and theology. In 1953 he defended a thesis on "evaluation of the possibility of founding a Catholic ethic on the ethical system of Max Scheler" at Lublin

The Hundredth Year Catholic University. Later he became professor of moral theology and social ethics in the major seminary of Krakow and in the Faculty of Theology of Lublin. On July 4, 1958, he was appointed titular bishop of Ombi and auxiliary of Krakow by Pope Pius XII, and was consecrated September 28, 1958, in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow, by Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak. On January 13, 1964, he was appointed archbishop of Krakow by Pope Paul VI, who made him a cardinal June 26, 1967 with the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio of the order of deacons, later elevated pro illa vice to the order of priests. Besides taking part in Vatican Council II (1962-1965) where he made an important contribution to drafting the Constitution Gaudium et spes, Cardinal Wojtya participated in all the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops. The Cardinals elected him Pope at the Conclave of 16 October 1978, and he took the name of John Paul II. On 22 October, the Lord's Day, he solemnly inaugurated his Petrine ministry as the 263rd successor to the Apostle. His pontificate, one of the longest in the history of the Church, lasted nearly 27 years. Driven by his pastoral solicitude for all Churches and by a sense of openness and charity to the entire human race, John Paul II exercised the Petrine ministry with a tireless missionary spirit, dedicating it all his energy. He made 104 pastoral visits outside Italy and 146 within Italy. As bishop of Rome he visited 317 of the city's 333 parishes. He had more meetings than any of his predecessors with the People of God and the leaders of Nations. More than 17,600,000 pilgrims participated in the General Audiences held on Wednesdays (more than 1160), not counting other special audiences and religious ceremonies [more than 8 million pilgrims during the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 alone], and the millions of faithful he met during pastoral visits in Italy and throughout the world. We must also remember the numerous government personalities he encountered during 38 official visits, 738 audiences and meetings held with Heads of State, and 246 audiences and meetings with Prime Ministers. His love for young people brought him to establish the World Youth Days. The 19 WYDs celebrated during his pontificate brought together millions of young people from all over the world. At the same time his care for the family was expressed in the World Meetings of Families, which he initiated in 1994. John Paul II successfully encouraged dialogue with the Jews and with the representatives of other religions, whom he several times invited to prayer meetings for peace, especially in Assisi. Under his guidance the Church prepared herself for the third millennium and celebrated the Great Jubilee of the year 2000 in accordance with the instructions given in the Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio adveniente. The Church then faced the new epoch, receiving his instructions in the Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio ineunte, in which he indicated to the faithful their future path. With the Year of the Redemption, the Marian Year and the Year of the Eucharist, he promoted the spiritual renewal of the Church. He gave an extraordinary impetus to Canonizations and Beatifications, focusing on countless examples of holiness as an incentive for the people of our time. He celebrated 147 beatification ceremonies during which he proclaimed 1,338 Blesseds; and 51 canonizations for a total of 482 saints. He made Thrse of the Child Jesus a Doctor of the Church. He considerably expanded the College of Cardinals, creating 231 Cardinals (plus one in pectore) in 9 consistories. He also called six full meetings of the College of Cardinals. He organized 15 Assemblies of the Synod of Bishops - six Ordinary General Assemblies (1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994 and 2001), one Extraordinary General Assembly (1985) and eight Special Assemblies (1980,1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998 (2) and 1999). His most important Documents include 14 Encyclicals, 15 Apostolic Exhortations, 11 Apostolic Constitutions, 45 Apostolic Letters. He promulgated the Catechism of the Catholic Church in the light of Tradition as authoritatively interpreted by the Second Vatican Council. He also reformed the Eastern and Western Codes of Canon Law, created new Institutions

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The Hundredth Year and reorganized the Roman Curia. As a private Doctor he also published five books of his own: "Crossing the Threshold of Hope" (October 1994), "Gift and Mystery, on the fiftieth anniversary of my ordination as priest" (November 1996), "Roman Triptych" poetic meditations (March 2003), "Arise, Let us Be Going" (May 2004) and "Memory and Identity" (February 2005). In the light of Christ risen from the dead, on 2 April a.D. 2005, at 9.37 p.m., while Saturday was drawing to a close and the Lord's Day was already beginning, the Octave of Easter and Divine Mercy Sunday, the Church's beloved Pastor, John Paul II, departed this world for the Father. From that evening until April 8, date of the funeral of the late Pontiff, more than three million pilgrims came to Rome to pay homage to the mortal remains of the Pope. Some of them queued up to 24 hours to enter St. Peter's Basilica. On April 28, the Holy Father Benedict XVI announced that the normal five-year waiting period before beginning the cause of beatification and canonization would be waived for John Paul II. The cause was officially opened by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar general for the diocese of Rome, on June 28 2005.[4]

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Notes
[1] 37. Cf. Encyclical Letter RerumNovarum: loc. cit., 101f.; 104f.; 130f.; 136. [2] 33. Ibid.: loc. cit., 125. [3] http:/ / www. educationforjustice. org/ system/ files/ centesimus. pdf [4] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ news_services/ press/ documentazione/ documents/ santopadre_biografie/ giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en. html

External links
Link to the text of Centesimus Annus (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/ documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_01051991_centesimus-annus_en.html) Avery Dulles: "Centesimus Annus and the Renewal of Culture" (http://www.acton.org/files/mm-v2n1-dulles. pdf) Acton Institute: "Celebrating the 15th Year of Centesimus Annus" (http://www.acton.org/centesimusannus/) Centesimus Annus Pro Pontifice Foundation (http://www.centesimusannus.org/) - Centesimus Annus Pro Pontifice Foundation (US affiliate) (http://www.capp-usa.com/index. php?page=home)

The Splendor of Truth

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The Splendor of Truth


Veritatis Splendor (Latin for "The Splendor of Truth") is an encyclical by Pope John Paul II. It expresses the position of the Catholic Church regarding fundamentals of the Church's role in moral teaching. The encyclical is one of the most comprehensive and philosophical teachings of moral theology in the Catholic tradition. It was promulgated on August 6, 1993.

Summary
Veritatis Splendor responds to questions of moral theology that had been raised in the Church, especially in the latter half of the 20th century. These questions revolve around man's ability to discern good, the existence of evil, the role of human freedom and human conscience, mortal sin, and the authority of the magisterium of the Catholic Church in guiding man. In response to these, Pope John Paul II emphatically insists that moral truth is knowable, that the choice of good or evil has a profound effect on one's relationship with God, and that there is no true contradiction between freedom and following the good.

Response to moral relativism


Veritatis Splendor begins by asserting that there are indeed absolute truths accessible to all persons. Contrary to the philosophy of moral relativism, the encyclical insists that moral law is universal across people in varying cultures, and is in fact rooted in the human condition. Pope John Paul teaches that no matter how separated someone is from God, "in the depths of his heart there always remains a yearning for absolute truth and a thirst to attain full knowledge of it." He goes on to say that the splendor of truth "shines forth deep within the human spirit."

Moral authority of the Catholic Church


Ultimately, John Paul teaches, "to ask about the good, in fact, ultimately means to turn towards God, the fullness of goodness." Against the idea that the Church's teaching body has a mainly exhortatory role, the pope reiterates the Catholic doctrine that the magisterium of the Catholic Church has authority to definitively pronounce on moral questions. Even more, John Paul teaches that the Church is Christ's particular response to help answer everyone's question of what is right and wrong.

Human freedom and divine law


John Paul teaches that there is no true conflict between human freedom and God's law. The true end of human freedom is growth as a mature person into how each is created by God. Furthermore, God's divine law governing human behavior is not opposed to human freedom, but rather "it protects and promotes that freedom." The encyclical affirms that today's respect for human freedom "represents one of the positive achievements of modern culture." However, he cautions, though it is a good, human freedom is not in itself an absolute. Merely deciding for oneself that one may do something is not at all a true substitute for determining whether something is in fact good or bad. Because God is the true author of good, it remains of critical importance to understand how the divine Law, as expressed by the authoritative magisterium of the Church, considers an issue before determining absolutely for oneself.

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Natural law
The pope welcomes and supports the role of human reason in discovering and applying the natural law (those aspects of the moral law that may be discovered without divine revelation). Nevertheless, because God remains the true author of moral law, he states that human reason will not properly supersede the elements of the moral law that are of divine origin -- the encyclical states that this "would be the death of true freedom." In particular, John Paul denies those ideas of morality that treat the human body as a "raw datum," separating man and how he uses his body from his greater meaning derived from the entirety of his person.

The judgement of conscience


John Paul reiterates the longstanding Catholic teaching that people are obliged to follow their conscience, and that if they do not, they are condemned by their own conscience. John Paul depicts conscience as a form of inner dialogue. However, he insists, it is not merely a dialogue of a man with himself, but it is very much a dialogue between man and God. Following Bonaventure, John Paul likens conscience to a herald from God who proclaims the divine law. In opposition to how it is often represented elsewhere, John Paul insists that conscience is emphatically not a replacement for the divine law. Rather, it is the process by which a person may apply the divinely revealed law to the concrete situation at hand. Veritatis Splendor states that because conscience may err in its judgment, a person is obliged to do his best to inform his conscience. Hence, it remains crucial for a person to make an effort to understand what the divine law on a matter is, as expressed by the Church, and the reasons behind it. Even if a person is not condemned by his conscience for a morally wrong act, committing that act nevertheless causes damage in other ways, and if done habitually it can progressively make it harder for a person to perceive the truth. Furthermore, habitual sin enslaves us, so following a wrong judgment of conscience is in the end a step away from freedom.

The "fundamental option," sin, and salvation


The encyclical also responds to the idea of the "fundamental option." In this way of thinking, a man's particular actions do not necessarily affect his ultimate salvation -- what is important is his fundamental orientation towards or against God. John Paul firmly opposes this view, stating that it is contrary to Scripture as well as to long-held Catholic teaching on sin and salvation. He also opposes it on philosophical grounds, writing, "To separate the fundamental option from concrete kinds of behaviour means to contradict the substantial integrity or personal unity of the moral agent in his body and in his soul." John Paul emphasizes that the "fundamental option" view undermines the traditional Catholic understanding on mortal sin and venial sin, their distinction, and effects: "For mortal sin exists also when a person knowingly and willingly, for whatever reason, chooses something gravely disordered.... The person turns away from God and loses charity."

Reality of intrinsically evil acts


The encyclical also insists that certain acts are intrinsically evil. In the language of Catholic moral theology, this means that certain acts are always wrong, and that there are never circumstances in which they may be permitted if done knowingly and intentionally. Stated another way, this is a strong support for the long-held doctrine of Catholic moral theology that "the ends do not justify the means." John Paul bases this on the argument that certain acts are so destructive to the human person that there are no extenuating circumstances that would allow them. As an example, John Paul specifically reaffirms the teaching of Pope Paul VI in the encyclical Humanae Vitae concerning contraception that there are no circumstances in which the practice is licit.

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References
Weigel, George, Witness to Hope: The Biography of John Paul II, Harper Collins, New York, 1999, ISBN 0-06-093286-4. Veritatis Splendor and the Renewal of Moral Theology, J. A. DiNoia and Romanus Cesario, eds., Our Sunday Visitor / Scepter Publishers / Midwest Theological Forum, Chicago, 1994, ISBN 0-87973-739-5.

External links
Complete text of the encyclical from the Vatican website [1] Catechism of the Catholic Church [2] from the official website of the Vatican

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_06081993_veritatis-splendor_en. html [2] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ archive/ ENG0015/ _INDEX. HTM

The Gospel of Life


Evangelium Vitae (Latin: "The Gospel of Life") is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. The Pope issued the encyclical on March 25, 1995.

Summary
"Man is called to a fullness of life which far exceeds the dimensions of his earthly existence, because it consists in sharing the very life of God." Beginning with an overview of threats to human life both past and present, the encyclical gives a brief history of the many Biblical prohibitions against killing. The encyclical then addresses specific actions in light of these passages, including abortion (quoting Tertullian, who called abortion "anticipated murder to prevent someone from being born"), and euthanasia (which John Paul II calls "a disturbing perversion of mercy"). The encyclical also condemns the use of the death penalty in the world today, since the only potentially acceptable use of the death penalty (according to John Paul II and the magisterium) is when it would not otherwise be possible to defend society, a situation that--according to the encyclical--is rare if not non-existent today ( 56). The encyclical then addresses social and ecological factors, stressing the importance of a society which is built around the family rather than a wish to improve efficiency, and emphasizing the duty to care for the poor and the sick. The encyclical also deals with the proper uses of sex and the implementation of knowledge on adolescent teens of these behaviors.

Authoritative Status
The first passage, in Evangelium Vitae 57, concerns murder: Therefore, by the authority which Christ conferred upon Peter and his Successors, and in communion with the Bishops of the Catholic Church, I confirm that the direct and voluntary killing of an innocent human being is always gravely immoral. This doctrine, based upon that unwritten law which man, in the light of reason, finds in his own heart (cf. Rom 2:14-15), is reaffirmed by Sacred Scripture, transmitted by the Tradition of the Church and taught by the ordinary and universal Magisterium.

The Gospel of Life The second, in Evangelium Vitae 58, 61-62, concerns abortion: 58. Among all the crimes which can be committed against life, procured abortion has characteristics making it particularly serious and deplorable. The Second Vatican Council defines abortion, together with infanticide, as an "unspeakable crime." (citing Gaudium et Spes, 51.) . . . 61. The texts of Sacred Scripture never address the question of deliberate abortion and so do not directly and specifically condemn it. But they show such great respect for the human being in the mother's womb that they require as a logical consequence that God's commandment "You shall not kill" be extended to the unborn child as well. . . . Christian Tradition -- as the Declaration issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith points out so well -- is clear and unanimous, from the beginning up to our own day, in describing abortion as a particularly grave moral disorder. . . . 62. Given such unanimity in the doctrinal and disciplinary tradition of the Church, Paul VI was able to declare that this tradition [regarding abortion] is unchanged and unchangeable. Therefore, by the authority which Christ conferred upon Peter and his Successors, in communion with the Bishops -- who on various occasions have condemned abortion and who in the aforementioned consultation, albeit dispersed throughout the world, have shown unanimous agreement concerning this doctrine -- I declare that direct abortion, that is, abortion willed as an end or as a means, always constitutes a grave moral disorder, since it is the deliberate killing of an innocent human being. This doctrine is based upon the natural law and upon the written Word of God, is transmitted by the Church's Tradition and taught by the ordinary and universal Magisterium. (Evangelium Vitae, 58, 61-62) The third, in Evangelium Vitae 65, concerns euthanasia: .... in harmony with the Magisterium of my Predecessors and in communion with the Bishops of the Catholic Church, I confirm that euthanasia is a grave violation of the law of God, since it is the deliberate and morally unacceptable killing of a human person. This doctrine is based upon the natural law and upon the written word of God, is transmitted by the Church's Tradition and taught by the ordinary and universal Magisterium. (Evangelium Vitae, 65) With respect to abortion, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the teaching is "unchangeable": 2271. Since the first century the Church has affirmed the moral evil of every procured abortion. This teaching has not changed and remains unchangeable. Direct abortion, that is to say, abortion willed either as an end or a means, is gravely contrary to the moral law. Finally, the Evangelium Vitae also deals with capital punishment: In this encyclical, the Pope states that "execution is only appropriate in cases of absolute necessity, in other words when it would not be possible otherwise to defend society." However, in today's society, with the improvement of the penal system these cases are very rare. The purpose of punishment is "to redress the disorder caused by the offense." The nature and extent of the punishment must be carefully examined and should not go to the extreme except in cases in which it is required. The Catechism states "If bloodless means are sufficient to defend human lives against an aggressor and to protect public order and the safety of persons, public authority must limit itself to such means ...because they better correspond to the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person." This is saying that if society is able to contain a person who has committed a crime, then there is really no need to put this person to death. This is especially true if the person is able to convert while his time in prison. A majority of Catholic theologians agree that these teachings on the immorality of murder, directly willed abortion, and euthanasia are infallible. According to these Catholic theologians, these four teachings are not examples of papal infallibility, but are examples of the infallibility of the ordinary and universal Magisterium. In other words, Pope John Paul II was not exercising papal infallibility in this encyclical, but he was stating that these doctrines have

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The Gospel of Life already been taught infallibly by the bishops of the Catholic Church throughout history. Theologians and church leaders who have expressed this point of view include: According to Catholic theology, a teaching of the "ordinary and universal magisterium" is infallible if it is taught by all bishops dispersed throughout the world, as long as they all teach it in a definitive and authoritative manner. Although the individual bishops do not enjoy the prerogative of infallibility, they nevertheless proclaim Christ's doctrine infallibly whenever, even though dispersed through the world, but still maintaining the bond of communion among themselves and with the successor of Peter, and authentically teaching matters of faith and morals, they are in agreement on one position as definitively to be held.(Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium 25). Before writing Evangelium Vitae, Pope John Paul II surveyed every Catholic bishop in the world asking whether they agreed that murder, directly willed abortion, and euthanasia were immoral, and they all agreed that they were. To make this connection clear, the pope concluded each of these passages in Evangelium Vitae with a reference to the "ordinary and universal magisterium" and a footnote that cited Lumen Gentium 25. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith stated that these teachings in Evangelium Vitae are infallible in its "Commentary on the Concluding Formula of the Professio Fidei", published 6/29/1998 and signed by Cardinal Ratzinger and Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone. The current Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, William Levada, wrote in 1995 that Evangelium Vitae's teaching regarding abortion was an infallible teaching of the ordinary magisterium. Among the Catholic theologians who have written about infallibility, nearly all agree that these three statements constitute infallible teaching. These theologians include "liberals" (Richard Gaillardetz, Hermann Pottmeyer), "moderates" (Francis A. Sullivan), and "conservatives" (Mark Lowery, Lawrence J. Welch).

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External links
Complete text from the Vatican [1]

Further reading
"The Doctrinal Weight of Evangelium Vitae", Francis A. Sullivan, S.J., Theological Studies, v. 56, n. 3 (Sept. 1995), pp. 560-565.

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ edocs/ ENG0141/ _INDEX. HTM

That They May Be One

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That They May Be One


Ut Unum Sint (Latin: 'may they be one' from the Vulgate translation of the Gospel according to John 17:21) is the incipit of an encyclical by Pope John Paul II of May 25, 1995. Encyclicals are referred to by their "incipit" or first few words. The words are from the prayer of Jesus in the Gospel according to John it deals with the Roman Catholic Church's relations with the Orthodox Church and other Christian ecclesial communities. This document reiterated that unity of these two sui juris churches is essential, as well as further dialogue and unity with the Protestant churches. This document shows that the Roman Catholic Church is officially moved to unity. It has become a common piece of study in ecumenical classes. In paragraph 54[1] , we find the oft-quoted sentence: "In this perspective an expression which I have frequently employed finds its deepest meaning: the Church must breathe with her two lungs!" In paragraph 79, we see five subjects that are considered important for "more clear" understanding that will bring unity: The relationship between Sacred Scripture, as the highest authority in matters of faith, and Sacred Tradition, as indispensable to the interpretation of the Word of God; The Eucharist, as the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, an offering of praise to the Father, the sacrificial memorial and Real Presence of Christ and the sanctifying outpouring of the Holy Spirit; Ordination, as a Sacrament, to the threefold ministry of the episcopate, presbyterate and diaconate; The Magisterium of the Church, entrusted to the Pope and the Bishops in communion with him, understood as a responsibility and an authority exercised in the name of Christ for teaching and safeguarding the faith; The Virgin Mary, as Mother of God and Icon of the Church, the spiritual Mother who intercedes for Christ's disciples and for all humanity.

References
[1] Ut Unum Sint (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ encyclicals/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_enc_25051995_ut-unum-sint_en. html) official text from the Vatican website

Faith and Reason

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Faith and Reason


Fides et Ratio (Latin: faith and reason) is an encyclical promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 14 September 1998. It deals primarily with the relationship between faith and reason. The Pope posits that faith and reason are not only compatible, but essential together. Faith without reason, he argues, leads to superstition. Reason without faith, he argues, leads to nihilism and relativism. He writes: 4 Through philosophy's work, the ability to speculate which is proper to the human intellect produces a rigorous mode of thought; and then in turn, through the logical coherence of the affirmations made and the organic unity of their content, it produces a systematic body of knowledge.... [T]his has brought with it the temptation to identify one single stream with the whole of philosophy. In such cases, we are clearly dealing with a "philosophical pride" which seeks to present its own partial and imperfect view as the complete reading of all reality.... Although reason creates a "systematic body of knowledge," the Pope avers, its completeness is illusory: 5 Yet the positive results achieved must not obscure the fact that reason, in its one-sided concern to investigate human subjectivity, seems to have forgotten that men and women are always called to direct their steps towards a truth which transcends them. Sundered from that truth, individuals are at the mercy of caprice, and their state as person ends up being judged by pragmatic criteria based essentially upon experimental data, in the mistaken belief that technology must dominate all. It has happened therefore that reason, rather than voicing the human orientation towards truth, has wilted under the weight of so much knowledge and little by little has lost the capacity to lift its gaze to the heights, not daring to rise to the truth of being. Abandoning the investigation of being, modern philosophical research has concentrated instead upon human knowing. Rather than make use of the human capacity to know the truth, modern philosophy has preferred to accentuate the ways in which this capacity is limited and conditioned. Without a grounding in spiritual truth, he continues, reason has: 5 ...given rise to different forms of agnosticism and relativism which have led philosophical research to lose its way in the shifting sands of widespread scepticism. Recent times have seen the rise to prominence of various doctrines which tend to devalue even the truths which had been judged certain. A legitimate plurality of positions has yielded to an undifferentiated pluralism, based upon the assumption that all positions are equally valid, which is one of today's most widespread symptoms of the lack of confidence in truth. Even certain conceptions of life coming from the East betray this lack of confidence, denying truth its exclusive character and assuming that truth reveals itself equally in different doctrines, even if they contradict one another. On this understanding, everything is reduced to opinion; and there is a sense of being adrift. While, on the one hand, philosophical thinking has succeeded in coming closer to the reality of human life and its forms of expression, it has also tended to pursue issuesexistential, hermeneutical or linguisticwhich ignore the radical question of the truth about personal existence, about being and about God. Hence we see among the men and women of our time, and not just in some philosophers, attitudes of widespread distrust of the human being's great capacity for knowledge. With a false modesty, people rest content with partial and provisional truths, no longer seeking to ask radical questions about the meaning and ultimate foundation of human, personal and social existence. In short, the hope that philosophy might be able to provide definitive answers to these questions has dwindled. On the wrong turns in modern philosophy and the duty of the magisterium: 49. The Church has no philosophy of her own nor does she canonize any one particular philosophy in preference to others... Yet history shows that philosophyespecially modern philosophyhas taken wrong turns and fallen into error. It is neither the task nor the competence of the Magisterium to intervene in order to make good the lacunas of deficient philosophical discourse. Rather, it is the Magisterium's duty to respond

Faith and Reason clearly and strongly when controversial philosophical opinions threaten right understanding of what has been revealed, and when false and partial theories which sow the seed of serious error, confusing the pure and simple faith of the People of God, begin to spread more widely. 50. In the light of faith, therefore, the Church's Magisterium can and must authoritatively exercise a critical discernment of opinions and philosophies which contradict Christian doctrine. It is the task of the Magisterium in the first place to indicate which philosophical presuppositions and conclusions are incompatible with revealed truth, thus articulating the demands which faith's point of view makes of philosophy. In sum, the Pope "makes this strong and insistent appeal" that "faith and philosophy recover the profound unity which allows them to stand in harmony with their nature without compromising their mutual autonomy. The parrhesia of faith must be matched by the boldness of reason.

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Document Structure
Blessing INTRODUCTION: "KNOW YOURSELF" (1-6) CHAPTER I: THE REVELATION OF GOD'S WISDOM (7-15) Jesus, revealer of the Father (7-12) Reason before the mystery (13-15) CHAPTER II: CREDO UT INTELLEGAM (16-23) "Wisdom knows all and understands all" (Wis 9:11) (16-20) "Acquire wisdom, acquire understanding" (Prov 4:5) (21-23) CHAPTER III: INTELLEGO UT CREDAM (24-34) Journeying in search of truth (24-27) The different faces of human truth (28-34) CHAPTER IV: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAITH AND REASON (36-48) Important moments in the encounter of faith and reason (36-42) The enduring originality of the thought of Saint Thomas Aquinas (43-44) The drama of the separation of faith and reason (45-48) CHAPTER V: THE MAGISTERIUM'S INTERVENTIONS IN PHILOSOPHICAL MATTERS (49-63) The Magisterium's discernment as diakonia of the truth (49-56) The Church's interest in philosophy (57-63) CHAPTER VI: THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY (64-79) The knowledge of faith and the demands of philosophical reason (64-74) Different stances of philosophy (75-79) CHAPTER VII: CURRENT REQUIREMENTS AND TASKS (80-99) The indispensable requirements of the word of God (80-91) Current tasks for theology (92-99) CONCLUSION (100-108)

External links
Fides et Ratio [1] full text of the English translation from the Vatican website

References
[1] http:/ / www. vatican. va/ edocs/ ENG0216/ _INDEX. HTM

Church of the Eucharist

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Church of the Eucharist


Ecclesia de Eucharistia (Latin for Church of the Eucharist) is a Papal encyclical by Pope John Paul II published on April 17, 2003, the purpose of which is "to rekindle this Eucharistic 'amazement' [], in continuity with the Jubilee heritage which [he has] left to the Church in the Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte and its Marian crowning, Rosarium Virginis Mariae"[1] and which he hoped "will effectively help to banish the dark clouds of unacceptable doctrine and practice, so that the Eucharist will continue to shine forth in all its radiant mystery."[2]

Dedication
John Paul II dedicates the encyclical "to the bishops, priests and deacons, men and women in the consecrated life and all the lay faithful".[3]

The Roman Catholic Church believes that there is transubstantiation of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, here displayed in a monstrance in a procession at the 2005 Southeastern Eucharistic Congress.

Introduction
A series of articles on Eucharistic Adoration

Papal documents Mirae Caritatis Dominicae Cenae Mysterium Fidei Mediator Dei Ecclesia de Eucharistia Organizations and events Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament Servants of the Blessed Sacrament Perpetual Adorers Tabernacle Societies Eucharistic Congress Notable individuals St. Francis Peter Eymard Jean Vianney Marie Tamisier Leo Dupont Eucharistic Meditators Thrse of Lisieux Maria Candida Conchita de Armida Maria Valtorta In the introduction John Paul II emphasises the importance of the Holy Eucharist in the Church: 1. The Church draws her life from the Eucharist. [] The Second Vatican Council rightly proclaimed that the Eucharistic sacrifice is "the source and summit of the Christian life".[4] [] 2. The Church was born of the paschal mystery. For this very reason the Eucharist, which is in an outstanding way the sacrament of the paschal mystery, stands at the centre of the Church's life. [] 9. The Eucharist, as Christ's saving presence in the community of the faithful and its spiritual food, is the most precious possession which the Church can have in her journey through history. He also expresses regret at the abandon of Eucharistic adoration and the stripping of its sacrificial meaning.

Church of the Eucharist 10. [] Unfortunately, alongside these lights, there are also shadows. In some places the practice of Eucharistic adoration has been almost completely abandoned. In various parts of the Church abuses have occurred, leading to confusion with regard to sound faith and Catholic doctrine concerning this wonderful sacrament. At times one encounters an extremely reductive understanding of the Eucharistic mystery. Stripped of its sacrificial meaning, it is celebrated as if it were simply a fraternal banquet. Furthermore, the necessity of the ministerial priesthood, grounded in apostolic succession, is at times obscured and the sacramental nature of the Eucharist is reduced to its mere effectiveness as a form of proclamation. This has led here and there to ecumenical initiatives which, albeit well-intentioned, indulge in Eucharistic practices contrary to the discipline by which the Church expresses her faith. How can we not express profound grief at all this? The Eucharist is too great a gift to tolerate ambiguity and depreciation. He ends the introduction with the expression of his intention in the publication of the encyclical: It is my hope that the present Encyclical Letter will effectively help to banish the dark clouds of unacceptable doctrine and practice, so that the Eucharist will continue to shine forth in all its radiant mystery.

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References
[1] Introduction, 6. [2] Introduction, 10. [3] Dedication. [4] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 11.

External links
Ecclesia de Eucharistia (http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0821/_INDEX.HTM)

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Bibliography
Bibliography of Pope John Paul II
This article contains expanded literature information about Pope John Paul II. Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years. Any books written and published prior to his election to the papacy are considered to have been written by Karol Wojtya, rather than by Pope John Paul II. Bibliography of Pope John Paul II [1] in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

Books by Pope John Paul II


In chronological order:
Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)

Meditations and philosophy


Memory and Identity - Conversations at the Dawn of a Millennium, published by Rizzoli (22 March 2005) ISBN 0-8478-2761-5, conversational presentation of John Paul II's views on many secular topics, such as evil, freedom, contemporary Europe, nationalism, and democracy. Included in the book is also a transcript of the Pope's discussion on his assassination attempt in 1981. Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way, Warner Books (28 September 2004), ISBN 0-446-57781-2, mostly addressed to his bishops, although it has been used as source of inspiration for others having knowledge of Christianity. Roman Triptych (Meditation) - 6 March (2003), in Italy published by Libreria Editrice Vaticana ISBN 88-209-7451-7 Pope John Paul II - In My Own Words, Gramercy (6 August 2002) ISBN 0-517-22084-9, best-seller, a carefully selected compilation of words and prayers of John Paul II, compiled by Anthony F. Chiffolo. Gift and Mystery - On the Fiftieth Anniversary of My Priestly Ordination, Image (20 April 1999) ISBN 0-385-49371-1, about being a priest. Crossing the Threshold of Hope, Knopf (19 September 1995), ISBN 0-679-76561-1, edited by Vittorio Messori. John Paul II expounds upon many of his teachings and ideas. The Way to Christ - Spiritual Exercises, HarperSanFrancisco (7 October 1994) ISBN 0-06-064216-5, conversational presentation of two retreats Karol Wojtya gave 10 years apart before becoming pope. In that time he served in Krakw as bishop and cardinal. Person and Act, by Karol Wojtya; before his papacy, (28 February 1979). In depth phenomenological work tied to Thomistic Ethics; the title is sometimes mistranslated into English as The Acting Person, (2002), ISBN 90-277-0985-8. Love and Responsibility, by Karol Wojtya before his papacy, Ignatius Press; Rev. edition (1 April 1993) ISBN 0-89870-445-6, in depth philosophical analysis of human love and sexuality.

Bibliography of Pope John Paul II The Theology Of The Body; Human Love In The Divine Plan, Pauline Books and Media, 1997, ISBN 0-8198-7394-2, a compilation of weekly lectures from 1979 to 1984 to married couples about the deep meaning of human love and sexuality. Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body [John Paul II; Translated by Dr. Michael Waldstein] Pauline Books & Media, 2006. ISBN 0-8198-7421-3, a new translation in English created from the newly discovered original Polish work written by John Paul II (Promulgated by Pope John Paul II), Catecismo de la Iglesia Catolica, Doubleday, 2006. ISBN 978-0385-51650-1

194

Plays by Karol Wojtya


David - according to Pope John Paul IIs translator Bolesaw Taborski, no copy has been found.[2] Job Jeremiah Our God's Brother, Ave Maria Press (September 1995) ISBN 0-87793-870-9, play written by Karol Wojtya in Poland during World War II at a time when Nazis were suppressing Polish culture (1944). The Jeweller's Shop: A Meditation on the Sacrament of Matrimony, Passing on Occasion into a Drama, Arrow, (17 March 1980) ISBN 0-09-140861-X. Both of these plays were filmed: Our God's brother (in Polish: Brat naszego Boga), 123 min, 1997, colour, directed by Krzysztof Zanussi. IMDb entry [3]. La Bottega dell'orefice (English: The Jeweller's Shop), 88 min (Canada)/95 min (USA), 1988, colour, directed by Michael Joseph Anderson. IMDb entry [4].

Poetry by John Paul II


Roman Triptych. Meditations, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, (Vatican) March 2003), ISBN 88-209-7451-7 The Poetry of Pope John Paul II, USCCB (1 September 2003) ISBN 1-57455-556-1, poems written in the summer of 2002. The Place Within: The Poetry of Pope John Paul II, Random House; 1st edition (25 October 1994) ISBN 0-679-76064-4, lyrical poetry

Albums by John Paul II


He released or compiled several albums, most notably 1999's Abb Pater, which he recorded for the Great Jubilee.

Biographies of Pope John Paul II


Lolek, The Boy Who Became Pope John Paul II, Mark Hoffman, Mary Hramiec Hoffman, Hramiec Hoffman Inc., 2009, ISBN 978-0-9746901-1-7, ISBN 0-9746901-1-2 Witness to Hope, George Weigel, HarperCollins (1999, 2001) ISBN 0-06-018793-X. Man of the Century: The Life and Times of Pope John Paul II, Jonathan Kwitny, Henry Holt and Company, 1997. His Holiness: John Paul II and the History of Our Time, Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Doubleday, 1996. Pope John Paul II: The Biography, Tad Szulc, Scribner, 1995.
The Pope in Brazil, 5 October 1997.

Bibliography of Pope John Paul II Universal Father, Garry O'Connor, Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2005, ISBN 91-37-12870-1 John Paul II: An Illustrated Biography, Andrzej Nowak, Kluszczynski, Krakw, 2005 Let Me Go to the Father's House: John Paul II's Strength in Weakness, Stanisaw Dziwisz, Czesaw Drazek, SJ, Renato Buzzonetti, Angelo Comastri, Pauline Books & Media, 2006. ISBN 0-8198-4522-1 The Hidden Pope, Dacry O'Brien, Daybreak Books (1998) ISBN 0-87596-478-8
Pope John Paul II with the Slovenian ambassador Ludvik Toplak in September 2002

195

Literature about his thought


Buttiglione, Rocco, Karol Wojtya: The Thought of the Man Who Became Pope John Paul II, Grand Rapids, Mich. & Cambridge, UK, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997. ISBN 0802838480 Jeffreys, Derek, Defending Human Dignity, Baker / 2004 / Paperback, ISBN 1-58743-092-4 (pbk.) Kchler, Hans, The Phenomenology of Karol Wojtya. On the Problem of the Phenomenological Foundation of Anthropology, in: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 42 (1982), pp.326334 Kchler, Hans, Karol Wojtya's Notion of the Irreducible in Man and the Quest for a Just World Order [5] (Saint Joseph College, USA, 2006) Kupczak, Jarosaw, Destined for Liberty: The Human Person in the Philosophy of Karol Wojtya/John Paul II, Washington, DC, The Catholic University of America Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8132-0985-4 Mannion, Gerard (ed.), The Vision of John Paul II: Assessing His Thought and Influence [6], Collegeville, MN, Liturgical Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8146-5309-8 Meissen, Randall J., "Living Miracles: The Spiritual Sons of John Paul the Great [70]," Alpharetta, GA, Misison Network, 2011. ISBN 978-1933271279 Simpson, Peter, On Karol Wojtya, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth Publishing, 2000. ISBN 053458375X

Biographical film
On December 4 and 7 2005, CBS aired a television mini-series about the life of Pope John Paul II titled Pope John Paul II. The series depicts his early adult years in Poland to his death. It was written and directed by John Kent Harrison and stars Cary Elwes as the younger Wojtya and Academy Award Winner Jon Voight as the older. Voight was nominated for an Emmy Award for best performance. The film co-stars Academy Award Winner James Cromwell as Archbishop Adam Stefan Sapieha, Ben Gazzara as Agostino Casaroli and English actor Christopher Lee as Stefan Wyszyski.

Bibliography of Pope John Paul II

196

References
Notes
[1] http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ identities/ lccn-n80-55818 [2] Kadison, Dan. Holy Nights (http:/ / www. nypost. com/ seven/ 05132007/ entertainment/ theater/ holy_nights_theater_dan_kadison. htm), New York Post, May 13, 2007. Accessed 12 May 2008. [3] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0119846/ [4] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0094787/ [5] http:/ / hanskoechler. com/ koechler-wojtyla-SaintJosephCollege-March2006-V5. pdf [6] http:/ / www. litpress. org/ Detail. aspx?ISBN=9780814653098

Memory and Identity


Memory and Identity is the last book written by Pope John Paul II and published in 2005. The work consists of 26 chapters, each opening with a short narrative paragraph, sometimes including one or more questions. The rest of the chapter consists of the Pope's answers or reactions to the opening paragraph. The chapters are organized into five sections and an epilogue. The sections discuss his views on the issues of: the nature and limitations of evil; the relationship between freedom and responsibility; the nature of nationalism in the context of history and culture; the current social state of affairs in Europe; the virtues and weaknesses of democracy. The epilogue is a first hand account of the assassination attempt on him on 13 May 1981. It also mentions the importance of the Thomistic philosophy and theology of the prominent doctor of the Catholic Church St. Thomas Aquinas to come to a deeper understanding of the Pope's personalist (phenomenological) presentation of Humanae Vitae in his Theology of the Body catechesis, which he thought had its limitations.[1] He writes: If we wish to speak rationally about good and evil, we have to return to St. Thomas Aquinas, that is, to the philosophy of being. With the phenomenological method, for example, we can study experiences of morality, religion, or simply what it is to be human, and draw from them a significant enrichment of our knowledge. Yet we must not forget that all these analyses implicitly presuppose the reality of the Absolute Being and also the reality of being human, that is, being a creature. If we do not set out from such 'realist' presuppositions, we end up in a vacuum.[2]

References
[1] Fr. Thomas Petri, O.P., STD. "Aquinas and the Theology of the Body" (http:/ / vimeo. com/ 19313842). . [2] Pope John Paul II (2005). Memory and identity: Conversations at the Dawn of a Millennium (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=SlXXAAAAMAAJ& q="If+ we+ wish+ to+ speak+ rationally+ about+ good+ and+ evil"). New York: Rizzoli. pp.12. ISBN0847827615. OCLC474590433. .

Roman Triptych

197

Roman Triptych
"Roman Triptych: Meditations" is a poem by Pope John Paul II, published in the (Vatican) in March 2003 by Libreria Editrice Vaticana, with the presentation of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. "Roman Triptych" is the only poem John Paul II wrote during his long Pontificate. The official inauguration of the Italian version (translated by Grazyna Miller) of the "Roman Triptych" ("Trittico romano, Meditazioni") was a ceremony held in the "Sala Stampa Vaticana" on March 6, 2003 in the presence of the author.

Crossing the Threshold of Hope

198

Crossing the Threshold of Hope


Crossing the Threshold of Hope

Cover of Crossing the Threshold of Hope Author(s) Country Language Publisher John Paul II Vatican City Originally Italian, translated into 39 others Alfred A. Knopf

Publication date 1994 Media type Pages ISBN Paperback and Hardcover 229 0679765611

Publishing Information
Crossing the Threshold of Hope was written in 1994 by Pope John Paul II. It was published originally in Italian by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore and in English by Alfrede A. Knopf, Inc. It is distributed by Random House, Inc., New York. By 1998, Crossing the Threshold of Hope had sold several million copies and was published in forty languages, and over one million copies were sold in Italy alone[1] .

Origin
The contents presented in Crossing the Threshold of Hope were originally intended to be broadcasted as a live television interview with Vittorio Messori, an Italian journalist and writer. The interview was to celebrate fifteen years of his papacy. When John Paul II had to cancel the interview at the last minute, he still wanted to answer Messoris questions and told him: You have asked me questions, therefore you have a right to responses. ... I am working on them. I will let you have them. Then do with them what you think is appropriate[2] . At the end of April 1994, Messori received a package from the Vatican: The pope had answered every question. John Paul II expressed his confidence in Messori by permitting him to do whatever he saw fit with the contents of the folder. He only wrote Crossing the Threshold of Hope on the inside front cover of the folder as a suggestion for a possible title[3] .

Crossing the Threshold of Hope As Messori began compiling the questions, he saw that additional questions as follow-up would be helpful. Additional questions were composed and sent. When the follow-up questions returned from the Vatican, Messori found that the pope had again answered every question.

199

Contents
The text of the book is presented exactly as written by John Paul II. Points that the pope underlined in his original manuscript are italicized in the published text. Paragraph breaks remain consistent with John Paul IIs writing[4] . Messori doesnt ask private questions, but the questions he does ask allow the reader to see the personal life of the pope. For example, the very first question in Crossing the Threshold of Hope asks whether the pope ever doubts his relationship with God, especially given the importance of his role in the Catholic Church. The popes answer grounds itself in Scripture: Be not afraid! (Luke 1:30). These words echoed through John Paul IIs papacy, and they continue to echo in this writing. Messori continues to ask questions throughout the book that people throughout the world have wondered: How do you pray? Does God really exist? Is there really hope in the young? Does eternal life exist? What does it mean to be saved? The pope does not answer questions that only pertain to Catholicism. Messori asks questions about Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, Hinduism, and monotheistic religions in general. John Paul IIs answers to these questions reflect his great love for all people and his knowledge of these religions: he speaks several times of individuals he has met who belong to these religions, sometimes calling them by name. He also says vehemently that the Catholic Church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions[5] . Messoris questions in the latter portion of the book refer to various tenets of the Catholic faith, including whether the Catholic Church really has the fullness of truth, and whether or not heaven exists. Many people ask these questions, and the popes answers to these questions can be found here. Some readers may find Messori frustrating at times, as his writing can be gushing and formal. He says things like, Pardon me, Your Holiness, but my role (which gives me great honor but also a certain responsibility) is also that of a respectful provocateur with regard to questions...[6] . Topics of the book include: The Pope: A Scandal and a Mystery, How does the Pope Pray? Does God Really Exist? Proof: Is it Still Valid? If God Exists, Why is He Hiding? Is Jesus the Son of God? Why Is There So Much Evil in the World? What Does To Save Mean? Why So Many Religions? Buddha? Muhammad? Judaism? What Is the New Evangelization? Is There Really Hope in the Young? Was God at Work in the Fall of Communism? Is Only Rome Right? In Search of Lost Unity, A Qualitative Renewal, The Reaction of the World, Does Eternal Life Exist? Human Rights, The Mother of God, and Be Not Afraid. The pope answers questions directly, and he also provides a context and history as background. He reflects on Descartes philosophy of I think, therefore I am, while referencing Kant, Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger, Aristotle, and Plato when defining the history of European thought. Although the pope writes to a world-wide audience, he also speaks specifically of the Catholic faith, including references not only to the Sacred Scriptures, but also many saints: Augustines City of God, John of the Cross and his Ascent of Mount Carmel, Thomas Aquinas and the Summa Theologica, and many more.

Crossing the Threshold of Hope

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Criticism and Praise


Reception of this work of John Paul II range from With the humility and generosity of spirit for which he is well known, John Paul speaks forthrightly to all people[7] to the Pope emerges as the master of the flat statement, the bland certainty. Metaphor, anecdotes, humour, imagination rarely trouble his style; he prefers the long pedantic plod through Aristotle and Plato, St Paul, Augustine, St Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, Pascal, Kant, Hegel, Husserl and Heidegger[8] Crossing the Threshold of Hope has been cited by many, including Scott Hahn (Lord, Have Mercy: The Healing Power of Confession), Eugene Mario DeRobertis (Phenomenological Psychology: A Text for Beginners), Harold C Raley (A Watch Over Mortality: The Philosophical Story of Julian Marias), R Baschetti (Evolutionary, Biological Origins of Mortality: Implications for Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells), Anthony Scioli (Hope in the Age of Anxiety), John Berkman (The Consumption of Animals and the Catholic Tradition), and Christopher Jamison (Finding Sanctuary: Monastic Steps for Everyday Life) and more.

References
[1] http:/ / www. fundinguniverse. com/ company-histories/ Arnoldo-Mondadori-Editore-SpA-Company-History. html. [2] Crossing p. vi. [3] p. vii. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

p. vi. p. 80. p. 101. http:/ / www. aquinasandmore. com/ catholic-books/ Crossing-The-Threshold-Of-Hope/ sku/ 19226. Book Review (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ books/ book-review--what-gets-up-the-popes-nose-crossing-the-threshold-of-hope--pope-john-paul-ii-jonathan-cape-999-pounds--monica-furlong-finds-that-the-publicati html).

Love and Responsibility

201

Love and Responsibility


Love & Responsibility

Author(s) Original title Translator Cover artist Country Language Subject(s) Publisher Publication date Published in English Media type Pages ISBN Dewey Decimal

Karol Wojtya Mio i Odpowiedzialno H. T. Willetts Roxanne Mei Lum Poland Polish Love and Human Sexuality William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd., London and Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc., New York 1960 1981

Print (Hardback & Paperback) & Audio book 319 0-89870-445-6 241/.66 20

LC Classification BT708 .J6313 1993

Love and Responsibility is a book written by Karol Wojtya before he became Pope John Paul II and was originally published in Polish in 1960 and in English in 1981.[1] [2] [3] The work consists of five chapters; One: The Person and the Sexual Urge; Two: The Person and Love; Three: The Person and Chastity; Four: Justice to the Creator; and Five: Sexology and Ethics.[3] It is described as 'a defence of the traditional Church teachings on marriage from a new philosophical standpoint'.[4] In his introduction to the first edition Fr. Wojtyla describes his reasons for writing the book as being 'born principally of the need to put the norms of Catholic sexual morality on a firm basis, a basis as definitive as possible, relying on the most elementary and incontrovertible moral truths and the most fundamental values or goods.'[5] Fr. Wojtya was originally inspired to write the book while a professor at the Catholic University of Lublin,[6] through the experiences he had in teaching

Love and Responsibility young Catholics. While at the university, Fr. Wojtya gathered a group of about 20 young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the "little family". They met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and helping the blind and sick. The group eventually grew to approximately 200 participants, and their activities expanded to include annual skiing and kayaking trips.[7] The insight he gained from these meetings and discussions helped him develop the raw material for the text. Fr. Wojtya writes that marital sexual intercourse is the best image of God who is love, for he sees the human body as the only one capable of making the invisible the spiritual and the divine visible.[1] [8] [9] He says that human beings were created by God who is love for a purpose: to be loving persons who freely choose to love, to give themselves as persons who express their self-giving through their bodies. Thus, sexual intercourse between husband and wife is a symbol of their total mutual self-donation, and further fosters, strengthens and enriches it not just for the present but also for the future.[1] [9] For Fr. Wojtya, "The body, and it alone, is capable of making visible what is invisible: the spiritual and divine."[1] [10] [11] [12]

202

Marriage is an act of will that signifies and involves a mutual gift, which unites the spouses and binds them to their eventual souls, with whom they make up a sole family - a domestic church.

[13]

Karol Wojtya

References
Sources
Wojtya, Karol. Love and Responsibility [252]. London: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd.. ISBN0-89870-445-6. Retrieved 15 October 2009. Wojtya, Karol. Love and Responsibility [14] on Google Books. Retrieved 15 October 2009. Wojtya, Karol. Mio i odpowiedzialno [15] Love and Responsibility e-book in Polish. Retrieved 15 October 2009.

Notes
[1] Wojtya, Karol. Love and Responsibility: 1981 [2] "How not to be used: Love and Responsibility - Catholic Online" (http:/ / www. catholic. org/ featured/ headline. php?ID=321). www.catholic.org. . Retrieved 2009-10-11. [3] "A Summary of Karol Wojtya's Love and Responsibility by William E. May" (http:/ / www. christendom-awake. org/ pages/ may/ summaryofl& r. htm). www.christendom-awake.org. . Retrieved 2009-10-14. [4] Kuhiwczak, Piotr (Dr.) (1 January 2007). "A literary Pope" (http:/ / www. polskieradio. pl/ zagranica/ news/ artykul21561. html). Polish Radio (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080208070732/ http:/ / www. polskieradio. pl/ ). 2007,2009 Nowe Media, Polskie Radio S.A.. . Retrieved 2009-01-01. [5] Wojtyla, Karol (1981). Love and Responsibility. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. pp.16. ISBN978-0-89870-445-7. [6] Weigel, George (2001). Witness of Hope - The Biography of Pope John Paul II. HarperCollins. [7] "Pope John Paul II: A Light for the World" (http:/ / www. usccb. org/ about/ leadership/ holy-see/ pope-john-paul-ii/ pope-john-paul-ii-biography. cfm). United States Council of Catholic Bishops. 2003. . Retrieved 2011-10-23. [8] Karol Woytyla, Love and Responsibility, San Francisco, Ignatius Press 1993 [9] "Holy Spirit Interactive: Edward P. Sri - Love and Responsibility: The Battle for Purity" (http:/ / www. holyspiritinteractive. net/ columns/ edwardpsri/ loveandresponsibility/ 02. asp). www.holyspiritinteractive.net. . Retrieved 2009-10-15. [10] Theology of Marriage and Celibacy, Boston, St. Paul Books and Media 1986 [11] Christopher West. "What is the Theology of the Body & Why is it Changing so Many Lives?" (http:/ / catholiceducation. org/ articles/ sexuality/ se0109. html). Catholic Education Resource Centre. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. [12] "Love and Responsibility: The Person and Love" (http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ cu/ augustine/ arch/ jp2/ love-resp. html). www.columbia.edu. . Retrieved 2009-10-15. [13] "BrainyQuote: Pope John Paul II Quotes" (http:/ / www. brainyquote. com/ quotes/ authors/ p/ pope_john_paul_ii. html). 2007,2009 BrainyMedia.com. . Retrieved 2009-10-15.

Love and Responsibility


[14] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=TNRY9HkssDQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=Love+ %26+ Responsibility& ei=tErRSvveG5O2yASAtaneDQ#v=onepage& q=& f=false [15] http:/ / www. katedra. uksw. edu. pl/ wojtyla/ milosc_i_odpowiedzialnosc/

203

The Theology of the Body


Theology of the Body is the topic of a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September 1979 and November 1984. It was the first major teaching of his pontificate. The complete addresses were later compiled and expanded upon in many of John Paul's encyclicals, letters, and exhortations. The delivery of the Theology of the Body series did have interruptions. For example, the Wednesday audiences were devoted to other topics during the Holy Year of Redemption in 1983.[1]

Topics
The work covers such topics as the unified corporeal and spiritual qualities of the human person; the origins, history and destiny of humanity; the deepest desires of the human heart and the way to experience true happiness and freedom; the truth about man's need and desire for loving communion derived from the revealed understanding of humanity in the image of a Triune Creator; the truth about God's original design for human sexuality and thus the dignity of the human person, how it was distorted through sin, and how it has been restored and renewed through the redemption of Jesus Christ; and Catholic teachings about the sacramentality of marriage. The central thesis of John Paul's Theology of the Body, according to author Christopher West, is that "the body, and it alone, is capable of making visible what is invisible: the spiritual and the divine. It was created to transfer into the visible reality of the world, the mystery hidden since time immemorial in God, and thus to be a sign of it."[2] The work consists of two halves and five cycles. The first half, entitled "The Words of Christ" consists of three cycles in which John Paul II establishes an "adequate anthropology." Cycle 1 looks at the human person as we were created to be "in the beginning" (original man); Cycle 2 addresses human life after original sin, unredeemed and redeemed (historical man). Cycle 3 treats the reality of our life at the end of time when Christ comes back again and history reaches its fulfillment (eschatological man). John Paul II also places his reflections on virginity for the kingdom within the context of Cycle 3. In the second half, entitled "The Sacrament" (which refers to the sacrament of marriage), John Paul II addresses the sacramentality of marriage in Cycle 4 and the responsible transmission of human life in Cycle 5. Some consider the first encyclical of Pope Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est (God is Love), with its exposition of the relation between agape and eros, to be the culmination of John Paul II's Theology of the Body.

Christian ideal of marriage


In this first cycle, Pope John Paul II discusses Christ's answer to the Pharisees when they ask him about whether a man can divorce his wife.[1]

Adultery
This second cycle focuses on Christ's remarks on adultery in the Sermon on the Mount.[1] Matthew 5:27-28 [3] (D-R) 27 You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not commit adultery. 28 But I say to you, that whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart.

The Theology of the Body Pope John Paul II explains this as looking at another person to desire them in a reductive way, that is they are viewed as merely an object of desire. Pope John Paul II says this seems to be a key passage for theology of the body. (See [1] John Paul II, Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body (Boston: Pauline Books and Media), 2006,225.)

204

Resurrection of the body


The third cycle analyzes Christs answer to the Sadducees when they come to him and ask him about a woman who had married seven brothers.[1]

Celibacy and virginity


The fourth cycle is a meditation on celibacy and virginity.[1]

Sacrament of marriage
The fifth cycle discusses the sacrament of marriage.[1]

Contraception
Pope John Paul II began his discussion of contraception on 11 July 1984 with the 114th lecture in this series. This section of the lecture series, the sixth and final part, is largely a reflection on Humanae Vitae, the 1968 encyclical of Pope Paul VI. In it, John Paul continued his emphasis on the design of the human body revealing God's truths. It is explained and reaffirmed that the fundamental structure of males and females, which causes sexual intercourse between them to result in both greater intimacy and the capability of generating new life, demonstrates a morally inseparable connection between these two functions. The authority of the Magisterium (teaching authority of the Church and those who hold the office) to interpret the divine intention (in this context, through the structure of the body), is emphasized. Although the Church's teachings on sexuality are not present in a literal reading of the biblical text, John Paul gives examples of how they are part of longstanding Church traditiona tradition that was created in the context of scriptural teachings. The ability of the human body to express truth through the sexual union of married couples is acclaimed. The moral wrongness of using artificial means to manipulate such a significant aspect of the created body is explained. Dominion over outside forces, and also self-mastery through discipline, are integral human drives. However, the language expressed by bodies, in this context the language expressed during sexual intercourse, is so damaged by the use of artificial contraception that the conjugal act "ceases to be an act of love... [or] communion of persons" but rather is a mere bodily union. On the other hand, the licitness of natural family planning (NFP) methods is held to be evident from the structure of the human body, which has natural periods of fertility and infertility. The morality of these methods was literally designed into the body, and use of them, unlike use of artificial contraception, can actually improve the dialog between couples which is expressed through the language of the body. Throughout these speeches the main emphasis is on the intrinsic goodness of the marital act. The power of love between spouses is said to both lead to and be nourished by the moral use of the conjugal act. Thus, moral exercise of sexual intercourse uses the form of the body to reveal the love of God toward Creation. While following the rules of NFP does not guarantee a truly spiritual sexual relationship between husband and wife, understanding the theology that makes NFP acceptable can foster the maturity needed by the couple to attain that level of spirituality, living life by the Holy Spirit. Also, Pope John Paul II warns couples against "lowering the number of births in their family below the morally correct level." Responsible parenthood is greatly encouraged, however it is emphasized that while this sometimes means limiting family size, responsible parenthood can also mandate couples to increase their family size. This is because of the good children bring not only their immediate

The Theology of the Body family, but also to their society and Church. The seriousness of a couple's decision to maintain or increase their family size is discussed. John Paul refers to Gaudium et Spes, a document issued by the Second Vatican Council, which emphasizes the importance of couples' having their conscience guided by the law of God. The difficulty inherent in and endurance required to consciously regulate births with these methods is discussed, although largely in the context of the integral part played by the burdens of life as Christians follow the "hard way" through the "narrow gate". In fact, the kind of discipline necessary to practice periodic continence is claimed to impart licit conjugal acts with deeper meaning, as well as bringing out the ability of a married couple to express love through non-sexual acts. John Paul states many other benefits claimed for moral use of NFP, some from Humanae Vitae. These include an increase of marital peace, less spousal selfishness, increased and more positive influence over their children (5 September 1884), and increased dignity of person through following the law of God. Use of NFP is also said to increase appreciation of children, by fostering respect for what is created by God.

205

Commentary
By Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II's last book, Memory and Identity, mentions the importance of the Thomistic philosophy and theology of the prominent doctor of the Catholic Church St. Thomas Aquinas to come to a deeper understanding of the Pope's personalist (phenomenological) presentation of Humanae Vitae in his Theology of the Body catechesis, which he thought had its limitations.[4] He writes: If we wish to speak rationally about good and evil, we have to return to St. Thomas Aquinas, that is, to the philosophy of being. With the phenomenological method, for example, we can study experiences of morality, religion, or simply what it is to be human, and draw from them a significant enrichment of our knowledge. Yet we must not forget that all these analyses implicitly presuppose the reality of the Absolute Being and also the reality of being human, that is, being a creature. If we do not set out from such 'realist' presuppositions, we end up in a vacuum.[5]

By George Weigel
George Weigel has described Theology of the Body as "one of the boldest reconfigurations of Catholic theology in centuries." He goes on to say it is a "kind of theological time bomb set to go off with dramatic consequences, sometime in the third millennium of the Church." Weigel believes that it has barely begun to "shape the Church's theology, preaching, and religious education" but when it does "it will compel a dramatic development of thinking about virtually every major theme in the Creed."[6] Weigel also realizes major obstacles to the theology of the body. The Pope is very hard to read and understand: "The density of John Paul's material is one factor. A secondary literature capable of translating John Paul's thought into accessible categories and vocabulary is badly needed." And, Weigel believes, the dominant liberal views on such issues as women's rights, birth control, abortion and divorce are also obstacles to the "theology of the body" becoming known or accepted.[6] Many of Weigel's concerns with respect to being able to understand the set of Wednesday General Audiences on the Theology of the Body have been addressed in the new translation, Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body (2006, Michael Waldstein, translator). One of the drawbacks of the prior English-language versions is that different translators were used at varying times over the long period that the Audience talks were given. Hence, it happened occasionally that the same term would be translated differently from one talk to the other. The new translation has corrected that problem in addition to being confirmed by having had access to John Paul's original notes in Polish, rather than merely the Italian used in the Audience talks.

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By Christopher West
In his Theology of the Body Explained Christopher West, who has been teaching John Paul's theology of the body since the late 1990s, wrote, "John Paul's TOB is most often cast as an extended catechesis on marriage and sexual love. It certainly is that, but it is also so much more. Through the mystery of the Incarnate person and the biblical analogy of spousal love, John Paul II's catechesis illumines the entirety of God's plan for human life from origin to eschaton with a splendid supernatural light." [7] Alice von Hildebrand, widow of the late 20th century theologian Dietrich von Hildebrand, severely criticized West's approach in her essay "Dietrich von Hildebrand, Catholic Philosopher, and Christopher West, Modern Enthusiast: Two Very Different Approaches to Love, Marriage and Sex [8]."

By John Cornwell
In his account of the reign of John Paul II, author John Cornwell says of the Theology of the Body: "This work, which constitutes, in the view of some keen papal supporters, John Paul's vital legacy to the world, has been perhaps his least influential."[9]

By Charles Curran
Dissident Catholic moral theologian Charles E. Curran, writing in The Moral Theology of Pope John Paul II, says the pope's Wednesday audiences are unlikely to have been understood by many of those present at the time: "Quite frankly, the talks do not seem appropriate for the occasion. They are somewhat theoretical and too detailed for a general audience. In addition, because each individual talk is part of a larger whole, it is difficult to understand the full meaning of any short talk without seeing the whole picture. I am sure that most of those in attendance at the audiences did not follow what the pope was saying." Curran also makes the point that such talks have "little or no importance from the viewpoint of authoritative teaching," and that the pope appears to be unaware of contemporary biblical scholarship and makes no mention of any contemporary scholars of any type. Curran also points out that the Theology of the Body "clearly cannot serve as a theology for all persons and all bodies", and that "there are many people for whom the 'nuptial meaning' of the body he develops are not appropriate. As with many utopias, the elderly are missing. But also most obviously the unmarried - people who are single, people who are widowed, and homosexuals. The pope at one point tries to show how virginity and celibacy can be understood within the terms of his ideas about the 'nuptial meaning' of the body, but these arguments are unconvincing." On the positive side, Curran says the pope "strongly supports the equality of men and women in marriage and expressly opposes any subordination of the woman to the man."[10]

By Kenneth L. Woodward
The religion editor for Newsweek, Kenneth L. Woodward, has described John Paul's Theology of the Body as "a highly romantic and unrealistic view of human sexuality."[11]

By Sebastian Moore, OSB


Benedictine moral theologian, Sebastian Moore, who has publicly identified himself as gay[12] , is critical of the Theology of the Body for its lack of connection to real people in their real lives: "I keep getting the feeling, reading these profound reflections, that their author does not believe that there is any clue to the sublime reality in sexual experience itself. In reflection on one's body in its maleness and femaleness, its essential incompleteness, yes; in the mysteriousness of the union of the two in one flesh, yes. But in sex, as we enjoy and suffer it? Somehow, no. That never comes through. This is a phenomenology of sexuality, descriptive of its intentionality. But we are light years away from the world of D. H. Lawrence. I mean that there is no feeling for the area of experience for which Lawrence has found such memorable words. Of course I don't want the pope to write like Lawrence! It's just that

The Theology of the Body when I think of Lawrence, and then read this text, I get the feeling that, though phenomenological and existential, it really is not talking about what Lawrence is talking about at all." Sebastian Moore also argues that in his protracted discussion of the "shame" of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden when they become aware of their nakedness, the pope fundamentally misunderstands what the story is saying. In the Genesis account, according to Moore, "it is shame that sets the stage for lust", but "in the pope's account, it is the other way round: lust generates shame....What we see of sex, in the story of the Fall as presented by Pope John Paul, is sex as shameful, but not the way the story intends, but rather the way he intends, that is, as shameful because of lust." [13]

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By theologian Georg Schelbert


Theologian Georg Schelbert, of the University of Fribourg in Switzerland, is critical of the Theology of the Body for its highly selective use of Scripture. He notes that John Paul, in discussing Jesus' attitude to divorce, makes no mention of the qualification in Matthew 5:32 where Jesus permits divorce for reason of adultery. Schelbert also argues that it is clear that the biblical stories of the patriarchs clearly permit polygamy, in contradiction of John Paul's statement that polygamy "directly rejects the plan of God as revealed in the beginning." He also notes that, in John Paul's discussion of divorce, "not a single word is said about the so-called Pauline privilege (or about the extension of that privilege, which for a long time was falsely called 'Petrine'), which relaxes these rigorous conclusions").[14] The Pauline privilege is usually seen as permitting divorce or annulment in cases where one of the partners is not a baptised believer.

Further reading
Pope John Paul II, translated by Dr. Michael Waldstein (September 2006). Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body [15]. Pauline Books and Media. ISBN0-8198-7421-3. Carl A. Anderson and Fr. Jose Granados (April 2009). Called to Love: Approaching John Paul II's Theology of the Body. Doubleday. ISBN0385527713. Hillard, Donora (2010). Theology of the Body. Gold Wake Press. ISBN0-9826-3090-5. Kellmeyer, Steve (2004). Sex and the Sacred City. Bridegroom Press. ISBN0-9718128-1-0. Shivanandan, Mary (1999). Crossing the Threshold of Love: A New Vision of Marriage in the Light of John Paul II's Anthropology. Catholic University of America Press. ISBN0-8132-0941-2. West, Christopher (2003). Theology of the Body Explained: A Commentary on John Paul's "Gospel of the Body" [16] . Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-7410-8. Percy, Anthony (2006). Theology of the Body Made Simple [18]. Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-7419-1. Hajduk, David (2006). God's Plan for You: Life, Love Marriage, Sex-- A Theology of the Body for Young People [19] . Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-4517-5. Zeno, Katrina (2010). Discovering the Feminine Genius: Every Woman's Journey [20]. Pauline Books and Media [17] . ISBN0-8198-1884-4. Zeno, Katrina (2008). The Body Reveals God: A Guided Study of Pope John Paul II's Theology of the Body. Women of the Third Millennium. ISBN0-9748288-1-5. Bransfield, J. Brian (2010). The Human Person: According to John Paul II [21]. Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-3394-0. May, William E. (2010). Theology of the Body in Context: Genesis and Growth. Pauline Books and Media. ISBN0-8198-7431-0. West, Christopher (2007). Theology of the Body Explained (Revised): A Commentary on John Paul's "Man and Woman He Created Them". Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-7425-6.

The Theology of the Body Doyle, Karen (2009). Theology of the Body: Some Thoughts and Reflections [22]. Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-7427-2. Doyle, Karen (2009). The Genius of Womanhood [23]. Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-3109-3. Bachiochi, Erika (2010). Women, Sex, and the Church: A Case for Catholic Teaching [24]. Pauline Books and Media [17]. ISBN0-8198-8320-4.

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References
[1] Hogan, Richard M. (February 25, 2003). "An Introduction to John Paul II's Theology of the Body" (http:/ / www. nfpoutreach. org/ Hogan_Theology_ Body1. htm). Natural Family Planning Outreach. . Retrieved 2006-07-14. [2] West, Christopher (2004). Theology of the Body for Beginners. Ascension Press. p.5. ISBN1-932645-34-9. [3] http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ bible/ mat005. htm [4] Fr. Thomas Petri, O.P., STD. "Aquinas and the Theology of the Body" (http:/ / vimeo. com/ 19313842). . [5] Pope John Paul II (2005). Memory and identity: Conversations at the Dawn of a Millennium (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=SlXXAAAAMAAJ& q="If+ we+ wish+ to+ speak+ rationally+ about+ good+ and+ evil"). New York: Rizzoli. pp.12. ISBN0847827615. OCLC474590433. . [6] Weigel, George (October 1999). Witness to Hope (First edition ed.). Harper Perennial. pp.336, 343, 853. ISBN0-06-018793-X. [7] West, Christopher (2007). The Theology of the Body Explained. Pauline Books & Media. p.14. ISBN0-8198-7425-6. [8] http:/ / www. catholicnewsagency. com/ document. php?n=999 [9] Cornwell, John (2004). The Pontiff in Winter: Triumph and Conflict in the Reign of John Paul II. Doubleday. p.139. ISBN0-385-51484-0. [10] Curran, Charles E., (2006). The Moral Theology of Pope John Paul II. Georgetown University Press. pp.4, 5, 46, 168, 188. ISBN9781589010420. [11] Kenneth L. Woodward, The New York Times, 18/12/2005 (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 12/ 18/ books/ review/ 18Woodward. html) [12] Sebastian Moore interview with Noel Debien in ABC Sunday Night, Feb. 13, 2011 (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ sundaynights/ stories/ s3138282. htm) [13] Sebastian Moore OSB, "The Crisis of an Ethic without Desire", in Rogers, Eugene F. Jr., ed. (2002). Theology and Sexuality: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Blackwell. pp.1623. ISBN0-631-21276-0. [14] Georg Schelbert, "Defaming the Historical-Critical Method", in Kng and Swidler (1986). The Church in Anguish: Has the Vatican Betrayed Vatican II?. Harper & Row, San Francisco. pp.106124. ISBN0-06-254827-1. [15] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ catpageindex/ 2/ ProductName/ man/ ProductID/ 2853/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=* [16] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductName/ Theology/ ProductID/ 2676/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=* [17] http:/ / www. pauline. org/ [18] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductName/ Theology/ ProductID/ 2715/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=* [19] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ catpageindex/ 2/ ProductID/ 2931/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=*!& ProductName=G* [20] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductName/ discovering/ productid/ 3276/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=* [21] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductName/ human/ ProductID/ 3290/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=* [22] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductID/ 3224/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=*& ProductName=theology+ of+ the+ body [23] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductName/ genius/ ProductID/ 3223/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=* [24] https:/ / store. pauline. org/ English/ tabid/ 56/ List/ 0/ SortField/ Rank/ ProductName/ women/ ProductID/ 3332/ Default. aspx?txtSearch=*

External links
General Audiences: John Paul II's Theology of the Body (http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/ JP2TBIND.HTM). Full text of the speeches.

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Books and films about John Paul II


Have No Fear: The Life of Pope John Paul II
The biopic Have No Fear: The Life of Pope John Paul II explains in biographical form the life story of the late head of the Roman Catholic church, Pope John Paul II.

Plot
The plot of the film begins with the pope's visit to Jerusalem, a stop on his 91st trip abroad, which occurred between 20 March and 26 March, 2000. At the Western Wall, he asked God to forgive the sins of the church, before retreating alone to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. At an early age, he lost his mother and his brother Edmund. Pope John Paul lived through the Nazi occupation of his homeland, Poland during World War II. Through all these hardships, he maintained his love for Jesus of Nazareth and the virgin Mary. He became an ordained priest, and eventually the archbishop of Cracow, where he began his fight against Communism and oppression. On 16 October, 1978 Karol Wojtyla became the 264th pope of the Roman Catholic Church, and now called himself John Paul II. The "Polish Pope" himself made history with the second longest papacy in history. He survived the assassination attempt by Ali Agca and used his influence to help bring communism to its knees. On 2 April 2005 Pope John Paul II died.

Background
With respect to Catholics, the ABC film took the theme differently than was critically expected. Here it was not attempted to recite the Holy Scriptures, but rather to centralize on the devotion of John Paul to his faith. Production took place in Lithuania and partly in Rome. Because Benedict XVI had already given Vatican filming rights to the CBS for the portrayal of the life of Pope John Paul II, production for the film scenes which play in the Vatican were done on sets.
Actor/Actress Role

Thomas Kretschmann John Paul II Bruno Ganz Sebastian Knapp Jasper Harris Survila Ignas Ignatavicius Paulius Petar Goranov Salauskaite Inga Michael Klesic Richard Rees Cardinal Wyszyski Mehmet Ali Aca the 10 year-old Wojtyla the 12 year-old Wojtyla Edmund Wojtyla Karol's father Emilia Wojtyla Stanislaw Starowieyski Wojciech Jaruzelski

Have No Fear: The Life of Pope John Paul II

210
Paul VI Stanisaw Dziwisz Adam Stefan Sapieha Archbishop scar Romero Ginka

Charles Kay John Albasiny Roland Oliver Joaquim de Almeida Sabrina Javor

External links
Have No Fear: The Life of Pope John Paul II [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0475967/

Pope John Paul II: The Movie


Pope John Paul II: The Movie is a 1984 TV movie based on Pope John Paul II starring Albert Finney. It traces his life from a young activist in Poland to his rise as pope.

External links
Pope John Paul II: The Movie [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0087931/

Karol: A Man Who Became Pope

211

Karol: A Man Who Became Pope


Karol: A Man Who Became Pope
Genre Directedby Starring Miniseries Giacomo Battiato Piotr Adamczyk Magosia Bela Raoul Bova English Italian Latin Polish

Language

Karol: A Man Who Became Pope (pl: Karol - Czowiek, ktry zosta Papieem, it: Karol, un uomo diventato Papa) is a 2005 TV miniseries directed by Giacomo Battiato, and created as a Polish-Italian-French-German and Canadian joint cooperation project. Karol is a biography of Karol Wojtya, later known as Pope John Paul II, beginning in 1939 when Karol was only 19 years old and ending at the conclave (October 1978) that made him the Pope. The TV miniseries was supposed to premire at the very beginning of April 2005 in the Vatican, but it was delayed due to the Pope's death. It was broadcast for the first time by the Italian television station Canale 5 on the first day of the 2005 papal election. Although it was originally broadcast on television, it was also released in theaters, which allowed the film to be shown in Poland. The incredible success of the movie prompted the creation of a sequel, Karol: The Pope, The Man, which portrayed Karol's life as Pope.
Theatrical release poster

Main cast
Piotr Adamczyk - Karol Wojtya Magosia Bela - Hania Raoul Bova - Priest Tomasz Zaleski Matt Craven - Hans Frank Ken Duken - Adam Zieliski Ennio Fantastichini - Nowak Olgierd ukaszewicz - Karol's father Lech Mackiewicz - Stefan Wyszyski Radosaw Pazura - Pawe Violante Placido - Maria Pomorska Grayna Szapoowska - Brigitte Frank

Kenneth Welsh Patrycja Soliman - Wisawa

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212

Notes
At Lublin University, a student gives his name as Martin Mickiewicz, and Father Karol responds, "That's quite a name to live up to." This is a reference to Polish national poet, Adam Mickiewicz. People did not talk and/or clap in Church until the late 1970s,early 1980s due to a canon law that still exists, forbidding actions that are "contrary to the sacred nature" of the Church. ((Canon 1210))

Soundtrack
By Ennio Morricone released in 2007 on 2 CDs.

External links
Karol: A Man Who Became Pope [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0435100/

Karol: The Pope, The Man


Karol: The Pope, The Man is a 2006 TV miniseries chronicling Pope John Paul II's life as pope, directed by Giacomo Battiato. It is the sequel to the TV miniseries Karol: A Man Who Became Pope, which portrayed John Paul's life before the papacy.

Main cast
Piotr Adamczyk - Pope John Paul II/Karol Wojtyla Adriana Asti - Mother Teresa Leslie Hope - Julia Ritter Timothy Martin Michele Placido Alkis Zanis - Ali Agca Carlos Kaniowsky - Oscar Arnulfo Romero y Goldamez Fabrice Scott - Jerzy Popieuszko Paolo Maria Scalondro - Wojciech Jaruzelski

Notes
People did not talk or clap in Church until the late 1970s and early 1980s, due to a canon law that still exists, forbidding actions that are "contrary to the sacred nature" of the Church. ((Canon 1210)) Pope John Paul II famously accepted his nomination as Pope with a resounding "Yes"

External links
Website at CBC Television [1] Karol: The Pope, The Man [2] at The Internet Movie Database

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References
[1] http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ karol/ [2] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0495039/

Pope John Paul II


Pope John Paul II

Directed by Written by Starring

John Kent Harrison John Kent Harrison Jon Voight Cary Elwes James Cromwell Ben Gazzara Christopher Lee

Distributed by CBS Release date(s) December 4 & 7, 2005 (USA) Running time Language 200 min (2 parts) English

Pope John Paul II is a 2005 television miniseries dramatizing the life of Pope John Paul II (Karol Jzef Wojtya) from his early adult years in Poland to his death on April 2, 2005 at age 84. The film was written and directed by John Kent Harrison and aired in the United States on the CBS network on December 4, 2005. It was first released in Vatican City on November 17, 2005 and ten days later throughout Italy. Cary Elwes portrays Karol Wojtyla from the second scene (September, 1939) of the film up to his election to the papacy on October 16, 1978 after the sudden death of Pope John Paul I, whose pontificate lasted just 33 days. After accepting the nomination of the Cardinalate, Elwes is seen being escorted to be fitted in papal vestments, at which point Academy Award-winner Jon Voight takes over the role. Voight was nominated for an Emmy Award for his performance. Pope John Paul II co-stars James Cromwell, as Archbishop Adam Stefan Sapieha, Ben Gazzara, as Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, and Christopher Lee as Cardinal Stefan Wyszyski. Polish actor Mikolaj Grabowski is twice seen playing Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of Germany, who succeeded Pope John Paul II as pope on April 19, 2005

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Plot
Pope John Paul II, begins with the May 1981 assassination attempt, then flashbacks to the young Karol "Lolek" Wojtyla whose faith and values are initially fostered by his loving, devout parents, who, along with Karol's elder brother, die of natural causes by the time Karol is 20 years old. Despite being on his own at a young age and enduring the effects of the Nazi occupation in Poland, the philosophical Karol remains optimistic that he can and must make a difference. Along with his university friends, Karol initially embraces the world of theatre, acting in clandestine plays as a means of retaining his Polish culture in spite of the risks involved. In the midst of the chaos surrounding him as ongoing atrocities are suffered by Polish Jews, academics, religious leaders and others, Karol accepts a calling to become a priest. Karol's training takes place in an underground seminary run by the Archbishop Sapieha, a defiant force for the people of Krakow under the Nazi occupation, who becomes Karol's mentor and involves the young man in the resistance movement. After being ordained a priest by Sapieha, now a Cardinal, Karol completes his graduate studies in Rome and returns to Poland, where he is assigned to become a student chaplain at St. Florian's parish in Krakow. The athletic 28-year-old Fr. Karol Wojtyla immediately bonds with the university students who savor his relaxed approach and join him to kayak to his inspiring Masses in the wilderness away from the watchful eyes of the Communist authorities. He was then appointed Professor of Social Ethics at Catholic University of Lublin, Poland and then when Karol is only 38-years-old, the Holy See appoints him Auxiliary Bishop of Krakow. Continuing to cultivate faith with the people, despite the restrictions imposed by the Communist leaders, Karol chooses to hold Mass in an open area in the Communists' new Polish church-free city, Nowa Huta. Although he repeatedly enrages the Communist authorities, he impresses influential foreign cardinals with his views, his charisma and his knowledge of multiple languages. At 47, Karol is made a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. On October 16, 1978, following the brief reign of Pope John Paul I and after 455 years of Italian popes, Karol is elected Pope and takes the name John Paul II at the age of 58. During his extremely active papal years, most of which take place after he survives a 1981 assassination attempt, John Paul II takes part in international negotiations and presses the Soviet rulers to remove obstacles to freedom of religion in the countries under their control. He travels across the globe to promote faith, values, peace, forgiveness, and, especially in countries lacking it, freedom of religion. He confronts constitutional anti-clericalism in Mexico in January, 1979, asks for forgiveness and brotherhood with the Jewish people and reaches out to the world's Catholic youth. During John Paul II's first pilgrimage to Poland in June, 1979, he ushers in an era of hope that motivates the Polish people and their Solidarity leadership (formed 1980) to eventually bring a hard-fought end to Communist rule there. This passion ultimately spreads throughout the rest of the East bloc as well. Despite health obstacles in later years, John Paul II refused to curtail his busy schedule. He continued to challenge and inspire millions of people throughout his lengthy illness and during his last days.

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External links
Pope John Paul II [1] Official Site Pope John Paul II DVD [2] Ignatius Press Website Pope John Paul II [3] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. cbs. com/ specials/ pope [2] http:/ / www. ignatius. com/ Videos/ PopeJohnPaulII/ multimedia. html [3] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt475999/

The Papal Chase

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The Papal Chase


The Papal Chase

The Papal Chase movie poster


Directed by Produced by Written by Starring Kenny Hotz Kenny Hotz Paul Johnson Kenny Hotz Paul Johnson (uncredited) Kenny Hotz

Cinematography Sebastian Cluer Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Massey Films 2004 53 min.
Canada

English $800

The Papal Chase is a 2001 Canadian feature-length guerrilla documentary created by and starring Kenny Hotz, of Kenny vs. Spenny fame.

Plot
The premise of this award winning documentary is that the Pope (Pope John Paul II) is visiting Canada, and Kenny Hotz's friend has bet him $1000 that Kenny (who is Jewish) can't meet him. The movie takes place over the course of six days in which Kenny attempts several times to meet the pope in order to win the bet. In his attempt to meet the man, Kenny does several things, including becoming a "Pope-arazzi", fighting his way through millions of pilgrims and onlookers, thousands of cops, security guards, Vatican Special Forces, precision snipers. There are cameos by various members of The Rolling Stones in the film. The film also features clips of Toronto mayoral candidate Kevin Clarke. The film won the best Canadian documentary award in 2004.

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217

External links
The Papal Chase on KennyHotz.com [1] The Papal Chase on itunes [2] The Papal Chase [3] at the Internet Movie Database The Papal Chase [4] at AllRovi

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. kennyhotz. com/ flix/ the_papal_chase. asp http:/ / itunes. apple. com/ ca/ movie/ the-papal-chase/ id458615104 http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0443765/ http:/ / www. allrovi. com/ movies/ movie/ v346526

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Cultural references
Cultural references to Pope John Paul II
As one of the best known and well-travelled persons of the 20th century, there are many cultural references to Pope John Paul II (18 May 1920 2 April 2005), who reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest pontificate after Pius IX's 31-year reign. In addition to his own extensive writings, many films, television programs, books, and journal articles have been written about John PaulII.

Pope John Paul II inSt.Peter'sSquare in 1985

Films
Films made about John PaulII include: Pope John Paul II: The Movie, (1984) directed by Herbert Wise, starring Albert Finney, Nigel Hawthorne, Alfred Burke, John McEnery, Patrick Stewart. Pope John Paul's Third Pilgrimage to His Homeland, a documentary on John Paul's June 1987 visit to Poland. From a Far Country (1981), directed by Krzysztof Zanussi. The Millennial Pope: John Paul II (1999) (TV), a documentary directed by Helen Whitney. The Papal Chase (2004), a documentary by Kenny Hotz. Karol: A Man Who Became Pope,[1] Polish title: Karol. Czlowiek, ktry zostal papiezem, 2005, a documentary, directed by Giacomo Battiato, based upon the book Stories of Karol: The Unknown Life of John Paul II by Gian Franco Svidercoschi. Have No Fear: The Life of Pope John Paul II (2005), a two-hour movie based on the life of Pope John Paul, shot on location in Rome and Lithuania, was broadcast on Thursday, 1 December 2005 (8:00-10:00 p.m. ET/PT). Pope John Paul II (2005),[2] [3] [4] a new four-hour mini-series event based on the remarkable life of Pope John Paul II, shot on location in Krakw, Poland and in Italy, was broadcast Sunday, 4 December (9:00-11:00 p.m., ET/PT) and Wednesday, 7 December (8:00-10:00 p.m., ET/PT) on the CBS Television Network. Cary Elwes portrays Karol Wojtyla in his adult years prior to being elected Pope on 16 October 1978, and Academy Award winner and multiple Golden Globe Award winner Jon Voight portrays him during his extraordinary 26 1/2-year reign that ended with his death on 2 April 2005. It was approved and blessed by the Pope Benedict XVI. A Time Remembered - The Visit of Pope John Paul II to Ireland (2005), a film produced by Radio Telefs ireann, the national broadcaster of Ireland, showing footage from the three day visit in 1979. Karol: The Pope, The Man world debut was on Easter Sunday and Monday of 2006, and is the continuation of "Karol: A Man Who Became Pope." It stars the same actors as the first mini-series. The Life of Pope John Paul II, a 4 chapter series by NBC News John Paul II - The Friend of All Humanity 60-minute cartoon available on multilingual DVD by Cavin Cooper Productions

Cultural references to Pope John Paul II John Paul II, the Pope who made History - 5 DVD by Vatican Television Center (distr. by HDH Communications) John Paul II, this is my story - 1 DVD by Vatican Television Center (distr. by HDH Communications) John Paul II the Keys of the Kingdom - 1 DVD by Vatican Television Center (distr. by HDH Communications) The Pope's Toilet, a Uruguayan film located in Melo.

219

Books by and about John Paul II


For a comprehensive list of books written by and about John Paul II, please see Bibliography of Pope John Paul II

In popular culture
In an Episode of The Golden Girls The Pope is comming to Miami and Spohia wants him to bless a friend of hers. In 1986 Pope John Paul made a cameo appearance on television soap Brookside. While Bobby and Sheila Grant were visiting Rome, John Paul made an appearance at a window for the crowd, clearly being seen in the finished production.[5] Pope John Paul II's visit to Cuba in 1998, the first one ever made by a Pope to this Caribbean island, was featured in Dana Chaviano's novel The Island of Eternal Love (Riverhead, 2008). In his youth, John Paul II played ice hockey on the Skawa River during the winter months.[6] John Paul II's apostolic motto was Totus Tuus ("totally yours"); and according to his Rosarium Virginis Mariae he borrowed the motto from the Marian consecrating prayer as found in "True Devotion to Mary" by Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort. The complete text of the prayer in Latin is: "Tuus totus ego sum, et omnia mea tua sunt" ("I am all Yours, and all that I have belongs to You"). Furthermore, he singled out Saint Louis de Montfort as a key example of Marian spirituality in his Redemptoris Mater encyclical, and in an address to the Montfortian Fathers said that reading one of de Montfort's books had been a "decisive turning point" in his life.[7] [8] John Paul II was the first Pope to have a letter (the letter 'M' for Mary in a Marian Cross) in his coat of arms. A new form of the Stations of the Cross, called the Scriptural Way of the Cross which calls for more meditation was introduced by Pope John Paul II on Good Friday 1991. He celebrated that thereafter at the Colosseum.[9] [10] The Pope was named Time Magazines Person of the year in 1994. According to a New York Post article of 19 February 2002, John Paul II personally performed three exorcisms during his tenure as pope. The first exorcism was performed on a woman in 1982. His second was in September 2000 when he performed the rite on a 19-year-old woman who had become enraged in St Peter's Square. A year later, in September 2001, he performed an exorcism on a 20-year-old woman. The John Paul II International Airport (IATA: KRK), in Balice, Poland, near Krakw where he served as Archbishop before being elected Pope, was named in his honor. In 2004 he received an extraordinary Charlemagne Award of the city of Aachen, Germany. The Harlem Globetrotters visited Pope John Paul II at the Vatican in November 2000 and named the Pontiff an Honorary Harlem Globetrotter. The action-thriller novel, Red Rabbit (2002) by Tom Clancy, detailed a fictional KGB attempt to assassinate a newly elected Polish Pope, who, though only mentioned by the name "Karol", is obviously supposed to be John Paul II. On 23 March 1999, John Paul II released his debut CD "Abb Pater [11]". John Paul II has been featured on at least seven popular albums in his native Poland. Most notably singer/songwriter Stanisaw Sojka's 2003 album, "Jan Pawel II -- Tryptyk Rzymski", a ten-track collection of the Pope's poems set to music, reached No. 1.[12] In 2003, his death was incorrectly announced by CNN when his pre-written obituary (along with those of several other famous figures) was inadvertently published on CNN's web site due to a lapse in password protection.

Cultural references to Pope John Paul II In 2004 John Paul II met members of the Polish National Football Team. It was at this time he told Liverpool Goalkeeper Jerzy Dudek that he was a keen fan of his and followed Liverpool whenever they played. Dudek, who had the honour of presenting the Pope with a souvenir goalkeeper shirt, would later dedicate Liverpool's Champions League success to the late pontiff. John Paul II is considered as the "protector" of Fluminense Football Club among supporters of this traditional Brazilian football team. One of the team's most famous chants is "A Bno, Joo de Deus" ("Bless us, John of God"), a song that was composed in honour of the Pope John Paul II on his first visit to Brazil in 1980. The tradition is that Fluminense fans spontaneously started singing the famous song when the team was to decide the 1980 state championship on a penalty shootout against their arch-rivals Vasco da Gama. Fluminense won the championship. John Paul II is the eighth most admired person by U.S. citizens in the 20th century, according to Gallup. John Paul II was an avid football player in his youth and later became an honorary member of FC Barcelona, BV Borussia Dortmund, and Schalke 04. He was a goalkeeper. His favorite football team had always been Cracovia, whose games he attended while living in Krakw. In 2006 a white hybrid tea rose was named "Pope John Paul II" in his honour, with a percentage of sales going to charity. Ten of the rose bushes were planted in the Vatican gardens.[13] [14] Polish Formula 1 driver Robert Kubica drives in a helmet with the "Jan Pawel II" inscription. John Paul II sent the first papal e-mail in 2001.[15] Solar eclipses took place both on the day he was born and the day of his funeral 9:22pm.[16] In 2004, Ferrari made a special F1 car for the pope to celebrate his 26th anniversary as the pontiff. John Paul II is the only Pope that appears as a main character in an animation feature.[17] Comic book biographies of Pope John Paul II were published by Marvel Comics in January 1983[18] and by NBM Publishing in October 2006.[19] John Paul II, when meeting Bono and Bob Geldof during their visit famously asked to try on Bono's trademark Fly sunglasses. In 1988, when the Pope delivered a speech to the European Parliament, the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party, Ian Paisley, shouted "I denounce you as the antichrist!" and held up a poster reading "POPE JOHN PAUL II ANTICHRIST". The Pope continued with his address after Paisley was ejected from the auditorium.[20] [21] [22]
[23]

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A popular story in chess circles states that a certain Karol Wojtyla had published a chess problem in 1946. Although the young Wojtyla was indeed an accomplished chess player, the story of this publication appears to be a hoax whose roots were uncovered by Tomasz Lissowski. [24] John Paul II is referred to in the song "Never Let Me Down" by Kanye West and Jay-Z on the album The College Dropout. John Paul McQueen is named after the pope in fictional soap Hollyoaks; they also share the same birthday.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] FaithStreams Communities, Our Television Programs (http:/ / www. popedocumentary. com/ ) CBS (http:/ / www. cbs. com/ specials/ pope/ ) Pope John Paul II (2005) (TV) (http:/ / imdb. com/ title/ tt0475999/ ) Poniewozik, James (27 November 2005). "Television: Pope John Paul, Times II" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1134783,00. html). Time. . Retrieved 30 April 2010. ISBN 1-86200-103-0 page 160 http:/ / www. hockeyrefs. com/ intheheadlines/ 04022005. htm Pope John Paul II on Saint Louis de Montfort http:/ / www. catholicregister. org/ content/ view/ 1402/ 857/ Pope John Paul II's encyclical Redemptoris Mater http:/ / www. cin. org/ jp2ency/ jp2mot. html

[9] Joseph M Champlin, The Stations of the Cross With Pope John Paul II Liguori Publications, 1994, ISBN 0892436794 [10] Vatican Description of the Stations of the Cross at the Colosseum (http:/ / www. pcf. va/ holy_father/ john_paul_ii/ speeches/ documents/ hf_jp-ii_spe_20000421_via-crucis_en. html)

Cultural references to Pope John Paul II


[11] http:/ / www. abbapater. com/ [12] " Pope rocks Polish pop music charts (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 7848742/ )", MSNBC News, 14 May 2005 (accessed 11 June 2005). [13] Langlois, Ed (21 Mar 2006). "Oregon company develops hybrid tea rose in honor of late pope" (http:/ / www. catholicnews. com/ data/ stories/ cns/ 0601633. htm). Catholic News Service. . Retrieved 2009-01-09. [14] "Pope John Paul II Hybrid Tea Rose" (http:/ / www. jacksonandperkins. com/ gardening/ PD/ 32550). Jackson & Perkins. . Retrieved 2009-01-09. [15] BBC, " Pope sends first e-mail apology (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 1671540. stm)", 23 November 2001. Retrieved on 4 March 2007. [16] The solar eclipse on May 18, 1920 5:22-5:33 (http:/ / sunearth. gsfc. nasa. gov/ eclipse/ SEplot/ SEplot1901/ SE1920May18P. GIF) and on April 8, 2005 (http:/ / sunearth. gsfc. nasa. gov/ eclipse/ SEplot/ SEplot2001/ SE2005Apr08H. GIF) on NASA web site. [17] "Cartoon tribute to Pope John Paul" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 6054808. stm). BBC News. 16 October 2006. . Retrieved 30 April 2010. [18] The Life of Pope John Paul II #1 (January 1983) (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 211273/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [19] The Life of Pope John Paul II ... In Comics! (October 2006) (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 345386/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [20] MacDonald, Susan (1988-10-02). "Paisley ejected for insulting Pope". The Times. [21] Chrisafis, Angelique (2004-09-16 (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ Northern_Ireland/ Story/ 0,2763,1305503,00. html)). "The Return of Dr. No". The Guardian. [22] McKittrick, David (10 October 2006). "An amazing conversion? The Big Man makes a long journey" (http:/ / news. independent. co. uk/ uk/ ulster/ article1826297. ece). The Independent (London). . Retrieved 30 April 2010. [23] HEADLINERS; Papal Audience (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=940DE7DC1630F935A25753C1A96E948260) [24] http:/ / www. chessbase. com/ newsdetail. asp?newsid=2316

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors


Pope John Paul II Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461223542 Contributors: (aeropagitica), *Kat*, 137.28.191.xxx, 14543, 1980fast, 1a2s3d4f5g6h7j8k9l0;, 212.76.33.xxx, 21655, 28421u2232nfenfcenc, 2D, 3615fun, 700KFF, 78.26, 918577, A ntv, A purple wikiuser, A strolling player, A-giau, A. Parrot, A. di M., A2raya07, A8UDI, AA, ABCD, ABF, ADM, AED, ARGOU, AVand, AZEmpires, Aa75253, AbbyWrickler, Absecon 59, Achangeisasgoodasa, Adam Bishop, Adam Carr, AdamC2028, AdamJacobMuller, Adamsmo, Adandg, Adashiel, Addshore, AdjustShift, Adking80, Adraeus, Aecis, Aervanath, Aeusoes1, After Midnight, Afterwriting, Agamemnon2, AgnosticPreachersKid, Ahkond, Ahoerstemeier, Aidan7704, Aidanrocksyou, Airwolf, Aitias, Aivazovsky, Ajben, Ajdz, Ajschu, Akendall, Al3xil, AladdinSE, Alai, Alan95Haitch, AlanBarrett, Alansohn, Alasdair, Alberrosidus, Albertus teolog, AlbinoLuciani, Aldy, Ale jrb, Alensha, Alex.tan, AlexiusHoratius, Alexlange, Alfaz0497, Alfion, AlfredG, Algebra, Alienus, Alison, AlissonSellaro, Alkivar, Alksentros, All Is One, AllanBz, Almafeta, Alphaboi867, Altenmann, Alterego, Alvincura, Alxeedo, Amadeus.a.n, Ambrosius007, Amcaja, Amerika, Amgreg, Aminullah, Anagnorisis, Ancient Apparition, Anderiv, Anders.Warga, Andersem, Andonic, Andreabrugiony, Andrei Iosifovich, 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File:JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Retouch of Image:JohannesPaulII.jpg by User:Ejdzej, attribution not required File:Signature of John Paul II.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Signature_of_John_Paul_II.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Time3000 (talk) File:John paul 2 coa.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_paul_2_coa.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:mAgul File:Emilia and Karol Wojtyla wedding portrait.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Emilia_and_Karol_Wojtyla_wedding_portrait.jpg License: anonymous-EU Contributors: AnonMoos, Ejdzej, Ephraim33 File:Geb-Haus Papst.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Geb-Haus_Papst.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AnRo0002, G.dallorto, Halibutt, Helix84, 3 anonymous edits File:Dom Rodzinny Ojca witego Jana Pawa II w Wadowicach1.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dom_Rodzinny_Ojca_witego_Jana_Pawa_II_w_Wadowicach1.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Pimke File:Karol Wojtyla-wikary w Niegowici.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Karol_Wojtyla-wikary_w_Niegowici.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Daczor, Ejdzej, 1 anonymous edits File:Facade of the main entrance of the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum) (19May07).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Facade_of_the_main_entrance_of_the_Pontifical_University_of_St._Thomas_Aquinas_(Angelicum)_(19May07).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was Gizurr at en.wikipedia File:Karol Wojtya - wizytacja zakonu oo. Karmelitw na Piasku w Krakowie 1967.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Karol_Wojtya_-_wizytacja_zakonu_oo._Karmelitw_na_Piasku_w_Krakowie_1967.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: unknown, probably my late grandfather File:Habemus papam io paulus II.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Habemus_papam_io_paulus_II.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Vaticano Image:John paul 2 coa.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_paul_2_coa.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:mAgul File:Pope John Paul II.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope_John_Paul_II.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Original uploader was JGHowes at en.wikipedia, photographer (en:Canon AE-1 camera) File:John Paul II Polish Parliament 1999 5.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Paul_II_Polish_Parliament_1999_5.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Ausir, BLueFiSH.as, Daczor, Editor at Large, Helix84, MB-one, Smooth O File:John Paul II George W. Bush July 2001.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Paul_II_George_W._Bush_July_2001.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SoothingR File:JPIITravelsMap.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JPIITravelsMap.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: BlankMap-World6.svg: Canuckguy (w:en:User talk:Canuckguytalk) and many others derivative work: Roke (talk) File:Wydrome2000.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wydrome2000.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:sporki File:Monument JPII Rome.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Monument_JPII_Rome.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Marek69 File:Israel-Western Wall.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Israel-Western_Wall.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Chmouel File:Dalai Lama.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dalai_Lama.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Ardfern, FlickrLickr, Nilfanion, Opponent, Roland zh, Snek01, Thuresson, 1 anonymous edits File:Vladimir Putin with Pope John Paul II-1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vladimir_Putin_with_Pope_John_Paul_II-1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Contributors: Presidential Press and Information Office File:John Paul II George W. Bush Medal of Freedom 2004.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Paul_II_George_W._Bush_Medal_of_Freedom_2004.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Apalsola, Ausir, Cafzal, G.dallorto, Helix84, Leit, Rogerd, Schaengel89, Slarre, TCY, Tom, 2 anonymous edits File:Jubilaeum-2000 Pope-JP-II.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jubilaeum-2000_Pope-JP-II.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Stebunik File:Vatican Gardens 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vatican_Gardens_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Marek69 File:PapstJPII20040922.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PapstJPII20040922.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Calliopejen, G.dallorto, Man vyi, Thalion77, Yarl File:JPII on bier.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JPII_on_bier.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Eric Draper File:Crowd at Pope's Funeral.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crowd_at_Pope's_Funeral.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Marek69 File:Funeral St Peters.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Funeral_St_Peters.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Marek69 File:Johannes-paul-II-tschenstochau.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Johannes-paul-II-tschenstochau.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Langec File:ON Midland5 tango7174.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ON_Midland5_tango7174.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Tango7174 File:Beatification of John Paul II (2).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Beatification_of_John_Paul_II_(2).jpg License: unknown Contributors: Kancelaria Prezydenta RP File:Grb B. Jana Pawa II w Kaplicy w. Sebastiana.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Grb_B._Jana_Pawa_II_w_Kaplicy_w._Sebastiana.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Wojciech Pawlik File:Beatification JPII.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Beatification_JPII.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Gcmarino File:JPII pomnik Poznan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JPII_pomnik_Poznan.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Radomil File:Benedict-XVI-Livingston.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Benedict-XVI-Livingston.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Apcbg Image:Karol Wojtyla-wikary w Niegowici.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Karol_Wojtyla-wikary_w_Niegowici.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Daczor, Ejdzej, 1 anonymous edits Image:Karol Wojtyla-Krakow.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Karol_Wojtyla-Krakow.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ejdzej, 2 anonymous edits Image:Karol Wojtyla-splyw.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Karol_Wojtyla-splyw.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ejdzej, Enigma51 Image:John Paul II Brazil 1997 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Paul_II_Brazil_1997_3.jpg License: Agncia Brasil Contributors: Jos Cruz/Abr Image:Krzyze agh papiez.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Krzyze_agh_papiez.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: User:Krasnall Image:VaticanFlagHalfMastOxford20050403 CopyrightKaihsuTai.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VaticanFlagHalfMastOxford20050403_CopyrightKaihsuTai.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Kaihsu File:Dom Rodzinny Ojca witego Jana Pawa II w Wadowicach3.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dom_Rodzinny_Ojca_witego_Jana_Pawa_II_w_Wadowicach3.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Pimke File:Wadowice, dom Jana Pawa II.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wadowice,_dom_Jana_Pawa_II.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Gaj777 File:Ombrellino-keys.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ombrellino-keys.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Cronholm144

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:JohannesPaulII.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JohannesPaulII.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ecemaml, Ejdzej, Helix84, Infrogmation, Jrobertiko, Kjetil r, Miaow Miaow, Schaengel89, Yarl, 1 anonymous edits File:Ppe Koice1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ppe_Koice1.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Marian Gladis File:Icon-Pentecost.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Icon-Pentecost.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Phiddipus (talk) File:PapalAssassinationAttemptSite.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PapalAssassinationAttemptSite.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was ProhibitOnions at en.wikipedia File:PapalAssassinationAttemptMarker.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PapalAssassinationAttemptMarker.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was ProhibitOnions at en.wikipedia File:Pope John Paul II (1979).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope_John_Paul_II_(1979).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Thomas J. O'Halloran, photographer, U.S. News & World Report magazine File:President and Mrs. Reagan meet Pope John Paul II 1982.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:President_and_Mrs._Reagan_meet_Pope_John_Paul_II_1982.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Admrboltz, Denniss, Eaaumi, KTo288, Nickel Chromo, Shakko, Yarl File:Pope-poland.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope-poland.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Daczor, Jarekt, Noahv, Shizhao File:Pope John Paul II 11 06 1987 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope_John_Paul_II_11_06_1987_01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Arek1979, B Crawford, Daczor, Julo, Man vyi File:John Paul 2 Trips.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Paul_2_Trips.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Spry895 File:John Paul II pastoral visits map.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Paul_II_pastoral_visits_map.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Aotearoa at pl.wikipedia Image:Cassaroli-1984-treaty.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cassaroli-1984-treaty.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Keysanger, 1 anonymous edits File:Alfonsin 1983.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Alfonsin_1983.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Cambalachero, Cantus, 1 anonymous edits File:Pinochet de Civil.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pinochet_de_Civil.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dantadd, Diwas, Emilio Kopaitic, Er Komandante, Jorgebarrios, TFCforever, 6 anonymous edits Image:PopeJohannesPaul-Mediator.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PopeJohannesPaul-Mediator.png License: unknown Contributors: Keysanger Image:Pope1980prop.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope1980prop.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: createaccount Image:ComandosAnfibios-Marines.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ComandosAnfibios-Marines.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was DagosNavy at en.wikipedia File:Cristina, Benedicto y Michelle.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cristina,_Benedicto_y_Michelle.jpg License: Creative Commons AR-Presidency Contributors: No mention File:JPII 29-09-2004 portret.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JPII_29-09-2004_portret.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Radomil File:Giovanni Paolo II 0013.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Giovanni_Paolo_II_0013.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Black mamba at it.wikipedia File:Mourners at JPII Funeral.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mourners_at_JPII_Funeral.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Eric Draper File:Pope johnpaul funeral politics.jpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope_johnpaul_funeral_politics.jpeg License: Agncia Brasil Contributors: Ricardo Stuckert/PR File:Marini venerates casket.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Marini_venerates_casket.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Eric Draper, The Executive Office of the President of the United States File:Funeral square shot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Funeral_square_shot.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Eric Draper, The Executive Office of the President of the United States File:JPII with pallbearers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JPII_with_pallbearers.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Eric Draper, The Executive Office of the President of the United States File:Johnpauliitomb.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Johnpauliitomb.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: en:User:ProhibitOnions File:George W. Bush John Paul II funeral.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:George_W._Bush_John_Paul_II_funeral.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ausir, Carolus, Docu, Editor at Large, Edward, Flying Saucer, G.dallorto, Helix84, Leit, Rogerd, Shakko, Slarre, TCY, Tharkun, Wolfmann, , 6 anonymous edits File:Pope John Paul II funeral dignitaries.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pope_John_Paul_II_funeral_dignitaries.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Hoshie, Roke File:Flag of Afghanistan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Afghanistan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: 5ko, Ahmad2099, Antonsusi, Avala, Bastique, Dancingwombatsrule, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Domhnall, Duduziq, F l a n k e r, Frigotoni, Fry1989, Gast32, George Animal, Happenstance, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Koefbac, Kookaburra, Lokal Profil, Ludger1961, MPF, Mattes, Myself488, Neq00, Nersy, Nightstallion, Orange 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http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Andorra.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Andorra.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: HansenBCN File:Flag of Angola.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Angola.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown File:Flag of Argentina.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Argentina.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Work of Dbenbenn about a national sign File:Flag of Armenia.svg Source: 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227

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Flag of Chile.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Chile.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: SKopp File:Flag of the Republic of China.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: 555, Bestalex, Bigmorr, Denelson83, Ed veg, Gzdavidwong, Herbythyme, Isletakee, Kakoui, Kallerna, Kibinsky, Mattes, Mizunoryu, Neq00, Nickpo, Nightstallion, Odder, Pymouss, R.O.C, Reisio, Reuvenk, Rkt2312, Rocket000, Runningfridgesrule, Samwingkit, Sasha Krotov, Shizhao, Tabasco, Vzb83, Wrightbus, ZooFari, Zscout370, 72 anonymous edits File:Flag of Colombia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Colombia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: SKopp File:Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg_(1997-2003).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg_(1997-2003).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Antemister, FalconL, Homo lupus, MS05L, Moyogo, 2 anonymous edits File:Flag of South Korea.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of Costa Rica.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Costa_Rica.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe File:Flag of Croatia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Croatia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Nightstallion, Elephantus, Neoneo13, Denelson83, Rainman, R-41, Minestrone, Lupo, Zscout370, Suradnik:MaGaMaRazgovor sa suradnikom:MaGaGa (based on Decision of the Parliament) File:Flag of Cuba.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cuba.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: see below File:Flag of Cyprus.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cyprus.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AnonMoos, Bukk, Consta, David1010, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Duduziq, Er Komandante, F. 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