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(For B.E- ECE only)

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SYLLABUS

1. Verification of KVL and KCL 2. Verification of Thevenin and Norton Theorems. 3. Verification of superposition Theorem. 4. Verification of Maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. 5. Frequency response of series and parallel resonance circuits. 6. Characteristics of PN and Zener diode 7. Characteristics of CE configuration 8. Characteristics of CB configuration 9. Characteristics of UJT and SCR 10.Characteristics of JFET and MOSFET II. 11.Characteristics of Diac and Triac. 12.Characteristics of Photodiode and Phototransistor.

TOTAL: 45 PERIODS

List & cycle of Experiments Cycle-I 1. Characteristics of PN Diode 2. Characteristics of Zener diode 3. Transistor Characteristics Common Emitter mode 4. Transistor Characteristics Common Base mode 5. Characteristics of UJT 6. Characteristics of SCR 7. Characteristics of JFET and MOSFET 8. Characteristics of Photodiode and Phototransistor 9. Characteristics of Diac and Triac Cycle-II 9. Verification of KVL and KCL 10. Verification of Thevenins and Nortons Theorems 11. Verification of Reciprocity Theorem 12. Verification of Superposition Theorem 13. Verification of Maximum power transfer theorem 14. Frequency Response of series resonance circuits 15. Frequency Response of Parallel resonance circuits. Experiments Beyond Anna University Syllabus 16. Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

Acquire a good knowledge of the surrounding of your worktable. Know where the various live points are situated in your table. In case of any unwanted things happening, immediately switch off the mains in the worktable. This must be done when there is a power break during the experiment being carried out. Before entering into the lab class, you must be well prepared for the experiment that you are going to do on that day. Get the circuit diagram approved. Prepare the list of equipments and components required for the experiment and get the indent approved. Plan well the disposition of the various equipments on the worktable so that the experiment can be carried out. Make connections as per the approved circuit diagram and get the same verified. After getting the approval only supply must be switched on. You must get the observation note corrected within two days from the date of completion of experiment. Submit the record notebook for the experiment completed, in the next class. If you miss any practical class due to unavoidable reasons, intimate the staff in charge and do the missed experiment in the repetition class. Such of those students who fail to put in a minimum of 75% attendance in the laboratory class will run the risk of not being allowed for the University Practical Examination. They will have to repeat the lab course in subsequent semester after paying prescribed fee.

Circuit Diagram: (With suitable title for each diagram) Aim :

Apparatus Required : Device Details: Precautions (if any): (With pin diagram) Procedure: Observation: (Separate tabular columns for observations part and calculation parts) (Suitable title for each tabular column) Model graphs if any: (Brief procedure in observation) (Detailed procedure in Record note book) Theory: (Brief theory about the experiment) (In record, theory should cover the answers for discussion questions) Result:

Discussion Questions: (Answer for discussion question in observation only) (In record, include the answers in the theory itself)

Reverse bias

1. Characteristics of PN Diode

Objective To obtain the forward and reverse bias characteristics of semiconductor diode Reference 1 2 3 Electronic Devices and circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. Principles of Electronics by V.K. Mehta. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul. B. Zbar and Malvino.

Knowledge Required P-N Junction, depletion layer, barrier potential, forward bias, reverse bias, break down voltage, Avalanche breakdown. Precaution Voltage level should not exceed the value specified for the device. Procedure For various values of forward and reverse biased voltages, tabulate the values of currents.

Formulae Used Forward Resistance(Rf) = Change in forward Voltage/Change in forward Current Reverse Resistance(Rr) = Change in Reverse Voltage/Change in Reverse Current Model Graphs:V-I Characteristics

8 Result The forward and reverse bias characteristics of semiconductor diode are plotted. Forward Resistance = ______________

Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What are Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors? Define Peak Inverse Voltage. What do you mean by potential barrier in a PN Junction? What are N type and P type semiconductors? What are the applications of semiconductor diode? What are Donors and Acceptors in semiconductors? Define doping.

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Reverse bias

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Objective To obtain the forward and reverse bias characteristics of zener diode

Reference 1. Electronic Devices and circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K. Mehta. 3. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul. B. Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required P-N Junction, depletion layer, barrier potential, forward bias, reverse bias, break down voltage, zener breakdown, Avalanche breakdown.

Precaution Voltage level should not exceed the value specified for the device. Procedure For various values of forward and reverse biased voltages, tabulate the values of currents.

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Observation

Forward Bias Reverse Bias

Vf (V)

If (mA)

Vr (V)

Ir (A)

Formulae Used Forward Resistance(Rf) = Change in forward Voltage/Change in forward Current Reverse Resistance(Rr) = Change in Reverse Voltage/Change in Reverse Current Model Graphs

V-I Characteristics

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12 Result The forward and reverse bias characteristics of Zener diode is plotted. Forward Resistance = ______________ Reverse Resistance = Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the applications of Zener diode? How does a Zener diode act as voltage regulator? In What way Zener Diode is different from PN junction Diode? What do you mean by avalanche breakdown voltage? What do you mean by Leakage current? ______________

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13 Circuit Diagram

Observation Input Characteristics VCE (V) VBE (V) IB (A) VCE (V) VBE (V) IB (A) VCE (V) VBE (V) IB (A)

Output Characteristics IB (A) VCE (V) IC (mA) IB (A) VCE (V) IC (mA) IB (A) VCE (V) IC (mA)

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Objective To obtain the characteristic curves for a transistor in common emitter mode and hence to determine the h-parameters. Reference 1. Electronic devices and circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta Knowledge required Composition of transistor, types of transistors, transistor biasing, Working of transistor, types of circuit connections for operating a transistor, forward biased diode characteristic, knee voltage.

Precautions 1. Polarities of the bias voltage should be correct. 2. Voltage and current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. 3. Both rheostats should be kept in minimum position at the time of switching on the supply. Procedure Input Characteristics Keeping the voltage across Collector to Emitter (VCE) as constant, tabulate the values of base current for various values of Base-Emitter voltage (VBE). Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VCE.

Output Characteristics Keeping the base current as constant, tabulate the values of collector current (IC) for various values of Collector-Emitter voltage (VCE). Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of base current (IB).

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15 Formulae Used 1. Input impedance hie = VBE/IB 2. Reverse Voltage gain hre = VBE/VCE 3. Output admittance hoe = IC/VCE 4. Forward Current gain hfe = IC/IB Model Graphs Input Characteristics

VCE3 < VCE2 IB VCE2 < VCE1 VCE1 IC IB3 > IB2 IB2 > IB1 IB1

Output Characteristics

VBE

VCE

Pin Diagram

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Result The input and output characteristics of CE transistor configuration are drawn. Parameters hie hfe hoe hre Practical value

Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is mean by biasing? Why the BJT is called as current controlled device? What are the different operating regions? Define the base width modulation or early effect. What is secondary breakdown?

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Circuit Diagram

(0-30)V

(0-30)V

Observation Input Characteristics VCB (V) IE (mA) VEB (V) VCB (V) IE (mA) VEB (V) VCB (V) IE (mA) VEB (V)

Output Characteristics IE (mA) IC (mA) VCB (V) IE (mA) IC (mA) VCB (V) IE (mA) IC (mA) VCB (V)

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Objective To obtain the characteristic curves for a transistor in common base mode and hence to determine the h-parameters. Reference 1. Electronic devices and circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta Knowledge required Composition of transistor, types of transistors, transistor biasing, working of transistor, types of circuit connections for operating a transistor, forward biased diode characteristic, knee voltage. Precautions 1. Polarities of the bias voltage should be correct. 2. Voltage and current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. 3. Both rheostats should be kept in minimum position at the time of switching on the supply. Procedure Input Characteristics Keeping the voltage across Collector to Base (VCB) as constant, tabulate the values of emitter current IE, for various values of Emitter- Base voltage (VEB). Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VCB. Output Characteristics Keeping the emitter current IE as constant, tabulate the values of collector current IC, for various values of Collector-Base voltage (VCB). Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of emitter current IE.

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19 Formulae Used 1. 2. 3. 4. Input impedance hib = VEB/IE Reverse Voltage gain hrb = VEB/VCB Output admittance hob = IC/VCB Forward Current gain hfb = IC/IE

Model Graphs

Input characteristics

Output characteristics

VEB

Pin Diagram

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20 Result The input and output characteristics of CB transistor configuration are drawn. Parameters hib hfb hob hrb Practical value

Discussion Questions 1. Compare the various configurations of transistor based on the following headings (a) voltage gain (b) input resistance (c) output resistance (d) application 2. What is the main advantage of CE over CB configuration? 3. Write the relationship between , , .

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21 Circuit Diagram

Observation

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5. Characteristics of UJT

Objective To obtain the characteristics of uni junction transistor and hence to determine the UJT parameters. Reference 1. Electronic Devices and Circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta. 3. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul.B.Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required Construction details of UJT, cut off region, negative resistance region, saturation region, valley point. Precaution Voltage and Current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. Procedure 1. Keeping the voltage between the bases VBB as constant, tabulate the values of emitter current (IE) for various values of emitter voltage VE by adjusting the potential divider arrangements. 2. Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VB1B2. = VEB1 VBE -----------VB1B2 Result The input and output characteristics of Uni junction transistor are drawn. The intrinsic stand off ratio ( ) = Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Draw the equivalent circuit of UJT. What are Valley point and Peak point? What are the factors affecting the frequency of the pulses produced by UJT? What is the difference between UJT and PUT? State the applications of UJT. What do you mean by Negative Resistance region?

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6. Characteristics of SCR

Objective To find the latching and holding current of a given SCR Reference 1.Electronic Devices and Circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta. 3. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul.B.Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required Construction details of SCR, gate current and breakover voltage. Precaution Voltage and Current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. Procedure 1. Check the RPS connecting the circuit. 2. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 3. Set the gate current Ig equal to firing current vary anode the cathode voltage. VAK in steps of 1V and note down the corresponding anode current IA. 4. VBRF is the point where voltage (VAK) suddenly drops and hence there is a sudden increase in anode current IA. 5. 6. Increase the VAK in steps and note down the IA. Open the gate and decrease VAK.

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Tabulation

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Result

The Characteristics of SCR is drawn. Forward break over voltage(VBRF ) = Latching current Holding current (IL ) (IH) = =

Discussion Questions: 1.What is the purpose of gate current in SCR? 2.Define Holding current 3.Specify the methods of turning on SCR. 4.What is the difference between SCR & Diode? 5.Define Latching current.

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27 Circuit Diagram

Observation Drain Characteristics VGS = --V VDS(V) ID(mA) VGS =--V VDS(V) ID(mA) VGS =--V VDS(V) ID(mA)

Transfer Characteristics VDS =-- V VGS (V) ID(mA) VDS =--V VGS (V) ID(mA) VDS =--V VGS (V) ID(mA)

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Objective To obtain the characteristics of junction field effect transistor and hence to determine the FET parameters. Reference 1. Electronic Devices and Circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta. 3. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul.B.Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required Pinch off voltage, Gate-source cut off voltage.

Precaution Voltage and Current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. Procedure Drain Characteristics 1. Keeping the values of Gate-source voltage VGS, as constant, tabulate the values of drain current (ID), for various values of drain-source voltage VDS. 2. Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VGS. Transfer Characteristics 1. Keeping the values of Drain-source voltage VDS, as constant, tabulate the values of drain current (ID) for various values of VGS. 2. Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VDS.

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Formulae Used 1. Drain Resistance(Rd) = VDS/ID 2. Amplification factor( ) = VDS/VGS 3. Mutual Conductance(gm) = ID/VGS

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30 Result The drain and transfer characteristics of Junction field effect Transistor are drawn and the parameters obtained are

Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the differences between JFET and MOSFET? Define pinch off voltage. What are the modes of operation available in JFET? Why JFET is called as a voltage controlled device? What is the difference between FET and BJT?

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Circuit Diagram:

Observation Drain Characteristics VGS = --V VDS(V) ID(mA) VGS =--V VDS(V) ID(mA) VGS =--V VDS(V) ID(mA)

Transfer Characteristics VDS =-- V VGS (V) ID(mA) VDS =--V VGS (V) ID(mA) VDS =--V VGS (V) ID(mA)

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Objective To obtain the characteristics of junction Metal Oxide Semiconductor field effect transistor and hence to determine the MOSFET parameters. Reference 4. Electronic Devices and Circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 5. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta. 6. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul.B.Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required Pinch off voltage, Gate-source cut off voltage. Precaution Voltage and Current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. Procedure Drain Characteristics 3. Keeping the values of Gate-source voltage VGS, as constant, tabulate the values of drain current (ID), for various values of drain-source voltage VDS. 4. Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VGS. Transfer Characteristics 3. Keeping the values of Drain-source voltage VDS, as constant, tabulate the values of drain current (ID) for various values of VGS. 4. Repeat the same procedure for various constant values of VDS.

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33 Symbol:

Formulae Used 1. Drain Resistance(Rd) = VDS/ID 2. Amplification factor( ) = VDS/VGS 3. Mutual Conductance(gm) = ID/VGS

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Result The drain and transfer characteristics of Metal Oxide Semiconductor field effect Transistor are drawn and the parameters obtained are

Discussion Questions 1. What are the differences between JFET and MOSFET? 2. Define pinch off voltage. 3. What are the modes of operation available in MOSFET? 4. Why MOSFET is called as a voltage controlled device? 5. What is the difference between MOSFET and BJT?

6. Why MOSFET is called insulated gate FET? 7. What is N-channel and P-channel MOSFET? 8. Differentiate Enhancement and Depletion types of MOSFETs. 9. Is it possible for a Depletion type of MOSFET to operate in both modes? 10. What are the disadvantages of MOSFET type and why V-MOS is developed?

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Characteristics of Photodiode:

Model Graph:

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Objective To obtain the characteristics of Photodiode Reference 1. Electronic Devices and Circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 2. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta. 3. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul.B.Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required Construction and operation of Photodiode. Precaution 1.Polarities of the bias voltage should be correct. 2.Volatge and current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. Procedure 1.Select Photodiode. 2.Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 3.For different values of voltage, note the corresponding current. 4. The same procedure is repeated for Dark, Dim and Bright conditions.

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37 Observation :( Phototransistor) DARK VD(V) DIM ID(A) VD(V) ID(A) BRIGHT VD(V) ID(A)

Observation :( Photodiode) DARK VD(V) DIM ID(A) VD(V) ID(A) BRIGHT VD(V) ID(A)

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Discussion Questions 1. What is meant by Photodiode? 2. What is meant by dark current? 3. What are the applications of Dark current? 4. What are the differences between photodiode and transistor? 5. What are the applications of Photo Transistor?

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Reverse Bias:

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Objective To obtain the characteristics of DIAC and TRIAC Reference 7. Electronic Devices and Circuits by Salivahanan, Suresh kumar, Vallavaraj. 8. Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta. 9. Basic Electronics A Text Lab Manual by Paul.B.Zbar and Malvino. Knowledge Required Bidirectional Trigger Diode, Holding Current,Thyristor Precaution Voltage and Current levels should not exceed the values specified for the device. Procedure DIAC: 1.Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 1. The power supply is varied in constant steps and the corresponding voltage and current readings are noted down. 2. For particular values of applied forward voltage , the current increases. Then the voltage across DIAC decreases with increase in current. 3. The same procedure is repeated for reverse voltage of DIAC. 4. The VI characteristics is drawn from the tabulated readings. TRIAC: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Set the value of IG to be constant by adjusting the power supply. 3. The terminal voltage is varied in steps and the corresponding readings are noted down. 4. The same procedure is repeated for reverse polarity of TRIAC. 5. The voltage and current readings are noted down. 6. The characteristics curve is plotted for the tabulated readings.

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Tabulation:

Forward Bias: Reverse Bias: Forward Voltage Forward Current Vf (V) If (mA) Reverse Voltage Reverse Current Vr (V) Ir (mA)

Model Graph:

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TRIAC:

Reverse Bias:

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Tabulation: Forward Bias: IG = 2.5 mA Forward Voltage Forward Current Vf (V) If (mA) Vr (V) IG = 6 mA Reverse Voltage Reverse Current Ir (mA) Reverse Bias:

Model Graph:

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Result The forward and reverse bias characteristics of DIAC and TRIAC are plotted. Questions for Discussion: 1. Why the DIAC is said to be a symmetrical trigger diode? 2. Draw the SCR equivalent circuit of TRIAC. 3. How can you control the phase using TRIAC? 4. Give few applications of DIAC. 5. Give few applications of TRIAC

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Circuit diagram

Kirchoffs Voltage Law

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Objective To verify the Kirchoffs laws with the help of simple D.C series and parallel circuits. Reference 1. Electric circuit Theory, M.Arumugam and N.Premkumar 1. Electric circuits, Joseph A.Edminister 2. Basic Electricity Text Lab Manual, Paul .B Zhar and Gordon Rockmaker Knowledge Required Basic circuit laws [Ohms law & Kirchoffs laws] Concept of series and parallel circuits Use of double tube rheostats, other equipments and meters Selection of meter ranges, fuse rating

Precautions The branch currents should not exceed the device ratings. The ammeter and voltmeter ranges should be properly chosen. LAWS

Kirchoffs voltage law states that the algebraic sum of all branch voltages around a closed loop of a network is zero at all instant of time. Kirchoffs voltage law deals with the element voltages in a loop. A loop is a closed path formed by two or more circuit elements. While applying KVL to a particular loop first assign a reference direction to each element voltage for example, assign +ve sign to the voltages if they correspond to voltage drops and assign ve sign to the voltages if they correspond to voltage rises.

Kirchoffs current law states that the algebraic sum of the branch currents at the node is zero at all instants of time. It deals with the element currents meeting at a node. While applying KCL to a particular node, first assign a reference direction to each element current for example, assign +ve sign to those currents whose direction points away from the node. Similarly assign ve sign to those currents whose direction points towards the node.

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Theoretical calculations

Kirchoffs Voltage Law Req = R1 + R2 + R3 It=Vt/ Req VR1= It* R1 VR2= It* R2 VR3= It* R3 Kirchoffs Current Law Req = (1/R1) +(1/ R2 ) It=Vt/ Req IR1= Vt/R1 IR2= Vt/R1

VS1 (volts)

VS2 (volts)

V1 (volts)

V2 (volts)

V3 (volts)

V = V1 + V2 + V3 (volts)

VS (volts)

I (mA)

I1 (mA)

I2 (mA)

I = I1 + I2 (mA)

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Procedure

(a) To verify KVL 1. The circuit connections are made as shown in figure. 2. Keep the rheostat at a particular position and switch on the supply voltage. Now, note down the voltages across each element using the voltmeters namely V1, V2 and V3 with proper sign. Now the algebraic sum of the three voltages can be verified to be equal to zero. 3. Next, change the resistance of the rheostats to some other value and repeat the above process.

(b) To verify KCL 1. The circuit connections are made as shown in figure. 2. Keep the rheostat at a particular position and switch on the supply voltage. Now, note down the currents through each element using the ammeters namely I1, I2 and I3 with proper sign. Now the algebraic sum of the currents at node B can be verified to be equal to zero. 3. Next, change the resistance of the rheostats to some other value and repeat the above process.

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Result

Comparing the observed values and the theoretical values, we infer that they are almost equal. Thus Kirchoffs law is verified both theoretically and practically.

Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. State Ohms law and Kirchoffs laws. Distinguish between mesh and loop. What are active and passive elements? Can we use MI meters in d.c. circuits? Justify your answer. What will happen on reversing the polarities of the MC meter terminals?

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Equivalent circuit

Rth

Tabulation Sl.no V1 (volts) V2 (volts) IL(mA) the pra Vth(V) the pra Rth() the pra

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Objective To obtain the Thevenins and Nortons equivalent of the given circuit and hence to verify these theorems with the equivalent circuits. References Electric Circuit Theory by Arumugam & Premkumar Electric Circuits by Joseph A. Edminister Basic Electricity - A Text Lab Manual by Paul B. Zbar and Gordon Rockmaker Knowledge Required Theorems statement and their explanation. Basic circuit laws Selection of meter ranges, fuse ratings

THEVENINS Theorem

An linear active network containing linear impedances and voltage sources can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of voltage source (Vth) acting in series with an impedance (Zth). The voltage source is the Thevenins voltage (Vth) at open circuit condition and hence also called open circuit voltage and impedance is the driving point impedance at the terminals when all the voltage sources are removed and called as Thevenins impedance (Zth). It is used to find the current through a particular element in a general network which may consists of several elements along with the number of voltage and current sources.

Procedure

1. The circuit connections are given as shown in figure. The variable resistances are initially adjusted to some suitable values. The supply voltages are adjusted to some values V1&V2 and the current through the branch BE is measured using the ammeter present in that branch. 2. Next, the load RL is removed from the circuit. The open circuit voltage between B&E is measured using the proper voltage range of the multimeter. This reading gives the value of the Thevenins voltage (Vth). 3. In order to find Thevenins resistance Rth, the branch BE is shorted through an ammeter and the short circuit current ISC is measured. Now, Rth = Vth/ISC. The value of the current through RL is calculated as Vth IL Rth RL

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Equivalent circuit

Sl.no

V1 (volts)

V2 (volts)

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55 Now, this value can be verified to be equal to the one which was measured using the ammeter. 4. The experiment is repeated for different values of the variable resistance and also by changing the supply voltage

NORTANS Theorem

Any two terminal linear network consisting of voltage sources and impedances can be replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of current source (Isc) in parallel with an impedance (Rth). The current source (ISC) is the short circuit current and the impedance (Rth) is the Thevenins resistance. Nortons theorem is useful to find the current through a particular element, in general which may consists of several elements along with the number of voltage and current sources.

Procedure

1.The circuit connections are given as shown in figure. The variable resistances are initially adjusted to some suitable values. The supply voltages are adjusted to some values say V1 and V2. In order to find the Thevenins resistance,(Rth) all the voltage sources are removed and then the resistance between B&E is measured using the proper resistance range of the multimeter. This reading gives the value of Thevenins resistance. 2. The branch BE is shorted through an ammeter and short circuit current Isc is measured. 3. The value of current flowing through RL is measured using the formula.

IL

I sc Rth Rth RL

4. The experiment is repeated for different values of the variable resistance and also by changing the supply voltage.

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Result Comparing the observed values and the theoretical values, we infer that they are almost equal. Thus both theorems are verified both theoretically and practically Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Prove that Nortons theorem is the converse of Thevenins theorem. What are the practical applications of Thevenins theorem? Are these theorems applicable for AC circuits? If so, give the statements. What is the internal resistance of an ideal voltage and ideal current sources?

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V/I ()

Sl.no

Voltage(V)

Current(A)

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To verify reciprocity theorem experimentally for the given circuit. References Electric Circuit Theory by Arumugam & Premkumar Electric Circuits by Joseph A. Edminister Basic Electricity - A Text Lab Manual by Paul B. Zbar and Gordon Rockmaker Knowledge Required Theorem statement and their explanation. Basic circuit laws

Theorem

According to Reciprocity theorem, if we apply some input to a circuit which consists of resistors, inductors ,capacitors and transformers including coupled circuits, the ratio of response(o/p) in any element to the input is constant even when the input and output are interchanged .

Procedure

1. The connections are given as per the circuit diagram as shown in fig.1 2. Switch on the power supply and the rheostat is adjusted to vary the input supply voltage. 3. For each values of voltage, corresponding current in the short circuited terminal is noted. 4. The voltage and current sources are interchanged as shown in fig.2. 5. The rheostat is adjusted and the values of current and voltage are noted. 6. The reciprocity theorem was verified by obtaining equal values of ratios of response to input before and after interchanging the sources.

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After interchanging(Fig 2)

Sl.no

Voltage(V)

Current(A)

V/I ()

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Result

Thus the reciprocity theorem was verified both theoretically and practically for the given circuit.

Discussion Questions: 1.What are the practical applications of this theorem? 2. Are this theorem applicable for AC circuits? If so, give the statements

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Circuit Diagram:

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To verify superposition theorem experimentally using DC network. References Electric Circuit Theory by Arumugam & Premkumar Electric Circuits by Joseph A. Edminister Basic Electricity - A Text Lab Manual by Paul B. Zbar and Gordon Rockmaker Knowledge Required Theorem statement and their explanation. Basic circuit laws Theorem Superposition theorem states that in a linear network containing several sources, the overall response at any point in the network equals the sum of, the responses of each individual source considered separately replacing the other source by their equivalents. Procedure 1.Theoretically calculate the value of current IL flowing through RL by including V1 &V2. 2.Theoretically calculate the value of IL(1) by including V1and S.C.V2. Also find the value of IL(2) by including V2 alone and S.C.V1. 3.The connections are made as per the given circuit. 4.Find the value of IL(1) with V1 alone. 5.Find the value of IL(2) with V2 alone. 6.Verify theoretically & practically that, IL= IL(1) + IL(2)

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Tabulation Parameters V1 acting alone V2 acting alone Both are acting Theoretical values(V) Practical value(V)

Design:

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Result From the tabulated results, super position theorem is verified theoretically & practically.

Discussion Questions 1. At what situation this theorem can be applicable? 2. What do you mean by linear & bilateral networks? ***********************************************

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66 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Tabulation:

Sl. No .

Value of Rs (Ohms)

P max (watts) Th Pr

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Onjective: To verify the Maximum Power transfer theorem by conducting suitable test. REFERENCS: 1).Engineering circuit Analysis ,6th Edition Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company ltd Author-WH Hayt,J E Kemmerly,S M Durbin 2).Electrical Engineering Fundamentals,-Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India Author-Vincent Del Toro

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram. 2. Keep the variable point of Rs in a suitable position. 3. Start with maximum resistance adjusted for RL. Note the current through & voltage across RL. 4. Vary the RL and note the current & voltage. Take a number of readings upto a low value of RL. 5. Change Rs and repeat steps 3 & 4 6. For every Rs plot RL & power consumed, and find out the value of RL for maximum power from the graph.

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS FOR PRESENT CIRCUIT: Theoretical calculation for circuit diagram 1 The source delivers the maximum power when the load resistance is equal to the source resistance. RL= 25 The current I = 50 / (25 + RL ) = 50 /50 =1A The maximum power delivered to the load P= I2 RL =1* 25 = 25W

67

68 FORMULAE USED: PL= IL2 * RL PL = Power in the Load resistance (RL) in watts. IL = Load current in amps.

RESULT: Maximum Power Transfer Theorem was verified for the given circuit

Discussion Questions: 1. When will a circuit deliver maximum power to the load? 2. State Maximum power transfer theorem. 3. State the formula for maximum power delivered to the load?

68

69

Circuit Diagram

Tabulation

Frequency F (Hz)

Current, I (mA)

Model Graph

69

70

Objective To obtain the frequency response characteristic of RLC series circuit. Reference 1) Electric Circuit Theory by Arumugam and Prem Kumaran. 2) Basic Electricity A text lab Manual by Paul B.Zbar and Gordon Rockmaker 3) Electricity Principles and Applications by Fowler. Knowledge Required Series Circuit, resonance, frequency response. Precautions: 1) Keep the beam intensity down to the minimum required for a particular setting. Take care to turn down the glare on slow sweep speeds. 2) While making measurements, it should be ensured that time base and vertical amplifier control are in their calibrated positions. 3) Ensure that the vertical gain control is set above the voltage of the signal to be measured. Procedure Set up inductance value in the DIB using an LCR meter. Connect resistor R, DIB and capacitor C in series with a signal generator. Adjust the signal generator such that five volt peak magnitude is achieved on the CRO. Vary the frequency from 100Hz to 100kHz and note down the corresponding voltage across R with the help of the CRO. Formula used

At resonance,

XC = XL

XC

where

1 2 f r C

1 2 LC

X L 2 fr L

fr

70

71

Result Thus the frequency response characteristic of RLC series circuit is drawn.

Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is resonance in ac circuits? Write the formula for resonant frequency in RLC series circuit? What are half power frequencies? Define Q factor of a circuit. Prove that resonant frequency is the geometric mean of half power frequencies.

71

72

Circuit Diagram

Tabulation

Frequency F (Hz)

Current, I (mA)

Model Graph

72

73

Objective To obtain the frequency response characteristic of. Parallel Resonant Circuit Reference Principles of Electrical Engineering and Electronics by V.K.Mehta. Knowledge Required: Resonant frequency of a parallel circuit Frequency Response curve Precautions: 1. Keep the beam intensity down to the minimum required for a particular setting. 2.Take care to turn down the glare on slow sweep speeds. 3.While making measurements, it should be ensured that time base and vertical amplifier control are in their calibrated positions. 4.Ensure that the vertical gain control is set above the voltage of the signal to be measured. Procedure 1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Turn on the signal generator and the CRO and increase the output voltage of the signal generator to 10 volts. 3. Maintain this voltage throughout the experiment and adjust if necessary. 4. Vary the Generator frequency above and below the resonant frequency in a wide range and measure the current through the multimeter. 5. Calculate the impedance of the circuit at each frequency and record it in a tabular column. 6. Plot the frequency vs current and frequency vs impedance curves on a semi-log graph sheet and indicate the resonant frequency.

Result Thus the frequency response characteristic of Parallel Resonant circuit is drawn. Discussion Questions 1. What is the condition for parallel resonance? 2. Explain the effects of changes in frequency on the impedance of a parallel RLC circuit. 3. Explain the effects of changes in frequency on the total current of a parallel RLC circuit. 4. Compare series and parallel resonant circuit and 5. Define Q-factor in a parallel resonant circuit.

73

74

Circuit Diagram

Load Regulation

IL =----(mA)

Sl.No

Voltage(v)

Vd(v)

74

75

Objective To regulate the output voltage using Zener diode.

Theory The key feature of a zener diode remain that it maintains reverse voltage across its terminals constant. So it is used in voltage regulators. There are two ways: 1) Zener

diode as a voltage regulator with a input voltage (line regulation) 2) Zener diode as a voltage regulator with a changing load (Load regulation).

Procedure 1.Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2.Line regulation : Vary the input voltage slowly in steps and note down input voltage, output voltage and ammeter readings corresponding to each setting. Take care that the maximum current rating is not exceeded. Here the load current IL is maintained constant. 3.Plot a graph between input voltage and diode voltage 4.Load regulation: Vary the values of load current by adjusting the load resistance and measure the diode voltage. Here input voltage is maintained constant. 5.Plot a graph between load current and diode voltage.

Result Thus the line &load regulation were checked using Zener diode.

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