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Basics of Drainage Systems

Basics of Drainage Systems

Requirements for drainage systems

Hydraulic (blockages, self syphonic gurgling sound!!) No odour escape from the trap into the building (depth of water seal) Corrosion resistant Temperature resistant Good mechanical strength High durability Low sound influence Easy and safe to install
The main requirement of the drainage system is that waste and soil water (solids and liquids) should be carried away quickly, quietly, without blockage and without the escape of foul air into the building
Sanitary Plumbing Services, B H Clark
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Basics of Drainage Systems

Elements in drainage systems Air Solids Water

- Air circulation
- Solids - Water

Air

MOST IMPORTANT AIR!!! 1 m3 WATER requires 20 35 m3 AIR


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Basics of Drainage Systems

Filling ratio h/d of horizontal pipes


h/d 0.5 0.8 h/d below 0.5 h/d above 0.8

Air
Water d h

Air

No Air Water h

Water
d

h d

Sufficient flow efficiency

Insufficient flow efficiency blockages

No air circulation self syphonic

Appropriate size and gradient of discharge pipe


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Basics of Drainage Systems

Air circulation and water flow in vertical pipes


Front view Top view

Velocity & stack height


Velocity (speed) in m/s

- air circulation

Theoretical

2gh

25 20

water

Full filled Syphonic application

15 10

2 3

3
air water

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Partly filled Drainage application

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Height of stack in m

After a height of 35m is the maximum velocity of 13 m/s reached.


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