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Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior - Shantideva

With Tibetan and English translation
English translation made by Alexandre Berzin (font in normal mode),
and by the Padmakara Translation Group (font in italic mode).
Table of content
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - Te Excellence of Bodhichitta 3
2. Openly Admitting Previous Negative Acts - Confession 10
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - Taking hold of Bodhichitta 22
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - Carefulness 28
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - Vigilant introspection 37
6. Showing Patience - Patience 56
7. Joyful Perseverance - Diligence 79
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - Meditative concentration 93
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - Wisdom 125
10. Dedication 155
Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior - Shantideva - postface
Translation Method for Resolving Discrepancies between Tibetan and Sanskrit
Acknowledgements (Berzin edition)
Appendix 1 (from Padmakara edition)
Te Life of Shantideva 172
Historical Note
Appendix 2 (from Padmakara edition)
Equalizing Self and Other
Appendix 3 (from Padmakara edition)
Exchanging Self and Other
Te Exchange of Self and Other 178
Te Practice of Envy from the Point of View of Someone Less Well On (Stanzas 141146) 178
Te Practice of Jealous Rivalry from the Point of View of an Equal (Stanzas 147150) 179
Te Practice of Pride from the Point of View of Someone Better-On (Stanzas 151154) 180
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 3
1. The Benets of Bodhichitta - The Excellence of Bodhichitta
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(1) Respectfully, I prostrate to the Blissfully Gone (Buddhas) endowed with Dharmakaya,
As well as to their (bodhisattva) onspring and to everyone worthy of prostration.
Let me explain (how to) engage in the Blissfully Gone onsprings' code, Which I've compiled and condensed in
accord with Buddhas' words.
Eomoqe to oll BuJJbos onJ BoJbisottvos.
1. To tbose wbo qo in bliss,

tbe Jbormokoyo

tbey possess, onJ oll tbeir beirs,

To oll tbose wortby of respect,
l reverently bow. AccorJinq to tbe scriptures, l sboll now in brief Jescribe
Tbe proctice of tbe BoJbisottvo Jiscipline.
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(2) I've nothing to say here that's not come before, And I lack any skill in the crafting of verse;
Yet, though I lack even the thought to help others, I've composed this to familiarize my mind.
2. Eere l sboll soy notbinq tbot bos not been soiJ before,
AnJ in tbe ort of prosoJy l bove no skill.
l tberefore bove no tbouqbt tbot tbis miqbt be of benejit to otbers; l wrote it only to bobituote my minJ.
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(3) For, due to acquaintance with what is constructive, Te force of my belief may increase for a moment,
even just through these (words). And if others, equal to myself in fortune, happen to see them, Perhaps they might
nnd them meaningful (too).
S. Hy foitb will tbus be strenqtbeneJ for o little wbile, Tbot l miqbt qrow occustomeJ to tbis virtuous woy. But
otbers wbo now cbonce upon my worJs Hoy projit olso, equol to myself in fortune.
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(4) Having gained this (body with) respites and enrichments, so hard to nnd, Which can fulnll the wishes of (every)
being, If, in this (lifetime), I don't actualize its benents, When later will a perfect endowment with one come?
4. So borJ to jinJ tbe eose onJ weoltb

Wbereby tbe oims of beinqs moy be qoineJ. lf now l foil to turn it to my
projit, Eow coulJ sucb o cbonce be mine oqoin?
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(5) Just as a nash of lightening on a dark, cloudy night, For an instant, brightly illuminates all;
So, in this world, through the might of the Buddhas, A positive attitude rarely and brieny appears.
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 4
S. }ust os on o Jork niqbt block witb clouJs, Tbe suJJen liqbtninq qlores onJ oll is cleorly sbown, likewise
rorely, tbrouqb tbe BuJJbos power, virtuous tbouqbts rise, brief onJ tronsient, in tbe worlJ.
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(6) Tus, constructive (behavior) is constantly weak, While negative forces are extremely strong, and most
unbearable. Except for a full bodhichitta aim, Can anything else constructive outshine it?
6. virtue, tbus, is weok; onJ olwoys Fvil is of qreot onJ overwbelminq strenqtb. Fxcept for perfect boJbicbitto,
Wbot otber virtue is tbere tbot con loy it low.
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(7) Te Kings of the Sages, having thoroughly renected for many eons, Have seen this very (mind) to be of (best)
help, For by it, limitless masses of beings Will quickly and easily attain Supreme Bliss.
7. Ior mony oeons Jeeply ponJerinq, Tbe miqbty Soqes

sow its benejits, Wbereby unnumbereJ multituJes
Are brouqbt witb eose to supreme joy.
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(8) Tose who wish to destroy the hundreds of sunerings of compulsive existence, Tose who wish to dispel the
sorrow of limited beings, And those who wish to enjoy the hundreds of states of much happiness, Will never give up
the bodhichitta aim.
8. Tbose wbo wisb to crusb tbe mony sorrows of existence, Wbo wisb to quell tbe poin of livinq beinqs, Wbo
wisb to bove experience of o myrioJ joys SboulJ never turn owoy from boJbicbitto.
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(9) Te moment miserable beings bound in the prison Of uncontrollably recurring samsara develop a bodhichitta
aim, Tey're called spiritual onspring of the Blissfully Gone, And become ngures to be honored by the gods of this
world, as well as by men.
9. SboulJ boJbicbitto come to birtb ln tbose wbo suffer, cboineJ in prisons of somsoro, ln tbot instont tbey ore
colleJ tbe cbilJren of tbe Blissful 0ne, RevereJ by oll tbe worlJ, by qoJs onJ bumonkinJ.
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(10) Like the supreme creation of a gold-making elixir, Tis unclean body, having been taken, will be transformed
Into the priceless gem of a Triumphant One's body. So, nrmly gain hold of what's known as bodhichitta.
10. Ior like tbe supreme substonce of tbe olcbemists, lt tokes our impure jlesb onJ mokes of it
Tbe boJy of o BuJJbo, jewel beyonJ oll price. Sucb is boJbicbitto. let us qrosp it jirmly!
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1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 5
(11) Since the immeasurable mind of the sole Navigator for wandering beings Has (seen) its precious worth upon
examining fully; Please, anyone wishing to be parted from the plights of wandering beings: Gain hold, truly nrmly, of
(this) gem, bodhichitta.
11. Since tbe bounJless wisJom of tbe only quiJe of beinqs Perfectly exomineJ onJ perceiveJ its priceless
wortb, Tbose wbo wisb to leove tbis stote of wonJerinq SboulJ bolJ well to tbis precious boJbicbitto.
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(12) Everything else that's constructive resembles the plantain tree: Having given birth to its fruit, it's depleted. But
the tree of bodhichitta forever bears fruit And, never depleted, it grows ever more.
12. All otber virtues, like tbe plontoin tree, ProJuce tbeir fruit, but tben tbeir force is spent. Alone tbe
morvelous tree of boJbicbitto Constontly beors fruit onJ qrows unceosinqly.
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(13) Even if they've committed extremely unbearable negative acts, Why don't the caring rely on that Which, when
relied on, will instantly free them, Like relying on a hero when greatly afraid.
1S. As tbouqb tbey poss tbrouqb perils quorJeJ by o bero, Fven tbose weiqbeJ Jown witb JreoJful wickeJness
Will instontly be freeJ tbrouqb bovinq boJbicbitto. Wby Jo tbose wbo feor tbeir sins not bove recourse to it?
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(14) Like the time-ending nres, it burns on with certainty, In an instant, enormous negative karmic force. With
wisdom, the Guardian Maitreya has explained Its fathomless benents to Sudhana.
14. }ust os by tbe jire tbot will Jestroy tbe worlJ, 6reot sins ore surely onJ ot once consumeJ by it. lts benejits
ore tbus unbounJeJ As tbe Wise onJ lovinq lorJ

exploineJ to SuJbono.
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(15) Bodhichitta is to be known, in brief, As having two aspects: A bodhichitta aim that aspires to enlightenment
And a bodhichitta that's engaged with (attaining) enlightenment.
1S. BoJbicbitto, tbe owokeneJ minJ, ls known in brief to bove two ospects: Iirst, ospirinq, boJbicbitto in
intention; Tben octive boJbicbitto, procticol enqoqement.
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(16) As is understood by the distinction Between aspiring to go and (actually) going, So the learned understand the
distinction Between these two to be as if stages.
16. As corresponJinq to tbe wisb to qo AnJ tben to settinq out, Tbe wise sboulJ unJerstonJ respectively Tbe
Jifference tbot JiviJes tbese two.
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 6
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(17) Although great fruits arise, even in recurring samsara, From an aspiring bodhichitta aim, Positive force doesn't
accrue without interruption As it does with an engaged bodhichitta aim.
17. Irom boJbicbitto in intention 6reot results orise for tbose still turninq in tbe wbeel of life; Yet merit Joes
not rise from it in ceoseless streoms As is tbe cose witb octive boJbicbitto.
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(18) As soon as someone perfectly gains hold Of that mind, with the thought Never to turn back from totally
liberating Innnite realms of limited beings,
18. Ior wben, witb irreversible intent, Tbe minJ embroces boJbicbitto, Willinq to set free tbe enJless
multituJes of beinqs, ln tbot instont, from tbot moment on,
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(19) From that time onward, Whether asleep or even not caring, A profusion of positive force gushes forth, Without
interruption, equal to space.
19. A qreot onJ unremittinq streom, A strenqtb of wbolesome merit, Fven Jurinq sleep onJ inottention, Rises
equol to tbe vostness of tbe sky.
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(20) For the sake of limited beings admiring modest (aims), Te Tusly Gone (Buddha) himself Has proclaimed that
this is correct In Te Sutra Subahu Requested.
20. Tbis tbe Totboqoto,
ln tbe sutro Subobu requesteJ,

SoiJ witb reosoneJ orqument
Ior tbose inclineJ to lesser potbs.
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(21) If having a thought to be of help, Even thinking, "May I relieve limited beings Merely of headaches," Comes to
have fathomless positive force,
21. lf witb kinJly qenerosity 0ne merely bos tbe wisb to sootbe Tbe ocbinq beoJs of otber beinqs, Sucb merit
knows no bounJs.
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(22) What need to mention the wish to relieve Each and every limited being of fathomless miseries, And the wish to
help each and every limited being To actualize fathomless good qualities.
22. No neeJ to speok, tben, of tbe wisb To Jrive owoy tbe enJless poin 0f eocb onJ every livinq beinq, Brinqinq
tbem unbounJeJ excellence.
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 7
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(23) Who has such an altruistic mind as this? Do even fathers? Do even mothers? Do even gods and sages? Does even
Brahma have it?
2S. CoulJ our fotber or our motber Fver bove so qenerous o wisb? Bo tbe very qoJs, tbe risbis,

even Brobmo

Eorbor sucb benevolence os tbis?
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(24) If those limited beings, even in their dreams, Have never before dreamt of such a mind (Even) for their own
sakes, How would it have arisen for the sakes of others?
24. Ior in tbe post tbey never, Fven in tbeir Jreoms, WisbeJ sometbinq like tbis even for tbemselves. Eow
coulJ tbey Jo so for onotbers soke?
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(25) Tis extraordinary jewel of the mind - A mind for the sake of limited beings, which in others Doesn't arise for
even their own sakes - Crystallizes as something of unprecedented wonder.
2S. Tbis oim to brinq tbe benejit of beinqs, A benejit tbot otbers wisb not even for tbemselves, Tbis noble,
jewellike stote of minJ Arises truly wonJrous, never seen before.
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(26) How can the positive force of a jewel-like mind, Which is the cause of happiness for all wandering beings And
the elixir for the sunerings of limited beings, Be something whose measure can be taken?
26. Tbis poin-Jispellinq Jroft, Tbis couse of joy for tbose wbo wonJer tbrouqb tbe worlJ,

Tbis precious
ottituJe, tbis jewel of minJEow sboll we colculote its merit?
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(27) If merely a thought to be of help is more especially noble Tan making onerings to the Buddhas,
What need to mention striving for the sake of the happiness Of all limited beings without exception?
27. lf tbe simple tbouqbt to be of belp to otbers FxceeJs in wortb tbe worsbip of tbe BuJJbos, Wbot neeJ is
tbere to speok of octuol JeeJs Tbot brinq obout tbe weol onJ benejit of beinqs?
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(28) Although having the mind that wishes to shun sunering, Tey rush headlong into sunering itself.
Although wishing for happiness, yet out of naivety, Tey destroy their own happiness as if it were a foe.
28. Ior beinqs lonq to free tbemselves from misery, But misery itself tbey follow onJ pursue.
Tbey lonq for joy, but in tbeir iqnoronce Bestroy it, os tbey woulJ tbeir foe.
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 8
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(29) For those who are destitute of happiness And who have many sunerings, It satisnes them with all happiness,
Cuts on all sunering,
29. But tbose wbo jill witb bliss All beinqs Jestitute of joy, Wbo cut oll poin onJ sufferinq owoy Irom tbose
weiqbeJ Jown witb misery,
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(30) And eliminates even their naivety. Where is there anything comparably constructive as that? Where is there even
such a friend as that? Where is there even such a force as positive as that?
S0. Wbo Jrive owoy tbe Jorkness of tbeir iqnoronce Wbot virtue coulJ be motcbeJ witb tbeirs?
Wbot frienJ coulJ be comporeJ to tbem? Wbot merit is tbere similor to tbis?
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(31) If some consider as worthy of praise Even someone who's paid back for helping, What need to mention a
bodhisattva Who does good without seeking (anything in return)?
S1. lf someone wbo returns o fovor ls Jeservinq of some proise,
Wby neeJ we speok of BoJbisottvos, Tbose wbo Jo qooJ even unsoliciteJ?
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(32) People honor as someone who acts constructively Someone who only brieny gives merely a morsel of meager
food In a demeaning manner to a few wandering beings, Satiating them for half a day.
S2. People proise os virtuous Jonors Tbose wbo witb contempt support A few witb ploin onJ orJinory fooJ: A
moments qift tbot feeJs for only bolf o Joy.
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(33) What need to mention someone who constantly looks to give, For an eternity of time, the peerless bliss of the
Blissfully Gone (Buddhas) To endless numbers of limited beings, Fulnlling the wishes of all their minds?
SS. Wbot neeJ is tbere to speok of tbose Wbo lonq bestow on countless multituJes Tbe peerless joy of blissful
BuJJbobooJ, Tbe ultimote fuljillment of tbeir bopes?
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(34) Te Sage has said that if someone generates negative thoughts Toward a philanthropist onspring of the
Triumphant like that, Tat person will remain in a joyless realm for as many eons As the number of negative
thoughts that were spent.
S4. All tbose wbo borbor evil in tbeir minJs Aqoinst sucb lorJs of qenerosity, tbe BuJJbos beirs, Will stoy in
bell, tbe miqbty Soqe bos soiJ, Ior oqes equol to tbe moments of tbeir molice.
1. Te Benents of Bodhichitta - 9
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(35) However, if someone has an extremely clear-minded (belief in such persons), Its fruits will multiply far more
than that. For even in the most acute situations, Triumphant's onspring never will generate anything negative.
Rather, their positive actions naturally increase.
SS. But joyous onJ JevoteJ tbouqbts Will yielJ obunJont fruits in qreoter strenqtb. Fven in qreot trouble,
BoJbisottvos Never brinq fortb wronq; tbeir virtues noturolly increose.
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(36) I prostrate to the bodies of those in whom Te sacred state of mind, the gem, has arisen.
I take safe direction from those sources of bliss Who join to bliss even those who harm them.
S6. To tbem in wbom tbis precious jewel of minJ ls bornto tbem l bow!
l qo for refuqe to tbose sprinqs of boppiness Wbo brinq tbeir very enemies to perfect bliss.
2. Confession - 10
2. Openly Admitting Previous Negative Acts - Confession
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(1) To gain hold of that precious mind, I oner sincerely to you, the Tusly Gone (Buddhas), To the stainless Rare
Gem of the hallowed Dharma, And to you, the onspring of the Buddhas, with oceans of good qualities:
1. To tbe BuJJbos, tbose tbus qone, AnJ to tbe socreJ Bbormo, spotless onJ supremely rore, AnJ to tbe
BuJJbos offsprinq, oceons of qooJ quolities, Tbot l miqbt qoin tbis precious ottituJe, l moke o perfect
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(2) Whatever nowers and fruits there are And whatever manners of medicine there are, Whatever jewels there are in
this world And whatever pure pleasing waters there are,
2. l offer every fruit onJ jlower, Fvery kinJ of beolinq Jroft, AnJ oll tbe precious qems tbe worlJ contoins,
Witb oll pure woters of refresbment;
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(3) Mountains of precious minerals and likewise Forests and secluded delightful places, Trees adorned and bedecked
with blossoms, And trees whose branches are laden with all sorts of excellent fruit;
S. Fvery mountoin wrouqbt of precious jewels, All sweet onJ lonely forest qroves, Tbe trees of poroJise
oJorneJ witb blossom, Trees witb broncbes boweJ witb perfect fruit;
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(4) And from the realms of divine beings and others, fragrances, Incense, wish-granting trees, jewel shrubs, An
assortment of wild-growing crops, And ornamentals as well, nt to be onered,
4. Tbe perfumeJ froqronce of Jivine onJ otber reolms, All incense, wisbinq trees, onJ trees of qems,
All crops tbot qrow witbout tbe tillers core, AnJ every sumptuous object wortby to be offereJ;
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(5) Lakes and pools adorned with lotus And with swans possessing a bewitching cry, Everything that's without an
owner To the far reaches of the innnite sphere of space -
S. lokes onJ meres oJorneJ witb lotuses, Beliqbtful witb tbe sweet-voiceJ cries of woterbirJs, AnJ everytbinq
uncloimeJ onJ free FxtenJinq to tbe morqins of tbe bounJless sky.
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2. Confession - 11
(6) Taking them to mind, I oner them fully To you, the Sages, Foremost of Beings, together with your spiritual
onspring. Hallowed objects for onerings, having great compassion, Tink kindly of me and accept these (tokens) of
6. l bolJ tbem oll before my minJ, onJ to tbe miqbty Soqe, tbe qreotest of our kinJ, AnJ to bis beirs, l moke o
perfect offerinq. Sublime recipients, compossionote lorJs, 0 tbink of me witb love; occept tbese qifts of mine!
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(7) Lacking in positive karmic force, I'm extremely impoverished And have nothing else that is precious to oner.
Terefore, Guardians whose thoughts are for the welfare of others, Accept them by the power of your concern for my
7. Ior, Jestitute of merit, l om very poor; l bove no otber weoltb. AnJ so, protectors, You wbose wise intentions
ore for otbers qooJ, ln your qreot power, receive tbem for my soke.
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(8) All my bodies I oner for eternity To you, the Triumphant and to your spiritual onspring. Supreme Beings, please
fully accept me. Respectfully, I shall serve as your attendant.
8. FnliqbteneJ ones onJ oll your BoJbisottvo beirs, l offer you my boJy tbrouqbout oll my lives. Supreme
couroqeous ones occept me totolly. Ior witb Jevotion l will be your slove.
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(9) Completely under your care and thus unafraid Of compulsive existence, I shall benent limited beings.
I shall perfectly transcend my previous negative karmic force And henceforth, never commit further negative acts.
9. Ior if you will occept me, l will be 0nJounteJ by somsoro onJ will oct for beinqs soke. lll leove bebinJ tbe
evils of my post, AnJ ever ofter turn my foce from tbem.
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(10) To bathing chambers, exquisitely sweet scented, With crystal noors, transparent and polished to a shine, Having
beautiful pillars, glowing with gems, And crowned with canopies, radiant with pearls,
10. A botbinq cbomber excellently froqront, Witb even jloors of crystol, roJiont onJ cleor, AnJ qroceful pillors
sbimmerinq witb qems, All bunq obout witb qleominq conopies of peorls
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(11) I invite you, Tusly Gone (Buddhas) and your spiritual onspring, And shower your bodies, over and again, from
many jeweled vases Filled to the brim with scented water and delightful things, To the accompaniment of song and
11. Tbere tbe blissful BuJJbos onJ tbeir beirs lll botbe witb mony o precious vose, Abrim witb woter froqront
onJ Jeliqbtful, All to frequent stroins of meloJy onJ sonq.
2. Confession - 12
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(12) I (now) dry your bodies with incomparable cloths, Clean and well-anointed with scent, And then present you
hallowed beings With most fragrant robes correctly dyed to color.
12. Witb clotbs of unexompleJ quolity, Witb spotless, perfumeJ towels l will Jry tbem, AnJ offer splenJiJ
scenteJ clotbes, Well-JyeJ onJ of surpossinq excellence.
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(13) I adorn with excellent garments, nne and smooth, And with hundreds of the choicest pieces of jewelry, this and
that, You, the Aryas Samantabhadra, Manjushri, Lokeshvara and all the rest.
1S. Witb Jifferent qorments, liqbt onJ supple, AnJ o bunJreJ beoutiful oJornments, l will qroce sublime

Hojuqbosbo, lokesbvoro, onJ tbeir kin.
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(14) With the best colognes whose fragrant vapors Rise to all the myriad worlds, I anoint the bodies Of all you Kings
of the Sages, who shine with light, Like sluiced, renned, and polished gold.
14. AnJ witb o sumptuous froqronce wbicb PervoJes o tbousonJ million worlJs, l will onoint tbe boJies of tbe
miqbty Soqes, 6leominq briqbt like burnisbeJ qolJ rejineJ onJ cleonseJ.
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(15) To you, the Kings of the Sages, foremost objects for onerings, I present lovely nowers, such as mandarava, lotus,
and water lily, With sweet fragrance, each of them (loose) and also Delicately strung together and exquisite in
1S. l ploce before tbe miqbty Soqes, perfect objects of my worsbip, 6lorious jlowers like lotus onJ monJorovo,
Tbe utpolo, onJ otber froqront blossoms, WorkeJ onJ twineJ in lovely scenteJ qorlonJs.
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(16) I oner you, as well, masses of clouds from the burning of Te choicest incense, stealing the mind, whose fragrant
aroma pervades (everywhere). I oner you also a celestial feast With a wide array of dishes, delicacies, and nectars to
16. l will offer swellinq clouJs of fronkincense, Wbose ombient perfume rovisbes tbe minJ, AnJ vorious fooJs
onJ every kinJ of Jrink, All Jelicocies wortby of tbe qoJs.
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(17) I oner you lamps of precious metals as well, Arranged in rows on lotuses of gold. On swept ground, sprinkled
with scented water, I scatter beautiful nower petals
17. l will offer precious lomps ArronqeJ in rows on lotuses of qolJ, A corpet of sweet jlowers scotterinq 0pon
tbe level, incense-sprinkleJ qrounJ.
2. Confession - 13
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(18) And oner to you, with a nature of compassion, Immeasurable palaces, enchanting with arias of praise, Draped
with dangling ornaments of pearls and gems, beautiful and sparkling, Beyond fathom, becoming an adornment of
18. To tbose wbose very noture is compossion l will qive vost poloces, resounJinq witb foir proise, All JeckeJ
witb precious peorls onJ beouteous penJont qems, 6leominq jewels tbot Jeck tbe omplituJe of spoce.
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(19) Eternally, I oner to you Kings of the Sages Stunning jeweled parasols with golden handles, Teir rims adorned
with exquisite types of decoration, With an elegant shape, erect and gorgeous to behold.
19. Ioir onJ precious porosols oJorneJ witb qolJen sbofts, All borJereJ rounJ witb bems of precious jewels,
0priqbt, well-proportioneJ, pleosinq to tbe eye, Aqoin, oll tbis l qive to oll tbe BuJJbos.
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(20) And, in addition to this, may clouds bursting with the music Of a symphony of onering (instruments) And
beautiful celestial musicians each take their place, Alleviating the sunering of limited beings.
20. Hoy o bost of otber offerinqs, AnJ clouJs of rovisbinq sweet meloJy Tbot soloces tbe poin of livinq beinqs
Arise onJ constontly obiJe.
___________ ____________ _________
_ __________
(21) May they shower, without interruption, A rain of jewels, nowers, and so forth On all you Rare Supreme Gems
of the hallowed Dharma, And on your stupa monuments and Buddha images.
21. Hoy roins of jlowers onJ every precious qem Ioll Jown in on unceosinq streom 0pon tbe }ewels of SocreJ
lmoqes onJ oll supports for offerinq.
___________ __________ __________
____ _____________
(22) Just as Manjushri and others Have made onerings to you, the Triumphant, So do I, too, make onerings to you,
my Tusly Gone Guardians, And to your spiritual onspring.
22. }ust os Hojuqbosbo onJ tbe like HoJe offerinq to oll tbe Conquerors, l Jo likewise to oll tbe BuJJbos our
protectors, AnJ to oll tbeir BoJbisottvo cbilJren.
___________ ____________ _________
(23) I oner praises to you Oceans of Good Qualities, With melodious eulogies and a sea of tongues. May clouds of
harmonies of melodious Eulogies to you amass with certainty all around.
2S. To tbese vost oceons of qooJ quolities l offer proise, o seo of oirs onJ bormonies. Hoy clouJs of tuneful
euloqy AscenJ unceosinqly before tbem.
2. Confession - 14
_______________ ___________ _______
_ __________
(24) I prostrate to all you Buddhas who have graced the three times, To the Dharma and to you, the Highest
Assembly, Bowing down with bodies as numerous As all the atoms of the world.
24. To BuJJbos of tbe post, tbe present, onJ oll future time, AnJ to tbe Bbormo onJ Sublime Assembly, Witb
boJies mony os tbe qroins of Just 0pon tbe eortb, l will prostrote onJ bow.
____________ ____________ __________
(25) I prostrate to you bases for the bodhichitta aim And to your stupa monuments. I prostrate to you abbots and
likewise to you (ordaining) masters, And to you supreme (upholders of ) tamed behavior.
2S. To sbrines onJ oll supports 0f boJbicbitto l bow Jown;
To obbots wbo tronsmit tbe vows, to every leorneJ moster, AnJ to oll sublime proctitioners of Bbormo.
__________ _____________ _________
(26) Till I reach the heart of a purined state, I take safe direction from you Buddhas. Likewise, I take safe direction
from the Dharma And from you, the Assembly of bodhisattvas.
26. 0ntil tbe essence of enliqbtenment is reocbeJ, l qo for refuqe to tbe BuJJbos. Also l toke refuqe in tbe
Bbormo AnJ in oll tbe bost of BoJbisottvos.
______________ _____________ ___________
(27) With palms pressed together, I beseech You Buddhas and bodhisattvas Residing in every direction, Possessing
great compassion:
27. To perfect BuJJbos onJ to BoJbisottvos, ln oll Jirections wbere tbey moy resiJe, To tbem wbo ore tbe
sovereiqns of qreot mercy, l press my polms toqetber, proyinq tbus:
__________ ________ _____________
(28) Troughout my beginningless samsaric existence, In this and other lives, I've unwittingly committed negative
acts Or caused others to commit (them), and further,
28. "ln tbis onJ oll my otber lives, Wbile turninq in tbe rounJ witbout beqinninq, BlinJly l bove brouqbt fortb
evil, AnJ inciteJ otbers to commit tbe some.
___________ ________ ___________ ___
(29) Oppressed by the confusion of naivety, I've rejoiced (in them) - whatever I've done, I see them as mistakes and
openly admit (them) To you, my Guardians, from the depths of my heart.
29. "BeceiveJ onJ overmostereJ by my iqnoronce, l bove token pleosure in sucb sin,
AnJ seeinq now tbe
blome of it, 0 qreot protectors, l confess it eornestly!
2. Confession - 15
_____________ _________ _________
(30) Whatever harmful actions of body, speech and mind I've committed out of disturbing emotion
Toward you Tree Supreme Gems, my fathers, my mothers, My spiritual mentors or others,
S0. "Wbotever l bove Jone oqoinst tbe Triple 6em, Aqoinst my porents, teocbers, onJ tbe rest, Tbrouqb force
of my Jejilements, ln my boJy, speecb, onJ minJ,
___________ ___________ _________ ___
(31) And whatever extremely unbearable base actions I've done - I, who am full of negative force
Tat gives rise to faults through many wrong actions - I openly admit all of them to you Spiritual Leaders.
S1. "All tbe evil l, o sinner, bove committeJ, All tbe wickeJ JeeJs tbot clinq to me, Tbe friqbtful tbinqs tbot l
contriveJ l openly Jeclore to you, tbe teocbers of tbe worlJ.
_________ ________ ______ _
(32) But, I may be snatched from my life Before cleansing myself of my negative forces of karma. Just as (then I may
fall to a horrible rebirth), I beseech you for safe direction To free myself dennitely from that, with the swiftest of
S2. "lt moy be tbot my Jeotb will come to me Before my evil bos been cleonseJ. Eow tben con l be freeJ from
it? l proy you, quickly qront me your protection!"
_______ _________ ________ ___
(33) Whether or not I've done (purincation), Since this Lord of Death, who can't be trusted, never will wait,
Everyone, whether sick or not, (dies) all of a sudden. My life can't be trusted.
SS. We connot trust tbe wonton lorJ of Beotb. Tbe tosk complete or still to Jo, be will not woit.
ln beoltb or sickness, tberefore, none of us con trust 0ur jleetinq, momentory lives.
_________ __________ ________ ___
(34) Leaving all behind, I'll depart. But not having realized this,
I've committed all sorts of negative acts For the sake of my friends and my foes.
S4. AnJ we must poss owoy, forsokinq oll. But l, JevoiJ of unJerstonJinq, Eove, for soke of frienJ onJ foe
olike, ProvokeJ onJ brouqbt obout so mony wronqs.
__________ __________ _______
_ _________
(35) My foes will vanish; My friends also will vanish; I too shall vanish; Likewise, all will vanish.
SS. But oll my foes will ceose to be, AnJ oll my frienJs will ceose to be,
AnJ l will olso ceose to be, AnJ likewise everytbinq will ceose to be.
2. Confession - 16
_________ ______ ___ __
(36) Just like the experiences in a dream, Anything I enjoy
Will become an object of memory; Everything that's passed, I won't see (again).
S6. All tbot l possess onJ use
ls like tbe jleetinq vision of o Jreom. lt foJes into tbe reolms of memory, AnJ foJinq, will be seen no more.
_______ _______ _______ ___
(37) Even within this brief lifetime itself, Many friends and foes have passed. But whatever unbearable (fruits) there
are From the negative acts I've committed for their sake (still) lie ahead.
S7. AnJ even in tbe brief course of tbis present life, So mony frienJs onJ foes bove posseJ owoy, Becouse of
wbom, tbe evils l bove Jone Still lie, unbeoroble, before me.
________ ____________ ___________ __
(38) Trough not having realized Tat, all of a sudden, I (can die) like this,
I've committed negative acts of so many sorts Out of naivety, desire, and anger.
S8. Tbe tbouqbt come never to my minJ Tbot l too om o brief onJ possinq tbinq. AnJ so, tbrouqb botreJ, lust,
onJ iqnoronce, l bove committeJ mony sins.
_________ ______ ________ ____
(39) Day and night, without a stop, Tis life is always getting shorter -
No extension ever comes from the side; Why should someone like me not die?
S9. Never boltinq niqbt or Joy, Hy life Jroins constontly owoy,
AnJ from no otber source Joes increose come. Eow con tbere not be Jeotb for sucb os me?
_________ _______________ _______
(40) While lying in bed, Even if I'm surrounded by all my relatives and friends, I alone shall experience
Te feelings of my life being severed.
40. Tbere lll be, prostrote upon my beJ, AnJ oll orounJ, my fomily onJ frienJs. But l olone sboll be tbe one to
feel Tbe cuttinq of tbe tbreoJ of life.
__________ ____________ _____________
(41) When seized by the messengers of the Lord of Death, What help are relatives? What help are friends?
Only my positive karmic force will provide me a safe direction then, But I've never relied on just that.
41. AnJ wben tbe berolJs of tbe BeoJly Kinq

bove qrippeJ me, Wbot belp to me will be my frienJs onJ kin?
Ior tben lifes virtue is my one Jefense, AnJ tbis, olos, is wbot l sbruqqeJ owoy.
2. Confession - 17
____________ ________ ______ ___
(42) O Guardians! Not (really) caring, I didn't know (Tere'd be) such terror as this,
And so, for the sake of this impermanent life, I've caused so much negative karmic force to build up.
42. 0 protectors! l, so little beeJinq, EorJly quesseJ ot borror sucb os tbis AnJ oll for tbis brief, tronsient
existence, l bove Jone so mony evil tbinqs.
_______ ____ ____________ _
(43) If someone even just being led to where His limbs will be lopped on today is so terrined that, With dry mouth,
sunken eyes, and worse, He appears transngured from before,
4S. Tbe Joy tbey toke bim to tbe scoffolJ, Wbere tbey will teor off bis limbs,
A mon is cbonqeJ, tronsjiqureJ by bis feor: Eis moutb is Jry, bis eyes stort from bis brow.
_____________ __________ ____________
_ _________
(44) What need to mention the tremendous torment When grabbed by the macabre physical forms
Of the sinister messengers of the Lord of Death And fallen into a nt of great panic.
44. No neeJ to soy bow stricken l sboll be Wben overcome onJ sick witb JreoJful feor, lm seizeJ by forms so
borrible to see, Tbe friqbtful servonts of tbe lorJ of Beotb.
___________ __________ _________
__ ____________
(45) "Who can show me a safe and sound direction Out of this monstrous horror?" Staring with terrined, bulging
eyes I'll search the four quarters for anyone (who can show me) safe direction out.
4S. Wbo con qive me sofe protection Irom tbis borror, from tbis friqbtful JreoJ? AnJ tben lll seorcb tbe four
Jirections, Seekinq belp, witb ponic-stricken eyes.
2. Confession - 18
______________ _______ _________
(46) (And then,) seeing no one in the four quarters who can give safe direction, I'll become nlled with total despair
from that. If no one having safe direction is there in that place, What can I do at that time?
46. But in tbose four Jirections no protection sboll l jinJ. AnJ l sboll sink into Jespoirinq woe.
No refuqe will tbere be for me; At sucb o time, wbot sboll l Jo?
_________ __________ ____________
(47) Terefore, from this very day, I take safe direction From you, the Triumphant, you Guardians of those who
wander, Who strove to become safe directions for wandering beings And who can remove all my fears with your
stupendous forces.
47. Tbus, from tbis Joy forworJ l toke refuqe ln tbe BuJJbos, quorJions of beinqs,
Wbo lobor to protect oll wonJerers, Tbose miqbty ones wbo scotter every feor.
_________ ________ __________
(48) Likewise, I purely take safe direction From the Dharma you've realized,
Which abolishes the fears of recurring samsara, And also from you, the Assembly of bodhisattvas.
48. AnJ in tbe Bbormo tbey bove reolizeJ in tbeir beorts, Wbicb Jrives owoy tbe terrors of somsoro,
AnJ in oll tbe bost of BoJbisottvos likewise l will perfectly toke refuqe.
_____________ ________ ________
__ ________
(49) Totally panicked with anguish, To you, Samantabhadra, I oner myself; And, of my own accord, I make to you,
Manjughosha, an onering of my body.
49. 6rippeJ by JreoJ, besiJe myself witb onquisb, To SomontobboJro l will qive myself;
Hy boJy l myself will qive To Hojuqbosbo, qentle onJ meloJious.
________ __________ ______ __
(50) To you as well, Guardian Avalokiteshvara, Who are undeceiving in acting with compassion, I cry out for help in
a wail of torment: "Pray, give safe direction to me who has (such) a negative karmic force!"
S0. To bim wbose JeeJs of mercy never foil, Hy lorJ Avolokito,
l cry out from Jeptbs of misery, "Protect me now on evilJoer!"
__________ _____ ___________ ___
(51) From Akashagarbha, Kshitigarbha,
And all you Guardians with great compassion, I seek safe direction and, from my heart, Cry out for help.
S1. Now to tbe noble one, Akosboqorbbo, AnJ to Ksbitiqorbbo, from my beort l coll.
To oll protectors, qreot, compossionote, l cry to tbem in seorcb of refuqe.
2. Confession - 19
___________ __________ ___________ _
(52) I take safe direction from you, the One with a Vajra: Upon your sight, all malevolent beings, Such as the
messengers of the Lord of Death, Flee in panic to the four quarters (of the world).
S2. To vojroponi l sboll jly, Ior ot tbe siqbt of bim
All venqeful tbinqs like Yomos bost Fscope in terror to tbe four Jirections.
________ __________ __________
(53) Previously, I've transgressed your advice, But seeing now these horribly frightening things,
I take safe direction from you, and by this, May I purge myself quickly of these fearful things.
SS. Iormerly your worJs l bove tronsqresseJ, But bovinq seen tbese terrors oll orounJ, l come to you for
refuqe proyinq: Swiftly Jrive owoy my feor!
_________ ___________ __________
(54) If even when scared by a common illness, I have to act in accord with a doctor's advice,
What need to mention when perpetually amicted By diseases, like desire, (that produce) hundreds of injuries.
S4. Ior if, olormeJ by common oilments, l must implement tbe Joctors worJs,
Wbot neeJ to speok of wben lm constontly brouqbt low By ills like lust onJ foults o bunJreJfolJ?
_________ ___________ __________ ___
(55) If just one of these can bring all the people Living in this Southern Continent to ruin,
And if no other medicine to cure them Is to be found in any direction,
SS. AnJ if, by one of tbese olone, Tbe Jwellers in tbe worlJ ore oll tbrown Jown, AnJ if no otber remeJy exists,
No otber beolinq elsewbere to be founJ
________ ________ __________ ____
(56) Ten the urge not to act in accord with the advice Of the Omniscient Physicians concerning that, Which can
remove every painful disease, Is something to be rebuked as extremely naive.
S6. Tbon worJs of tbe oll-knowinq Joctor, Wbicb uproot our every ill,
Tbe tbouqbt to turn on bim Jeof eors ls object onJ contemptible stupiJity.
_____ __________ ______ _
(57) If I need to be careful At a small and ordinary clin, What need to mention at the clin over which I can fall
For thousands of leagues for a long duration (in the joyless realms).
S7. Alonq o smoll onJ orJinory cliff lf l must pick my woy witb speciol core,
Wbot neeJ to speok of tbot lonq-lostinq cbosm Plunqinq to tbe Jeptbs o tbousonJ leoques?
2. Confession - 20
______ ________ ________ ___
(58) It's incorrect (for me) to sit at ease, Tinking, "I won't die just today,"
For without a doubt that time will come When I shall be no more.
S8. "ToJoy, ot leost, l sboll not Jie." So rosb to lull myself witb worJs like tbese! Hy Jissolution onJ my bour of
Jeotb Will come to me, of tbis tbere is no Joubt.
__________ ______ ________ _
(59) Who can give me a state of no fear? How can I be freed with certainty from this? If I shall doubtlessly vanish,
How can I sit with my mind at ease?
S9. Wbo con qive me feorlessness, Wbot sure escope is tbere from tbis? lts certoin tbot lm qoinq to Jie, So
bow con l relox, my minJ ot eose?
________ ______ _________ ____
(60) What I've experienced in the past has disappeared, And because of my clinging
To whatever extra I have beyond that, I've been acting contrary to my mentors' advice.
60. 0f lifes experience, oll seosons post, Wbots left to me, wbot now remoins? By clinqinq to wbot now is bere
no more, Hy teocbers precepts l bove JisobeyeJ.
_______ _____________ _________
(61) Having abandoned this lifetime And likewise my relatives and friends,
If alone I must wander in an uncertain direction, What use with all of my friends and foes?
61. AnJ wben tbis life is left bebinJ, AnJ witb it oll my kitb onJ kin,
l must set out on stronqe potbs oll olone: Wby moke so mucb of oll my frienJs onJ foes?
_________ _______ ____________ _
(62) "From destructive actions comes (nothing but) sunering; How can I be liberated dennitely from that?" It's
proper for me to think, day and night, Constantly only about that.
62. Eow insteoJ con l moke sure To riJ myself of evil, only couse of sorrow? Tbis sboulJ be my one concern,
Hy only tbouqbt botb niqbt onJ Joy.
____________ _________ _________ _
(63) Out of naivety or (simply) not knowing, Whatever I've done that nts into being
Either naturally disgraceful Or a negative act proscribed (by you Buddhas),
6S. Tbe wronqs tbot l bove Jone Tbrouqb iqnoront stupiJity:
All octions evil by tbeir noture

AnJ tronsqressions of tbe precepts,
2. Confession - 21
___________ ______________ ___
_ ___________
(64) I openly admit all of them Directly before the eyes of you Guardians,
Prostrating over and again, with palms pressed together And a mind dreading sunering.
64. Ieorinq oll tbe poins to come l join my polms onJ ceoselessly prostrote, AnJ everytbinq l will confess
Birectly in tbe siqbt of my protectors.
____________ __________ _________
________ _____________ _________
(65) Spiritual Leaders, in (light of my) taking my negative acts As having been misdeeds, I beseech you: Since this
was not wholesome, I shall never do them again.
6S. l proy you, quiJes onJ quorJions of tbe worlJ, To toke me os l om, o sinful mon.
AnJ oll tbese octions, evil os tbey ore, l promise l will never Jo oqoin.
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - 22
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - Taking hold of Bodhichitta
__________ ________ __________
(1) With pleasure, I rejoice in the positive actions Tat relieve the sunerings of the worse rebirth states For all limited
beings and that place these, who suner, In better rebirth states.
1. Witb joy l celebrote tbe virtue tbot relieves oll beinqs Irom tbe sorrows of tbe stotes of loss,
Fxultinq in tbe boppy stotes enjoyeJ By tbose wbo yet ore sufferinq.
___________ ___ _________ _
(2) I rejoice in that build up of positive (force) Tat became the causes for the (arhats') purined state;
I rejoice in the dennite freedom of (these) embodied beings From the miseries of uncontrollable rebirth.
2. l revel in tbe stores of virtue, Couse of qoininq tbe enliqbteneJ stote, AnJ celebrote tbe freeJom won
By livinq beinqs from tbe rounJ of poin.
__________ ____
(3) I rejoice in the purined state of the Guardian (Buddhas) And also in the levels of mind of their spiritual onspring;
S. AnJ in tbe BuJJbobooJ of tbe protectors l Jeliqbt
AnJ in tbe qrounJs of reolizotion

of tbe BuJJbos beirs.
___________ __________ __________
(4) And with pleasure, I rejoice in the ocean of positive force From their having developed bodhichitta aims To bring
every limited being joy And in their deeds that have aided limited beings.
4. Tbeir enliqbteneJ ottituJe, on oceon of qreot qooJ, Tbot seeks to ploce oll beinqs in tbe stote of bliss, AnJ
every oction for tbe benejit of beinqs: Sucb is my Jeliqbt onJ joy.
_____________ ________ _____________
(5) With palms pressed together, I beseech Te Buddhas of all directions: Please shine Dharma's lamp for limited
beings Sunering and groping in darkness.
S. AnJ so l join my bonJs onJ proy Tbe BuJJbos wbo resiJe in every quorter:
KinJle now tbe Bbormos liqbt Ior tbose wbo qrope, bewilJereJ, in tbe Jork of poin!
_____ ________ ______ ___
(6) With palms pressed together, I beseech Te Triumphant who would pass beyond sorrow:
I beg you, remain for countless eons So as not to leave in their blindness these wandering beings.
6. l join my bonJs beseecbinq tbe enliqbteneJ ones Wbo wisb to poss into nirvono:
Bo not leove us wonJerinq in blinJness,Stoy omonq us for unnumbereJ oqes!
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - 23
_______ ____________ __________ __
(7) By whatever positive force I've built up Trough all of these that I've done like that, May I remove every sunering
Of all limited beings.
7. Tbrouqb tbese octions now performeJ

AnJ oll tbe virtues l bove qoineJ,
Hoy oll tbe poin of every livinq beinq Be wbolly scottereJ onJ JestroyeJ!
______ _______ _______ ____
(8) So long as wandering beings fall sick, May I serve as the medicine,
Te doctors and their nurse, Until they've been cured of their illness.
8. Ior oll tbose oilinq in tbe worlJ, 0ntil tbeir every sickness bos been beoleJ, Hoy l myself become for tbem
Tbe Joctor, nurse, tbe meJicine itself.
_________ __________ ________ ___
(9) May I eliminate the pain of hunger and thirst With a shower of food and drink;
And, in the times of the middle eons of famine, May I myself change into food and drink.
9. Roininq Jown o jlooJ of fooJ onJ Jrink, Hoy l Jispel tbe ills of tbirst onJ fomine.
AnJ in tbe oeons morkeJ by scorcity onJ wont,

Hoy l myself oppeor os Jrink onJ sustenonce.
_________ _________ _________ ___
(10) For limited beings, destitute and poor, May I become a treasure that never runs out And remain in their
presence As a variety of sorts of useful things.
10. Ior sentient beinqs, poor onJ Jestitute, Hoy l become o treosure ever-plentiful, AnJ lie before tbem closely
in tbeir reocb, A vorieJ source of oll tbot tbey miqbt neeJ.
______ __________ ___________
_ _________
(11) To fulnl the aims of all limited beings, I give, without sense of a loss, My body and likewise my pleasures,
And all my positive forces of the three times.
11. Hy boJy, tbus, onJ oll my qooJs besiJes, AnJ oll my merits qoineJ onJ to be qoineJ, l qive tbem oll onJ Jo
not count tbe cost, To brinq obout tbe benejit of beinqs.
________ _________ __________
(12) Giving everything away (brings) release with nirvana, And my mind is (aimed) for realising nirvana. As giving
away all comes together (with death), It's best to give (now) to limited beings.
12. Nirvono is ottoineJ by qivinq oll, Nirvono is tbe object of my strivinq;
AnJ oll must be surrenJereJ in o sinqle instont, Tberefore it is best to qive it oll to otbers.
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - 24
_________ ________ _______ _
(13) Having given this body to all those with limited bodies To do with as they like,
It's up to them to do what they want: Let them kill it, revile it, always beat it, or whatever.
1S. Tbis boJy l bove now resiqneJ To serve tbe pleosure of oll livinq beinqs. let tbem ever kill, Jespise, onJ
beot it, 0sinq it occorJinq to tbeir wisb.
_______ _____ __________ ___
(14) Let them toy with my body,
Make it into a source of ridicule or a joke. Having given away this body of mine, For what should I hold it dear?
14. AnJ tbouqb tbey treot it like o toy,
0r moke of it tbe butt of every mockery, Hy boJy bos been qiven up to tbem. Wby sboulJ l moke so mucb of it?
______ _______ _________
(15) Let them do whatever to (my) body, So long as it doesn't cause them harm; But may anything focused on me
Never turn out to be meaningless.
1S. AnJ so let beinqs Jo to me Wbotever Joes not brinq tbem injury. Wbenever tbey moy tbink of me,
let tbis not foil to brinq tbem benejit.
___________ ________ _____ ___
(16) If anyone, having focused on me, Develops an angry or negative mind, May that always turn into a cause
For fulnlling all of his or her aims.
16. AnJ if in my reqorJ tbey bove A tbouqbt of onqer or respect,
Hoy tbese stotes olwoys be tbe couse Wbereby tbeir qooJ onJ wisbes ore fuljilleJ.
_______ __________ _______ ___
(17) And may everyone who speaks badly of me, Or does something else that's of harm,
Or likewise hurls ridicule at me, Become someone with the fortune for a purined state.
17. All tbose wbo sliqbt me to my foce 0r Jo to me some otber evil, Fven if tbey blome or slonJer me,
Hoy tbey ottoin tbe fortune of enliqbtenment!
______________ __________ ______
_ ________
(18) May I be a guardian for those with no guardian, A pathnnder for those who are on the road, And a boat, a ship,
and a bridge For those who would cross.
18. Hoy l be o quorJ for tbose wbo ore protectorless, A quiJe for tbose wbo journey on tbe rooJ.
Ior tbose wbo wisb to cross tbe woter, Hoy l be o boot, o roft, o briJqe.
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - 25
______ ____ ________ __
______ _________
(19) May I be an island for those seeking an island, A lamp for those desiring a lamp,
A bed for everyone wishing a bed, And a servant for every embodied being who would want a servant.
19. Hoy l be on isle for tbose wbo yeorn for lonJ, A lomp for tbose wbo lonq for liqbt;
Ior oll wbo neeJ o restinq ploce, o beJ; Ior tbose wbo neeJ o servont, moy l be tbeir slove.
_________ __________ _________
(20) May I be a wish-granting gem, a vase of excellence, Mantras of pure awareness, magnincent medicine, Wish-
granting trees, and cows of plenty For embodied beings.
20. Hoy l be tbe wisbinq jewel, tbe vose of weoltb, A worJ of power onJ tbe supreme beolinq, Hoy l be tbe tree
of mirocles, Ior every beinq tbe obunJont cow.
_________ __________ ________ __
(21) And eternally, like earth and so on - Te great elements - and space,
May I serve, in a plenitude of forms, as the basis for life For fathomless numbers of limited beings.
21. }ust like tbe eortb onJ spoce itself AnJ oll tbe otber miqbty elements,
Ior bounJless multituJes of beinqs Hoy l olwoys be tbe qrounJ of life, tbe source of vorieJ sustenonce.
______________ ___________ ______
(22) And till they pass to nirvana, May I serve, as well, in all ways,
As the causes for life in the realms Of limited beings till the ends of space.
22. Tbus for everytbinq tbot lives, As for os ore tbe limits of tbe sky,
Hoy l be constontly tbeir source of livelibooJ 0ntil tbey poss beyonJ oll sorrow.
____________ __________ __________
(23) Just as the Blissfully Gone (Buddhas) of the past Have generated a bodhichitta aim,
Ten lived by the stages Of bodhisattva training;
2S. }ust os oll tbe BuJJbos of tbe post Eove brouqbt fortb tbe owokeneJ minJ, AnJ in tbe precepts of tbe
BoJbisottvos Step-by-step oboJe onJ troineJ,
_______ ____________ _______ __
(24) So, too, do I generate a bodhichitta aim To help those who wander,
And shall train in the stages Of bodhisattva training.
24. likewise, for tbe benejit of beinqs, l will brinq to birtb tbe owokeneJ minJ, AnJ in tbose precepts, step-by-
step, l will obiJe onJ troin myself.
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - 26
______ ___________ __________ ___
(25) Purely gaining hold, like this, Of bodhichitta with (this) sound state of mind, Afterwards, as well, to enhance it
further, Celebrate (that) mind in this way:
2S. Tbose wbo tbus witb cleor intelliqence Toke bolJ of tbe owokeneJ minJ witb briqbt onJ luciJ joy, Tbot
tbey moy now increose wbot tbey bove qoineJ, SboulJ lift tbeir beorts witb proises sucb os tbese:
_______ ________ _________ __
(26) Now my life's become fruitful, For having wonderfully attained a human existence, Today I've awakened my
Buddha-nature And now have become a Buddha's spiritual child.
26. "ToJoy my life bos qiven fruit. Tbis bumon stote bos now been well ossumeJ. ToJoy l toke my birtb in
BuJJbos line, AnJ bove become tbe BuJJbos cbilJ onJ beir.
________ ____________ ________
(27) Now, in whatever way possible, I shall undertake actions that accord with its traits, And never denle this
impeccable nature Tat lacks any fault.
27. "ln every woy, tben, l will unJertoke Activities bejittinq sucb o ronk.
AnJ l will Jo no oct to mor 0r compromise tbis biqb onJ foultless lineoqe.
_______ ________ ___________ ___
(28) Just like a blind man Finding a gem in a pile of trash, Likewise, it's come about by some force
Tat within me has developed a bodhichitta aim.
28. "Ior l om like o blinJ mon wbo bos founJ A precious qem insiJe o beop of Just.
Ior so it is, by some stronqe cbonce, Tbot boJbicbitto bos been born in me.
__________ ________ ______ _
(29) It's the supreme nectar, indeed, for defeating Te Lord of Death of wandering beings;
It's the inexhaustible treasure as well For dispelling the poverty of those who roam.
29. "Tbis is tbe supreme Jroft of immortolity Tbot sloys tbe lorJ of Beotb, tbe slouqbterer of beinqs, Tbe ricb
unfoilinq treosure-mine To beol tbe poverty of wonJerers.
_______ _________ _______ __
(30) It is the best medicine, too, that brings to full rest Te diseases of those who are passing through;
It's the tree that shelters all wandering beings, Roaming and exhausted on the roads of their compulsive lives.
S0. "lt is tbe sovereiqn remeJy Tbot perfectly olloys oll moloJies.
lt is tbe tree tbot qives relief To tbose wbo wonJer weorily tbe potbwoys of existence.
3. Gaining Hold of a Bodhichitta Aim - 27
________ _________ _________
(31) It's the public bridge for freeing All wandering beings from the worse rebirth states; It's the risen mind-moon for
dispelling the fever Of the disturbing emotions of those who roam.
S1. "lt is tbe universol briJqe tbot soves All wonJerinq beinqs from tbe stotes of loss, Tbe risinq moon of tbe
enliqbteneJ minJ Tbot sootbes tbe sorrows born of tbe ofjlictions.
________ _________ __________ ___
(32) It's the magnincent sun for clearing away Te mist of not knowing of wandering beings;
It's the fresh froth of butter that rises to the top From the churning of the milk of the sacred Dharma.
S2. "lt is tbe miqbty sun tbot utterly Jispels Tbe misty iqnoronce of wonJerinq beinqs, Tbe creomy butter, ricb
onJ full, Tbots cburneJ from milk of boly teocbinq.
___________ _______ ______
_____ ______________
(33) For wandering beings roaming, as guests, on the roads of compulsive existence, Wishing to enjoy a share of bliss,
Tis is the best for setting (them) with bliss, Satisfying the entirety of beings (who'll come) as guests.
SS. "livinq beinqs! Woyforers upon lifes potbs, Wbo wisb to toste tbe ricbes of contentment, Eere before you
is tbe supreme bliss. Eere, 0 ceoseless trovelers, is your fuljillment!
___________ ____________ _______
____ ___________ _____________ _
(34) Today, before the eyes of all sources of direction, I've summoned as guests (all) wandering beings
For bliss up to the state of a Blissfully Gone (Buddha). Gods, anti-gods, and so on, take joy!
S4. "AnJ so, toJoy, witbin tbe siqbt of oll protectors, l summon beinqs, collinq tbem to BuJJbobooJ. AnJ, till
tbot stote is reocbeJ, to every eortbly joy! Hoy qoJs onJ JemiqoJs onJ oll tbe rest rejoice!"
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 28
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - Carefulness
________ ______________ ______
(1) As a Triumphant Ones' onspring, Having nrmly gained hold of bodhichitta like this, I'll strive never to transgress
its training, Without ever wavering.
1. Tbe cbilJren of tbe Conqueror wbo tbus Eove jirmly qrospeJ tbis boJbicbitto, SboulJ never turn osiJe from
it, Strive never to tronsqress its Jisciplines.
___________ ____________ _______
(2) For something undertaken all of a sudden Or something I didn't examine well,
Even if I've given a promise about it, It's proper to examine, "Do it or give it up?"
2. Wbotever wos bequn witbout Jue beeJ, AnJ oll tbot wos not properly conceiveJ, Altbouqb o promise onJ o
pleJqe were qiven, lt is riqbt to reconsiJer: Sboll l oct or not?
_________ _____________ ______________
_ ____
(3) But how can I ever withdraw From what the Buddhas and their spiritual onspring Have examined with great
discriminating awareness And I, myself, have repeatedly examined as well?
S. Yet wbot tbe BuJJbos onJ tbeir beirs Eove scrutinizeJ in tbeir qreot wisJom, l myself bove probeJ onJ
scrutinizeJ. Wby sboulJ l now procrostinote?
________ ____________ ___________
(4) If, having promised like this, I don't carry it through with my actions, Ten, by deceiving every limited being,
What will become of my rebirth states?
4. Ior if l binJ myself witb promises But foil to corry out my worJs in JeeJ, Tben every beinq will bove been
betroyeJ. Wbot Jestiny must lie in store for me?
_____ _____________ ________
(5) If (Buddha) has said that once someone's made up his mind To give away even some small and trivial thing, And
then doesn't (actually) give it away, He'll turn into a clutching ghost;
S. lf in tbe teocbinqs it is soiJ Tbot tbose wbo in tbeir tbouqbts intenJ
To qive o smoll onJ poltry tbinq but tben Jrow bock Will toke rebirtb os bunqry spirits,
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 29
______ _______________ __________ _
(6) Ten, if I should deceive all wandering beings, After having sincerely invited them
To unsurpassable bliss, Will I go to a better rebirth state?
6. Eow con l expect o boppy Jestiny
lf from my beort l summon WonJerinq beinqs to tbe biqbest bliss, But tben Jeceive onJ foil tbem?
__________ _______ __________ ___
(7) And how the karma works for someone Who gives up bodhichitta, yet attains liberation, Is beyond all thought:
Only the Omniscient can understand.
7. As for tbose wbo, losinq boJbicbitto, leoJ otbers nonetbeless to liberotion, Kormic low is inconceivoble
AnJ only unJerstooJ by tbe 0mniscient.
________ _____ _____ ________
(8) For a bodhisattva, (however,) this is the heaviest From among (all) the downfalls;
Because, if something should happen like that, It impairs the welfare of all limited beings.
8. Tbis foilure, for tbe BoJbisottvo, ls tbe qrovest of oll Jownfolls.
Ior sboulJ it ever come to poss, Tbe qooJ of every beinq is tbrown Jown.
_______ ____________ ________
__ ______
(9) And should anyone else cause an obstruction, For even an instant, to his positive acts,
Tere'll be no end to his worse rebirth states, From impairing the welfare of limited beings.
9. AnJ onyone wbo, for o sinqle instont, Eolts tbe merit of o BoJbisottvo
WonJers enJlessly in evil stotes, Becouse tbe welfore of oll beinqs is reJuceJ.
_________ ____________ __________
_ __________
(10) For if one's (state of rebirth) will worsen By destroying the joy of even a single, limited being, What need to
mention destroying the bliss Of embodied beings as vast as all space?
10. Bestroy o sinqle beinqs joy AnJ you will work tbe ruin of yourself. No neeJ to speok of brinqinq low
Tbe joy of beinqs injinite os spoce itself!
________ _____________ _______ _
(11) Terefore, someone with the force from a downfall And the force from (developing) bodhichitta (again)
Keeps bouncing down and up in samsara, For a long time obstructed in reaching any arya level of realized mind.
11. AnJ tbose wbo circle in somsoro, Hixinq powerful Jownfolls
Witb tbe power of boJbicbitto bock onJ fortb, Will lonq be binJereJ from tbe BoJbisottvo qrounJs.
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 30
__________ _____________ __________ _
(12) Terefore, with highest regard, I shall carry it through, Just as I've promised, because
If, from now on, I don't make an enort, I'll wander from lower to ever-lower states.
12. AnJ so, occorJinq to my promise,
l will oct ottentively. Irom tbis Joy fortb, if l now foil to strive, lll foll from low to even lower stotes.
____________ __________ ________
(13) Countless Buddhas, who have helped All limited beings, have already passed. Yet, I wasn't an object of their
healing, Because of my mistakes.
1S. Strivinq for tbe benejit of oll tbot lives, 0nnumbereJ BuJJbos bove olreoJy liveJ onJ posseJ owoy. But l,
by virtue of my sins, bove foileJ To come witbin tbe composs of tbeir beolinq works.
_______ ____ _____ _
(14) And if I still were to act like this, It would be the same, over and again: Worse rebirth states, sickness, death,
Being dismembered and torn apart.
14. AnJ tbis will olwoys be my lot lf l continue to bebove like tbis,
AnJ l will suffer poins onJ bonJoqe, WounJs onJ locerotion in tbe lower reolms.
__________ _____ _______ _____
(15) If the advent of a Tusly Gone (Buddha), And gaining embodiment as a human (with) belief in what's fact And
the properly constructive instincts are so rare, When shall I attain them (again) like this?
1S. Tbe oppeoronce of tbe BuJJbos in tbe worlJ, True foitb onJ tbe ottoinment of o bumon form, An optituJe
for qooJ: oll tbese ore rore. Wben will tbey come to me oqoin?
______ _________ _______ ________
(16) Although on a day like today, I'm not sick, Have food, and haven't any injuries,
Life is but for a moment and will let me down: Te body is like something on loan for an instant.
16. ToJoy, inJeeJ, lm bole onJ well, l bove enouqb to eot onJ l om not in Jonqer. But tbis life is jleetinq,
unrelioble, Hy boJy is like sometbinq briejly lent.
_______ _______ ________ ____
(17) And with my behavior like this, I won't even attain a human body (again).
And if I haven't attained (another) human body, I'll have only (my) negative karmic force and nothing constructive.
17. AnJ yet tbe woy l oct is sucb Tbot l sboll not reqoin o bumon life! AnJ losinq tbis, my precious bumon
form, Hy evils will be mony, virtues none.
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 31
_______ __________ __________ _
(18) If even when having the chance for constructive behavior, I do nothing constructive, then what course will I
have When completely struck dumb by the sunerings In the worse rebirth states?
18. Eere is now my cbonce for wbolesome JeeJs, But if l foil to proctice virtue,
Wbot will be my lot, wbot sboll l Jo, BewilJereJ by tbe sorrows of tbe lower reolms?
_______ ___________ ________ ___
(19) If, while not doing anything constructive, I continue to build up negative karmic force, Ten for hundreds of
millions of eons I won't even hear the words "better rebirth state."
19. Never, tbere, performinq ony virtue, 0nly ever pilinq up my sins,
AnJ for o bunJreJ million oqes, lll not even beor of boppy Jestinies.
_________ __________ ________ _
(20) Because of just this, the Vanquishing Master has said Rebirth as a human is so dimcult to attain, Just as it is for a
turtle to stick its neck through the hole In a yoke adrift on the vast sea.
20. Tbis is wby lorJ BuJJbo bos JecloreJ Tbot like o turtle tbot percbonce con ploce
lts beoJ witbin o yoke oJrift upon tbe miqbty seo Tbis bumon birtb is Jifjicult to jinJ!
___________ ___________ ___________
__ ________
(21) If, by the negative force of committing (a heinous act) for an instant, I must spend an eon in a joyless realm of
unrelenting pain, What need to mention not going to one of the better rebirth states Because of the negative force
I've built up over beginningless samsara?
21. lf tbrouqb tbe evil oction of o sinqle instont l must spenJ on oeon in tbe bell of 0nrelentinq Poin,
Tbe evils in somsoro storeJ from time witbout beqinninq No neeJ to soy tbot tbey will keep me from tbe
stotes of bliss!
_______ _______ _____ _______
(22) But just having experienced only that much, I shall still not get free, For while experiencing like this,
I'll prolincally create further negative force.
22. AnJ mere experience of sucb poin Boes not result in beinq freeJ from it.
Ior in tbe very sufferinq of sucb stotes, Hore evil will occur, onJ tben in qreot obunJonce.
_____ ____________ ________
(23) So if, having found a respite such as this, I don't make being constructive a habit, Tere's nothing more self-
deceptive than this; Tere's nothing more stupid than this.
2S. Tbus, bovinq founJ tbis moment of reprieve, lf l now foil to troin myself in virtue,
Wbot qreoter folly coulJ tbere ever be? Eow more coulJ l betroy myself?
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 32
___________ _________ _______
(24) If, having understood this, I procrastinate stupidly still in the future, Ten, when the hour for (my) dying will
come, Enormous anguish will swell.
24. lf bovinq unJerstooJ oll tbis,
lm stupiJly JesponJent still, Tben ot tbe moment of my Jeotb, Hy sorrows will be block inJeeJ.
______ _________ _________
(25) Ten, if my body will burn for so long In the unbearable nres of a joyless realm,
Tere can be no doubt that my mind will be tortured By the searing names of unendurable regret.
2S. AnJ wben my boJy burns so lonq ln jires of bell so unenJuroble,
Hy minJ, tbere is no Joubt, will olso be tormenteJ, BurneJ in jires of unenJuroble reqret.
________ __________ __________ _
(26) Having found, somehow, a benencial Rebirth, so hard to nnd, If (now), while able to discriminate,
I drag myself down once more to a joyless realm,
26. Ior its os if by cbonce tbot l bove qoineJ Tbis stote so borJ to jinJ, wberein to belp myself. lf now, wbile
bovinq sucb Jiscernment, l om once oqoin consiqneJ to bell,
_____________ _______ ________
_ _______
(27) It amounts to not having had a mind while here, Like having been stupened by a mantra spell.
If I don't know what's causing me to be so stupid, Well, what is it there inside my (head)?
27. l om os if benumbeJ by sorcery,
As if reJuceJ to totol minJlessness. l Jo not know wbot Julls my wits. 0 wbot is it tbot bos me in its qrip?
___________ _______ __________
(28) Although enemies, such as anger and craving, Have neither legs nor arms,
Are neither brave nor wise, How is it that they've made me like their slave?
28. Anqer, lust, tbese enemies of mine, Are limbless onJ JevoiJ of foculties.
Tbey bove no brovery, no cleverness; Eow tben bove tbey reJuceJ me to sucb slovery?
_____________ _________ _____
(29) For while squatting in my mind, At their pleasure, they gleefully cause me harm. To be patient and not become
angry with them Is an inappropriate, pathetic place for patience.
29. Tbey Jwell witbin my minJ AnJ ot tbeir pleosure injure me.
All tbis l suffer meekly, unresentinq Tbus my object potience, oll JisploceJ!
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 33
_________ ________ ________ _
(30) Even if all the gods and anti-gods Were to rise up against me as enemies,
Tey couldn't drag and feed me into the nres (Of a joyless realm) of unrelenting pain.
S0. lf oll tbe qoJs onJ JemiqoJs besiJes Toqetber come oqoinst me os my foes,
Tbey woulJ be powerless to tbrow me Jown To jires of bell of 0nrelentinq Poin.
____________ _____ ______ __
(31) But those strong mighty enemies, my disturbing emotions, Can, in a moment, hurl me into them, which, When
met, will cause not even the ashes Of the King of Mountains to remain.
S1. AnJ yet tbe miqbty jienJ of my ofjlictions Ilinqs me in on instont beoJlonq Jown
To wbere tbe miqbty lorJ of mountoins

WoulJ be burneJ, its very osbes oll consumeJ.
__________ ________ _________ _
(32) My disturbing emotions are long-standing enemies, Without a beginning or an end.
No other enemy can be like that, For such a long time.
S2. 0 my enemy, ofjlictive possion, FnJless onJ beqinninqless componion! No otber enemy inJeeJ
ls oble to enJure so lonq!
____________ ________ ______________ _
(33) With all (the others), becoming close and serving (them) nicely Bring benent and happiness; But being close
with my disturbing emotions (Only) harms me with even more pain.
SS. All otber foes tbot l oppeose onJ woit upon Will sbow me fovors, qive me every oiJ,
But sboulJ l serve my Jork JejileJ emotions, Tbey will only borm me, Jrow me Jown to qrief.
__________ _____________ _____
______ __________
(34) Tese longtime, continuing enemies like this Are the sole causes for masses of harm to multiply wildly. How can
I be joyful and not terrined in samsara, If I set a secure place (for them) in my heart?
S4. lf tbus my oncient onJ unceosinq foes, Tbe wellsprinq only of my qrowinq poin, Con loJqe so sofe witbin
my beort, Eow con l live so blitbe onJ feorless in tbis wbeel of life?
___________ __________ ______
_______ _________
(35) Where can I have happiness If, in a web of attachments within my mind,
Tey lurk as guards of my samsara-prison, Becoming my murderers and butchers in joyless realms and the like?
SS. AnJ if tbe joil quorJs of tbe prisons of somsoro, Tbe butcbers onJ tormentors of infernol reolms, All lurk
witbin me in tbe web of crovinq, Wbot joy con ever be my Jestiny?
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 34
____________ ____________
_________ ____________
(36a) Terefore, I shall never give up my enorts in this Until, directly myself, I dennitely smash these enemies.
(36b) Having become enraged at someone who caused them even some minor, occasional harm, Tose with full-
blown pride won't sleep till they've smashed that (enemy).
S6. l will not leove tbe jiqbt until, before my eyes, Tbese enemies of mine ore oll JestroyeJ.
Ior if, orouseJ to fury by tbe merest sliqbt, lncopoble of sleep until tbe scores ore settleJ,
_________________ ___________
__________________ ____________
(37) And if, while lined up in the height of battle against those with disturbing emotions, Who will come to suner
their natural deaths (anyway), Tose obsessed with vindictively smashing them will dismiss the pain of being struck
by the weapons of arrows or spears And, till accomplishing their aims, will never run on in the opposite direction;
S7. ProuJ but wretcbeJ rivols, JestineJ oll to suffer wben tbey Jie, Will Jrow tbe bottle lines onJ Jo tbeir best
to win, AnJ coreless of tbe poin of cut onJ tbrust, Will stonJ tbeir qrounJ refusinq to qive woy,
____________ _____________ ________
______ _________
(38) Is there need to mention that I mustn't lose heart and procrastinate, Even if I'm caused hundreds of sunerings
When, now, I strive to dennitely overcome my natural enemies (my disturbing emotions), Which are the continual
source of all my sunerings?
S8. No neeJ to soy tbot l will not lose beort, ReqorJless of tbe borJsbips of tbe froy.
Irom tbis Joy fortb lll strive to crusb Tbese foes wbose very noture is to brinq me poin.
________ _______ _______
_____ ___________
(39) If wounds, without even some purpose, innicted by enemies, Are held up like ornaments on the body, Ten why
are sunerings troublesome to me, Who impeccably strive to fulnll the Great Purpose?
S9. Tbe wounJs injlicteJ by tbe enemy in futile wors Are jlounteJ by tbe solJier os o prize.
So in tbe biqb enJeovor, for so qreot o tbinq, Wby sboulJ l be JismoyeJ by burt or injury?
__________ __________ ________
___ ___________
(40) If nshermen, outcastes, peasants and the like, Even with the thought of merely their livelihoods, Endure such
sunerings as heat and cold, Why aren't the likes of me patient for the sake of the happiness of wandering beings?
40. Wben jisbers, butcbers, formers, onJ tbe like, lntenJinq just to qoin tbeir livelibooJ, Will suffer oll tbe
miseries of beot onJ colJ, Wby, for beinqs boppiness, sboulJ tbose like me not beor tbe some?
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 35
_______________ __________ ________
_ ___________
(41) When I promised to liberate from their disturbing emotions Wandering beings in the ten directions As far as the
ends of space, I myself was not freed yet from disturbing emotions,
41. Wben l pleJqeJ myself to free from tbeir ofjlictions Beinqs wbo obiJe in every reqion,
Stretcbinq to tbe limits of tbe sky, l wos myself not free from sucb Jejilements.
_________ _________ __________ ____
(42) And didn't even realize the extent of my (being under their control); Wasn't it crazy to have spoken (like that)?
But, as this is so, I shall never withdraw From destroying my disturbing emotions.
42. To speok like tbot, not knowinq my copocity, Were tbese not, truly, but o moJmons worJs? Hore reoson
tben for never Jrowinq bock AbonJoninq tbe jiqbt oqoinst JejileJ ofjliction.
________ ________ ________ ____
(43) To do this shall be my obsession: Holding a grudge, I shall meet them in battle! Disturbing emotions, in forms
such as these, Are exclusively for destroying the disturbing emotions.
4S. Tbis sboll be my oll-consuminq possion. IilleJ witb roncor l will woqe my wor! Bejilement of tbis kinJ will
bolt Jejilement AnJ for tbis reoson it sboll not be spurneJ.
_____________ _________ __________ _
(44) Better for me to be burned to death Or have my head chopped on:
I shall never, in any circumstances, Bow to the enemy, (my) disturbing emotions.
44. Better if l perisb in tbe jire, Better tbot my beoJ be severeJ from my boJy Tbon ever l sboulJ serve or
reverence Hy mortol enemies, JejileJ emotions.
________ _____________ ________
______ ________
(45) Common enemies, when driven on from a country, Will settle and occupy other lands, And when they've
recovered their strength, return once again; But the way of the enemy, my disturbing emotions, is not similar in this
4S. Common foes, wben Jriven from tbe stote, Retreot onJ bose tbemselves in otber lonJs,
AnJ muster oll tbeir strenqtb tbe better to return. But enemy ofjlictions ore witbout sucb strotoqems.
_______________ _________ ____
________ ____________
(46) Pitiful disturbing emotions, when gotten rid of by wisdom's eye And kicked out of my mind, where will you go?
Where will you live to come back to harm me? Weak-minded, it's fallen to my making no enort.
46. Hiseroble Jejilements, scottereJ by tbe eye of wisJom! Wbere will you now run, wben Jriven from my
minJ? Wbence woulJ you return to Jo me borm? But ob, my minJ is feeble. l om inJolent!
4. Taking Care (about Bodhichitta) - 36
_______________________ __________
__________ __________________ __
(47) If disturbing emotions don't live in sensory objects, in networks of sensory cells, in between (the two),
Or somewhere other than that, then where can they live to harass all wandering beings (again)? Tey're like an
illusion and, because of that, I shall get rid of the fear in my heart and devote myself resolutely to striving for
wisdom. Why have I been torturing myself, for no real reason, in joyless realms and the like?
47. Bejilements ore not in tbe object, Nor witbin tbe foculties, nor somewbere in between. AnJ if not
elsewbere, wbere is tbeir oboJe, Wbence tbey injlict tbeir bovoc on tbe worlJ? Tbey ore simple miroqes, onJ
so toke beort!Bonisb oll your feor onJ strive to know tbeir noture. Wby suffer neeJlessly tbe poins of bell?
_____________ ___________ _________
_____ ___________ _____________
(48) Having decisively thought like this, I shall strive to actualize the training, just as explained.
Not listening to the doctor's instructions, How can a patient in need of a cure be healed by his medicines?
48. Tbis is bow l sboulJ rejlect onJ lobor, Tbot l miqbt opply tbe precepts tbus set fortb.
Wbot involiJs in neeJ of meJicine lqnoreJ tbeir Joctors worJs onJ qoineJ tbeir beoltb?
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 37
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - Vigilant introspection
________ _____________ _________
_ _________
(1) With the wish to safeguard my training, I need to work hard and safeguard my mind; If I'm unable to safeguard
my mind, I'll also be unable to safeguard my training.
1. Tbose wbo wisb to keep tbe troininqs Hust witb perfect self-possession quorJ tbeir minJs. Witbout tbis
quorJ upon tbe minJ, Tbe troininqs connot be preserveJ.
___________ _________ ________ _
(2) Left to run loose, the elephant of my mind can ravage me With (a joyless realm of ) unrelenting pain. Untamed,
rutting elephants in this (world) Can't cause me such harm.
2. WonJerinq wbere it will, tbe elepbont of minJ, Will brinq us Jown to torment in tbe bell of 0nrelentinq
Poin. No worlJly beost, bowever wilJ onJ crozeJ, CoulJ brinq upon us sucb colomities.
__________ ____________ __________
(3) But, if the elephant of my mind is nrmly bound By the rope of mindfulness on every side,
All fears will vanish and everything constructive Will come into my hands.
S. lf, witb minJfulness rope, Tbe elepbont of minJ is tetbereJ oll orounJ, 0ur feors will come to notbinq,
Fvery virtue Jrop into our bonJs.
_______ ________ _______
(4) Tigers, lions, elephants, bears, Snakes and all enemies,
Te beings who are the guards in the joyless realms, Witches and likewise cannibals -
4. Tiqers, lions, elepbonts, onJ beors, Snokes onJ every bostile foe,
Tbose wbo quorJ tbe prisoners in bell, 6bosts onJ qbouls onJ every evil wroitb,
____________ __________ ________
_ _______
(5) Tey'll all be bound, by having bound Tis mind alone;
Tey'll all be tamed, by having tamed Tis mind alone.
S. By simple binJinq of tbis minJ olone, All tbese tbinqs ore likewise bounJ. By simple tominq of tbis minJ
olone, All tbese tbinqs ore likewise tomeJ.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 38
________ ________ __________
(6) Te Speaker of the Perfect himself has shown Tat, in this way, all fears,
As well as immeasurable sunerings, Come from the mind.
6. Ior oll onxiety onJ feor, AnJ poin in bounJless quontity,
Tbeir source onJ wellsprinq is tbe minJ itself, As Ee wbo spoke tbe trutb JecloreJ.
____________ _________ ___________ _
(7) Who intentionally created All the weapons for the beings in the joyless realms? Who created the burning iron
ground? Where did all the siren-maids come from?
7. Tbe bellisb instruments to torture livinq beinqs Wbo inventeJ tbem for sucb intent?
Wbo bos forqeJ tbis burninq iron qrounJ; Wbence bove oll tbese Jemon-women sprunq?
_____ ______________ __________
(8) Te Sage has said that all such things as that Are (what come from) a mind having negative karmic force.
Terefore, in the threefold world, Tere's nothing to fear except the mind.
8. All ore but tbe offsprinq of tbe sinful minJ, Tbis tbe miqbty Soqe bos soiJ.
Tbrouqbout tbe triple worlJ

tberefore Tbere is no qreoter bone tbon minJ itself.
________ ________ ______ _____
(9) (After all,) if the perfection of giving were Tat the poverty of wandering beings was all gone; Ten how could the
Guardians of old have perfected it, Since wandering beings have hunger still now?
9. lf tronscenJent qivinq is To Jissipote tbe poverty of beinqs,
ln wbot woysince tbe poor ore olwoys witb us Eove former BuJJbos procticeJ it?
___________ ___________ __________
(10) Te perfection of giving is said to be Trough the mind that would give away to everyone All that is mine,
together with its results; Tus, it's the mind itself.
10. TronscenJent qivinq, so tbe teocbinqs soy, Consists in tbe intention to bestow on every beinq All one owns,
toqetber witb tbe fruits of sucb o qift. lt is inJeeJ o motter of tbe minJ itself.
________ _______ _________ _
(11) Fish and the like, where could anyone take them (all) So that they won't be killed (ever again)? Te perfection of
ethical discipline, it's explained, Is from gaining the mind to give up (such acts).
11. Wbere coulJ beinqs, jisbes, onJ tbe rest, Be ploceJ to keep tbem sofe from beinq killeJ? BeciJinq to refroin
from every bormful oct ls soiJ to be tronscenJent Jiscipline.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 39
_______________ _______ ________
_ _______
(12) Cruel beings are (everywhere) just as is space: It can't possibly come that I'll have destroyed them (all). But if
I've destroyed this mind of anger alone, It's the same as my having destroyed all those foes.
12. Eormful beinqs ore everywbere like spoce itself. lmpossible it is tbot oll sboulJ be suppresseJ. But let tbis
onqry minJ olone be overtbrown, AnJ its os tbouqb oll foes boJ been subJueJ.
_______ _____ __________ _____
(13) Where could I possibly nnd the leather To cover with leather the whole surface of the earth? But with leather
just on the soles of my shoes, It's the same as having covered the entire earth's surface.
1S. To cover oll tbe eortb witb sbeets of leotber Wbere coulJ sucb omounts of skin be founJ? But witb tbe
leotber soles of just my sboes lt is os tbouqb l cover oll tbe eortb!
______ _________ __________
(14) Likewise, although it's impossible for me To ward on external events;
If I would ward on my mind, What need to ward on anything else?
14. AnJ tbus tbe outer course of tbinqs l myself connot restroin.
But let me just restroin my minJ, AnJ wbot is left to be restroineJ?
_____________ _________ ________
(15) Te result of feeble (mental) application, Even when accompanied by speech and physical (acts), Is not like the
result of developing an intense mind alone, Which would be Brahma states and beyond.
1S. A cleor intent con fructify AnJ brinq us birtb in sucb os Brobmos reolm. Tbe octs of boJy onJ of speecb
ore less Tbey Jo not qenerote o like result.
__________ _______ _____________
_ _________
(16) Te Knower of Reality has said Tat recitation and all physically dimcult practices, Even if done for a very long
time, will be meaningless, If done with a mind that's distracted elsewhere.
16. Recitotions onJ ousterities, lonq tbouqb tbey moy prove to be,
lf procticeJ witb JistrocteJ minJ, Are futile, so tbe Knower of Reolity bos soiJ.
___________ __________ ___________
(17) And those who don't know the secret of the mind, Te paramount signincance of Dharma, Will wander about,
pointlessly and miserably, Wishing to gain happiness and overcome sunering.
17. All tbose wbo foil to unJerstonJ Tbe secret of tbe minJ, tbe qreotest of oll tbinqs, Altbouqb tbey wisb for
joy onJ sorrows enJ, Will wonJer to no purpose, uselessly.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 40
_________ ___________ __________
_____ __________
(18) Tis being so, I'll take hold of my mind And safeguard it well. If I've left out the taming behavior of
safeguarding the mind, What use are the many (other) taming behaviors?
18. Tberefore l will toke in bonJ AnJ well protect tbis minJ of mine. Wbot use to me ore mony Jisciplines,
lf l cont quorJ onJ Jiscipline my minJ?
_________ ___________ _________
(19) Just as I'd take great pains and be careful about a wound When standing in the midst of an unstable, wild
crowd, So too, I shall safeguard, always, the wound of my mind, Since I'm living in the midst of dimcult people.
19. Wben in wilJ, unruly crowJs, lm coreful onJ ottentive of my wounJs; likewise, wben in evil compony,
Tbis wounJ, my minJ, lll constontly protect.
______ ______ _____________
(20) And if I'd be careful about a wound, Even from fearing the wound's hurting a little, Ten why don't I safeguard
the wound of my mind, From fear of being smashed by the crushing mountains (of a joyless realm)?
20. Ior if l corefully protect my wounJs Becouse l feor tbe poin of minor injuries,
Wby sboulJ l not protect tbe wounJ tbot is my minJ, Ior feor of beinq crusbeJ beneotb tbe cliffs of bell?
________ _________ _______ __
(21) If I can remain like this in my behavior, Ten whether I'm situated amidst dimcult people Or placed even in the
midst of nubile young women, My stable restraint shall not fall apart.
21. lf tbis is bow l oct onJ live, Tben even in tbe miJst of evil folk,
0r even witb foir women, oll is well. Hy steoJy keepinq of tbe vows will not Jecline.
_______ ______ _________ ____
(22) Better that my wealth, the respect I receive, My body and livelihood disappear!
Better even that my other virtues decline, But I shall never let my mind degenerate!
22. Hy property, my bonoroll con freely qo, Hy boJy onJ my livelibooJ os well.
AnJ even otber virtues moy Jecline, But never will l let my minJ reqress.
__________ _________ ___________
(23) O you, who would wish to safeguard your minds, With palms pressed together, I tell you,
Safeguard your mindfulness and alertness, With all enort.
2S. All you wbo woulJ protect your minJs, Hointoin your minJfulness onJ introspection; 6uorJ tbem botb, ot
cost of life onJ limb, l join my bonJs, beseecbinq you.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 41
_________ __________ ___________
_ _________
(24) People who are disturbed by sickness Are powerless over all their actions.
Tose whose minds are disturbed by bewilderment Are likewise powerless over all their actions.
24. Tbose JisobleJ by ill beoltb Are belpless, powerless to oct.
Tbe minJ, wben likewise crompeJ by iqnoronce, ls impotent onJ connot Jo its work.
_____________ ________ ________ _
(25) Whatever has been heard, pondered and meditated upon By those whose minds are lacking alertness, Will not
be retained in their memories, Just like water in a leaking vase.
2S. Ior tbose wbo bove no introspection, Tbouqb tbey beor tbe teocbinqs, ponJer tbem, or meJitote, like
woter seepinq from o leokinq jor, Tbeir leorninq will not settle in tbeir memories.
_______ _______ ______________ __
(26) Many learned people, Even when having conviction and extraordinary enort, Become fouled with a downfall,
Due to the mistake of lacking alertness.
26. Hony ore enJoweJ witb joyful Jiliqence. Tbeyre leorneJ olso onJ imbueJ witb foitb,
But tbrouqb tbe foult of lockinq introspection, Tbey will not escope tbe stoin of sin onJ Jownfoll.
____________ ___________ ____________
_ _____________
(27) Te thieves (that come in) from their lack of alertness Go on, after plundering their mindfulness, (To take,) as
well, the positive karmic force they've built up, So that they go to a worse rebirth state, as if robbed by thieves.
27. lock of introspection is o tbief; lt slinks bebinJ wben minJfulness obotes. AnJ oll tbe merit we bove
qotbereJ in lt steols; onJ Jown we qo to lower reolms.
____________ ___________ __________
(28) Tis pack of thieves, the disturbing emotions, Searches for a chance (to break in);
And, having found the chance, steals what's constructive, Destroying the life of a better rebirth state.
28. Bejilements ore o bonJ of robbers lookinq for tbeir cbonce to injure us.
Tbey steol our virtue, wben tbeir moment comes, AnJ botter out tbe lives of boppy Jestinies.
_______ ______ ________ ____
(29) Terefore, I shall never let mindfulness Be taken away from the gateway of my mind. Should it be gone, I'll
recall the sunerings Of the worse rebirth states and closely reset it.
29. Tberefore from tbe qotewoy of my minJ Hy minJfulness sboll not bove leove to stroy. AnJ if it wonJers, it
sboll be recolleJ By tbouqbts of onquisb in tbe lower worlJs.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 42
________ ____________ ___________ _
(30) Trough the instructions of the learned and dread, (Gained) from living together with spiritual mentors,
Fortunate people, who would show (them) respect, Will easily develop their mindfulness.
S0. Tbrouqb feor, onJ by tbe counsels of tbeir obbots, AnJ stoyinq ever in tbeir teocbers compony
ln tbose enJoweJ witb fortune onJ Jevotion HinJfulness is cultivoteJ eosily.
____________ _____________ ________
(31) "Te Buddhas and bodhisattvas are endowed With unobstructed vision, everywhere:
I'm always standing Before the eyes of them all."
S1. "Tbe BuJJbos onJ tbe BoJbisottvos botb Possess unclouJeJ vision, seeinq everytbinq: All lies open to tbeir
qoze, AnJ likewise l om olwoys in tbeir presence."
________ _____________ _________
_ _
(32) Someone thinking like that, would take on, in this way, Moral self-dignity, respect and dread. Trough this, his
close mindfulness of the Buddhas Would rise up, over and again.
S2. 0ne wbo bos sucb tbouqbts os tbese Will qoin Jevotion onJ o sense of feor onJ sbome. Ior sucb o one, tbe
memory of BuJJbo Rises frequently before tbe minJ.
_______ _________ ________ ___
(33) When mindfulness is set at the gateway of the mind For the purpose of safeguarding,
Ten alertness will come, And even what's gone will come back again.
SS. Wben minJfulness is stotioneJ os o sentinel, A quorJ upon tbe tbresbolJ of tbe minJ, lntrospection will be
likewise tbere, Returninq wben forqotten or JisperseJ.
______ ___________ _________ __
(34) Whenever I've recognized that, at the start, Te way my mind's (motivated) has some fault, I shall remain, at
those times, like a block of wood, Able to restrain myself.
S4. lf ot tbe outset, wben l cbeck my minJ, l jinJ tbot it is tointeJ witb some foult, l sboll be still onJ self-
possesseJ, 0nmovinq like o piece of wooJ.
________ _________ __________ _____
(35) I shall never look around Without any purpose, because of distraction. With a resolute mind, I shall always look
with my eyes cast downwards.
SS. l sboll never, vocontly, Allow my qoze to wonJer oll orounJ, But rotber witb o focuseJ minJ
Will olwoys qo witb eyes cost Jown.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 43
______ __________ _________ ___
(36) But, for the sake of relaxing my gaze, I'll look around now and then.
And if someone appears in my neld of vision, I shall look up and say, "Welcome."
S6. But tbot l moy relox my qoze, lll sometimes roise my eyes onJ look orounJ.
AnJ if tbere ore some people stonJinq in my siqbt, lll look ot tbem onJ qreet tbem witb o frienJly worJ.
_____________ _______ ________
__ ___________
(37) To check for dangers on the road and the like, I shall look over and again in the four directions. Ten, after
pausing, I shall turn round and look To see what's behind.
S7. AnJ yet, to spy tbe Jonqers on tbe rooJ, lll scrutinize tbe four Jirections one by one. AnJ wben l stop to
rest, lll turn orounJ AnJ look bebinJ me, bock olonq my woy.
____________ _____ __________
(38) Ten having examined both ahead and behind, I shall either go on or come (back).
Tus, shall I act, in all situations, After knowing what's needed.
S8. l will survey tbe lonJ, in front, bebinJ, AnJ corry on or else retroce my steps. ln every time onJ ploce
tberefore lll know my neeJs onJ oct occorJinqly.
__________ ___________ ________ ____
(39) (Having paused and decided,) "I'll keep my body like this," And then jumping back into whatever I'm doing,
Ten later, I shall look periodically At the way in which my body's remaining.
S9. "Hy boJy sboll remoin like tbis." Fmborkinq tbus upon o qiven course, Irom time to time lll verify
lnquirinq bow my boJy is JisposeJ.
__________ _________ __________ _
(40) With the utmost enort, I shall check Tat the rutting elephant of my mind
Has not been let loose from how it's been tied To the great pillar of my Dharma intent.
40. Tbis rompont elepbont, my minJ, 0nce tieJ to tbot qreot post, rejlection on tbe Teocbinqs, Hust now be
wotcbeJ witb oll my strenqtb Tbot it miqbt never slip owoy.
__________ ________ ______ _
(41) Never letting go, for even an instant, Te duty of my absorbed concentration,
I shall check one by one, like that, (each moment of ) mind, (To see,) "What's my mind engaging in?"
41. Tbose wbo strive to moster concentrotion SboulJ never for on instont be JistrocteJ.
Tbey sboulJ olwoys wotcb tbeir minJs, inquirinq, "Wbere is now my minJ enqoqeJ?"
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 44
___________ _______ ______
(42) But if I'm unable, when involved in a frightening situation, An onering feast, or the like, I'll let it do what's
appropriate. Tus, it's been taught that at times of giving, One may stay with equanimity toward ethical discipline.
42. Wben tbis becomes impossible, ln cose of Jonqer or festivity, lll oct os it seems best. Ior it is touqbt tbot
rules of Jiscipline Hoy be reloxeJ in times of qenerosity.
______________ __________ ________
(43) Having considered and begun to do something, I won't think about anything other than this. Ten, with my
intentions directed at that, I shall accomplish that very thing nrst.
4S. Wben sometbinq bos been plonneJ onJ storteJ on, Attention sboulJ not Jrift to otber tbinqs.
Witb tbouqbts jixeJ on tbe cbosen torqet, Tbot onJ tbot olone sboulJ be pursueJ.
_________ _________ ____________ ___
(44) Everything, this way, will get accomplished well; Otherwise, neither will come about.
Also like this, the derivative disturbing factor, Inalertness, will never increase.
44. Bebovinq in tbis woy, oll tosks ore well performeJ, AnJ notbinq is ocbieveJ by Joinq otberwise.
lf tbus we oct, tbe seconJory Jejilement, lock of introspection, will not qrow.
__________ ________ ________ ____
(45) When various kinds of senseless talk And numerous varieties of wondrous entertainment Are happening all
around, I shall rid myself of attraction to them.
4S. AnJ if you jinJ yourself enqoqeJ ln Jifferent kinJs of pointless conversotion AnJ curious siqbts, tbe like of
wbicb obounJ Be riJ of oll Jeliqbt onJ toste for tbem.
______ ________ _____________ _
(46) If, for no reason, I start digging up the earth, Picking at the grass, or doodling in the dirt,
I shall immediately stop, out of dread, By recalling the advice of the Blissfully Gone (Buddhas).
46. AnJ if you jinJ youre qrubbinq in tbe soil, 0r pullinq up tbe qross or trocinq iJle potterns on tbe qrounJ,
Rememberinq tbe precepts of tbe Blissful 0ne, ln feor, restroin yourself ot once.
________ _____ ________
(47) Whenever I might wish to move (my body) Or might wish to speak,
First, I'll examine my mind, and then act with nrmness, Yoked to what's (ethically) correct.
47. AnJ wben you feel tbe wisb to move obout, 0r even to express yourself in speecb,
Iirst exomine wbot is in your minJ. Ior steoJfost ones sboulJ oct correctly.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 45
______ ___ _______ _________
(48) When (I notice that) my mind would (compromise) with attachment, Or would (oppose this) with anger,
I shall not make a move; I shall not speak (a word). I shall remain like a block of wood.
48. Wben tbe urqe orises in your minJ
To feelinqs of Jesire or onqry bote, Bo not oct! Be silent, Jo not speok! AnJ like o loq of wooJ be sure to stoy.
______ __________ ________ __
(49) If my mind is overexcited and sarcastic, Or has arrogance and conceit,
Has the intention to ridicule, Or is greedy, hypocritical, and deceitful,
49. AnJ wben your minJ is wilJ or jilleJ witb mockery, 0r jilleJ witb priJe onJ bouqbty orroqonce,
0r wben you woulJ expose onotbers secret quilt, To brinq up olJ Jissensions or to oct Jeceitfully,
__________ _______ _________
(50) When it would readily brag about me, Or would criticize others, And become insulting and quarrelsome,
I shall remain, at those times, like a block of wood.
S0. 0r wben you wont to jisb for proise, 0r criticize onJ spoil onotbers nome,
0r use borsb lonquoqe, sporrinq for o jiqbt, lts tben tbot like o loq you sboulJ remoin.
___________ ________ ________
_ __________
(51) (When) my mind would desire material gain, displays of respect, and fame; Or desire the care of attendants and
followers, Or would wish to be served, I shall remain, at those times, like a block of wood.
S1. AnJ wben you yeorn for weoltb, ottention, fome, A circle of retoiners servinq you, AnJ wben you look for
bonors, recoqnition, lts tben tbot like o loq you sboulJ remoin.
______ _____ ________ _
(52) (When) my mind would toss away the aims of others And, wishing to care for my own aims (alone), Would
wish to say something, I shall remain, at those times, like a block of wood.
S2. AnJ wben you ore inclineJ to overlook onotbers neeJ AnJ wont to qet tbe best tbinq for yourself,
AnJ wben you feel tbe urqe to speok, lts tben tbot like o loq you sboulJ remoin.
_______ _______ ___________ _
(53) (When) my mind is impatient, lazy, and cowardly, Or likewise, overly conndent and noisy with nonsense, Or is
stubbornly attached to what's on my side, I shall remain, at those times, like a block of wood.
SS. lmpotience, inJolence, fointbeorteJness, AnJ likewise orroqonce onJ coreless speecb, Attocbment to your
siJewben tbese orise, lts tben tbot like o loq you sboulJ remoin.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 46
_________ _______________ _________
(54) Having examined my mind in this way For fully disturbing emotions and pointless endeavors, Being
courageous, I shall hold it nrmly With opponent forces, at those times.
S4. Fxomine tbus yourself from every siJe. Toke note of your Jejilements onJ your pointless efforts. Ior tbus
tbe beroes on tbe BoJbisottvo potb Seize jirmly on sucb foults witb proper remeJies.
____ _________ ________ _
(55) Resolute and happily convinced, Stable, respectful, and polite, Having moral self-dignity as well as dread,
Quieted down, and striving to bring happiness to others,
SS. Witb perfect onJ unyielJinq foitb, Witb steoJfostness, respect, onJ courtesy, Witb conscientiousness onJ
owe, Work colmly for tbe boppiness of otbers.
___________ _________ __________ ___
(56) Never disheartened by the inconsistent whims of infantile people, And, (realizing) that they arise in their minds
Because of their developing disturbing emotions, Having a feeling of kindness (toward them),
S6. let us not be Jowncost by tbe worrinq wonts 0f cbilJisb persons quorrelinq.
Tbeir tbouqbts ore breJ from conjlict onJ emotion. let us unJerstonJ onJ treot tbem lovinqly.
______ __________ _______
(57) And, innuenced by (thoughts) of myself and (these) limited beings, (Engaging) in things that are never
disgraceful, I shall always keep hold of this mind, Without self(-pride), like a magic emanation.
S7. Wben octinq irreproocbobly, Ior our soke or tbe soke of otbers,
let us olwoys beor in minJ tbe tbouqbt Tbot we ore self-less, like on opporition.
_________ _________ _______ _
(58) By thinking over and again that it's after a long time Tat I've gained a respite, supreme,
I shall hold my mind in that way, As utterly immovable as the King of Mountains.
S8. Tbis supreme freeJom of o bumon life, So lonq owoiteJ, now ot lost ottoineJ! Rejlectinq olwoys tbus,
mointoin your minJ As steoJy os Sumeru, kinq of mountoins.
_______ _________ _____ ___
(59) If, O mind, you're not made unhappy When (this body) is completely torn apart and dragged here and there By
vultures greedy for nesh, Why are you pampering it now?
S9. lf, 0 minJ, you will not be oqqrieveJ, Wben vultures witb tbeir love of jlesb Are tuqqinq ot tbis boJy oll
orounJ, Wby ore you so besotteJ witb it now?
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 47
__________ ____ ______ __
(60) Holding onto this body as "mine," Why, O mind, do you safeguard it (so)? Since you and it are two separate
things, What can it do for you by itself?
60. Wby, 0 minJ, Jo you protect tbis boJy, Tokinq it to be your own?
You onJ it ore eocb o seporote entity; Eow ever con it be of use to you?
___ ___________ ________
(61) Bewildered mind, why don't you take possession Of a clean, wooden sculpture (instead)?
What's the point of safeguarding this putrid device, Assembled from unclean things?
61. Wby, 0 foolisb minJ, Bont you oppropriote o cleon form corveJ in wooJ? Eow is it jit to quorJ
An uncleon enqine for tbe mokinq of impurity?
_________ _____ ______ ______
(62) First, with your intellect, Peel on and separate the layer of skin,
And then, with the scalpel of discriminating awareness, Slice on, to the side, the meat from the skeletal frame.
62. Iirst, witb minJs imoqinotion, SbeJ tbe coverinq of skin,
AnJ witb tbe bloJe of wisJom, strip Tbe jlesb from off tbe bony frome.
___________ _______ ___ _____
(63) And having split open even the bones, Look inside, down to the marrow,
And examine for yourself, "What essence is there?"
6S. AnJ wben you bove JiviJeJ oll tbe bones, AnJ seorcbeJ riqbt Jown omiJ tbe very morrow, You yourself
sboulJ osk tbe question: Wbere is tbe essentiol core?
____ ________ _______ __
(64) If, even searching with enort like this, You're unable to see any essence in it,
Ten why are you safeguarding this body still, With such attachment?
64. lf, persistinq in tbe seorcb,
You see no unJerlyinq essence, Wby Jo you protect witb sucb Jesire Tbe boJy tbot you now possess?
_______ ____ _______ ___
(65) If, being unclean, it's unnt to be eaten by you, And even the blood is not nt to be drunk,
And even the intestines not nt to be sucked; What use is the body to you?
6S. lts jiltb you connot eot, 0 minJ; lts blooJ likewise is not for you to Jrink; lts innorJs, too, unsuitoble to
suckTbis boJy, wbot tben will you moke of it?
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 48
______ ________ _____ ______
(66) Just secondarily, safeguarding it is proper For the sake of feed for the jackals and vultures. Tis body of human
beings is no more Tan something to be put to good use.
66. AnJ yet it moy inJeeJ be kept As fooJ to feeJ tbe vulture onJ tbe fox. Tbe volue of tbis bumon form
lies only in tbe use you moke of it.
________ _________ _______ _
(67) And if even, when you've safeguarded like that, Te merciless Lord of Death will (still) steal it
And give it to the birds and the dogs, What will there be that you can do then?
67. Wbotever you moy Jo to quorJ onJ keep it, Wbot will you Jo wben
Tbe rutbless lorJ of Beotb Will seize onJ tbrow it to tbe Joqs onJ birJs?
_________ __________ _________
(68) If you wouldn't give clothing and the like Even to a servant who's unwilling to (stay on and) work, Ten why
exhaustingly take care of the nesh, When this body goes elsewhere, even having spoon-fed it?
68. lf servonts wbo connot be set to work Are not reworJeJ witb supplies onJ clotbinq, Wby Jo you sustoin
witb sucb qreot poins Tbis boJy, wbicb, tbouqb nourisbeJ, will obonJon you?
_______ ______ ______ ________
(69) But having given it wages, Now you must make it serve your own aims. Don't give it everything (it wants),
Without it's being of help.
69. So poy tbis boJy Jue remunerotion, AnJ tben be sure to moke it work for you. But Jo not lovisb everytbinq
0n wbot will not brinq perfect benejit.
_____ _______ _____________
(70) Apply to the body the notion of a boat, For it's merely the support of going and coming,
And transform it into a body that (will go) as you will, To fulnll the wishes of limited beings.
70. ReqorJ your boJy os o vessel, A simple boot for qoinq bere onJ tbere. Hoke of it o tbinq tbot onswers
every wisb To brinq obout tbe benejit of beinqs.
_____ __________ ________ __
(71) Tus I shall have self-control And always present a smiling face. I'll stop frowning and grimacing (in
disapproval), I'll be friendly with wandering beings, and be honest.
71. Be tbe moster of yourself AnJ bove on ever-smilinq countenonce. RiJ yourself of scowlinq, wrotbful
frowns, AnJ be o true onJ bonest frienJ to oll.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 49
______ _____ _____ _____
(72) I won't throw down seats and the like, Recklessly, with noise;
I won't (pound) violently for doors to be opened; (Rather,) I shall always delight in being quiet.
72. Bo not, octinq inconsiJerotely, Hove cboirs onJ furniture so noisily orounJ. likewise Jo not open Joors
witb violence. Toke pleosure in tbe proctice of bumility.
________ _______ ________ ______
(73) Storks, cats and robbers Accomplish their desired aims By moving noiselessly and keeping low.
A disciplined (bodhisattva) always acts in that way.
7S. Eerons, cots, onJ burqlors Acbieve wbot tbey intenJ
By qoinq silently onJ unobserveJ. Sucb is tbe constont proctice of o soqe.
_____________ ________ __________
(74) Respectfully, I shall take to the crown of my head Te words of those skilled in encouraging others And who
oner their help, without being asked. I shall always become the student of everyone.
74. Wben useful oJmonitions come unsouqbt Irom tbose witb skill in counselinq tbeir fellows, Welcome tbem
witb bumble qrotituJe, AnJ olwoys strive to leorn from everyone.
_________ ___________ __________
_ ___________
(75) I shall say, "Well spoken," to all Who speak good (advice),
And having seen someone acting constructively, With praises, I'll let it bring me joy.
7S. Proise oll wbose speecb is wortby. Soy, "Your worJs ore excellent!"
AnJ wben you notice otbers octinq well, Fncouroqe tbem in terms of worm opprovol.
__________ ___________ _______ _____
(76) I shall speak of (others') good qualities when they're out of sight, And when their good qualities are spoken of,
agree. When my own good qualities are mentioned, I shall think of those qualities with appreciation.
76. Fxtol tbeir quolities Jiscreetly; Wben tbeyre proiseJ by otbers, proise tbem too. But wben tbe quolities
tbey proise ore yours, Rejlect upon tbeir skill in recoqnizinq quolities.
_________ ________ ____________ _
(77) All (constructive) undertakings are a cause for joy, Which is rare, even if money could buy it. Terefore, let me
take pleasure with joy In the good qualities that others have worked on.
77. Tbe qool of every oct is boppiness itself, Tbouqb, even witb qreot weoltb, its rorely founJ. So toke your
pleosure in tbe excellence of otbers. let tbem be o beortfelt joy to you.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 50
____ ____ ___________ _
(78) (Rejoicing) won't bring me any loss in this life And in future lives, my happiness will be great.
Finding fault (will bring me) unfriendliness and sunering And in future lives, my sunering will be great.
78. By octinq tbus, in tbis life youll lose notbinq; ln future lives, qreot bliss will come to you. WronqJoinq
brinqs not joy but poin, AnJ in tbe future JreoJful torment.
_______ ____ _______ __
(79) When talking, I shall speak from my heart, coherently, With the meaning clear,
Rid of greed and aggression, Gently, and just enough.
79. Speok coberently, oppropriotely, Cleor in meoninq, pleosontly.
RiJ yourself of crovinq onJ oversion; Speok qently witb moJerotion.
__________ _________ ________
(80) When my eyes behold limited beings, I shall think, "Depending on them,
I shall attain Buddhahood," And look with a sincere and loving manner.
80. Wben you look ot otbers tbink Tbot it will be tbrouqb tbem
Tbot you will come to BuJJbobooJ. So look on tbem witb fronk onJ lovinq beorts.
_____________ __________ ________
_ _________
(81) Being continuous, driven by a strong intention, Or driven by an opponent force, And (directed) toward those
with good qualities, the helpful, or the sunering, My constructive actions will become mighty.
81. Alwoys jireJ by biqbest ospirotion, loborinq to implement tbe ontiJotes,
You will reop qreot virtues in tbe jielJ of excellence AnJ in tbe jielJs of benejits onJ sorrow.
__________ ___________ _______
(82) Skillful and nlled with exuberance, I shall always do my deeds myself;
I shall never rely on anyone else To do any of my deeds.
82. Actinq tbus witb foitb onJ unJerstonJinq, You sboulJ olwoys unJertoke qooJ works. AnJ in wbotever
octions you perform, You sboulJ not be JepenJent on onotber.
_________ ________ _______ __
(83) I shall practice the far-reaching attitudes of giving and so on As being more exalted, one after the other. I shall
never discard a greater for the sake of a smaller: I shall consider, most importantly, the benent for others.
8S. Tbe perfections,

qivinq onJ tbe rest, Proqress in sequence, qrowinq in importonce. Tbe qreot sboulJ
never be obonJoneJ for tbe less, AnJ otbers qooJ sboulJ be reqorJeJ os supreme.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 51
________ ___________ ____________
(84) Having realized it's like that, I shall always keep striving for the benent of others. Te Far-Seeing Compassionate
One has permitted, For such (a bodhisattva), what's prohibited (for others).
84. Tberefore unJerstonJ tbis well, AnJ olwoys lobor for tbe benejit of beinqs. Tbe Compossionote 0ne
forsiqbteJly permits, To tbis enJ, even wbot bos been proscribeJ.
_______ ___________ _______ __
(85) I shall share with those fallen to ruin, those without guardians, And those maintaining tamed behavior, And
merely eat a proper amount. With the exception of my threefold robes, I shall give away all.
8S. Fot only wbot is neeJful; Sbore witb tbose wbo bove embroceJ tbe Jiscipline, Witb tbose wbo ore
Jefenseless or bove follen into evil stotes. 6ive everytbinq except tbe tbree robes of reliqion.
________ __________ _________ ____
(86) For some trivial aim, I shall not harm my body Tat's practicing the sacred Dharma.
Acting like that, (all) the hopes of limited beings Will be quickly fulnlled.
86. Tbe boJy, useJ to proctice socreJ teocbinqs, SboulJ not be bormeJ in meoninqless pursuits. By octinq tbus
tbe wisbes of oll beinqs Will swiftly onJ completely be ottoineJ.
_________ _______ _____ _____
(87) I shall not give this body away While my thought of compassion is still not pure. I shall give it over (till then), in
this and other (lives), in whatever (way possible), To causes that'll fulnll the Great Purpose.
87. Tbey sboulJ not qive up tbeir boJies Wbose compossionote tbouqbts ore not yet pure.
But let tbem be surrenJereJ wben, botb now onJ in tbeir futures lives, 6reot benejit is tbereby qoineJ.
_________ ________ ___________
(88) I shall not explain Dharma to those lacking respect, To those with heads bound (with cloth) while not being
sick, To those holding parasols, canes, or weapons, Or to those whose faces are veiled,
88. Bo not teocb tbe Bbormo to tbe Jisrespectful: To tbose wbo, tbouqb not sick, wrop clotbs orounJ tbeir
beoJs, To tbose wbo corry weopons, stoffs, or porosols, To tbose wbo ore witb covereJ beoJs.
______ _________ ___________ ___
(89) Nor the vast and profound to those who are modest, Nor to women without (also) a man.
I shall always pay equal respect To the modest and the supreme Dharma teachings.
89. To tbose upon tbe lower potbs Jo not exploin tbe vost onJ Jeep,

Nor tutor women unoccomponieJ by
men. AnJ every Bbormo, biqb or low,
FxpounJ witb equol reverence.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 52
_________ ________ ______ ____
(90) I shall not join to the Dharma for the modest Tose who are vessels for the vast Dharma teachings, Nor shall I
cause them to abandon (bodhisattva) behavior, Or entice them into (merely reciting) the sutras or mantras.
90. Tbose suiteJ to tbe teocbinqs of qreot scope SboulJ not be introJuceJ to lesser potbs.
Tbe rules of conJuct you sboulJ not neqlect Nor leoJ ostroy witb tolk of sutros onJ of montros.
_______ _______ ________ __
(91) Should I spit or toss away the stick for (cleaning) my teeth, I shall cover it over (with earth). Further, it's
despicable to urinate and so forth Into water or on land that's to be used.
91. Wben you spit onJ tbrow owoy Your tootb sticks, you sboulJ cover tbem.
AnJ it is wronq to foul witb urine onJ witb otber jiltb Tbe jielJs onJ woter jit for public use.
_______ __________ ________ __
(92) I shall not eat with stumng my mouth, With noise, or with my mouth wide open. Nor shall I sit with my legs
outstretched Or with my arms simultaneously (crossed), pressed (against my body).
92. Wben eotinq, Jo not qobble noisily, Nor stuff onJ crom your qopinq moutb. AnJ Jo not sit witb leqs
outstretcbeJ, Nor coorsely rub your bonJs toqetber.
___________ _________ _________ __
(93) I shall not go in a vehicle, on a bed, (a seat), Or in a room alone with someone else's woman. Having observed
or inquired, I shall give up All that would bring disrespect from the world.
9S. Bo not trovel, sit, or stoy olone Witb women of onotber bouse.
AnJ oll tbot you bove seen, or bove been tolJ, To be o couse of sconJoltbot you sboulJ ovoiJ.
________ _________ _________ _
(94) I shall never point with (my left hand or) one nnger, But respectfully with my right,
And with the entire hand; I shall also indicate the path like that.
94. Not ruJely pointinq witb your jinqer, But rotber witb o reverent qesture sbowinq Witb tbe wbole riqbt
bonJ outstretcbeJ Tbis is bow to inJicote tbe rooJ.
__________ _________ ________ ___
(95) I shall not wildly wave my arms, Nor shout out loud, when it's scarcely urgent,
But shall signal with a snap of the nngers and the like, Otherwise, I'll get out of control.
9S. Bo not wove your orms witb uncoutb qestures. Fxpress yourself insteoJ witb unobtrusive siqns, Witb
qentle sounJs onJ jinqer snops.
Ior octinq otberwise is impolite excess.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 53
___________ ________ _________
(96) Just as the Guardian (Buddha) lay down to pass to nirvana, So shall I lie down to sleep, on the preferable side,
And, with alertness, yoke myself nrmly from the start To the intention to rise again quickly.
96. lie Jown to sleep in tbe preferreJ Jirection, ln tbe posture of tbe BuJJbo wben be posseJ into nirvono.
AnJ jirst witb viqilonce JeciJe Tbot youll be quick to rise oqoin.
__________ _________ ________ __
(97) Out of all the boundless bodhisattva behaviors Tat have been spoken of, I shall dennitely put them to practice
(at least) to the extent Of the conduct for cleansing my mind.
97. Tbe octions of tbe BoJbisottvo Are unbounJeJ, so tbe Teocbinqs soy.
0f tbese, until tbe qool is won, Fmbroce tbe proctices tbot purify your minJ.
__________ __________ ____________
(98) And I shall recite Te Tree Heaps (Sutra) Tree times each day and (each) night, And thus, with the support of
the Triumphant and my bodhichitta aim, I shall neutralize my remaining downfalls.
98. Recitinq tbrice by Joy onJ tbrice by niqbt, Tbe Sutro in Tbree Sections,
Relyinq on tbe BuJJbos onJ tbe BoJbisottvos, Purify tbe rest of your tronsqressions.
______ _________ _________
_ _________
(99) Whatever situation I may be acting in, Of my own accord or from the innuence of others, I shall vigorously
train in whatever is the training Tat's been taught for that situation.
99. Wberever onJ wbenever onJ wbotever you ore Joinq, Ior your soke or tbe soke of otbers,
lmplement witb Jiliqence Tbe teocbinqs qiven for tbot situotion.
____________ _____ _________ __
(100) Tere isn't anything in which the spiritual onspring Of the Triumphant don't train.
For those skilled in living in this way, nothing (they do) Will escape becoming a positive force.
100. Tbere is inJeeJ no jielJ of knowleJqe Tbot tbe BuJJbos offsprinq sboulJ not leorn. Ior tbose wbo ore
well-verseJ in oll tbese woys, Tbere is no oction Jestitute of merit.
_______ ___________ _________
(101) Whether directly or indirectly, I shall not do anything Other than what's for the benent of limited beings, And
for solely limited beings' sake. I shall dedicate it all to enlightenment.
101. Birectly, tben, or inJirectly, Bo notbinq tbot is not for otbers soke.
AnJ solely for tbeir welfore JeJicote Your every oction to tbe qoininq of enliqbtenment.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 54
____________ _________ ______________
(102) I shall never forsake, even at the cost of my life, A spiritual mentor, who is skilled In the points of the Vast
Vehicle (Mahayana) And superlative in (keeping) the bodhisattva taming behavior.
102. Never, ot tbe cost of life or limb, Iorsoke your virtuous frienJ, your teocber, leorneJ in tbe Joctrine of
tbe Hoboyono, Supreme in BoJbisottvo Jiscipline.
_______ __________ ______
___ ____________
(103) I shall learn the way to respectfully relate to a spiritual mentor From Shri Sambhava's Biography. Tis and other
advice of the Buddha Can be known from reading the sutras.
10S. leorn bow to ottenJ upon your quru As JescribeJ in Sbri Sombbovos life.
Tbis onJ otber teocbinqs of tbe BuJJbo You sboulJ unJerstonJ by reoJinq in tbe sutros.
__________ _________ _________ ___
(104) It is in the sutras that the trainings appear, And so I shall read the sutra texts.
I shall examine, as a start, Te Akashagarbha Sutra.
104. lnJeeJ witbin tbese sutros oll tbe proctices ore founJ; Tberefore reoJ onJ stuJy tbem.
Tbe Sutro of tbe Fssence of tbe Sky
ls tbe text tbot sboulJ be stuJieJ jirst.
_______ ________ _________ __
(105) I shall dennitely examine Te Compendium of Trainings over and again, Because, in it, what always is practiced
Is extensively shown,
10S. All tbot must be procticeJ constontly ls cleorly onJ extensively exploineJ
Witbin tbe Biqest of All Bisciplines,
So tbis is sometbinq you sboulJ reoJ repeoteJly.
________ ____________ ____________
(106) Or look, to the extent they're condensed in brief, At Te Compendium of Sutras, And then, energetically
examine as well Te second (such texts), compiled by Arya Nagarjuna.
106. Irom time to time, for soke of brevity, Consult tbe Biqest of tbe Sutros.
AnJ tbose two works peruse witb Jiliqence Tbot noble Noqorjuno bos composeJ.
_________ ______ ____________ ___
(107) I shall put into practice Whatever is not prohibited in them,
And implement fully the trainings seen (there) In order to safeguard my worldly mind.
107. Wbotever in tbese works is not proscribeJ Be sure to unJertoke onJ implement.
AnJ wbot you jinJ enjoineJ tbere, perfectly fuljill, AnJ so protect tbe minJs of worlJly beinqs.
5. Safeguarding with Alertness - 55
___________ _____ ______ _____
(108) Te denning feature of safeguarding with alertness Is but this in brief:
Examining, over and again, Te condition of my body and mind.
108. Fxomininq oqoin onJ yet oqoin Tbe stote onJ octions of your boJy onJ your minJ Tbis olone Jejines in
brief Tbe mointenonce of wotcbful introspection.
_______ ___________ ___________
_______ _____________ ___________
(109) With my body, I shall put this all into practice. What can be accomplished by mouthing it merely with words?
(After all,) will a sick man be helped By merely reciting the medical treatment?
109. But oll tbis must be octeJ out in trutb, Ior wbot is to be qoineJ by moutbinq syllobles? Wbot involiJ wos
ever belpeJ By merely reoJinq in tbe Joctors treotises?
6. Showing Patience - 56
6. Showing Patience - Patience
_________ ____________ _______
_ __________
(1) Whatever generosity, Onerings to the Blissfully Gone (Buddhas) and the like, And positive deeds I've amassed
over thousands of eons - One (moment of ) hatred will devastate them all.
1. All tbe qooJ works qotbereJ in o tbousonJ oqes, Sucb os JeeJs of qenerosity, AnJ offerinqs to tbe Blissful
0nesA sinqle jlosb of onqer sbotters tbem.
________ _________ ________ _____
(2) As no negative force resembles anger, And no trial resembles patience,
I shall therefore meditate on patience, With enort and in various ways.
2. No evil is tbere similor to onqer, No ousterity to be comporeJ witb potience. Steep yourself, tberefore, in
potience, ln vorious woys, insistently.
_________ _______ ______ ___
(3) When the thorn of anger lodges in my heart, My mind doesn't feel any peace,
Doesn't gain any joy or pleasure, Doesn't fall asleep, and becomes unstable.
S. Tbose tormenteJ by tbe poin of onqer, Never know tronquillity of minJ Stronqers tbey will be to every
pleosure; Tbey will neitber sleep nor feel secure.
_______ ________ _______ ___
(4) Even those on whom he lavishes wealth and honor And those who've become dependent on him Get provoked to
the point of murdering A lord who's possessed with anger.
4. Fven tbose JepenJent on tbeir lorJ Ior qrocious qifts of bonors onJ of weoltb Will rise oqoinst onJ sloy
A moster wbo is jilleJ witb wrotb onJ bote.
_________ _____________ _________
(5) Friends and relations get disgusted with him, And though he might gather (others) with gifts, he isn't regarded
with trust and respect. In brief, there's no way at all in which A raging person is in a happy situation.
S. Eis fomily onJ frienJs be qrieves, AnJ is not serveJ by tbose bis qifts ottroct. No one is tbere, oll in oll,
Wbo, beinq onqry, lives ot eose.
6. Showing Patience - 57
______ _________ ____________
(6) Hence the enemy, rage, Creates sunerings such as those and the like, While whoever clamps down and destroys
his rage Will be happy in this (life) and others.
6. All tbese ills ore brouqbt obout by wrotb, 0ur sorrow-beorinq enemy.
But tbose wbo seize onJ crusb tbeir onqer Jown Will jinJ tbeir joy in tbis onJ future lives.
____ __________ ________ __
(7) Finding its fuel in the foul state of mind Tat arises from its bringing about things I don't want And its
preventing what I wish, Anger, once ennamed, destroys me.
7. 6ettinq wbot l Jo not wont, AnJ oll tbot binJers my Jesire
ln Jiscontent my onqer jinJs its fuel. Irom tbis it qrows onJ beots me Jown.
________ ___________ _______ _
(8) Terefore, I shall totally eradicate Te fuel of that enemy,
For this enemy hasn't a mission Other than injuring me.
8. Tberefore l will utterly Jestroy Tbe sustenonce of tbis my enemy, Hy foe wbo bos no otber purpose But to
burt onJ injure me.
________ _______ ________ __
(9) No matter what happens, I shall never let it disturb my good mood. For if I've fallen into a foul mood, what I
want will not come about, And my constructive behavior will fall apart.
9. So come wbot moy, lll not upset Hy cbeerful boppiness of minJ.
Bejection never brinqs me wbot l wont; Hy virtue will be worpeJ onJ morreJ by it.
_______ ____ ________ ____
(10) If it can be remedied, Why get into a foul mood over something? And if it can't be remedied, What help is it to
get into a foul mood over it?
10. lf tberes o remeJy wben trouble strikes, Wbot reoson is tbere for Jejection?
AnJ if tbere is no belp for it, Wbot use is tbere in beinq qlum?
______________ ___________ _______
(11) For myself and my friends, Sunering, contempt, verbal abuse,
And disgrace aren't things that I'd wish for; But for my enemies, it's the reverse.
11. Poin, bumiliotion, insults, or rebukes We Jo not wont tbem
Fitber for ourselves or tbose we love. Ior tbose we Jo not like, its tbe reverse!
6. Showing Patience - 58
_______ _________ _________
(12) Te causes for happiness rarely occur, While the causes for sunerings are overly abundant. But, without any
sunering, there wouldn't be the determination to be free; Terefore, mind, you must think to be nrm.
12. Tbe couse of boppiness is rore, AnJ mony ore tbe seeJs of sufferinq!
But if l bove no poin, lll never lonq for freeJom; Tberefore, 0 my minJ, be steoJfost!
_____ ___________ _______ _
(13) If devotees of Durga and people of Karnata Pointlessly endure the torments of burning And cutting themselves,
and the like, Ten why am I such a coward for the sake of liberation?
1S. Tbe Korno folk onJ tbose JevoteJ to tbe 6oJJess,

FnJure tbe meoninqless ousterities
0f beinq cut onJ burneJ. So wby om l so timiJ on tbe potb of freeJom?
________ ____ ___________ ___
(14) Tere isn't anything that doesn't become easier Once you've become accustomed to it; And so, by growing
accustomed to minor pains, Greater pains will dennitely become bearable.
14. Tberes notbinq tbot Joes not qrow liqbt Tbrouqb bobit onJ fomiliority.
Puttinq up witb little cores lll troin myself to beor witb qreot oJversity!
_____ _________ _________ __
(15) Don't you see (this) with problems, (borne) without a (great) purpose,
From snakes and mosquitoes, Discomforts such as hunger and thirst, As well as rashes and the like?
1S. Bont l see tbot tbis is so witb common irritotions: Bites onJ stinqs of snokes onJ jlies,
Fxperiences of bunqer onJ of tbirst, AnJ poinful rosbes on my skin?
______ _______ _________ _
(16) (So,) I shall not be soft Regarding such things as heat and cold, rain and wind, Also sickness, captivity, beatings,
and the like; For if I've acted like that, the injury is worse.
16. Eeot onJ colJ, tbe winJ onJ roin, Sickness, prison, beotinqs
lll not fret obout sucb tbinqs. To Jo so only oqqrovotes my trouble.
_______ _________ ________ __
(17) Tere are some who, seeing their own blood, Develop exceptional courage and resolve; And there are some who,
seeing the blood of others, Collapse and faint.
17. Tbere ore some wbose brovery increoses, At tbe siqbt of tbeir own blooJ, Wbile some lose oll tbeir
strenqtb onJ foint Wben its onotbers blooJ tbey see!
6. Showing Patience - 59
________ _______ _______ __
(18) Tat comes from their states of mind being Either of a resolute or a cowardly type. Terefore, I must be
dismissive of pains And must not be thrown on by sunering.
18. Tbis results from bow tbe minJ is set, ln steoJfostness or coworJice.
AnJ so lll scorn oll injury, AnJ borJsbips l will JisreqorJ!
___________ _________ _________
(19) Even when he's in agony, someone skilled Will never let the composure of his mind be stirred; And in a war
that's waged against disturbing emotions, Bruises abound, when nghting the battle.
19. Wben sorrows foll upon tbe wise, Tbeir minJs sboulJ be serene onJ unJisturbeJ. Ior in tbeir wor oqoinst
JejileJ emotion, Hony ore tbe borJsbips, os in every bottle.
___________ __________ ______
(20) Tose who, having been dismissive of sunering, Destroy the enemies, anger and so on, Tey are the heroes who
have gained the victory; Te rest (merely) slay corpses.
20. Tbinkinq scorn of every poin, AnJ vonquisbinq sucb foes os botreJ: Tbese ore exploits of victorious
worriors. Tbe rest is sloyinq wbot is JeoJ olreoJy!
___________ _________ ______ __
(21) Furthermore, there are advantages to sunering: With agony, arrogance disappears; Compassion grows for those
in recurring samsara; Negative conduct is shunned; and joy is taken in being constructive.
21. Sufferinq olso bos its wortb. Tbrouqb sorrow, priJe is Jriven out
AnJ pity felt for tbose wbo wonJer in somsoro; Fvil is ovoiJeJ; qooJness seems Jeliqbtful.
___________ _______ _______ _
(22) As I don't get enraged With great sources of sunering, for instance with bile, Ten why get enraged with those
having limited minds? All of them, as well, are provoked by conditions.
22. l om not onqry witb my bile onJ otber bumors Iertile source of sufferinq onJ poin!
So wby sboulJ livinq beinqs qive offence, Tbey likewise ore impelleJ by circumstonce?
______ ______ _______ __
(23) For example, without being wished for, Teir sicknesses arise;
And likewise, without being wished for, (Teir) disturbing emotions also strongly arise.
2S. Altbouqb tbey ore unlookeJ for, unJesireJ, Tbese ills ofjlict us oll tbe some.
AnJ likewise, tbouqb unwonteJ onJ unsouqbt, Bejilements nonetbeless insistently orise.
6. Showing Patience - 60
__________ ________ ____________ _
(24) Without thinking, "I shall get enraged," People just become enraged;
And without thinking, "I shall arise," Likewise, rage arises.
24. Never tbinkinq, "Now l will be onqry," People ore impulsively couqbt up in onqer. lrritotion, likewise,
comes Tbouqb never plons to be experienceJ!
________ ___________ __________ _
(25) All mistakes that there are And the various sorts of negative behavior - All arise from the force of conditions:
Tere aren't any under their own power.
2S. All Jejilements of wbotever kinJ, Tbe wbole voriety of evil JeeJs
Are brouqbt obout by circumstonces: None is inJepenJent, none outonomous.
___________ ___________ ________
(26) A collection of conditions Doesn't have the intention, "I shall create"; And what it's created didn't have the
intention, "I'm to be created."
26. ConJitions, once ossembleJ, bove no tbouqbt Tbot tbey will now qive rise to some result. Nor Joes tbot
wbicb is enqenJereJ Tbink tbot it bos been proJuceJ.
______ ___________ ________ _
(27) Te darling (the Samkhyas) call "primal matter" And what they imagine to be "the self" - Tey don't think with
some purpose, "I shall come into being (to cause some harm)," And then come about.
27. Tbe primol substonce, os tbey soy, AnJ tbot wbicb bos been colleJ tbe self, Bo not orise JesiqneJly,
AnJ Jo not tbink, "l will become."
_______ _____ ______ ____
(28) (In fact,) as they haven't arisen, they do not exist, So what would have then had the wish to arise? And, since (a
static sentient self ) would be something that was permanently occupied with an object, It would never come to cease
(being so).
28. Ior tbot wbicb is not born Joes not exist, So wbot coulJ wont to come to be?
AnJ permonently Jrown toworJ its object, lt con never ceose from beinq so.
_______ ___________ __________ __
(29) But if the self were static (and nonsentient, like Nyaya asserts), It would obviously be without actions, like the
sky; So even if it met with other conditions, What activity could something unchangeable have?
29. lnJeeJ! Tbis self, if permonent, ls certoinly inert like spoce itself. AnJ sboulJ it meet witb otber foctors,
Eow coulJ tbey offect it, since it is uncbonqinq?
6. Showing Patience - 61
_________ _______ _____ ____
(30) If even at the time of the action, it (remains) as before, What could have been done by it from the action?
And if there were something called "Tis is its action," Which is the one that made them connected?
S0. lf, wben conJitions oct on it, it stoys just os it wos before, Wbot injluence bove tbese conJitions boJ?
Tbey soy tbot tbese ore oqents of tbe self, But wbot connection coulJ tbere be between tbem?
_________ _____ ________ __
(31) Tus, everything's under the power of others, And the powers they're under aren't under their (own) power.
Having understood this, I shall not become angry With any phenomenon - they're like magic emanations.
S1. All tbinqs, tben, JepenJ on otber tbinqs, AnJ tbese likewise JepenJ; tbey ore not inJepenJent. Knowinq
tbis, we will not be onnoyeJ At tbinqs tbot ore like moqicol oppeoronces.
__________ __________ ____________ __
(32) And if I said, then, "Warding on (anger) would indeed be unntting, For who (or what) can ward on what?" I'd
assert that it's not unntting, Since, by depending on that, the continuity of sunering can be cut.
S2. "Resistonce," you moy soy, "is out of ploce, Ior wbot will be opposeJ by wbom?"
Tbe streom of sorrow is cut tbrouqb by potience; Tbere is notbinq out of ploce in our ossertion!
______ _________ _______ _
(33) Tus, when seeing an enemy or even a friend Acting improperly, I'll remain relaxed, Having renected that it's
arising From some such condition as this.
SS. Tbus, wben enemies or frienJs Are seen to oct improperly, Remoin serene onJ coll to minJ
Tbot everytbinq orises from conJitions.
________ ________ _______
_ ________
(34) If all embodied beings had things Turn out as they liked, Ten, since no one wishes ever to suner, It would never
come about that anyone sunered.
S4. lf tbinqs coulJ be occorJinq to tbeir wisb, No sufferinq woulJ ever come To onyone of oll emboJieJ beinqs,
Ior none of tbem wonts poin of ony kinJ.
__________ _________ _________
(35) People hurt even themselves With such things as thorns, because of not caring, And, in a rage, because of
desiring to obtain women and the like, With such acts as refusing food.
SS. Yet corelessly, oll unowore, Tbey teor tbemselves on tborns;
AnJ orJent in pursuit of wives onJ qooJs, Tbey storve tbemselves of nourisbment.
6. Showing Patience - 62
________ _____ __________
(36) Tere are some who destroy themselves By hanging themselves, jumping on clins, Eating poison and unhealthy
foods, And through negative acts (bringing worse rebirth states).
S6. Some bonq tbemselves or leop into tbe voiJ, Toke poison or consume unbeoltby fooJ, 0r by tbeir evil
conJuct Brinq Jestruction on tbemselves.
__________ __________ ______ __
(37) When people kill even their beloved selves From coming under the power of disturbing emotions, How can it be
that they wouldn't cause injury To the bodies of others?
S7. Ior wben ofjliction seizes tbem, Tbey even sloy tbemselves, tbe selves tbey love so mucb. So bow con tbey
not be tbe couse 0f otbers boJily Jistress?
__________ ___________ ________ _
(38) When I can't even develop compassion, once in a while, For those like that, who, with disturbing emotions
arisen, Would proceed to such things as killing themselves, At least I won't get enraged (with them).
S8. Altbouqb we olmost never feel compossion Ior tbose wbo, tbrouqb Jejilement, Brinq obout tbeir own
perJition, Wbot purpose Joes our onqer serve?
________ ___________ _____ ______
(39) (Even) if acting violently toward others Were the functional nature of infantile people, Still, it'd be as unntting
to get enraged with them As it would be for begrudging nre for its functional nature of burning.
S9. lf tbose wbo ore like wonton cbilJren Are by noture prone to injure otbers, Tberes no reoson for our roqe;
lts like resentinq jire for beinq bot.
______ __________ ______ __
(40) And even if this fault were neeting instead, And limited beings were lovely by nature, Well, still it would be as
unntting to get enraged As it would be for begrudging the sky for the (pungent) smoke that was rising (in it).
40. AnJ if tbeir foults ore jleetinq onJ continqent, lf livinq beinqs ore by noture milJ, lts likewise senseless to
resent tbemAs well be onqry ot tbe sky wben it is full of smoke!
__________ ______ _______ _____
(41) Having set aside the actual (cause of my pain), a stan or the like, If I become enraged with the person who
wielded it, Well he, in fact, was incited by anger, so he's secondary (too). It would be more ntting to get enraged with
his anger.
41. Altbouqb it is tbeir sticks tbot burt me, l om onqry ot tbe ones wbo wielJ tbem, strikinq me. But tbey in
turn ore Jriven by tbeir botreJ; Tberefore witb tbeir botreJ l sboulJ toke offence.
6. Showing Patience - 63
___________ ______ _________ __
(42) Previously, I must have innicted Such pain on limited beings, Terefore, it's ntting that harm comes to me,
Who've been a cause of violence toward limited ones.
42. ln just tbe some woy in tbe post l it wos wbo injureJ livinq beinqs. Tberefore it is riqbt tbot injury SboulJ
come to me tbeir torturer.
_______ ___________ ___________ _
(43) Both his weapon and my body Are the causes of my sunering.
Since he drew out a weapon and I a body, Toward which should I get enraged?
4S. Tbeir weopons onJ my boJyBotb ore couses of my torment!
Tbey tbeir weopons, l my boJy bronJisbeJ; Wbo tben is more wortby of my roqe?
_______ _________ ___________
(44) Blinded by craving, I've grabbed hold of a painful boil Tat's shaped like a human and can't bear to be touched,
And so when it's bruised, Toward what should I get enraged?
44. Tbis boJyrunninq sore in bumon formHerely toucbeJ, it connot stonJ tbe poin!
lm tbe one wbo qrospeJ it in my blinJ ottocbment, Wbom sboulJ l resent wben poin occurs?
________ ___________ _________ ___
(45) Childish me, I don't wish to suner And yet I'm obsessed with the cause of my sunering. Since it's my own fault
that I get hurt, Why have a grudge toward anyone (else)?
4S. We wbo ore like cbilJren Sbrink from poin, but love its couses. We burt ourselves tbrouqb our misJeeJs!
So wby sboulJ otbers be tbe object of our roqe?
_____ _______ _______ _
(46) It's like, for example, the guards of the joyless realms And the forest of razor-sharp leaves: Tis (sunering too) is
produced by my impulsive karmic behavior; So toward what should I be enraged?
46. AnJ wbo inJeeJ sboulJ l be onqry witb? Tbis poin is oll my own contrivinq likewise oll tbe jonitors of
bell AnJ oll tbe qroves of rozor trees!
____________ __________ ______
_ __________
(47) Incited by my own karmic behavior, Tose who hurt me come my way, And if, by their (actions), these limited
beings should fall to the joyless realms, Surely, wasn't it I who have ruined them?
47. Tbose wbo borm me rise oqoinst melts my kormo tbot bos summoneJ tbem. AnJ if tbrouqb tbis tbese
beinqs qo to bell, ls it not l wbo brinq tbeir ruin?
6. Showing Patience - 64
________ __________ _________ _
48) Based on them, my negative karmic force Is greatly cleansed, because of my patience; But, based on me, they fall
To the joyless realms, with long-lasting pain.
48. Becouse of tbem, onJ tbrouqb my potience, All my mony sins ore cleonseJ onJ purijieJ. But tbey will be
tbe ones wbo, tbonks to me, Will bove tbe lonq-Jrown oqonies of bell.
______ ________ ____ _____
(49) Since I'm, in fact, causing harm to them, And they're the ones who are benenting me, Why, unreasonable mind,
do you make it the reverse And get into a rage?
49. Tberefore l om tbeir tormentor! Tberefore it is tbey wbo brinq me benejit! Tbus witb wbot perversity,
pernicious minJ, Will you be onqry witb your enemies?
________ ______ ____________
(50) If I have the advantage of wishing (to be patient), I won't be going to a joyless realm;
But although I'm safeguarding myself (in this way), What happens to them in this matter?
S0. lf o potient quolity of minJ is mine, l sboll ovoiJ tbe poins of bell. But tbouqb inJeeJ l sove myself,
Wbot of my foes, wbot fotes in store for tbem?
________ _______ __________ _
(51) And if I were to harm them back instead, Tey wouldn't be safeguarded either, While my (other bodhisattva)
behavior would also decline, And, consequently, those having trials would be lost.
S1. lf l repoy tbem borm for borm, lnJeeJ tbeyll not be soveJ tbereby. Hy conJuct will in turn be morreJ,
Austerity of potience brouqbt to notbinq.
_______ __________ _________ __
(52) Because of its being immaterial, No one can destroy my mind, by any means; But because of its obsessive
involvement with my body, It's hurt by sunering (in connection) to the body.
S2. Becouse tbe minJ is boJiless lt connot be JestroyeJ by onyone.
Becouse of minJs ottocbment to tbe boJy, Tbis boJy is oppresseJ by poin.
_________ _______ _______ ___
(53) (Yet) Insults, cruel language, And defaming words Don't hurt my body,
So, why, O mind, do you become so enraged?
SS. Scorn onJ bostile worJs, AnJ comments tbot l Jo not like to beorHy boJy is not bormeJ by tbem.
Wbot reoson Jo you bove, 0 minJ, for your resentment?
6. Showing Patience - 65
_________ ________ _______ ___
(54) Others' dislike for me - Tat won't devour me,
Either in this life or in any other lifetime; So why do I nnd it undesirable?
S4. Tbe enmity tbot otbers sbow me, Since in tbis or future lives
lt connot octuolly Jevour me, Wby sboulJ l be so overse to it?
_______ ______ _______ ___
(55) If I don't wish for it Because it would hinder my material gain;
Well, although my material gain in this life will have to be discarded, My negative karmic forces will remain secured.
SS. Perbops l turn from it becouse lt binJers me from bovinq wbot l wont. But oll my property lll leove
bebinJ, Wbile sins will keep me steoJy compony.
______ ________ _________
(56) Death today would in fact be better for me Tan long life through an improper livelihood; For even having lived
a long time, there will still Be the sunering of death for someone like me.
S6. Better for for me to Jie toJoy, Tbon live o lonq onJ evil life.
Eowever lonq tbe Joys of tbose like me, Tbe poin of Jyinq will be oll tbe some.
______ ______ _________ _
(57) Someone who wakes up after having experienced A hundred years of happiness in a dream
And another who wakes up after having experienced Just a moment of happiness:
S7. 0ne mon Jreoms be lives o bunJreJ yeors 0f boppiness, but tben be wokes. Anotber Jreoms on instonts
joy, But tben be likewise wokes.
_______ _____ _______ ____
(58) Once they've awakened, that happiness Doesn't return, after all, to either of the two. (Similarly,) it comes down
to exactly the same For someone who's lived for long and someone who's lived for a short while.
S8. AnJ wben tbey woke, tbe boppiness of botb ls jinisbeJ, never to return.
likewise, wben tbe bour of Jeotb comes rounJ, 0ur lives ore over, wbetber brief or lonq.
________ ______ ____________ ____
(59) Tough I may have obtained great material gain And even have enjoyed many pleasures for long, I shall still go
forth empty-handed and naked, Like having been robbed by a thief.
S9. Tbouqb we be ricb in worlJly qooJs, Beliqbtinq in our weoltb for mony yeors, BespoileJ onJ strippeJ os
tbouqb by tbieves, We must qo nokeJ onJ witb empty bonJs.
6. Showing Patience - 66
__________ ___________ ______ _____
(60) Suppose I said, "While living on my material gain, I'd consume my negative karmic force and do positive
things." Well if, for the sake of material gain, I became enraged, Won't my positive karmic force be consumed
and negative karmic force come about?
60. Perbops well cloim tbot by our weoltb we live, AnJ livinq, qotber merit, Jissipotinq evil.
But if we ore oqqressive for tbe soke of projit, Wont our qoins be evil, oll our merits lost?
_________ ________ ________ _____
(61) If the very purpose for which I am living Should fall apart,
What use is there with a life Committing only negative deeds?
61. AnJ if tbe oim for wbicb we live
ls tbereby wosteJ onJ unJone, Wbot use is tbere in livinq tbus, Wben evil is tbe only consequence?
____________ ______ ________ ___
(62) Well, suppose I said, "Rage for someone who maligns (me) Is because it makes limited beings lose (their trust)."
Well then, why don't you get similarly enraged With someone defaming someone else?
62. AnJ if, wben people slonJer us, We cloim our onqer is becouse tbey injure otbers, Eow is it we Jo not
resent Tbeir slonJer wben its oimeJ ot someone else?
________ _____ __________ ___
(63) If you can tolerate distrust (when it's for someone else), Because that lack of trust hinges on another; Ten why
not be patient with someone who maligns (me), Since that hinges on disturbing emotions arising?
6S. AnJ if we beor witb tbis ontipotby Becouse its Jue to otber foctors,
Wby ore we impotient wben tbey slonJer us? Bejilement, ofter oll, bos been tbe couse of it.
____________ ______ __________
(64) Even toward those who revile and destroy Images, stupas, and the sacred Dharma, My anger's improper,
Since there can be no harm to Buddhas and the rest.
64. Fven tbose wbo vilify onJ unJermine Tbe SocreJ Boctrine, imoqes, onJ stupos Are not proper objects of
our onqer. BuJJbos ore tbemselves untoucbeJ tbereby.
_________ __________ ________
(65) And toward those who injure my spiritual teachers, My relatives and so on, and my friends as well, My rage will
be averted, by having seen that Tis arises from conditions, as in the manner before.
6S. AnJ even if our teocbers, relotives, onJ frienJs Are now tbe object of oqqression,
All Jerives from foctors, os we bove exploineJ. Tbis we sboulJ perceive onJ curb our wrotb.
6. Showing Patience - 67
________ ______________ _______
___ __________
(66) Since injury is innicted on embodied beings By both those with a mind and things having no mind, Why single
out and begrudge (only) those with a mind? Terefore, be patient with harm!
66. Beinqs suffer injury olike Irom lifeless tbinqs os well os livinq beinqs. So wby be onqry only witb tbe
lotter? Rotber let us simply beor witb borm.
_______ _____ _______ ____
(67) Some commit misdeeds because of naivety, And, because of naivety, some get enraged: Which of them can we
say is without fault, And which of them would be at fault?
67. Some Jo evil tbinqs becouse of iqnoronce, Some responJ witb onqer, beinq iqnoront. Wbicb of tbem is
foultless in sucb octs? To wbom sboll error be oscribeJ?
___________ _______ _______
(68) Why did you previously commit those impulsive actions, Because of which others now cause me harm? Since
everything hinges on karmic behavior, Why do I bear a grudge against this one?
68. lnsteoJ, wby JiJ tbey oct in times qone by Tbot tbey ore now so bormeJ ot otbers bonJs? Since everytbinq
JepenJs on kormo, Wby sboulJ l be onqry ot sucb tbinqs?
________ ______________ ________
(69) Seeing it's like that, I'll put enort Into positive things in whatever way Whereby everyone will become Loving-
minded toward each other.
69. Tbis l see onJ tberefore, come wbot moy, lll bolJ fost to tbe virtuous potb AnJ foster in tbe beorts of oll
An ottituJe of mutuol love.
________ __________ _________ __
(70) For example, when nre in a burning house Is advancing to another home, It's ntting to remove and throw out
Whatever it's in that would cause it to spread, such as straw and the like.
70. Now wben o builJinq is obloze AnJ jlomes leop out from bouse to bouse, Tbe wise course is to toke onJ
jlinq owoy Tbe strow onJ onytbinq tbot spreoJs tbe jire.
____________ ________ ____________
(71) Likewise, when the nre of anger is spreading, Due to my mind being attached to something, I shall throw it out
at that instant, For fear of my positive force being burned.
71. AnJ so, in feor tbot merit miqbt be oll consumeJ, We sboulJ ot once cost for owoy 0ur minJs
ottocbments: TinJer for tbe jiery jlomes of bote.
6. Showing Patience - 68
________ ________ _________ _
(72) Why would a man about to be put to death Be unfortunate if, by having his hand chopped on, he were spared?
So why would I be unfortunate if, through human sunerings, I were spared joyless realms?
72. ls it not o boppy cbonce if wben, conJemneJ to Jeotb, A mon is freeJ, bis bonJ cut off in ronsom for bis
life? AnJ is it not o boppy cbonce if now, to escope bell, l suffer only tbe misfortunes of tbe bumon stote?
______ ___________ ________
(73) If I'm unable to bear Even this minor sunering of the present, Ten why don't I ward on the rage Tat would be
the cause of hellish pain?
7S. lf even tbese, my present poins, Are now beyonJ my strenqtb to beor, Wby Jo l not cost off my onqer,
Couse of future sorrows in infernol torment?
_______ ______ _______
(74) On account of my impassioned (rage), I've experienced burning and the like For thousands of times in the
joyless realms; But (through it), I haven't brought benent to myself Or benent for others.
74. Ior soke of qoininq oll tbot l JesireJ, A tbousonJ times l unJerwent
Tbe tortures of tbe reolms of bell Acbievinq notbinq for myself onJ otbers.
______ __________ _________
(75) But, since great benents will be brought about In this, which is not even a fraction of that damage, Only delight
is appropriate here In the sunering dispelling (all) damage to wandering beings.
7S. Tbe present ocbes ore notbinq to compore witb tbose, AnJ yet qreot benejits will come from tbem.
Tbese troubles tbot Jispel tbe poin of wonJerers lts only riqbt tbot l rejoice in tbem.
______________ ________ ______
(76) If others obtain the pleasure of joy From praising someone (I dislike) who possesses good qualities, Why, O
mind, don't you make yourself joyous like this, By praising him too?
76. Wben otbers toke Jeliqbt ln qivinq proise to tbose enJoweJ witb tolents, Wby, 0 minJ, Jo you not jinJ
A joy likewise in proisinq tbem?
_____ _______ _____________ _____
(77) Tat pleasure of joy of yours would be An arising of pleasure that was not disgraceful, Something permitted by
the Ones with Good Qualities, And superlative, as well, for gathering others.
77. Tbe pleosure tbot is qoineJ tberefrom ltself qives rise to blomeless boppiness. lts urqeJ on us by oll tbe
boly ones, AnJ is tbe perfect woy of winninq otbers.
6. Showing Patience - 69
________ ____ __________
(78) If you wouldn't like this pleasure of his, "Such pleasure as that would be only his!"
Ten, from stopping (as well) giving wages and the like, (Your) ruin will come, both seen and unseen.
78. "But tbeyre tbe ones wboll bove tbe boppiness," you soy. lf tbis tben is o joy you woulJ resent, AbonJon
poyinq woqes onJ returninq fovors. You will be tbe loserbotb in tbis life onJ tbe next!
________ _______ ___________
(79) When your own good qualities are being extolled, You wish others, as well, to take pleasure;
But when others' good qualities are being extolled, You don't wish yourself to take pleasure too.
79. Wben proise is beopeJ upon your quolities, Youre keen tbot otbers sboulJ be pleoseJ tbereby. But wben
tbe compliment is poiJ to otbers, You feel no inclinotion to rejoice os well.
__________ ___________ _________
(80) Having developed a bodhichitta aim Trough wishing for happiness for all limited beings, Ten why do you
become angry instead At the happiness that limited beings have found by themselves?
80. You wbo wont tbe boppiness of beinqs Eove wisbeJ to be enliqbteneJ for tbeir soke. So wby sboulJ otbers
irk you wben Tbey jinJ some pleosure for tbemselves?
____________ _________ __________
__ ____
(81) (Having given your word) that you wish limited beings To have Buddhahood, honored throughout the three
realms, Ten why, when seeing them merely shown miserable respect, Do you burn up inside at it?
81. AnJ if you cloim to wisb tbot beinqs Be enliqbteneJ, bonoreJ by tbe triple worlJ, Wben petty morks of
fovor come tbeir woy, Wby ore you so JiscomforteJ?
_________ _______ __________ ___
(82) If there were someone needing care Who's to be cared for by you and provided for by you, And that family
member were to get something to live on, Wouldn't you be delighted, or would you be enraged in return?
82. Wben JepenJents wbo rely on you, To wbom you ore obliqeJ to qive support, IinJ for tbemselves tbe
meons of livelibooJ, Will you not be boppy, will you once oqoin be onqry?
___ _____ _______ _______
(83) How could someone who doesn't want (even) that for wandering beings Be anyone who wishes for them to be
Buddhas? Where is there bodhichitta in someone Who becomes enraged at others' gain?
8S. lf even tbis you Jo not wont for beinqs, Eow coulJ you wont BuJJbobooJ for tbem? AnJ bow con onyone
bove boJbicbitto Wbo is onqry wben onotber prospers?
6. Showing Patience - 70
______ ___________ ____ _____
(84) If, whether he receives it from him Or it remains in the benefactor's house, It will in no way be yours,
So what does it matter whether or not it's given (to him)?
84. lf someone else receives o qift, 0r if tbot qift stoys in tbe benefoctors bouse, ln neitber cose will it be
yoursSo, qiven or witbbelJ, wby is it your concern?
________ _____ ________ ___
(85) Trow away your positive force or (others') faith (in you), And even your own good qualities? For what?
Don't hold on to what could bring you gain? Tell me, with whom don't you get enraged?
8S. All your merit onJ tbe foitb of otbers, All your sterlinq quolitieswby tbrow tbem oll owoy? Not bolJinq
onto wbot miqbt brinq you ricbes, Tell me, wby ore you not onqry ot yourself?
_______ ______ ____________ ___
_____ _______
(86) Not only do you not feel sorry About the negative things you've done yourself, You wish to compete against
others Who've enacted positive deeds?
86. Not only Jo you feel no sorrow Ior tbe evils you bove Jone, You even wisb to motcb yourself
Witb tbose wbose merit bos been eorneJ!
________ ___ _______ __
(87) Even if your enemy lacks any joy, What's there in that for you to take delight? Te mere wish in your mind
Won't become the cause for (any) harm to him.
87. lf unboppiness befolls your enemies, Wby sboulJ tbis be couse for your rejoicinq? Tbe wisbes of your minJ
olone, Will not in foct contrive tbeir injury.
_______ ______ ________
(88) And even if his sunering came about through your wish, Still, what's there in that for you to take delight?
If you said that you'd become gratined, Is there anything else more degenerate than that?
88. AnJ if your bostile wisbes were to brinq tbem borm, Aqoin, wbot couse of joy is tbot to you?
"Wby, tben l woulJ be sotisjieJ!"ore tbese your tbouqbts? ls onytbinq more ruinous tbon tbot?
___________ _________ _________
(89) Tis hook cast by the nshermen, the disturbing emotions, Is horrendously sharp. Procuring (you) from them, O
mind, Te joyless realm guards will cook me, for sure, In the cauldrons of hell.
89. Couqbt upon tbe book, unbeoroble onJ sborp, Cost by tbe jisbermon, my own Jejilements, lll be jlunq into
tbe coulJrons of tbe pit, AnJ surely boileJ by oll tbe jonitors of bell!
6. Showing Patience - 71
__________ __________ _________
__ _____
(90) Praise and fame, (these) shows of respect, Won't bring positive force, won't bring a long life, Won't bring bodily
strength, nor freedom from sickness; Tey won't bring physical pleasure either.
90. venerotion, proise, onJ fome Serve not to increose merit or my spon of life, Bestowinq neitber beoltb nor
strenqtb AnJ notbinq for tbe boJys eose.
________ ___ ______ ______
(91) If I were aware of what's in my self-interest, What in my self-interest would there be in them? If just mental
happiness were what I wanted, I should devote myself to gambling and so on, and to alcohol too.
91. lf l om wise in wbot is qooJ for me, lll osk wbot benejit tbese brinq. Ior if its entertoinment l Jesire,
l miqbt os well resort to olcobol onJ corJs!
_________ _________ ___________ __
(92) For the sake of fame, (people) would give away wealth Or would get themselves killed; But what use is there
with words (of fame)? Once they've died, to whom will they bring pleasure?
92. l lose my life, my weoltb l squonJer, All for reputotions soke.
Wbot use ore worJs, onJ wbom will tbey Jeliqbt Wben l om JeoJ onJ in my qrove?
_______ _________ ____________ ____
(93) At the collapse of his sand castle, A child wails in despair;
Similarly, at the loss of praise and fame, My mind shows the face of a child.
9S. CbilJren cont belp cryinq wben Tbeir sonJ costles come crumblinq Jown. Hy minJ is so like tbem
Wben proise onJ reputotion stort to foil.
________ _________ ____________
(94) Because an impromptu word is something lacking a mind, It's impossible that it has the intention to praise me.
But, proclaiming, "Te other one (onering me praise) is delighted with me," If I consider that a cause (also) to be
94. Sbort-liveJ sounJ, JevoiJ of intellect, Con never in itself intenJ to proise me.
l soy tbot its tbe joy tbot otbers toke in me, lts tbis tbot is tbe couse of my Jeliqbt.
________ __________ _____ __
(95) Well, whether it's toward someone else or toward me, What use to me is another person's joy? Tat pleasure of
joy is his alone; I won't get (even) a share of it.
9S. But wbot is it to me if otbers toke Jeliqbt ln someone else, or even in myself? Tbeir pleosures tbeirs onJ
tbeirs olone. No port of it is felt by me.
6. Showing Patience - 72
_______ _________ _______ ___
(96) If I take pleasure in his pleasure (with me), I must do like that in all cases, in fact. How is it that I don't take
pleasure When he has the pleasure of joy with another?
96. lf l om boppy ot tbe joy of tbose wbo toke Jeliqbt, Tben everyone sboulJ be o source of joy to me. Wben
people toke Jeliqbt in otbers Wby om l not boppy ot tbeir pleosure?
_________ ______ _____ _____
(97) So joy is arising in me (Simply due to), "Me, I'm being praised!" But there, in fact, because (thinking) like that
is just nonsense, It comes down to nothing but the behavior of a child.
97. Tbe sotisfoction tbot is mine Irom tbinkinq, "l om beinq proiseJ," ls unocceptoble to common sense
AnJ notbinq but tbe ontics of o silly cbilJ.
___________ ________ ________
(98) Being praised and such things cause me distraction; Tey cause my disgust (with samsara) to disintegrate as well.
I become jealous of those with good qualities, And that makes me demolish success.
98. Proise onJ compliments Jistroct me, Soppinq my revulsion witb somsoro.
l stort to envy otbers tbeir qooJ quolities AnJ tbus oll excellence is ruineJ.
__________ ___________ ______ __
(99) Terefore, aren't those who are hovering close by For striking down praise and the like for me Actually involved
in protecting me from falling Into a worse rebirth state?
99. Tbose wbo stoy close by me, tben, To Jomoqe my qooJ nome onJ cut me Jown to size Are surely tbere
protectinq me Irom follinq into reolms of qrief.
________ _________ ________
_ _____
(100) For me, whose primary interest is in gaining freedom, Bondage to material gain and shows of respect are things
I mustn't have. So how can I get enraged with those who are causing me To be freed from my having been bound?
100. Ior l om one wbo strives for freeJom. l must not be couqbt by weoltb onJ bonors. Eow coulJ l be onqry
witb tbe ones Wbo work to free me from my fetters?
_________ _______________ _______
_ _____
(101) For me, who would enter into (a house) of sunering, How can I get enraged with those who've come, As if
from Buddha's inspiration, In the nature of a door panel not letting me pass in.
101. Tbey, like BuJJbos very blessinq, Bor my woy, JetermineJ os l om
To plunqe myself beoJlonq in sorrow: Eow con l be onqry witb tbem?
6. Showing Patience - 73
____________ ______ __________
_ _________
(102) "But this one is impeding my positive practices!" Still, it's unntting to be enraged with him. Tere isn't any
trial that's equal to patience, So shouldn't I be staying just close to that?
102. l sboulJ not be irritoteJ, soyinq, "Tbey ore obstocles to my qooJ JeeJs." Ior is not potience tbe supreme
ousterity, AnJ sboulJ l not obiJe by tbis?
_________ ______ ____________
(103) If, in fact, it's through my own fault Tat I'm not acting patiently here,
Ten while a cause for positive practice is biding nearby, It's actually me who's causing the impediment here.
10S. AnJ if l foil to proctice potience, EinJereJ by my own sbortcominqs, l myself creote impeJiments
To merits couses, yet so close ot bonJ.
_______ ______ ____ _____
(104) If there were something that wouldn't come about if something were absent, But if something were present,
would also be present, Tat very thing would be the cause of that, So how can it be said that it's an impediment to it?
104. lf sometbinq Joes not come to be wben sometbinq else is obsent, AnJ Joes orise, tbot foctor beinq
present, Tbot foctor is inJeeJ its couse. Eow con it, tben, be soiJ to binJer it?
________ __________ _______ __
(105) Tere's no impediment to giving caused by a mendicant (monk) Gone out (for alms) at the proper time;
And it can't be said that the coming of someone conferring vows Is an impediment for becoming a monastic.
10S. Tbe beqqors wbo orrive ot proper times Are not on obstocle to qenerosity.
We connot soy tbot tbose wbo qive tbe vows Are binJronces to orJinotion!
________ _________ ________ _
(106) Alms-seekers are plentiful in this life, But scarce are those who cause (me) harm, Because no one will cause me
harm If I haven't harmed them like this (in past lives).
106. Tbe beqqors in tbis worlJ ore numerous; Assoilonts ore comporotively few. Ior if l Jo no borm to otbers,
0tbers Jo no injury to me.
__________ _______ ___________ __
(107) Terefore, I shall be delighted with an enemy Who's popped up like a treasure in my house, Without having
had to be acquired with fatigue, Since he becomes my aide for bodhisattva behavior.
107. So, like o treosure founJ ot bome, Tbot l bove qoineJ witbout fotique,
Hy enemies ore belpers in my BoJbisottvo work AnJ tberefore tbey sboulJ be o joy to me.
6. Showing Patience - 74
___________ ________ ______
(108) It's because of its having been actualized through this one and me (having met) Tat a fruit of patience (comes
about); (So,) let me award it nrst to him, For he was, like this, the (earlier) cause of my patience.
108. Since l bove qrown in potience Tbonks to tbem, To tbem its jirst fruits l sboulJ qive,
Ior of my potience tbey bove been tbe couse.
_____________ ________ ______ __
(109) Suppose I said, "But he had no intention for (me) to actualize patience, So this enemy isn't someone to be
honored." Well, how is it that the hallowed Dharma is honored As suited to be a cause for actualizing (it)?
109. AnJ if l soy my foes sboulJ not be bonoreJ Since tbey JiJ not meon to stimulote my potience, Wby Jo l
revere tbe SocreJ Bbormo, Couse inJeeJ of my ottoinment?
_______ __________ ____________ ____
(110) Suppose I said, "But this enemy's intention was to cause me harm, So he can't be honored." Well, how could
patience be actualized by me If, like a doctor, he were intent on my benent?
110. "Tbese enemies conspireJ to borm me," l protest, "AnJ tberefore sboulJ receive no bonors."
But boJ tbey workeJ to belp me like o Joctor, Eow coulJ l bove brouqbt fortb potience?
_______ ____________ ________ ____
(111) Terefore, since patience arises dependently From his vicious intention, Tis one himself is nt to be honored
like the hallowed Dharma, Because he's a cause of my patience.
111. Tbonks to tbose wbose minJs ore full of molice l enqenJer potience in myself.
Tbey tberefore ore tbe couses of my potience, Iit for venerotion, like tbe Bbormo.
_______ ____________ _________
(112) Tus, the Sage has spoken of the neld of limited beings As well as the neld of the Triumphant,
(For,) having made them happy, many have gone, thereby, To the far-shore of excellence.
112. AnJ so tbe miqbty Soqe bos spoken of tbe jielJ of beinqs As well os of tbe jielJ of Conquerors.
Hony wbo brouqbt boppiness to beinqs, Eove posseJ beyonJ, ottoininq to perfection.
__________ _________ _______
(113) When the acquisition of a Buddha's Dharma (attainments) Is equally due to (both) limited beings and the
Triumphant, What kind of order is it that the respect shown to limited beings Is not like that to the Triumphant?
11S. Tbus tbe stote of BuJJbobooJ JepenJs 0n beinqs onJ on BuJJbos equolly. Wbot kinJ of proctice is it
tben Tbot bonors only BuJJbos but not beinqs?
6. Showing Patience - 75
___________ __________ __________
(114) Te preeminence of an intention is not from itself, But due to its result, and by that, the preeminence Of that
which is had by limited beings is, in fact, the same; And because of that, they are equal.
114. Not in tbe quolities of tbeir minJs But in tbe fruits tbey qive ore tbey olike. ln beinqs, too, sucb excellence
resiJes, AnJ tberefore beinqs onJ BuJJbos ore tbe some.
____________ ________ ___________
(115) Whatever is honored in having a loving intention (toward them), Tat, in fact, is the greatness (coming) from
limited beings; And whatever positive force there is in conndent belief in the Buddhas, Tat, in fact, is the greatness
from the Buddhas.
11S. 0fferinqs moJe to tbose witb lovinq minJs Reveol tbe eminence of livinq beinqs.

Herit tbot occrues
from foitb in BuJJbo Sbows in turn tbe BuJJbos eminence.
__________ _______ __________
(116) It's the share they have in actualizing a Buddha's Dharma (attainments), And because of that, they're asserted
as their equals; But, of course, no one can be the equal of the Buddhas In endless oceans of excellent qualities.
116. Altbouqb not one of tbem is equol To tbe BuJJbos, wbo ore oceons of perfection,
Becouse tbey bove o sbore in brinqinq fortb enliqbtenment, Beinqs moy be likeneJ to tbe BuJJbos.
____________ _________ _____
(117) If even a speck of the excellent qualities Of the unique syntheses of the best excellent qualities Were to be seen
somewhere, an onering of the three planes of existence Would be inadequate for honoring it.
117. lf of sucb o qotberinq of supreme excellence A tiny port oppeoreJ in certoin beinqs,
Tbe tbree worlJs moJe in offerinq to tbem WoulJ be o very little tbinq.
_____________ __________ __________
(118) Since a share giving rise to a Buddha's Foremost Dharma (attainments) exists in limited beings, It's ntting that
limited beings be honored, In accordance with this very share.
118. Since tbere lies in beinqs o sbore ln brinqinq fortb tbe supreme onJ enliqbteneJ stote, By virtue of tbis
pority olone lts riqbt tbot l sboulJ reverence tbem.
_________ ___________ ____________
_ ___________
(119) Further, besides making limited beings happy, What other repayment is there For those who befriend them
without pretension And help them beyond any measure?
119. Tbe BuJJbos ore my true, unfoilinq frienJs. BounJless ore tbe benejits tbey brinq to me. Eow else moy l
repoy tbeir qooJness But by mokinq livinq beinqs boppy?
6. Showing Patience - 76
___________ ____________ _______
__ ___________
(120) Since it would repay them to benent those for whose sake Tey sacrince their bodies and plunge into joyless
realms of unrelenting pain, Ten even if these (limited beings) should cause great harm, Everything wholesome is to
be done (for them).
120. By belpinq beinqs we repoy tbe ones Wbo socrijice tbeir lives for us onJ plunqe into tbe bell of
0nrelentinq Poin. SboulJ beinqs tberefore Jo qreot borm to me, lll strive to brinq tbem only benejit.
__________ __________ _______
__ _________
(121) For the sake of even, in this case, my master himself, Tey disregard even their own bodies. So how can I,
bewildered about this, act with pride And not act in the nature of a servant?
121. Ior tbose wbo bove become my lorJs, At times, took core not even of tbeir boJies. Wby sboulJ l, o fool,
bebove witb sucb conceit? Wby sboulJ l not become tbe slove of otbers?
______________ __________ ____
________ ___________
(122) Te Sages delight in their happiness And enter into distress at their injury; And so, in (my) bringing them joy,
the Sages will all have become delighted, And in bringing them harm, the Sages will have been hurt.
122. BuJJbos ore moJe boppy by tbe joy of beinqs. Tbey sorrow, tbey loment wben beinqs suffer.
By brinqinq joy to beinqs, tben, l pleose tbe BuJJbos olso; By wounJinq tbem, l wounJ tbe BuJJbos too.
__________ _________ __________
___ _______________
(123) Just as there could be no mental pleasure from desirable objects For someone whose body were completely on
nre, Likewise, there's no way to delight the Greatly Compassionate Ones When limited beings have, in fact, been
12S. }ust os tberes no sensuol Jeliqbt To pleose tbe minJ of one wbose boJy burns in jire, Tbere is no woy to
pleose tbe qreot compossionote ones Wbile we ourselves ore couses of onotbers poin.
_____________ _____________ ____
_______ _____________
(124) Terefore, whatever displeasure I've brought to all the Greatly Compassionate Ones, By my having caused
harm to limited beings, I openly admit, today, that negative deed, And request the Sages, please bear with that
displeasure you have.
124. Tbe Jomoqe l bove Jone to beinqs SoJJens oll tbe BuJJbos in tbeir qreot compossion. Tberefore, oll
tbese evils l confess toJoy AnJ proy tbot tbey will beor witb my offences.
6. Showing Patience - 77
_______________ ____________ ___
__________ __________________
(125) From now on, for the sake of delighting the Tusly Gone (Buddhas), I shall act, with dennite restraint, as a
servant to the world. Let mobs of people kick me in the head with their feet or even beat me to death, I shall not
venture (anything back). Let the Guardians of the World take delight!
12S. Tbot l miqbt rejoice tbe BuJJbos beorts, Eencefortb l will be moster of myself, tbe servont of tbe worlJ.
l sboll not seek revenqe tbouqb crowJs moy tromple on my beoJ or kill me. let tbe 6uorJions of tbe worlJ
____________ _________ ________
__ ___________
(126) Tere's no doubt that Tose with a Compassion Self-Nature Have taken all wandering beings (to be the same)
as themselves. Te very nature they've seen as the essential nature of limited beings Is those Guardians' self-nature,
so why don't I show (them the same) respect?
126. Tbe qreot compossionote lorJs consiJer os tbemselves
All beinqstberes no Joubt of tbis.
Tbose wbom l perceive os beinqs ore BuJJbos in tbemselves; Eow con l not treot tbem witb respect?
______________ ______ ________
___ __________
(127) Just this, is what brings pleasure to the Tusly Gone (Buddhas); Just this, is what perfectly accomplishes my
own aims as well; Just this, is what dispels the world's sunering too; Terefore, let it be just this, that I always shall
127. Tbis very tbinq is pleosinq to tbe BuJJbos beorts AnJ perfectly secures tbe welfore of myself.
Tbis will Jrive owoy tbe sorrows of tbe worlJ, AnJ tberefore it will be my constont work.
________ _______ _______ ____
(128) For example, even when some member of the royal court
Is harming the public, Farsighted people do not hurt him back Even if they're able,
128. lmoqine tbot tbe steworJ of o kinq Boes injury to multituJes of people. Tbose witb cleor, forseeinq eyes
Bo not responJ witb violence even if tbey con.
______ ________ __________ _
(129) For that one, (acting) like this, is not alone: On the contrary, the king's power and might are his military
forces. Likewise, some lowly person creating harm Is not to be belittled,
129. Ior steworJs, ofter oll, ore not olone. Tbey ore supporteJ by tbe kinqly power. Tberefore l will not
Jespise Tbe feeble beinqs tormentinq me.
6. Showing Patience - 78
____ __________ _________
___ ____________
(130) For his armed forces are the guards of the joyless realms And all the Compassionate Ones. So, like a commoner
toward a violent king, I shall make all limited beings be pleased.
1S0. Tbeir ollies ore tbe quorJions of bell AnJ olso tbe compossionote BuJJbos. Tberefore livinq beinqs l will
qrotify As subjects miqbt plocote o wrotbful kinq.
_______ ___________ ______ _
(131) Should even such a king be enraged (with me), Could he innict the pain of a joyless realm, Which is what I'd
be brought to experience By having made limited beings displeased?
1S1. AnJ yet, tbe poins of bell to be enJureJ Tbrouqb mokinq livinq beinqs suffer CoulJ tbese ever be
unleosbeJ on me By oll tbe ire of sucb o kinq?
________ ___________ ________ __
(132) Should even such a king be pleased (with me), It's impossible that he could bestow Buddhahood, Which is
what I'd be brought to attain By having made limited beings be pleased.
1S2. AnJ even if tbot kinq were pleoseJ, Fnliqbtenment be coulJ not qive to me. Ior tbis will only be ocbieveJ
By brinqinq boppiness to beinqs.
_________ ___________ _____
(133) (Leave aside) seeing that the future attainment of Buddhahood Arises from making limited beings be pleased,
Don't you see that, at least in this life, great prosperity, Fame, and happiness come?
1SS. No neeJ to mention future BuJJbobooJ, AcbieveJ tbrouqb brinqinq boppiness to beinqs. Eow con l not
see tbot qlory, fome, onJ pleosure Fven in tbis life will likewise come?
____________ ________ _____
_________ _____________ ___________
(134) (Moreover), with beauty and so on, freedom from sickness, and fame, Someone with patience, while still in
samsara, Gains extremely long life and the abundant pleasures Of a universal chakra king.
1S4. Ior potience in somsoro brinqs sucb tbinqs As beouty, beoltb, onJ qooJ renown. lts fruit is qreot
lonqevity, Tbe vost contentment of o universol kinq.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 79
7. Joyful Perseverance - Diligence
_____________ __________ _____
___ _____________
(1) Patient like that, I need to embrace joyful perseverance, Since (based) on perseverance, enlightenment takes place.
After all, without joyful perseverance, there's no arising of positive force, Just as, without wind, there's no motion.
1. Tbus witb potience l will strive witb Jiliqence. Ior in sucb Jiliqence enliqbtenment is founJ. lf no winJ
blows, tben notbinq stirs, AnJ neitber is tbere merit witbout Jiliqence.
_______ __________ ____ _____
(2) What's joyful perseverance? It's zestful vigor for being constructive. Its opposing factors are explained as lethargy,
clinging to what's negative (or petty), And, from being discouraged, disparaging oneself.
2. Biliqence meons joy in virtuous woys.
lts controries bove been JejineJ os loziness, An inclinotion for
unwbolesomeness, Befeotism onJ self-contempt.
______ _________ _________
(3) Lethargy arises From apathy about the problems of recurring samsara,
(Which comes) through relishing a taste of pleasure from idleness And through craving sleep as a haven.
S. A toste for iJle pleosure AnJ o crovinq for repose onJ sleep,
No quolms obout tbe sorrows of somsoro: loziness inJeeJ is born from tbese.
____________ ________ ________ _
(4) Snined out by the trapper, the disturbing emotions, And fallen into the trap of rebirth, How do you still not
realize Tat you've landed in the mouth of the lord of death?
4. SnoreJ by tbe tropper of JejileJ emotion, FnmesbeJ onJ token in tbe toils of birtb, Aqoin youve stroyeJ
into tbe mow of Beotb. Wbot is it? Eove you still not unJerstooJ?
_______ _________ _________ _
(5) Don't you even see that he's slaughtering Te members of your herd, each in turn? Yet despite being like a bunalo
at the butcher, You even go to sleep!
S. Bont you see bow, one by one, Beotb bos come for oll your kinJ? AnJ yet you slumber on so sounJly, like o
buffolo besiJe its butcber.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 80
____________ ____________ ______ _
(6) With the road blocked everywhere And eyeballed by the lord of death,
How can eating bring you joy? How can sleeping? How can making love?
6. All tbe potbs of jliqbt ore blockeJ, Tbe lorJ of Beotb now bos you in bis siqbts. Eow con you toke sucb
pleosure in your fooJ, AnJ bow con you Jeliqbt to rest onJ sleep?
______ __________ ____ ____
(7) So stock up on a bountiful store (of positive force) while you can, For death will come all too soon. Even by
throwing on lethargy then, What can you accomplish when out of time?
7. Beotb will swoop on you so swiftly. 6otber merit till tbot moment comes!
Ior even if you tben tbrow off your inJolence, Wbot will you Jo wben tbere is no more time?
_________ ________ _________ __
(8) With this still not done, this just having been started, Tis still left half-done, And the lord of death having come
all of a sudden, And the thought arising, "Oh no, I'm destroyed!"
8. "Tbis l bove not Jone, onJ tbis lm only stortinq. AnJ tbislm only bolfwoy tbrouqb . . ."
Tben is tbe suJJen cominq of tbe lorJ of Beotb, AnJ ob, tbe tbouqbt "Alos, lm jinisbeJ!"
_______ __________ _____ ___
(9) And seeing relatives, Teir faces with red eyes swollen from the force of grief And nowing with tears, having lost
all hope, And also the faces of the messengers of Yama,
9. Youll look upon tbe foces of your bopeless frienJs, Tbeir teorstoineJ cbeeks, tbeir reJ onJ swollen eyes {Ior
sucb will be tbe Jeptbs of tbeir Jistress), AnJ tben youll see tbe berolJs of tbe BeoJly lorJ.
_______ _______ _________ _
(10) Tormented by the memory of negative acts, Hearing the screams from the joyless realms, Body befouled with
excrement because of fear - Having become delirious, what will you do?
10. Tbe memory of former sins will torture you, Tbe screoms onJ Jin of bell breok on your eors. Witb very
terror you will foul yourself. Wbot will you Jo in sucb Jelirium?
________ ________ _________ __
(11) If, like a live nsh nopping, (about to be cooked,) You'd have (such) terror in this lifetime; Is there need to
mention the unbearable tortures Of the joyless realms, when having created (so much) negative force?
11. lf, like o livinq jisb tbot twists onJ writbes, You ore so terrijieJ wbile still olive, Wbot neeJ to speok of poin
unbeoroble ln bells creoteJ by post evil JeeJs?
7. Joyful Perseverance - 81
_________ ________ _______ ___
(12) Baby-skin! Even at the touch of hot water, you're scalded! How can you sit back at ease like this, Doing karmic
deeds for a joyless realm (rebirth)?
12. Eow con you remoin ot eose like tbis Wben you bove Jone tbe JeeJs tbot leoJ To contoct on your tenJer
boby-jlesb 0f boilinq liquiJs in tbe bell of Fxtreme Eeot?
________ _______ __________ __
(13) Dreamer of results without any enort! Weakling! Waster of plenitude! Seized by death and having the airs of an
(immortal) god! Oh dear! With these miserable ways, you're destroying yourself!
1S. So testy onJ tbin-skinneJ, you wont results witbout enJeovor Hony ore tbe troubles now in store for
you! Tbouqb in tbe qrip of Jeotb, you ore bebovinq like o qoJ,
AnJ sufferinq, olos, will beot you Jown!
________ _________ _________ ___
(14) Seated in a boat (now) of a human rebirth, Cross over the mighty river of sunering! With this boat being so hard
to catch again, Idiot, it's not time for going to sleep!
14. So toke oJvontoqe of tbis bumon boot. Iree yourself from sorrows miqbty streom! Tbis vessel will be loter
borJ to jinJ. Tbe time tbot you bove now, you fool, is not for sleep!
________ ___________ ________
(15) Letting go of the joy of the hallowed Dharma - Te best, an unending fount of joy - How can you nnd any joy
in such causes for sunering As shenanigans, joking, and the like?
1S. You turn your bock upon tbe SocreJ Boctrine, Supreme joy onJ bounJless source of bliss. Wby Jeliqbt in
mere excitement, ln Jistroctions tbot will couse you misery?
_______ _______ _________
(16) (So,) don't get discouraged, amass the supporting forces, Readily accept, and take control of yourself, Ten
equalize self and others, And exchange self for others, too.
16. Bo not be Jowncost, but morsbol oll your powers; Hoke on effort; be tbe moster of yourself! Proctice tbe
equolity of self onJ otber; Proctice tbe excbonqe of self onJ otber.
__________ _______ __________ ___
(17) Never get discouraged by thinking, "How can there be enlightenment for me?"
For the Speaker of Truth, the Tusly Gone (Buddha), Has pronounced this truth, like this:
17. "0b, but bow coulJ l become enliqbteneJ?" Bont excuse yourself witb sucb JesponJency! Tbe BuJJbo,
wbo Jeclores tbe trutb, Eos truly spoken onJ procloimeJ
7. Joyful Perseverance - 82
______ _________ ____________ ___
(18) "Even those who've become gnats, mosquitoes, Hornets, and worms likewise too, Shall attain unsurpassable
enlightenment, so hard to attain, By generating the force of zestful vigor."
18. Tbot if tbey brinq fortb strenqtb of perseveronce, Fven bees onJ jlies AnJ qnots onJ qrubs will qoin
Supreme enliqbtenment so borJ to jinJ.
_________ _________ _________ ____
(19) (How much more so for) someone like me, having (Buddha) nature and born as a human, Able to perceive
what's of benent or harm! Why shouldn't I reach enlightenment, So long as I don't quit bodhisattva behavior?
19. AnJ if, by birtb onJ lineoqe of bumon kinJ, lm oble to Jistinquisb qooJ from ill
AnJ Jo not leove osiJe tbe BoJbisottvo JeeJs, Wby sboulJ l not ottoin tbe stote of BuJJbobooJ?
________ ____________ ___ _
(20) Suppose I said, "But it frightens me Tat my arms, legs, and so on are to be given away." Well, I'm being
reduced to fear by a state of bewilderment, From failing to discern what's heavy or light.
20. "Tbot l must qive owoy my life onJ limbs Alorms onJ friqbtens me"if so you soy, Your terror is
misploceJ. ConfuseJ, You foil to see wbots borJ onJ wbot is eosy.
________ ______ ___________
(21) For countless millions of eons, I'll be gashed, stabbed, burned, and split open Innumerable times,
And still won't attain enlightenment;
21. Ior myrioJs of oqes, meosureless, uncounteJ, Your boJy bos been cut, impoleJ, BurneJ, tornfor times
post numberinq! Yet none of tbis bos brouqbt you BuJJbobooJ.
__________ ______ __________
(22) But this sunering I'll have In achieving enlightenment is something with a limit, Like the pain from an incision
made on my body To remove the harm from a foreign object festering inside.
22. Tbe borJsbips suffereJ on tbe potb to BuJJbobooJ Are limiteJ in tbeir extent AnJ likeneJ to tbe poin of on
incision HoJe to cure tbe borms of inworJ ills.
__________ ______ _________ _____
(23) All doctors, in fact, bring freedom from sickness Trough the discomforts of medical treatments; So a little
discomfort must be endured To kill on a plague of sunerings.
2S. AnJ oll our Joctors cure Jiseose By meons of bitter remeJies.
likewise, to Jestroy o vost omount of poin, We sboulJ be potient witb our little burts.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 83
_____ ___________ ________ _____
(24) Yet, the Foremost Physician hasn't onered Te usual healing treatments like these; But rather, cures countless
chronic amictions With an extremely gentle procedure.
24. AnJ yet tbe Supreme Eeoler Joes not use, like tbem, tbese common remeJies. Witb woys of extreme
tenJerness Ee sootbes owoy intense onJ bounJless sufferinq.
________ __________ _________ _
(25) As a start, the Spiritual Guide prescribes Giving away a vegetable and the like. Once accustomed to that, one
may eventually, through stages, Come to give away even one's own nesh.
2S. 0ur quiJe instructs us to beqin By qivinq veqetoble qreens or otber little tbinqs, Tbot loter, step-by-step,
tbe bobit once ocquireJ, We moy be oble to Jonote our very jlesb.
_____ __________ ________ ____

(26) When the insight arises that my very own body Is similar to a vegetable and the like, Ten, as for giving away
such things as my nesh, What hardship would there be in that?
26. Ior wben we truly feel 0ur boJies ore no Jifferent from tbe qiven berbs, Wbot borJsbip con tbere be
ln qivinq up, relinquisbinq, our very jlesb?
__________ _________ ______
(27) (After all,) from purging negative karmic force, there'll be no more sunering, And from becoming mentally
proncient, there won't be any more mental distress; But similarly, from distorted conceptions, the mind gets hurt,
And from negative force, the body.
27. Sin bos been obonJoneJ, tbus tbere is no poin; Tbrouqb bovinq wisJom tbere is no more sorrow. Ior so it
is tbot minJ onJ boJy botb Are injureJ by folse views onJ sinfulness.
__________ ___________ ___________
(28) Trough positive force, though, the body has joy, And with mental pronciency, the mind becomes joyful.
So even remaining in recurring samsara for the sake of others, What could depress a compassionate one?
28. Herit is tbe true couse of tbe boJys eose, Wbile boppiness of minJ is boJ tbrouqb unJerstonJinq. Wbot
con soJJen tbose wbo bove compossion, Wbo remoin witbin somsoro for tbe soke of beinqs?
____________ ________ ___________ __
(29) Because the strength of his bodhichitta aim Is depleting his negative forces from the past And gathering oceans
of positive force, He's explained as surpassing the shravaka listeners.
29. Ior tbrouqb tbeir power of boJbicbitto, Iormer sins ore totolly consumeJ, AnJ merit, oceon-vost, is
qotbereJ in, lts tberefore soiJ tbot tbey excel tbe Sbrovokos.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 84
_______ ____________ _______ ______
(30) So, mounting the horse of the bodhichitta aim, Which dispels all depression and exhaustion, And journeying
from joy to joy, Who, with a sensible mind, would ever become discouraged?
S0. HounteJ on tbe borse of boJbicbitto, Wbicb puts to jliqbt oll mournful weoriness, Wbot luciJ person coulJ
be in Jespoir ProceeJinq in tbis woy from joy to joy?
___________ ________ ___________
(31) (Tus,) the supporting forces for fulnlling the aims of limited beings Are strong intention, steadfastness, delight,
and letting go. Strong intention is developed from the dread of sunering And by renecting on its benents.
S1. Tbe forces tbot secure tbe qooJ of beinqs, Are ospirotion, steoJfostness, relinquisbment, onJ joy.
Aspirotion qrows tbrouqb feor of sufferinq AnJ contemplotion of tbe benejits to be ottoineJ.
__________ ____ __________
(32) Uprooting opposing factors like that, I shall strive then to further my zestful vigor With the forces of strong
intention, having pride, delight, and letting go, Also readily accepting and taking control.
S2. Tberefore leovinq everytbinq tbot is oJverse to it, lll lobor to increose my Jiliqence, Tbrouqb ospirotion
onJ self-conjiJence, relinquisbment onJ joy, By strenqtb of eornest opplicotion onJ exertion of control.
__________ ____________ ____ ___
(33) But the faults of both myself and others Tat I'll need to vanquish are boundless! And when the depletion of
each individual fault Will take oceans of eons,
SS. Tbe bounJless evils of myself onJ otbers l must brinq tbem oll to notbinq, Fven tbouqb o sinqle of tbese
ills Hoy toke unnumbereJ oqes to exboust!
_______ _______ ___________ ___
(34) And even a fraction of that initiative For depleting those faults can't be seen yet in me, Ten how is it that my
heart doesn't burst At the fathomless sunerings that I'll need to endure?
S4. AnJ if l jinJ witbin myself No siqn tbot foults ore even stortinq to be cleonseJ, Wby Joes my beort not
burst osunJer, BestineJ os l om for bounJless poin?
__________ ___________ ___ ____
(35) Te excellent features, for both myself and others, Tat I'll need to actualize are also enormous! And there, when
the repeated practice for each individual feature Will take oceans of eons,
SS.!6ooJ quolities for my onJ otbers soke, Tbouqb tbey be mony, l must now occomplisb, Fven tbouqb for
eocb of tbem!l must enJeovor for unnumbereJ oqes.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 85
_______ __________ ________ ______
(36) And I've never developed the repeated practice For even a fraction of the excellent features, It's amazing how I've
rendered meaningless Tis rebirth somehow attained!
S6. Acquointonce l bove never qoineJ Witb even port of sucb qreot quolities.
lt is inJeeJ omozinq tbot l renJer meoninqless Tbis life tbot somebow l bove qoineJ.
___________ ___________ ________ _
(37) I've not made onerings to the Vanquishing Master, Nor provided the joy of magnincent feasts; I've done no
services for the teachings, Nor fulnlled the hopes of the poor!
S7. 0fferinqs to tbe BuJJbos l bove never moJe; No feosts were ever belJ tbrouqb my Jonotions; No works
bove l occomplisbeJ for tbe Teocbinqs; Tbe wisbes of tbe poor l left unsotisjieJ.
__________ ___________ ____ ____
(38) I've given no freedom from fear to the frightened, Nor onered comfort to those in distress! It comes down to all
that I have produced Is only discomfort, and the pain (of an alien object) in the womb for my mother!
S8. l bove not soveJ tbe friqbteneJ from tbeir feor; Tbe wretcbeJ l bove not consoleJ.
Hy motbers poin, ber wombs Jiscomfort: Tbese olone ore my occomplisbments.
______ _______ ______ ___
(39) (Since) such a poor mess has come about Trough my lacking a strong intention for the Dharma
In former lives and now, Who would ever give up strong intention for the Dharma?
S9. Hy foilure to ospire to Bbormo Now onJ in tbe post
Eos brouqbt me to my present Jereliction. Wbo tberefore woulJ spurn sucb ospirotion?
__________ ____________ _____ ______
(40) Te Sage has chimed, "A strong intention is the root Of every constructive facet." And the root of that is
constantly having meditated on Te ripened results (of karma):
40. Aspirotion, so tbe Soqe osserteJ, ls tbe root of every kinJ of virtue. Aspirotions root in turn
ls constont meJitotion on tbe fruits of oction.
_______ ___________ _______ ___
(41) Pain, foul moods, and assorted forms of fear, And being parted from what I would like, Come about from
behaving With negative karmic force.
41. Tbe boJys poins, onxieties of minJ, AnJ oll my feors of vorious kinJs, To be JepriveJ of wbot l wont
Sucb is tbe borvest of my sinful JeeJs.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 86
__________ _____ _______
(42) (Consider this:) by enacting the constructive deeds Tat my mind has intended, Wherever I'm reborn, I'll be
honored, through their positive force, With an oblation as the karmic result.
42. But if my octs ore qooJ, sincerely intenJeJ, Tben no motter wbere l turn my steps, Tbe merit qoineJ will
bonor me Witb its resultinq benejits.
_______ _____ _____ ____
(43) But by enacting negative deeds, Tough I wish for happiness, Wherever I'm reborn, I'll be assaulted, through
their negative karmic force, By weapons of pain.
4S. But if, tbrouqb seekinq boppiness, my JeeJs ore wronq, No motter wbere l turn my steps, Tbe knives of
misery will cut me Jown, Tbe woqe onJ retribution of o sinful life.
_____________ ___________________ __
____________ ___________________
(44) By constructive behavior, I'll come to stay in the presence of the Triumphant as a spiritual child of the Blissfully
Gone, With a superb body, born from a lotus opened by the splendor of the Sage, And dwelling in the heart of a
spacious, fragrant, cool lotus, My radiance shall grow with nourishment from the Triumphant's melodious voice.
44. Tbrouqb virtue l will rest witbin tbe cool beort of o froqront spreoJinq lotus, Witb splenJor nurtureJ by
tbe sweet worJs of tbe Conqueror. Tben from tbe lotus openeJ in tbe Soqes liqbt, in supreme form l will orise
To Jwell, tbe blissful BuJJbos beir, in presence of victorious 0nes.
______________________ ______________
____ ___________________ ____
(45) But, by serial destructive behavior, I'll fall onto a nercely naming iron ground, Horribly tortured by Yama's
henchmen, ripping on my entire skin, Pouring into my body molten copper liquined by enormous heat, Stabbing me
with naming swords and daggers, and rending my nesh into hundreds of bits.
4S. 0r else os woqes of my mony sins, my skin completely jloyeJ, l sboll be utterly brouqbt low
By creotures of tbe lorJ of Beotb, wbo on my boJy pour o liquiJ bronze oll melteJ in tbe JreoJful bloze.
AnJ pierceJ by burninq sworJs onJ knives, my jlesb BismembereJ in o bunJreJ ports will foll upon tbe wbite-
bot iron qrounJ.
_______ _________ ________ ______
(46) Hence, I shall set a strong intention to (do) what's constructive And make it a habit, with regard.
Undertaking it, then, I'll make it a habit of having pride, Trough the lines in the Vajradhvaja (Sutra).
46. Tberefore l will ospire onJ tenJ to virtue, AnJ steep myself in it witb qreot Jevotion.
AnJ witb tbe metboJ stoteJ in tbe vojroJbvojo,

l will troin in conjiJent ossuronce.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 87
__________ ___________ ___________
(47) Examining my talents nrst, To undertake (something) or not undertake it, It's better not to undertake it at all -
Not to start it and then turn back.
47. let me jirst consiJer my reservesTo stort or not to stort occorJinqly. lt miqbt be better not to stort,
But once bequn, l sboulJ not tben witbJrow.
_________ _________ _________
(48) For that turns into a habit in future lives too And causes negative force and sunering to increase; While other
(undertakings) and the time for their results Are weakened and do not succeed.
48. Ior if l Jo sucb tbinqs, tbe pottern will return ln loter lives, onJ sin onJ poin will qrow. AnJ otber octions
will be left unJone 0r else will beor o meoqer fruit.
_________ _______ __________ __
(49) Actions, disturbing emotions, and abilities - Pride is to be applied regarding the three.
"It's something that I myself shall do" Is having pride regarding actions.
49. Action, tbe ofjlictions, onJ obility: Tbree tbinqs to wbicb my priJe sboulJ be JirecteJ.

"l will Jo tbis, l
myself, olone!" Tbese worJs Jejine my priJe of oction.
___________ _________ __________
(50) Worldly beings, not under their own power, Due to disturbing emotions, are unable to accomplish their very
own aims. But I'm not incapable, like wandering beings, So I'll do this (for them).
S0. 0verpowereJ by tbeir minJs ofjlictions, WorlJly folk ore belpless to secure tbeir boppiness. ComporeJ
witb tbose wbo wonJer, l om oble! Tbis tberefore sboll be my tosk.
__________ ________ ______ __
(51) How can I stand by While someone else is doing an inferior job?
If it's because of being proud that I'm not doing it (instead), Ten best to let pride be exterminated in me.
S1. Wben otbers qive tbemselves to low bebovior, Wbot sboll be my stonce in tbeir reqorJ?
ln ony cose, lll not be orroqont; Hy best woy is to qive up sucb conceit.
______ _______ _________ ___
(52) Even a crow makes itself act like an eagle When encountering a snake that's already dead. But if I remain timid,
Even the slightest setback impairs me.
S2. Wben tbey jinJ o Jyinq serpent, Fven crows bebove like soorinq eoqles. Tberefore if lm weok onJ feeble-
beorteJ, Fven little foults will strike onJ injure me.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 88
_______ ______ ________ ____
(53) Discouraged and having given up enort, Will there be liberation due to feeling bankrupt, or what? But by
strengthening my enort through having my pride, Even huge things will have dimculty triumphing (over me).
SS. But if, JepresseJ, l qive up tryinq, Eow con l qoin freeJom from my object stote? But if l stonJ my qrounJ
witb prouJ resolve, lt will be borJ for even qreot foults to ottock me.
___________ ___________ ___________ ___
(54) Terefore, with my mind steadfast, I shall set back setbacks. For if setbacks bankrupt me,
My wishing to triumph over the three realms becomes a joke.
S4. Tberefore witb o steoJfost beort lll qet tbe better of my weoknesses. But if my foilinqs qet tbe upper bonJ,
Hy wisb to overcome tbe triple worlJ is louqboble inJeeJ.
__________ _______ __________ _
(55) I shall triumph over everything And nothing shall triumph over me!
As a spiritual onspring of the Triumphant Lion, I shall maintain this pride.
SS. "l will be victor over oll, AnJ notbinq sboll prevoil onJ brinq me Jown!" Tbe offsprinq of tbe lion, tbe
Conqueror, SboulJ constontly obiJe in tbis self-conjiJence.
_______ ________ ______ _
(56) Wandering beings conquered by pride Are disturbed: they have no pride;
For those having pride don't fall under the enemy's power, But instead, have power over the enemy, pride.
S6. Tbose wbom orroqonce Jestroys Are tbus JejileJ; tbey lock self-conjiJence. Tbose wbo bove true
conjiJence escope tbe foe, Wbile otbers foll into tbe power of on evil priJe.
___________ _____ _______
(57) Filled up with the disturbing emotion of pride, Tey're led by pride to the worse rebirth states, And even as
humans, their festivity is killed; Tey become slaves, eating the scraps of others,
S7. Wben orroqonce injlotes tbe minJ, lt Jrows it Jown to stotes of misery0r ruins boppiness, sboulJ
bumon birtb be qoineJ. Tbus one is born o slove, JepenJent for ones sustenonce,
_________ _________ _________
_______ _______
(58) Stupid, ugly, feeble, And insulted in all (situations). If nlled up with pride, those having trials
Are also included among those having pride, Ten what kind of pathetic beings are they, tell me please?
S8. 0r feebleminJeJ, uqly, witbout strenqtb, Tbe butt onJ louqbinqstock of everyone. Tbese "oscetics" puffeJ
up witb conceit! lf tbese you coll tbe prouJ, tben tell me wbo ore wretcbeJ?
7. Joyful Perseverance - 89
__________ ________ ____
_______ ______________
(59) But those who hold on to their pride in order to triumph over the enemy, pride, Are the holders of pride, the
triumphant heroes. And those who kill on the enemy, pride,even though it's gargantuan, Bestow then the fruit of
triumph in full on wandering beings, whatever they wish.
S9. Tbose wbo upbolJ priJe to vonquisb priJe, tbe enemy, Are truly prouJ, victorious, onJ brove. AnJ tbey
wbo stem tbe increose of tbot evil priJe, Perfect, occorJinq to tbeir wisb, tbe fruit of victory for beinqs.
____________ ___________ ___________ __
(60) So, when standing amidst a horde of disturbing emotions, I shall hold my ground (proudly), in a thousand
ways, And not be thrown on by the pack of disturbing emotions, Like a lion with jackals and such.
60. Wben l om beleoquereJ by Jejilements, l will stonJ onJ foce tbem in o tbousonJ woys. lll not surrenJer to
tbe bost of tbe ofjlictions But like o lion l will stonJ omiJ o crowJ of foxes.
_______ _________ ________ ____
(61) Just as a person would protect his eyes When events of great danger actually arise; Likewise, I'll never fall under
the power of disturbing emotions, When danger actually arises.
61. Eowever qreot moy be tbeir peril, People will by rejlex quorJ tbeir eyes. AnJ likewise l, wbotever Jonqers
come, Hust not foll Jown beneotb Jejilements power.
_____________ ________ __________ _
___ ____________ __________
(62) Let me be burned to death, Or even have my head chopped on, that would be better; But I'll never, in any way,
Bow to the enemy, disturbing emotions. Likewise, in all situations, I shall never do anything other than what's nt.
62. Better for me to be burneJ to Jeotb, AnJ better to be killeJ, my beoJ cut off! At no time will l bow onJ
scrope Before tbot foe of mine, JejileJ emotion.
62o. Tbus in every time onJ ploce l will not wonJer from tbe wbolesome potb.
_______ _____ ______ ___
(63) Like someone wishing for happiness as the result of play, Any (positive) actions (a bodhisattva's) engaged in,
He clings to those actions And delights in those actions, never having enough.
6S. like tbose wbo toke qreot pleosure in tbeir qomes, Wbotever tosk tbe BoJbisottvos Jo,
let tbem Jevote tbemselves witbout reserve, Witb joyfulness tbot never knows sotiety.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 90
_______ ________ _______ _
(64) Although people do actions for the sake of happiness, It's not clear that they'll become happy or not;
But for (a bodhisattva) whose actions in fact bring happiness, How can he be happy without doing those actions?
64. People lobor borJ to qoin contentment Tbouqb success is very for from sure.
But bow con tbey be boppy if tbey Jo not Jo Tbose JeeJs tbot ore tbe source of joy to tbem?
________ __________ _______ _____
(65) If there can never be enough desirable sensory objects, Tough they're like honey on a razor's edge, How can
there ever be enough (ambrosia of ) positive actions, Which have as their ripening (sweet) happiness and peace?
6S. AnJ since tbey never bove enouqb of pleosure, Eoney on tbe rozors eJqe, Eow coulJ tbey bove enouqb of
merit, Iruits of wbicb ore boppiness onJ peoce?
________ _______ ___________ _
(66) So, after completing a positive action, I'll plunge into the action (that's next), right then, Like an elephant
parched by the midday sun, When encountering a pond, plunging into the water.
66. Tbe elepbont, tormenteJ by tbe noonJoy sun, Will Jive into tbe woters of o loke,
AnJ likewise l must plunqe into my work Tbot l miqbt brinq it to completion.
___________ ____ ________ __
(67) But, following upon a decline in my strength, I'll set (my activity) aside, to take up again;
And having completed it well, I shall leave it, With thirst for the next and the next.
67. lf impoireJ by weokness or fotique, lll loy tbe work osiJe, tbe better to resume. AnJ l will leove tbe tosk
wben its complete, All oviJ for tbe work tbots next to come.
_______ _________ ___________
_ ________________
(68) Ten, like engaging a sword in a duel With a seasoned opponent, I shall parry the disturbing emotions' thrusts,
And decisively stab my opponent, the disturbing emotions.
68. As seosoneJ jiqbters foce tbe sworJs 0f enemies upon tbe bottle line,
lll liqbtly JoJqe tbe weopons of Jejilement, AnJ strike my enemy upon tbe quick.
_____ ________ __________
(69) Just as someone, having dropped his sword in a duel, Would snatch it up quickly, out of fear,
So, having dropped the sword of mindfulness, I shall quickly snatch it up, mindful of the fears of the joyless realms.
69. lf, in tbe froy, tbe solJier Jrops bis sworJ, ln friqbt, be swiftly tokes it up oqoin.
So likewise, if tbe orm of minJfulness is lost, ln feor of bell, lll quickly qet it bock!
7. Joyful Perseverance - 91
_________ ______ __________ ____
(70) Just as poison on (the blade of a sword, nnding) blood as its carrier,
Spreads throughout the body, Similarly, a fault, when nnding an opening, Spreads throughout the mind.
70. }ust os poison jills tbe boJy, Borne on tbe current of tbe blooJ, likewise evil, wben it jinJs its cbonce, Will
spreoJ onJ permeote tbe minJ.
________ ________ ____________
_ _____________
(71) Like a terrined person, carrying a jar nlled with mustard oil, With someone keeping in front, poking with a
sword, Treatening to kill him if he spills (a drop), Someone with taming behavior needs likewise to hold on tight.
71. l will be like o friqbteneJ mon, o brimminq oil-jor in bis bonJ, AnJ menoceJ by o sworJsmon soyinq,
"Spill one Jrop onJ you sboll Jie!" Tbis is bow proctitioners sboulJ bolJ tbemselves.
______ ________ __________
(72) Terefore, just as I'd swiftly stand up At the slithering of a snake into my lap, Likewise, at the slithering in of
sleepiness or lethargy, I shall swiftly repulse it.
72. }ust os o mon woulJ swiftly stonJ lf in bis lop o serpent were to qliJe, lf sleep onJ letborqy beset me,
l will speeJily repulse tbem.
______ ________ _______ ____
(73) Scolding myself on each and every occasion of a lapse,
I shall contemplate at length, "How can I act so that never again Will this happen to me?"
7S. Fvery time, tben, tbot l foil, l will reprove onJ cbiJe myself, Tbinkinq lonq tbot by wbotever meons Sucb
foults in future sboll no more occur.
_________ __________ ______ ___
(74) With this as a motive, "How can I make it a habit To be mindful, given those situations?"
I'll aspire for the company (of spiritual teachers) Or the appropriate action (that they give me to do).
74. At oll times onJ in ony situotion, Eow con l moke minJfulness my constont bobit? Tbinkinq tbus l will
Jesire To meet witb teocbers onJ fuljill tbe proper tosks.
________ _______ ________ ___
(75) Ten, the way to have force for all (events), Before doing some action, is
Tat I'll rally and invigorate myself, Recalling the chapter on taking care.
7S. By oll meons, tben, before l stort some work, Tbot l miqbt bove tbe strenqtb sufjicient to tbe tosk, l will
recoll tbe teocbinqs upon corefulness AnJ liqbtly rise to wbot is to be Jone.
7. Joyful Perseverance - 92
_____ _______ __________ ___
____ _____________ ________________
(76) Just as the wind, coming and going, Takes control of a cotton ball, So shall I take control of myself, with zestful
vigor, And gain, in this way, spiritual success.
76. }ust os jloxen tbreoJs woft to onJ fro, lmpelleJ by every breotb of winJ, So oll l Jo will be ocbieveJ,
ControlleJ by movements of o joyful beort.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 93
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - Meditative concentration
___________ _______ __________
_ _____________
(1) Having increased my zestful vigor like that, I shall set my mind in absorbed concentration; Since a person having
a distracted mind Is set between the fangs of disturbing emotions.
1. Cultivotinq Jiliqence os just JescribeJ, ln concentrotion l will ploce my minJ.
Ior tbose wbose minJs ore slock onJ wonJerinq Are couqbt between tbe fonqs of tbe ofjlictions.
_________ _______ ________ ___
(2) Trough dissociating (both my) body and mind, Tere'll be no occurrence of any distraction; Terefore, I'll set
aside worldly concerns And bring my rambling thought to a halt.
2. ln solituJe, tbe minJ onJ boJy Are not troubleJ by Jistroction. Tberefore leove tbis worlJly life
AnJ totolly obonJon mentol wonJerinq.
_________ __________ _____
(3) Worldly concerns are not discarded Because of sticky attachments and thirst for material gain and the like;
Terefore, to set these things aside, Someone with knowledge would discern like this:
S. Becouse of loveJ ones onJ Jesire for qoin, We foil to turn owoy from worlJly tbinqs. Tbese, tben, ore tbe
jirst tbinqs to renounce. Tbe pruJent sboulJ conJuct tbemselves like tbis.
______________ _________________ _______
___ _______________
(4) "An exceptionally perceptive state of mind, joined onto a stilled and settled state, Completely destroys the
disturbing emotions." Having understood this, nrst I shall seek a stilled and settled mind; And that's achieved
through delight in detachment from worldly concerns.
4. Penetrotive insiqbt joineJ witb colm obiJinq 0tterly eroJicotes ofjlicteJ stotes. Knowinq tbis, jirst seorcb
for colm obiJinq, IounJ by people wbo ore boppy to be free from worlJly ties.
_________ _______ ________ _____
(5) (After all,) any impermanent person Having sticky attachment to impermanent beings Won't see those loved ones
again (after death) For many thousands of lives.
S. Beinqs, brief, epbemerol, Wbo stronqly clinq to wbot is olso tronsient, Will cotcb no qlimpse of tbose tbey
love Ior mony tbousonJs of tbeir future lives.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 94
________ ________ _________
(6) Not seeing them, I'll be unhappy And my mind won't settle in absorbed concentration; Even if I've seen them,
I'll never be satisned, And, as before, I'll be tormented by longing.
6. Not seeinq tbem, tbeir minJs will bove no joy, Tbey tberefore will not rest in equonimity.
But even if tbey see tbem, tbey ore not content AnJ os before, tbe poin of lonqinq stoys.
_____________ ________ __________ _
(7) From being attached to limited beings, I'm blocked from (seeing) things as they are; I lose any sense of
disillusionment too; And, in the end, I'm tormented by grief.
7. lf l crove for otber beinqs, A veil is cost upon tbe perfect trutb. Wbolesome Jisillusion

melts owoy, AnJ
jinolly tbere comes tbe stinq of poin.
_________ _____ ____________
(8) Because of thinking only of them, Tis life will pass without any meaning,
And through noneternal friends and relations, I will come to lose the eternal Dharma.
8. Hy tbouqbts ore oll for tbem, AnJ tbus my life is frittereJ by.
Hy fomily onJ frienJs oll cbonqe onJ poss, for wbom Tbe cbonqeless Bbormo is cost out.
_________ _______ ________ ___
(9) Having acted equal to the lot of infantile people, I'll surely go to a worse rebirth state;
If I'm led to a lot that's not (even) equal, Ten what have I gained by relying on those infantile folk?
9. Ior if l oct like cbilJisb beinqs, Sure it is tbot l sboll foll to evil Jestinies. So wby Jo l keep compony witb
infonts, Wbo leoJ me to o stote so for from virtue?
_________ ______ ______
__ ________
(10) One moment, they're friends; In an instant, they're enemies.
At a time for being delighted, they fall into a rage: Ordinary beings are so dimcult to please.
10. 0ne moment frienJs, Tbe next, tbeyre bitter enemies.
Fven pleosont tbinqs orouse tbeir Jiscontent: 0rJinory peopleit is borJ to pleose tbem!
________ _________ ________ ___
(11) Told what's of benent, they get enraged And cause me to turn from what's of benent too.
But, if their words aren't listened to, Tey fall into a rage and go, then, to a worse rebirth state.
11. A benejiciol worJ onJ tbey resent it, Turninq me insteoJ from wbot is qooJ. AnJ wben l close my eors to
wbot tbey soy, Tbeir onqer mokes tbem foll to lower stotes.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 95
__________ _______ ________ ____
(12) Tey're envious of superiors, competitive with equals, Arrogant toward inferiors, conceited when praised,
And hateful when told what they don't want to hear: When is there benent from infantile beings?
12. }eolous of superiors, tbey vie witb equols, ProuJ to tbose below, tbey strut wben proiseJ. Soy sometbinq
untoworJ, tbey seetbe witb roqe. Wbot qooJ wos ever boJ from cbilJisb folk?
__________ _________ _______
___ _______
(13) If I associate with infantile people, Ten destructive behavior inevitably arises among infantile folk,
Such as praising myself and belittling others, And prattling on about the pleasures of samsara.
1S. Keep compony witb tbem onJ wbot will follow? Self-oqqronJizement onJ scorn for otbers,
Tolk obout tbe "qooJ tbinqs" of somsoro Fvery kinJ of vice is sure to come.
__________ _______ ________ __
(14) From entrusting myself to others in this way, Nothing but loss comes about in the end,
For they'll be, in fact, no-good for me And I'll be, in fact, no-good for them.
14. 0nly ruin con result Irom sucb o link between myself onJ otbers. Ior tbey will brinq no benejit to me,
AnJ l in turn con Jo tbem notbinq qooJ.
________ __________ _______ ___
(15) So let me nee far away from infantile folk; But if encountered, I'll please them with pleasantries,
And without becoming overly familiar, I'll conduct myself nicely, merely as an ordinary person would.
1S. Tberefore jlee tbe compony of cbilJisb people. 6reet tbem, wben you meet, witb smiles
Tbot keep on terms of common courtesy, Witbout invitinq intimote relotions.
___________ __________ ___________ __
(16) Obtaining only what's helpful for Dharma, Like a bumblebee honey from a nower,
I'll live without having familiars, Like having never seen any of them before.
16. like bees tbot qet tbeir boney from tbe jlowers, Toke only wbot will serve tbe proctice of tbe Bbormo.
Treot everyone like new ocquointonces AnJ keep yourself from close fomiliority.
__________ _______ _______ _
(17) "But I get a lot of material gain and honor, And many people like me."
If I hold on to being conceited like that, Terrifying things will arise after death.
17. "0b l om ricb onJ well respecteJ; lots of people toke Jeliqbt in me." Nourisb sucb complocency onJ loter,
After Jeotb, your feors will stort!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 96
_______ _______ _____ __
(18) Tus, no matter what my bewildered mind Becomes attached to;
In conjunction with each of them, Tousandfold problems arise and stay around.
18. lnJeeJ, 0 foolisb onJ ofjlicteJ minJ, You wont onJ crove for oll onJ everytbinq. All tbis toqetber will rise
up As poin itself, increoseJ o tbousonJfolJ.
____________ ___________ _______
(19) Hence, the wise have no attachments, (Because,) from attachments, terrifying things arise.
As these (objects) will naturally be discarded (at death), Be nrm and consider this well:
19. Since tbis is so, tbe wise bove no ottocbments; Irom sucb crovinqs feor onJ onquisb come.
AnJ jix tbis jirmly in your unJerstonJinq: All tbot moy be wisbeJ for will by noture foJe to notbinq.
_______ _________ ___________ _
(20) Tere've been many people with material wealth And there've been many with fame and reputation. But it's
never been known that they've passed on to some place Where their amassed wealth and fame have come with.
20. Ior people moy bove qoineJ qreot weoltb of ricbes, Fnjoyinq reputotion, sweet renown.
But wbo con soy wbere tbey bove qone to now, Witb oll tbe boqqoqe of tbeir qolJ onJ fome?
________ _________ _________
(21) If there are others who belittle me, What pleasure is there when I'm being praised? And if there are others who
praise me, What displeasure is there when I'm being belittled?
21. Wby sboulJ l be pleoseJ wben people proise me? 0tbers tbere will be wbo scorn onJ criticize AnJ wby
JesponJent wben lm blomeJ, Since tberell be otbers wbo tbink well of me?
____________ _________ _________ __
(22) If limited beings, with varied dispositions, Couldn't be pleased by even the Triumphant, What need to mention
by the poor likes of me? Terefore, let me give up my preoccupation with worldly people.
22. So mony ore tbe leoninqs onJ tbe wonts of beinqs Tbot even BuJJbo coulJ not pleose tbem oll 0f sucb o
wretcb os me no neeJ to speok! lll qive up sucb concerns witb worlJly tbinqs.
________ ________ __________ _
(23) Tey belittle limited beings lacking material gain, And, regarding those with material gain, they say bad things;
How can any pleasure arise with those Whose company is, by nature, so dimcult?
2S. People scorn tbe poor wbo bove no weoltb, Tbey olso criticize tbe ricb wbo bove it.
Wbot pleosure con Jerive from keepinq compony Witb people sucb os tbese, so Jifjicult to pleose?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 97
_______ ________ ___________ ___
(24) Te Tusly Gone (Buddha) has said, "An infantile person isn't anyone's friend," Tat's because the friendliness
of an infantile person Doesn't arise except through its serving his own self-aims.
(Friendliness through the gateway of its serving self-aims, Is friendliness just for the aims of a "self"; Just as distress at
the breaking of some material possession Is something, in fact, that comes from a loss of self-pleasure.)
24. ln kinJness cbilJisb beinqs toke no Jeliqbt 0nless tbeir own Jesires ore sotisjieJ.
A cbilJisb person, tbus, is no true frienJ. Tbis tbe Totboqotos bove JecloreJ.
__________ __________ _______ ____
(25) In forests, however, wild creatures, birds, and trees Never say bad things about you
And are happy when befriended. When shall I come to live with them?
2S. ln wooJlonJs, bount of stoq onJ birJ, Amonq tbe trees wbere no Jissension jors, lts tbere l woulJ keep
pleosont compony! Wben miqbt l be off to moke my Jwellinq tbere?
_________ _________ __________ _____
(26) Oh when shall I become detached, Living in caves, an empty shrine,
Or at the foot of a tree, And never look back?
26. Wben sboll l Jeport to moke my bome ln cove or empty sbrine or unJer spreoJinq tree, Witb, in my breost,
o free, unfettereJ beort, Wbicb never turns to cost o bockworJ qlonce?
___________ ___________ ______
_ ____________
(27) When shall I come to live in nature, In vast regions, not privately owned, Moving under my own incentive or
Staying put, without attachment.
27. Wben miqbt l obiJe in sucb o ploce, A ploce uncloimeJ onJ ownerless,
Tbots wiJe onJ unconjineJ, o ploce wbere l miqbt stoy At liberty, witbout ottocbment?
________ _________ ______ ___
(28) When shall I come to live without fears, Having (just a few) small things,
a (clay) begging bowl and the like, Wearing clothes that no one would want, And not even sheltering this body?
28. Wben miqbt l be free of feor, Witbout tbe neeJ to biJe from onyone,
Witb just o beqqinq bowl onJ few belonqinqs, BresseJ in qorments coveteJ by none?
________ _______ ________ ____
(29) When, having gone to a charnel ground, Shall I come to compare, With the piles of others' bones, My body,
having the nature to rot.
29. AnJ qoinq to tbe cbornel qrounJ, Wben sboll l compore Hy boJy witb tbe Jry bones tbere, So soon to foll
to notbinq, oll olike?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 98
_______ ______ _____ ___
(30) Tis very body of mine Will also become (putrid) like that, And because of its stench, Not even the jackals will
slink near.
S0. Tbis form of mine, tbis very jlesb ls soon to qive out sucb o stencb
Tbot even jockols wont come close AnJ tbot inJeeJ is oll it will become.
______ _________ _________ ___
(31) Tough this body was born as a single object, Te nesh and bones that arose with it
Will fall apart and go their own ways. What need to mention friends that are other (than it)?
S1. Tbis boJy, now so wbole onJ inteqrol, Tbis jlesb onJ bone tbot life bos knit toqetber, Will Jrift oport,
Jisinteqrote, AnJ bow mucb more will frienJ Jeport from frienJ?
________ _______ ___________ ___
(32) A man is born alone, when taking birth, And dies alone too, when undergoing death. As no one else can take a
share of this pain, What can be done by encumbering friends?
S2. Alone were born, olone we come into tbe worlJ, AnJ wben we Jie, olone we poss owoy.
No one sbores our fote, onJ none our sufferinq. Wbot neeJ bove l of "frienJs" wbo binJer me?
__________ __________ ___________ _
(33) Just as the way in which travelers on a road Take up a place to lodge,
Similar is the way in which travelers on the road of compulsive existence Take up a rebirth as a place to lodge.
SS. like tbose wbo journey on tbe rooJ, Wbo pouse onJ loJqe olonq tbe woy, Beinqs on tbe potbwoys of
existence Seize upon tbe loJqinq of tbeir birtb.
____________ _________ ________ __
(34) So, let me retire to the forest Until four pallbearers Haul that body out from there, While all my worldly
(relations) grieve.
S4. 0ntil tbe time comes rounJ Wben four men corry me owoy, AmiJ tbe qrief of worlJly folk
Till tben, l will owoy onJ qo into tbe forest.
____________ __________ ________
(35) Let this body stay there in isolation, alone, Making neither intimate friends nor connicts. If I'm already counted
as if I were dead, Tere'll be no mourners when I actually die.
SS. Tbere, witb no befrienJinq or beqruJqinq, l will stoy olone in solituJe,
ConsiJereJ from tbe outset os olreoJy JeoJ, Tbus, wben l Jie, o source of poin to none.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 99
______ ________ ___________ __
(36) As there'll be no attendants (hovering) nearby, Mourning and causing distress,
Tere'll be no one to distract this (hermit) From continuing mindfulness of Buddha and more.
S6. Tben tbere will be no one stonJinq by ln teors onJ mourninq, tbus to trouble me. AnJ no one will be tbere
Jistroctinq me Irom tbinkinq of tbe BuJJbo onJ tbe proctice.
________ __________ ________
(37) So, let me live in solitude In lovely, delightful forests, With little trouble, happiness and well-being, Quieting all
S7. Tberefore in tbese lovely qleominq wooJs, Witb joy tbots morreJ by few concerns, Wbere mentol
wonJerinq will ceose, l will remoin in blissful solituJe.
_____________ __________ ____________
(38) Having cast on all other intentions, And with my intent single-pointed, I shall strive (there) for settling my
mind in absorbed concentration And making it tamed;
S8. Relinquisbinq oll otber ospirotions, Iocusinq myself on one intent olone, lll strive to still my minJ
AnJ, colminq it, to brinq it to subjection.
_____ ________ _____
(39) (For) lustful desires give rise to disasters In this world and in the next ones as well. In this one, they bring about
murder, imprisonment, and kninngs, And in the next, joyless realms and the like.
S9. ln tbis onJ in tbe worlJs to come, Besires tbe porent of oll woe:
ln tbis worlJ, killinq, bonJs, onJ wounJs, AnJ in tbe next, tbe bells onJ otber poins.
________ ________ _____________ __
(40) Tose (bodies) for which sake, you repeatedly begged Before male and female go-betweens, And for which sake,
you didn't shrink From either negative behavior or disgrace,
40. You senJ your qo-betweens, botb boy onJ moiJ,

Witb mony invitotions for tbe prize, AvoiJinq, in tbe
quest, no sin, No JeeJ tbot brinqs on ill renown,
__________ _________ ______
(41) (For which) you threw yourself even in danger And even spent all your wealth, And embracing which,
You experienced the utmost pleasure (of sexual release) -
41. Nor octs of friqbtful risk, Nor loss onJ ruin of possessions All for pleosure onJ tbe perfect bliss, Tbot
utmost penetrotinq kiss
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 100
__________ ______ ______ _
(42) Tey were nothing but skeletons, Independent, and never yours!
Why not push on, (instead,) to nirvanic release, Which you can fully embrace to your heart's content?
42. 0f wbot in trutb is notbinq but o beop of bones BevoiJ of self, witbout outonomy!
ls tbis tbe only object of Jesire onJ lust? Sooner poss beyonJ oll sufferinq onJ qrief!
_________ _______ _________ __
(43) Tat face, which, (at your wedding,) you lifted up nrst with enort and drew near, Although it was bashfully
looking down, And whether previously seen or not seen (by you), Was covered with a veil,
4S. Wbot poins you went to just to lift ber foce, Eer foce tbot moJestly lookeJ Jown, Wbicb, lookeJ upon or
not before, Wos olwoys witb o veil conceoleJ.
_______ __________ ___________ _
(44) Tat face, which emotionally disturbed you so, Is now unveiled by the vultures And can be directly seen.
Why do you run away now?
44. Tbot foce for wbicb you lonquisbeJ so . . . Well, bere it is, now nokeJly exposeJ.
Tbe vultures bove uncovereJ it for you to see. Wbots tbis? You run owoy so soon?
____________ __________ ______ ___
(45) Tat (face) which you protected (before) From the leers of others' eyes,
Why aren't you protecting it now, (jealous) miser, While it's being devoured by them?
4S. Tbot wbicb once you jeolously protecteJ, SbielJeJ from tbe eyes of otber men,
Wby, miser tbot you ore, Jont you protect it, Now tbot its tbe fooJ of qroveyorJ birJs?
_______ _______ __________ _______
(46) Seeing this pile of meat Being gulped down by vultures and the rest, (Tell me), is the food of others something
to be onered With garlands of nowers, jewelry, and sandalwood scent?
46. look, tbis moss of bumon jlesb, ls now tbe fore of corrion beosts
AnJ you woulJ Jeck witb qorlonJs, sonJolwooJ, onJ jewels, Tbe fooJ onJ provenJer of otbers?
________ ____ _______ __
(47) If you (experience) fright from seeing even a skeleton, Tough it lacks any movement, Why wasn't there horror
when it was set into motion By some (intent), like a zombie.
47. look oqoin, tbis beop of boneslnert onJ JeoJ. Wby, wbot ore you so scoreJ of? Wby JiJ you not feor it
wben it wolkeJ orounJ, }ust like o risen corpse propelleJ by some stronqe injluence?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 101
_________ _______ ______ ____
(48) You lusted after it, even when it was covered, Why don't you lust for it (now), when uncovered (from its skin)?
If you have no use for it (now), Why did you sexually embrace it when covered?
48. You loveJ it once, wben clotbeJ onJ JropeJ it wos. Well, now its nokeJ, wby Jo you not wont it? Ab, you
soy, your neeJ is no more tbere, But wby JiJ you embroce it, oll beJeckeJ onJ covereJ?
_________ _______ ______ __
(49) Its excrement and saliva Arise from one and the same food; So why, out of the two, do you take no delight in the
excrement And yet delight in (a taste of ) saliva?
49. Irom fooJ, o sinqle source, come equolly Tbe boJys jiltb onJ nector of tbe moutb. So wby ore you
JeliqbteJ by solivo, AnJ yet repelleJ by excrement?
_______ _______ _______ ___
(50) Finding no sexual pleasure in pillows, Filled with cotton and soft to the touch,
(After all) "Tey don't exude a foul stench," Lustful people are bewildered about excrement.
S0. Tokinq no Jeliqbt in pillows HoJe of cotton soft to toucb,
You cloim tbe bumon form emits no stencb. BefooleJ by lust, its jiltb you Jo not recoqnize!
_________ _______ _________
(51) Lustful, gross, bewildered people, (Tinking,) "It's impossible to make love To cotton, soft to the touch,"
Become furious with it (instead).
S1. lustful one, befuJJleJ by Jesire, Becouse you connot copulote witb it, You onqrily jinJ foult witb cotton,
Soft tbouqb it moy be to toucb!
_________ __________ ________ ___
(52) If you have no attachment for what is foul, Why do you sexually embrace another (body):
A cagework of bones, bound together with sinews, And plastered over with a mud of nesh?
S2. AnJ if you bove no love of jiltb, Eow con you coJJle on your lop A coqe of bones tieJ fost witb sinews,
PlostereJ over witb tbe muJ of jlesb?
_____ _____ ________ _
(53) You yourself contain plenty of excrement, So manage by yourself, steadfastly with that. Glutton for excrement,
You long for yet another bag of excrement?
SS. ln foct youre full of jiltb yourself; You wollow in it constontly.
lt is inJeeJ just jiltb tbot you Jesire, AnJ tberefore lonq for otber socks of it!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 102
_______ ______ _________ ___
(54) (Tinking,) "But it's the nesh I delight in," You long to touch and look at it.
But why have you no desire for the nesh (Here,) in its natural state, devoid of a mind?
S4. "But its tbe skin onJ jlesb l love To toucb onJ look upon."
Tben wby Jo you not wisb for jlesb olone, lnonimote onJ in its noturol stote?
_______ _______ __________ __
(55) And whatever mind you might desire, Cannot be touched or looked at, And whatever can, hasn't a
consciousness. So it's no use! Why do you sexually embrace it?
SS. Tbe minJ tbot you perbops Jesire, You connot bolJ or look upon.
Wbotever you con bolJ or see is not tbe minJ Wby copulote witb sometbinq it is not?
__________ ________ ______ ___
(56) Tough it's no great surprise that you don't understand Tat another's body, by nature, is something (full of )
excrement; But that you don't understand that your very own Is, by nature, something (full of ) excrement - that's
really shocking!
S6. To foil to qrosp tbe uncleon noture 0f onotbers jlesb is not perbops so stronqe. But not to see tbe jiltby
noture 0f oneself is very stronqe inJeeJ!
_________ _________ ___________ __
(57) Having rejected the tender lotus, (born from the muck And) opened by the rays of the unclouded sun,
What delight is there in a cagework (of bones, full) of feces, For a mind obsessed with excrement?
S7. Wby Joes tbe minJ, intent on jiltbiness, Neqlect tbe fresb younq lotus blossom, 0peneJ in tbe sunliqbt of o
clouJless sky, To toke joy rotber in o sock of Jirt?
___________ ______ _____ ___
(58) If you don't wish to touch soil and places Tat are smeared with excrement, How is it that you wish to touch the
body Out of which it was excreted?
S8. AnJ since youre JisinclineJ to toucb A ploce or object qrimeJ witb excrement, Wby Jo you wisb to toucb
tbe boJy Wbence sucb excrement bos come?
_________ ______ _______ ___
(59) If you have no attachment for what is foul, Why do you sexually embrace another (body): Te seed of which
grew from a neld (full) of excrement And was nourished by it.
S9. AnJ if you bove no crovinq for impurity, Wby will you now embroce onJ kiss
Wbot comes from sucb on uncleon ploce, FnqenJereJ likewise from on uncleon seeJ?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 103
________ ___ ________ _
(60) Is it because of its tininess that you don't long For a foul maggot, born from excrement?
You desire, in fact, a body, also born from excrement, (Since) by nature, it's (full) of a lot of excrement!
60. Tbe tiny fetiJ worms tbot come from jiltb You bove no love of tbem.
AnJ yet youre lustinq for o bumon form, Irom jiltb orisen onJ replete witb it.
____ _______ ______ ________
(61) Not only do you not disparage Te excremental nature of yourself, You glutton for excrement, You long for
other bags of excrement too!
61. ToworJ your own impurity Bisqust you Jo not feel; AnJ yeorninq onJ otbirst for jiltb, You lonq for otber
socks of it!
_____ _________ ________ _
(62) Whether it's refreshing (chews) with camphor and the like, Or cooked rice with vegetable curries, Once put in
the mouth and then spat out or vomited, Even the ground becomes nlthy and foul.
62. Pleosont substonces like compbor, Rice, onJ fresb qreen berbs
Put tbem in your moutb onJ spit tbem out: Tbe eortb itself is fouleJ tbereby!
_____ __________ ____ __
(63) If you still have doubts about its being, like this, In the nature of excrement, though it's so obvious, Look at the
(ghastly) foul bodies of others, Trown away in the charnel ground.
6S. lf still you Joubt sucb jiltbiness, Tbouqb it is very ploin for oll to see, 6o off into tbe cbornel qrounJs;
0bserve tbe fetiJ boJies tbere obonJoneJ.
_________ __________ ______ ___
(64) When the skin is torn open, Great horror comes up from it. Knowing just that, how can delight
Come up any more from that very same thing?
64. Wben tbeir skins ore peeleJ owoy, You feel qreot borror onJ revulsion. Now tbot you bove unJerstooJ,
Eow con you still toke joy in sucb o tbinq?
_____ __________ _________ _
(65) And that smell sloshed on the body Is from sandalwood and such things, not from the other (person).
So why are you attracted to someone else By the smell of something other?
6S. Tbe scent tbot now perfumes tbe skin ls sonJolwooJ onJ notbinq else.
Yet bow is it tbot one tbinqs froqronce Couses you to lonq for sometbinq else?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 104
_______ __________ _________ __
(66) If, because of its naturally foul smell, Tere's no attraction to it, isn't that fortunate?
Why do people in this world, who relish what's useless, Slosh it with sweet smelling things?
66. ls it not best to bove no lust Ior sometbinq tbot by noture stinks? Tbe worlJly crove besiJe tbeir
purposeWby Jo tbey onoint tbeir jlesb witb pleosont scents?
_____ ______ _________ __
(67) Well then, if what has the sweet smell is sandalwood, What comes from the body in this case? So why are you
attracted to someone else By the smell of something other?
67. Ior if tbis scent is sonJolwooJ, Eow con it be tbe perfume of tbe boJy? Eow is it tbot tbe froqronce of o
tbinq lnJuces you to crove for sometbinq else?
_____ _______ ___________ __
(68) If the natural state of the body is totally horrinc - Naked, coated with a tarnish of grime, Its hair and nails long,
Its teeth yellow and stained -
68. Witb lonky boir, witb lonq noils overqrown, Witb Jirty teetb oll reekinq witb tbe stink of slime, Tbis boJy,
nokeJ, os it is, untenJeJ ls inJeeJ o borror to bebolJ!
_________ ____ _______ __
(69) Why spruce it up with (so much) hard work, Like a weapon for innicting self-harm?
(Oh dear,) this world is truly bustling with madmen Working so hard deluding themselves!
69. Wby qo to sucb excess to cleon onJ polisb Wbot is but o weopon tbot will injure you?
Tbe cores tbot people squonJer on tbemselves in iqnoronce Convulse tbe universe witb moJness.
__________ ___ ________ __
(70) Having seen merely a few skeletons, You were so turned on in the charnel ground;
Yet you nnd sexual pleasure in charnel-ground cities Crowded with moving skeletons?
70. Wben you sow tbe beops of bumon bones, You felt revulsion in tbe cbornel qrounJ.
AnJ will you toke Jeliqbt in cities of tbe JeoJ IrequenteJ by sucb skeletons tbot live onJ move?
_____ ______ _________
(71) Further, that (bag) full of excrement like that Isn't obtained without a price:
Tere's exhaustion in earning (money) for its sake And torment (later) in joyless realms and the like.
71. Wbots more, possession of onotbers jiltb ls not to be ocquireJ free of cborqe.
All is ot o price: exboustion in tbis life, AnJ in tbe next, tbe sufferinq of bell!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 105
_________ _____ ___________ ___
(72) It's not possible to build up wealth as a child, So as a teenager, what is there to get pleasure with? Spending
adulthood accumulating wealth, What can an old person do with sexual desires?
72. To qotber ricbes younq boys ore unoble, AnJ wbot con tbey enjoy wben tbeyre full qrown? Tbe wbole of
life is spent in qoininq weoltb, But tben tbeyre olJtoo olJ to sotisfy tbeir lust!
_______ ________ _______
(73) Some people, (though) having gross desires, Exhaust themselves with work all day long
And, coming home (at night), their bodies spent, Drop down asleep like the dead.
7S. Some ore wretcbeJ in tbeir qreot Jesire, But worn out by tbeir Joylonq work, Tbey qo bome broken by
fotique To sleep tbe slumbers of o corpse.
__________ _______ __________
(74) Some must go abroad (on army expeditions) And, with disturbing emotions, have the sunering of being far
away. Longing for their children and wives, they don't see Teir children and wives, though the years roll by.
74. Some, weorieJ by tbeir trovels for from bome, Hust suffer seporotion from tbeir wives
AnJ cbilJren wbom tbey love onJ lonq to see. Tbey Jo not meet witb tbem for yeors on enJ.
_________ ______ _______ ___
(75) Confused by desires for what would be of self-benent, Tey even sell themselves for the sake of that Which they
never obtain, and so (toil) pointlessly, Driven by the winds of others' karmic whims.
7S. Some, ombitious for prosperity, Not knowinq bow to qet it, sell tbemselves. Eoppiness eluJes tbeir qrosp
onJ pointlessly Tbey live onJ lobor for tbeir mosters.
_____ ___________ _______ _
(76) And the wives of some of those who have sold their own bodies And must follow others' orders, powerlessly,
Have to give birth to their children, with them plopping out At the feet of trees or in desolate places.
76. Some sell tbemselves, no lonqer free, ln bonJoqe, slovery to otbers.
AnJ, Jestitute, tbeir wives qive birtb Witb only trees for sbelter, in tbe wilJ.
_________ ______ ___________
(77) (Some) foolish people, deceived by desires, Wishing to make a livelihood, thinking, "I'll earn a living," Enter
into war, (thus) risking their lives, Or go into servitude for the sake of self-gain.
77. Iools JeceiveJ by crovinq for o livelibooJ BeciJe tbot tbey will moke tbeir fortune ln tbe wors, tbouqb
feorful for tbeir lives. AnJ seekinq qoin, its slovery tbey qet.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 106
_____ _________ __________
(78) Some, having greed, are even bodily mutilated And some get impaled on spikes. Some are seen being stabbed
with daggers And some even burned alive.
78. Some, os tbe result of crovinq, Eove tbeir boJies slosbeJ, impoleJ on pointeJ stokes. Some ore wounJeJ,
run tbrouqb by tbe lonce, Wbile some ore put to Jeotb by jire.
____________ __________ ______
________ ____________
(79) With the torments (involved) in amassing, protecting, and losing it, Know that material advantage is a
disadvantage without an end: (For) those distracted by obsession with wealth Haven't the time to free themselves
from the sunerings of compulsive existence.
79. Tbe poin of qoininq, keepinq, onJ of losinq oll! See tbe enJless borJsbips brouqbt on us by property!
Ior tbose JistrocteJ by tbeir love of weoltb Tbere is no cbonce for freeJom from tbe sorrows of existence.
________ ___________ ________
__ ___________
(80) (Tus,) for those with desire, drawbacks like these and more are abundant And (any) tastes of pleasure are paltry,
Like the snatches of a few mouthfuls of grass (Won) by an ox while pulling a cart.
80. Tbey inJeeJ, possesseJ of mony wonts, Will suffer mony troubles, oll for very little: Tbeyre like tbe ox tbot
pulls tbe cort AnJ cotcbes bits of qross olonq tbe woy.
______________ _______ _______
(81) For the sake of that paltry taste of pleasure, Not hard to nnd for even an ox,
Tis hard-to-nnd splendor of respites and endowments Is destroyed by those who waste their (good) karma.
81. Ior soke of sucb o poltry tbinq, Wbicb is not rore, wbicb even beosts con jinJ, TormenteJ by tbeir kormo,
tbey Jestroy Tbis precious bumon life so borJ to jinJ.
_______ _______ _________ _
(82) Whatever hardships there are in exhausting yourself All the time for the sake of the puny desires (of the body)
Tat will dennitely perish and (consequently) Fall to joyless realms and worse,
82. All tbot we Jesire is sure to perisb, 0n wbicb occount we foll to bellisb poin. Ior wbot omounts to very
little We must suffer constont onJ exboustinq weoriness.
_____ _____________ _________ __
(83) With one millionth of the hardship, there would be Buddhahood; Whereas those with desires have sunering
Greater than those engaged in bodhisattva behavior, And yet they have no enlightenment.
8S. Witb but o milliontb port of sucb vexotion Fnliqbtenment itself coulJ be ottoineJ! Tbose wbo crove ore
ploqueJ for more tbon tbose enqoqeJ upon tbe potb, Yet BuJJbobooJ is not wbot tbey ottoin!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 107
______________ ________ ____
(84) Neither weapons, poison, nre, Precipices, nor foes Compare with desires when I think
Of the tortures of joyless realms and the like.
84. Rejlect upon tbe poins of bell onJ otber evil stotes! Weopons, jires, onJ poisons, Yowninq cbosms, bostile
foesNone is on o level witb our crovinqs.
_____ ________ _________ _____
(85) Recoiling from desires in this way, I shall enhance my delight in solitude. In peaceful forests,
Devoid of strife and emotional disturbance,
8S. So, revolteJ by our lust onJ wontinq, let us now rejoice in solituJe, ln ploces empty of oll conjlict onJ
Jejilement: Tbe peoce onJ stillness of tbe forest.
_________ ___________ _______
_____ ______________
(86) Amongst (beautiful) boulders, Huge as palaces, cooled by the sandalwood rays of the moon, Joyfully roam the
fortunate ones, fanned by the silent, gentle, forest breezes, Renecting on the aims of benenting others.
86. Eoppy tbose intent on otbers qooJ, Wbo room in pleosont ploces formeJ of mossive stone, RefresbeJ by
moonliqbts sonJol-scenteJ beoms, By qentle wooJlonJ breezes sootbeJ!
______ _______ _________
_ _________
(87) Staying anywhere, for as long as desired - In an empty shelter, at the foot of a tree, or in caves - Tose rid of the
strain of safeguarding possessions Live relaxed, without any cares,
87. ln coves, beneotb tbe trees, in bouses left obonJoneJ, Hoy we linqer lonq os we miqbt wisb.
Relinquisbinq tbe poin of quorJinq our possessions, let us live in freeJom, unconjineJ by cores.
______ _____ _________ _
(88) Acting according to their own intent, Without attachments, not bound by anyone, Savoring the joy of
contentment, Dimcult to nnd for even powerful rulers.
88. To bove sucb liberty unmorreJ by crovinq, looseJ from every bonJ onJ tie
A life of sucb contentment onJ sucb pleosure, Fven lnJro woulJ be presseJ to jinJ!
________ ______________ ________ ___
(89) Having considered, with aspects such as these and more, Te benents of dissociating (myself ), And thus fully
quieting my rambling thoughts, I shall meditate on bodhichitta.
89. Rejlectinq in sucb woys os tbese 0pon tbe excellence of solituJe, Pocify completely oll Jiscursiveness AnJ
cultivote tbe minJ of boJbicbitto.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 108
__________ ______ ___________ ___
(90) First, I shall meditate strongly on Te equality of myself and others (in this way): As everyone's a fellow being,
having happiness and pain, (Others) are to be cared for (by me) in the same way as I am.
90. Strive ot jirst to meJitote 0pon tbe someness of yourself onJ otbers.

ln joy onJ sorrow oll ore equol;
Tbus be quorJion of oll, os of yourself.
__________ ___________ ______
____ _______________
(91) Just as, despite its many parts, with divisions into hands and so on, Te body's to be cared for as a whole;
Similarly, despite the dinerences among wandering beings, Yet in regard to happiness and pain, they're all equal to
myself in wishing to be happy, and (thus form) a whole.
91. Tbe bonJ onJ otber limbs ore mony onJ Jistinct, But oll ore onetbe boJy to be kept onJ quorJeJ.
likewise, Jifferent beinqs, in tbeir joys onJ sorrows, Are, like me, oll one in wontinq boppiness.
___________ _________ _______ __
(92) Although my own pain Doesn't hurt the bodies of others, Yet being, like that, the pain of a "me," It's
unbearable, because of clinging to a "me."
92. Tbis poin of mine Joes not ofjlict 0r couse Jiscomfort to onotbers boJy, AnJ yet tbis poin is borJ for me to
beor Becouse l clinq onJ toke it for my own.
____________ _______ _______
(93) Likewise, though the pain of others Doesn't befall me, Yet being, like that, the pain of a "me,"
It's (also) dimcult to bear, because of clinging to a "me."
9S. AnJ otber beinqs poin l Jo not feel, onJ yet, Becouse l toke tbem for myself,
Tbeir sufferinq is mine onJ tberefore borJ to beor.
______________ _____________ _________
__ ____________
(94) Tus, the pain of others is something to be eliminated by me, Because of its (nature as) pain, like the pain of a
"me"; And others are beings to be helped by me, Because of their (natures as) limited beings, like the body of a "me."
94. AnJ tberefore lll Jispel tbe poin of otbers, Ior it is simply poin, just like my own. AnJ otbers l will oiJ onJ
benejit, Ior tbey ore livinq beinqs, like my boJy.
___________ ______ ____ __
(95) When happiness is something equally liked, Both by myself and others, What's so special about me
Tat I strive after happiness for myself alone?
9S. Since l onJ otber beinqs botb, ln wontinq boppiness, ore equol onJ olike, Wbot Jifference is tbere to
Jistinquisb us, Tbot l sboulJ strive to bove my bliss olone?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 109
___________ _________ ____ _
(96) And when sunering is something equally disliked, Both by myself and others,
What's so special about me Tat I take care of myself and not others?
96. Since l onJ otber beinqs botb, ln jleeinq sufferinq, ore equol onJ olike, Wbot Jifference is tbere to
Jistinquisb us, Tbot l sboulJ sove myself onJ not tbe otbers?
________ _________ _______ __
(97) If it's because their sunering doesn't harm me Tat I don't safeguard them,
Why safeguard myself against future (life) sunering, If it doesn't harm me (now)?
97. Since tbe poin of otbers Joes no borm to me, l Jo not sbielJ myself from it.
So wby to quorJ oqoinst "my" future poin, Wbicb Joes no borm to tbis, my present "me"?
________ ________ _______ ___
(98) Tat notion is distorted that thinks, "But I'm the one who'll experience it,"
For, like this, it's someone else who has died And someone else who takes birth.
98. To tbink tbot "l will bove to beor it" ls in foct o folse iJeo.
Ior tbot wbicb Jies is one tbinq; Wbot is born is sometbinq else.
_________ _______ ___________ _
(99) If whatever sunering anyone has Must be taken care of by that one himself, Ten since the foot's sunering is not
the hand's, Why is that to be taken care of by it?
99. "lts for tbe sufferers tbemselves," youll soy, "To sbielJ tbemselves from injuries tbot come!" Tbe poin felt in
my foot is not my bonJs, So wby, in foct, sboulJ one protect tbe otber?
_______ _________ __________
(100) If it's the case that (ignoring) it would be illogical And so here it's undertaken from a sense of a (whole) self;
Well then, surely what's illogical regarding (the whole formed by) myself and others Is something to be dismissed, as
much as I can.
100. "True, its inoJmissible," youll soy, "lt boppens simply tbrouqb tbe force of eqo-clinqinq." But wbot is
inoJmissible for otbers onJ myself SboulJ be JiscorJeJ utterly!
________ _____________ ________ _
(101) What are called "a continuum" and "a group," Such as a rosary, an army, and the like, are not truly (a nndable
whole), And so, since a possessor of sunering doesn't exist, Whose responsibility is it (as "mine")?
101. Continuo onJ qotberinqs, so-colleJ, like qorlonJs onJ like ormies, ore unreol. So tbere is no one to
experience poin Ior wbo is tbere to be its "owner"?
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 110
__________ _________ _________ _
(102) In their being without an owner, All sunerings lack a distinction:
So it's (simply) because they're sunering that they're to be averted. Why are there nxed (limitations) made here?
102. Sufferinq bos no "possessor," Tberefore no Jistinctions con be moJe in it. Since poin is poin, it is to be
JispelleJ. Wbot use is tbere in Jrowinq bounJories?
_________ _________ __________
(103) "But why is the sunering of everyone to be averted?" Well, it's indisputable: If (anyone's) is to be averted, then
everyone's is to be averted; If not, (that applies) to me as well, just like to (every other) limited being.
10S. "But wby Jispel tbe poins of oll?" You connot orque in tbis woy!
lf "my" poin is removeJ, so too sboulJ tbot of "otbers." lf tbeirs is not, tben neitber sboulJ be mine.
__________ ________ _____________ _
(104) "But with compassion there's much sunering, So why develop it with (such) enort?"
Well, having thought about the sunerings of wandering beings, How could the sunering of compassion be much?
104. "Compossion mokes us feel sucb poin," you soy, "So wby sboulJ we moke efforts to enqenJer it?"
But tbinkinq of tbe sufferinqs of beinqs, Eow con you reqorJ os qreot tbe smort of your compossion?
___________ _________ __________
(105) If the sunering of many disappears Trough the sunering of one, Tat sunering would be something that
someone with loving compassion Would bring on, for the sake of himself and others.
10S. AnJ if tbrouqb sucb o sinqle poin A multituJe of sorrows con be cureJ, Sucb poin os tbis oll lovinq people
Strive to foster in tbemselves onJ otbers.
__________ _________ ___________ __
(106) Tus Supushpa-chandra, Tough knowing the punishment (he'd receive) from the king, Didn't avoid the
sunering for himself In order to dispel the sunerings of many.
106. Tbus SupusbpocbonJro,
Knowinq tbot tbe kinq woulJ couse bim borm, BiJ notbinq to escope from
tribulotion, Tbot tbe poins of mony sboulJ be enJeJ.
________ ____________ _____ ___
(107) Tose with mental continuums accustomed like this, And who (hold equally) dear quelling the sunerings of
others, Plunge themselves into even (a joyless realm of ) unrelenting pain Like a swan into a lotus pond.
107. Tbose wbose minJs ore procticeJ in tbis woy, Wbose joy it is to sootbe onotbers ills, Will venture into
bell of 0nrelentinq Poin As swons sweep Jown upon o lotus loke.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 111
___________ ________ __________ __
(108) And then, as limited beings are liberated, they have oceans of joy: Tese are the ones (who've gained real
fulnllment). Wouldn't that be sumcient? What is there with the wish for (insipid) liberation?
108. Tbe oceon-like immensity of joy Arisinq wben oll beinqs will be freeJ, Will tbis not be enouqb? Will tbis
not sotisfy? Tbe wisb for my own freeJom, wbot is tbot to me?
__________ ________ _________ __
(109) Tus, even though working for the benent of others, Tere's no conceit; there's no amazement; Tere's no
hoping for a ripened result (for oneself ), When it's with an appetite exclusively for what benents others.
109. Tbe work of brinqinq benejit to beinqs Will not, tben, moke me prouJ onJ self-oJmirinq. Tbe boppiness
of otbers is itself my sotisfoction; l Jo not expect onotber recompense.
______ __________ ___________ __
(110) Terefore, just as I safeguard myself Against becoming debased, to the tiniest extent, Likewise, I shall act like
that toward others With a protective mind and a mind of compassion.
110. Tberefore just os l JefenJ myself Irom even sliqbt Jisporoqement, ln just tbe some woy witb reqorJ to
otbers, l sboulJ likewise bove o minJ protective onJ compossionote.
___________ ________ _______ ______
(111) Just as, out of familiarity, Tere's an understanding of a "me" Regarding drops of semen and blood belonging
to others, Despite it's not existing as some "thing,"
111. Tbe Jrop of sperm onJ blooJ

belonqeJ to otbers. Yet, tbrouqb stronq bobituotion,
l come to bove in its reqorJ o sense of "l," Tbouqb, in itself, it is JevoiJ of entity.
________ _______ _________
(112) Why couldn't I likewise take as "me" A body that belongs to someone else?
(After all,) it's not dimcult to set it, in the same way, As something other than a body that's "mine."
112. AnJ so, wby not iJentify Anotbers boJy, collinq it my "l"? AnJ vice verso, wby sboulJ it be borJ To tbink
of tbis my boJy os onotbers?
__________ ____________ _______
(113) (So,) having understood the faultiness of (cherishing) myself And the oceans of advantages of (cherishing)
others, I shall meditate on discarding my way Of taking a "me," and extend it to others.
11S. Perceivinq now tbe foults possesseJ by "l," Tbe oceon of qooJ quolities tbot ore in "otber," l sboll loy osiJe
oll love of self AnJ qoin tbe bobit of oJoptinq otber beinqs.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 112
________ ______ _______ _
(114) Just as the hand and so on are held dear Trough their being the limbs of the body,
Why couldn't beings having a body be similarly held dear Trough their being limbs of wandering life?
114. }ust os bonJs onJ otber limbs Are tbouqbt of os tbe members of o boJy, Con we likewise not consiJer
otbers As tbe limbs onJ members of o livinq wbole?
______ ___________ __________
(115) Just as, out of familiarity, an attitude of "me" Has come about with respect to this body (of mine),
despite its lacking a "me," Likewise, out of familiarity, why couldn't an attitude of "me" Arise with respect to other
limited beings as well?
11S. }ust os in connection witb tbis form, JevoiJ of self, Hy sense of "l" orose tbrouqb stronq bobituotion, Wby
sboulJ not tbe tbouqbt of "l," Tbrouqb bobit, not orise reloteJ to onotber?
________ ________ ____________ __
(116) Even though working, like that, for the benent of others, Amazement or conceit doesn't arise: It's like the hope
for a reward doesn't arise From feeding food to myself.
116. Tbus wben l work for otbers soke, Tberell be no sense of boostinq self-conqrotulotion. lt is just os wben l
feeJ myselfl Jont expect to be reworJeJ!
______ __________ ________ __
(117) Terefore, just as I safeguard myself Against becoming debased, to the tiniest extent, Likewise, I'll habituate
myself to having A protective mind and a mind of compassion toward (all) wandering beings.
117. Tberefore just os l JefenJ myself Irom even sliqbt Jisporoqement, likewise for beinqs l sboll now qrow
useJ To bove o minJ protective onJ compossionote.
_____________ __________ _________
_ ___________
(118) Tat's why, out of great compassion, the Guardian Avalokiteshvara Has elevated even (the power of ) his own
name To dispel the fears of wandering beings, (Such as shyness) in front an audience.
118. Tbis is wby tbe lorJ Avolokito 0ut of qreot compossion blesseJ bis nome, Tbot tbose couqbt in tbe miJst
of multituJes Hiqbt be releoseJ onJ freeJ from every feor.
________ _________ _________ _
(119) So, I shall not turn away from what's dimcult to do, Since, through the force of familiarity like this,
Tat very person whose name I was even afraid to hear (Can become) someone, without whom, I can have no joy.
119. AnJ so we sboulJ be unJeterreJ by borJsbips, Ior tbrouqb tbe injluence of use onJ bobit, People even
come to qrieve Ior tbose wbose very nomes struck terror in tbeir beorts!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 113
____________ ______ _________
(120) Tus, anyone who wishes to give safe direction Swiftly to himself and others Needs to practice the most sacred
secret: Te exchange of self with others.
120. Tbose Jesirinq speeJily to be A refuqe for tbemselves onJ otbers
SboulJ moke tbe intercbonqe of "l" onJ "otber," AnJ tbus embroce o socreJ mystery.
_________ ____________ _______
(121) Because of sticky attachment to this body as "me, " From even small situations for fear, fear arises. So who
wouldn't reject, like a fear-inspiring foe, Such a body (as "me")?
121. Becouse of our ottocbment to our boJies, Fven little tbinqs olorm us.
Tbis boJy, tben, tbis source of so mucb terror Wbo woulJ not Jetest it os tbe worst of foes?
__________ ________ _____ __
(122) (Tis) body, which, with the wish to remedy Amictions such as hunger, thirst, and the like, Kills fowl, nsh, and
deer And hides by the road in ambush (to steal),
122. Wisbinq to relieve our boJies ills, 0ur bunqry moutbs, tbe Jryness of our tbroots, We steol tbe lives of
jisbes, birJs, onJ Jeer AnJ lie in woit olonq tbe rooJ.
_______ _____ _______________
(123) And which, because of pront and shows of respect, Would murder even its father and mother, And, by stealing
the property of the Triple Gem, Would burn in (a joyless realm of ) unrelenting pain -
12S. AnJ for tbe soke of projit onJ position Some tbere ore wbo even kill tbeir porents, 0r steol wbot bos been
offereJ to tbe Triple 6em, Becouse of wbicb, tbeyll burn in bell of 0nrelentinq Poin.
________ _____ _______ ___
(124) What wise man would desire, protect, And venerate such a body (as "me")? Who wouldn't view it as a foe
And not scorn it?
124. Wbere ore tbe wise onJ pruJent tben Wbo cberisb, quorJ, onJ serve tbe boJy? Wbo woulJ not perceive it
os tbeir foe, AnJ os tbeir foe, reqorJ it witb contempt?
_______ ________ ________ ____
(125) "If I were to give, what would I have to enjoy myself?" Such thinking of my own self-aims is the way of
clutching ghosts. "If I were to enjoy it myself, what would I have to give?" Such thinking of the aims of others is a
quality of the divine.
12S. "lf l qive tbis, wbot will be left for me?" Tbinkinq of oneselftbe woy of evil qbosts. "lf l keep tbis, wbot
will be left to qive?" Concern for otbers is tbe woy of beoven.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 114
___________ _______ __________
_ _____________
(126) Paining others for my own self-aims, I'll be tormented in joyless realms and the like; But paining myself for the
aims of others, I'll acquire all glories.
126. lf to serve myself l borm onotber, lll suffer loter in tbe reolms of bell. But if for otbers soke l borm
myself, Tben every excellence will be my beritoqe.
________ _______ _______ __
(127) Trough the wish for just myself to advance Come the worse rebirth states, low status, and stupidity; But
transferring that very (wish) to others Brings the better rebirth states, honor, (and intelligence).
127. Wontinq wbot is best for meStupiJity, inferiority, onJ lower reolms result! let tbis be cbonqeJ, opplieJ
to otbers Eonors onJ tbe reolms of bliss will come!
__________ ________ _________ _
(128) Ordering others around for my own self-aims, I'll experience being a servant and worse;
But ordering myself around for the aims of others, I'll experience being a lord and better.
128. Fnslovinq otbers, forcinq tbem to serve me, l will come to know tbe stote of servituJe. But if l lobor for
tbe qooJ of otbers, Hostery onJ leoJersbip will come to me.
_________ ________ ___________ __
(129) All whosoever who are happy in the world Are (so) through the wish for the happiness of others; While all
whosoever who are miserable in the world Are (so) through the wish for the happiness of themselves.
129. All tbe joy tbe worlJ contoins Eos come tbrouqb wisbinq boppiness for otbers. All tbe misery tbe worlJ
contoins Eos come tbrouqb wontinq pleosure for oneself.
________ ______ ___________ ____
(130) But what need is there to elaborate more? Just look at the dinerence between the two:
An infantile person acting for his own self-aims And Sage (Buddha) acting for the aims of others.
1S0. ls tbere neeJ for lenqtby explonotion? CbilJisb beinqs look out for tbemselves; BuJJbos lobor for tbe
qooJ of otbers: See tbe Jifference tbot JiviJes tbem!
____________ ________ ________
(131) For those who haven't exchanged their happiness For the sunerings of others, Buddhahood'll be impossible to
attain And there'll be no happiness even in samsara.
1S1. lf l Jo not intercbonqe Hy boppiness for otbers poin, Fnliqbtenment will never be ottoineJ,
AnJ even in somsoro, joy will jly from me.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 115
_________ ________ _________ __
(132) Leave aside the hereafter, not even the aims Of this seeable life will be fulnlled For a waged servant not doing
his work And a master not paying his wages.
1S2. leovinq future lives outsiJe tbe reckoninq, Fven tbis lifes neeJs ore not fuljilleJ: Tbe servonts Jo not Jo
tbeir work, AnJ mosters Jo not poy tbe woqes eorneJ.
_________ _________ __________
__ ___________
(133) Dropping the production of happiness (for one another) - A festival of glorious happiness in (this) seeable (life)
and unseeable (beyond) - Bewildered people grab hold, instead, of unbearable sunering, Because of causing sunering
to one another.
1SS. Costinq for owoy obunJont joys Tbot moy be qoineJ in tbis or future lives, Becouse of brinqinq borm to
otber beinqs, l iqnorontly brinq myself intoleroble poin.
_________ ___________ _______
___ _________
(134) Whatever violence there is in the world, And as much fear and sunering as there is, All of it arises from
grasping at a self: So what use is that terrible demon to me?
1S4. All tbe borm witb wbicb tbis worlJ is rife, All feor onJ sufferinq tbot tbere is, Clinqinq to tbe "l" bos
couseJ it! Wbot om l to Jo witb tbis qreot Jemon?
_________ _________ ________ ____
(135) If I don't fully drop (such) a self, I won't be able to drop my sunering; Just as if I don't fully drop a nre,
I won't be able to drop being burned.
1SS. lf tbis "l" is not relinquisbeJ wbolly, Sorrow likewise connot be ovoiJeJ.
lf tbey Jo not keep owoy from jire, People cont escope from beinq burneJ.
________ ___________ _________
(136) Terefore, for the sake of quelling my own sunering And for quelling the sunerings of others as well,
I shall give myself over to others, And take (others) on as myself.
1S6. To free myself from borm AnJ otbers from tbeir sufferinqs, let me qive myself to otbers, lovinq tbem os l
now love myself.
__________ ______ _____________
(137) O mind, decide for sure, "I'm under the governance of others." Except for the welfare of all limited beings,
You're not going to have other intentions now.
1S7. "Ior l om now beneotb tbe rule of otbers," 0f tbis you must be certoin, 0 my minJ. AnJ now no lonqer
sboll you bove o tbouqbt Tbot Joes not wisb tbe benejit of beinqs.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 116
___________ ________ ________
(138) It's inappropriate (to look) to accomplish my own self-aims With eyes and so on governed by others;
It's also inappropriate to dally improperly (for my own self-aims) With (hands), eyes and so on (given over) to them.
1S8. Hy siqbt onJ otber senses, now tbe property of otbers To use tbem for myself woulJ be improper.
AnJ it is likewise JisolloweJ To use my foculties oqoinst tbeir owners!
_________ _______ _______ ____
(139) Taking limited beings as the boss through that (view), Whatever you see on this body of mine,
Rob each and every one of them And use it for the benent of others.
1S9. Tbus sentient beinqs will be my cbief concern. AnJ everytbinq l see my boJy bos
Will oll be seizeJ onJ offereJ Ior tbe use onJ service of oll otber beinqs.
__________ ___________ ____________
(140) Creating in lesser beings and so forth (the sense of ) a "me" And creating in yourself (the sense of ) others,
Meditate on envy, rivalry, and arrogance (like this), With a mind free from prejudiced thoughts:
140. Toke otberslower, biqber, equolos yourself,

lJentify yourself os "otber." Tben, witbout onotber
tbouqbt, lmmerse yourself in envy, priJe, onJ rivolry.
__________ _________ ________
(141) "Tis one's shown respect, but I'm not; I don't have wealth like this one has. Tis one's praised, but I'm
belittled; Tis one has happiness, but I have sunering;
141. Ees tbe center of ottention. l om notbinq. AnJ, unlike bim, lm poor witbout possessions. Fveryone looks
up to bim, Jespisinq me, All qoes well for bim; for me tberes only bitterness!
_________ _______ ______ ____
(142) "I do all the work, While this one lives (a life of ) ease.
Tis one's renowned in the world as superior, While I as inferior, without any good qualities.
142. All l bove is sweot onJ JruJqery, Wbile bes tbere, sittinq ot bis eose. Ees qreot, respecteJ in tbe worlJ,
Wbile lm tbe unJerJoq, o well-known noboJy.
_________ ___________ _____ ___
(143) "But how could (any work) be done by someone having no good qualities?Tus, all of us possess good
qualities! (And, after all,) there are those among whom this one is inferior And there are those among whom I'm in
fact superior.
14S. Wbot! A noboJy witbout Jistinction? Not true! l Jo bove some qooJ quolities. ComporeJ witb some, bes
lower Jown. ComporeJ witb some, l Jo excel!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 117
_________ ______________ _________
_ ________
(144) "Such things as the decline of my ethical discipline and outlook Are due to disturbing emotions, and not from
their being under my control. I need to be healed to the best of his ability: I even readily accept the pain (involved).
144. Hy Jiscipline, my unJerstonJinq bove JeclineJ, But l om belpless, ruleJ by my Jejilements.
As mucb os be is oble, be sboulJ cure me. l will be submissive even to bis punisbments.
_________ ________ _______ _
(145) "But (not only) does this one not treat me as someone to be healed, Why does he look down on me? What use
are his good qualities to me, When this one is the 'me' having good qualities?
14S. Tbe foct is be Joes notbinq of tbe sort! By wbot riqbt, tben, Joes be belittle me? Wbot use, tben, ore bis
quolities to me Tbose quolities of wbicb bes so possesseJ?
__________ ______ _______ ____
(146) "With no compassion in this one for wandering beings Caught in the jaws of the carnivorous beast of the
worse rebirth states, And with arrogance (instead) toward everybody else about his own good qualities, He wants to
outdo the skilled masters!"
146. lnJifferent to tbe pliqbt of livinq beinqs, Wbo treoJ tbe brink of evil Jestinies, Ee mokes on outworJ
sbow of virtues, AnJ even wonts to vie witb soqes.
__________ ________ ________ __
(147) "Perceiving me on (his) same level, He would (struggle to) secure the material gain And show of respect that I
have, even through contentious means, For the sake of increasing his own lead, in any way.
147. Tbot l miqbt excel, outstrippinq bim Eim, reqorJeJ os my peer onJ equol! ln contests l will certoinly
secure Hy fome onJ fortune, public renown.
_________ _________ _______ ___
(148) "But if my own good qualities Were to be evident throughout the whole world,
Ten, by contrast, any good qualities this one might have Wouldn't be heard of by anyone.
148. By every meons lll oJvertise Hy qifts to oll tbe worlJ, Fnsurinq tbot bis quolities
Remoin unknown, iqnoreJ by everyone.
_______ ________ _______
(149) "And if my own shortcomings were to be concealed, Ten onerings would be made to me, not to him.
Material gain, today, would be well accruing to me And honors would be coming to me, not to this one.
149. Hy foults l will conceol, Jissimulote. Ior l, not be, will be tbe object of Jevotion; l, not be, will qoin
possessions onJ renown, l will be tbe center of ottention.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 118
______ _________ ________ ____
(150) "And we would (all) look on, with delight, As this one, nnally, is put down as incompetent, Made the laughing
stock of all wandering beings, And reviled all around."
1S0. l will toke sucb sotisfoction ln bis evil JeeJs onJ JeqroJotion. l will renJer bim Jespicoble,
Tbe butt onJ louqbinqstock of everyone.
_______ ___________ _________
(151) "(Further,) it's come out that this deluded (miserable) being Is even (enviously) in competition with me.
But how could the learning, intelligence, physique, class, or wealth Of this one be the equal of mine?
1S1. People soy tbis pitiful nonentity ls tryinq to compete witb me! But bow con be be on o por
Witb me, in leorninq, beouty, weoltb, or peJiqree?
_______ ___________ ______ ___
(152) "Tat being so and hearing My own good qualities proclaimed everywhere, I shall feast on a banquet of joy,
So delighted that the hairs on my body will stand up on end.
1S2. }ust to beor tbem tolk obout my excellence, Hy reputotion on tbe lips of oll,
Tbe tbrill of it senJs sbivers Jown my spine, A pleosure tbot l bosk onJ revel in!
___ _____ _______ ________
(153) "Even if this one might somehow come to have material gain, If he's doing work for us,
He's to be given merely enough to live on And the rest is to be taken forcefully by us.
1SS. Fven if be Joes bove sometbinq, lm tbe one bes workinq for! Ee con keep enouqb just to survive,
But witb my strenqtb lll steol tbe rest owoy.
________ __________ ________
(154) "Tis one is to be brought down from his (idle) state of ease And invariably linked to the harms we've
experienced. For hundreds of times, all around, We've been harmed in recurring samsara by this one."
1S4. l will weor bis boppiness owoy; l will olwoys burt onJ injure bim. Ees tbe one wbo in somsoro
BiJ me miscbiefs by tbe bunJreJ!
___ _________ _______ __
(155) O mind, countless eons have passed In your obsessive quest for your own self-aims; Yet, with such enormous
exhaustion as that, All you've procured is just sunering.
1SS. Countless oqes, 0 my minJ, You spent, Jesirinq to ottoin your oims. AnJ wbot qreot weoriness it wos,
Wbile your reworJ wos only misery!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 119
________ ______ __________ _
(156) Please, dennitely engage yourself like that (Right now) for the aims of others;
Ten you'll see the benents of that in the future, Since the words of the Sage are never wrong.
1S6. AnJ tberefore now most certoinly Apply yourself completely to tbe qooJ of otbers. Tbe BuJJbo JiJ not lie
in wbot be soiJ Youll see tbe benejits tbot come from it.
_______ _______ ____________ ______
(157) If, in the past, it would have occurred Tat you had taken this action, Ten a situation like this would never
have occurred, In which you've been freed (instead) of the bliss of success as a Buddha!
1S7. lf inJeeJ, you boJ in former times FmbroceJ tbis work onJ unJertoken it, You coulJ not still be lockinq
ln tbe perfect bliss of BuJJbobooJ.
________ ________ ________ ______
(158) Terefore, just as you've placed the sense of a "me" Onto drops of the semen and blood of others,
Likewise, make it a habit (of placing it) Onto those of others as well.
1S8. Tberefore, just os you iJentify A Jrop of otbers blooJ onJ sperm, AnJ clinq to it os tbouqb it were
yourself, Now toke sentient beinqsotbersos your self.
_____________ ______ ________ __
(159) Having become a scout for others, Whatever you see on this body of mine, Rob each and every one of them
And use it for the benent of others.
1S9. Now for otbers you sboulJ spy 0n everytbinq your boJy seems to bove. Steol it, toke it oll owoy,
AnJ use it for tbe benejit of otbers.
_________ __________ _____________
(160) "Tis 'me' is happy, the others are unhappy; Tis 'me' is lofty, the others are lowly; Tis 'me' does what's of
(self ) benent, others do not," Tinking (like that), why wouldn't you engender envy toward yourself?
160. l inJeeJ om boppy, otbers soJ; l om biqb onJ miqbty, otbers low;
l om belpeJ wbile otbers ore obonJoneJ: Wby om l not jeolous of myself?
________ ___________ _____ ___
(161) So, deprive yourself of your happiness And take onto yourself the sunerings of others. Investigate what's the
fault of this "me," by asking, "When does this one do anything (for others)?"
161. Eoppiness, fuljillment: tbese l qive owoy. Tbe poin of otbers: tbis l will embroce. lnquirinq of myself
repeoteJly l will tbus investiqote my foults.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 120
___________ _______ ___________ __
(162) Any mistake that others might make, Transform it (by seeing it) as the fault of this "me";
But any, even minor mistake that this "me" might make, Openly admit it to many people.
162. Wben otbers ore ot foult, lll toke AnJ turn tbe blome upon myself,
AnJ oll my sins, bowever sliqbt, Beclore, onJ moke tbem known to mony.
______________ __________ _________ _
(163) With declarations that the renown of others is superior, Let it outshine the renown of this "me";
And like the lowest of servants, Set this "me" to (doing) what's of benent for all.
16S. Tbe fome of otbers l will moqnify Tbot it miqbt tbus outsbine my own. Amonq tbem l will be os one wbo
serves, Hy lowly lobor for tbeir benejit.
_________ _________ ______ ____
(164) Don't praise this naturally fault-ridden one For some (tiny) share of temporary good qualities; (Rather) act
such that none will ever know, somehow, Of any good qualities that this one might have.
164. Tbis eqo is by noture rife witb foults, lts occiJentol qifts l sboulJ not proise. Wbotever quolities it bos lll
so contrive Tbot tbey remoin unknown to everyone.
________ __________ _________
(165) In short, any harmful act you've done to others For the sake of your own self-aims, Let that (very same) harm
descend on yourself, For the sake of the aims of limited beings.
16S. All tbe borm, in sbort, tbot eqo Joes To its oJvontoqe onJ to otbers cost, Hoy oll of it JescenJ upon itself,
To its own burtto otbers benejit.
______ ________ __________ _
(166) Never give any strengthening to this one So that he would become boisterous;
Make him, (instead,) behave like a newlywed bride, Bashful, timid, and restrained.
166. Bo not let it strut obout tbe ploce, So orroqont, so overbeorinq. But like o newly weJJeJ briJe,
let it be Jemure onJ blusbinq, timorous onJ sby!
_______ ______ _____ _____
(167) "Do that! Remain like that! Don't you ever act like that!" Tis one's to be brought under control like that
And knocked down, if he ever transgresses beyond that.
167. "Bo tbis!" "Be like tbot!" "Sucb tbinqs Jont ever Jo!" lts tbus tbot you will brinq it forcibly to beel.
AnJ if it oversteps tbe mork, Well tben, opply tbe losb!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 121
________ _______ __________ __
(168) But even when being instructed like that, If you don't act in that way, O mind, Ten since all wrongs depend
on you, It's exactly you whom I shall knock down.
168. AnJ so, 0 minJ, if still you will refuse, Tbouqb you bove been so lenqtbily oJviseJ, Since every evil bos its
roots in you, You ore inJeeJ now ripe for punisbment!
________ _________ _____ ___
(169) Tat time before was dinerent, When I was being ruined by you. But (now) I see you; so where can you go?
I'm going to knock all the arrogance out of you.
169. Tbe time wben you coulJ Jo me borm ls in tbe post onJ now is bere no more. Now l see you! Wbere will
you escope? lll brinq you Jown witb oll your bouqbty insolence.
____ _______ __________ __
(170) Trow away, now, any hope, "I still have my own self-interest." I've sold you to others, so don't think of your
weariness; I've onered your energies (to them).
170. let every tbouqbt of workinq for yourself Be utterly rejecteJ, cost osiJe! Now tbot youve been solJ to
otbers, Stop your wbininq, be of service!
________ ___________ _____ _____
(171) If, because of not caring, I don't hand you over to limited beings, Ten, for sure, you'll hand me over
To the guards of the joyless realms.
171. Ior if, tbrouqb beinq inottentive, l Jo not Jeliver you to otbers,
You will bonJ me over, it is certoin, To tbe quorJs onJ jonitors of bell.
______ _________ __________ ___
(172) I've been handed over, like that, Many times by you and long tormented;
But now, recalling those grudges, I shall smash you, you creature of self-interest.
172. Ior tbis is bow so mony times You bove betroyeJ me, onJ bow lonq lve suffereJ! Now my memory is full
of roncor, l will crusb your seljisb scbemes!
______ _______ _______ ____
(173) If you want self-happiness, Don't work for happiness in yourself; If you want self-protection,
Protect always others.
17S. AnJ so it is tbot if l wont contentment, l sboulJ never seek to pleose myself. AnJ likewise, if l wisb to
quorJ myself, 0f otbers l sboulJ olwoys be tbe quorJ.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 122
______ _______ _____ _____
(174) To whatever degree Tis body is pampered, To that degree it degenerates To a state of becoming ever more
174. To tbe extent tbis bumon form ls cosseteJ onJ soveJ from burt, }ust so, just so, to tbot Jeqree,
lt JwinJles to o weok onJ fretful stote.
___ _______ __________ _
(175) And when it's degenerated like that, Not even this entire (wealth-bearing) earth Has the ability to fulnll its
longings; So, who will be able to grant its desires?
17S. Ior tbose wbo sink to sucb o poss, Tbe eortb onJ oll it bolJs Are powerless to sotisfy.
Ior wbo con qive tbem oll tbey crove?
________ ___________ _________
(176) For someone desiring the impossible, Disturbing emotion and the dashing of hopes come about;
But for someone having no hopes for anything, His fulnllment never knows an end.
176. Tbeir bopeless crovinq brinqs tbem misery, AnJ evil scbemes invoJe tbeir minJs, Wbile tbose witb free,
untrommeleJ beorts, Will never know on enJ of excellence.
______ _________ _______ ___
(177) Terefore, don't leave the chance open For an increase in desire concerning the body. Tat object is best, which
isn't taken Because of its being desirable.
177. Tberefore for tbe increose of my boJys wonts, lll qive no spoce, no opportunity.
AnJ of possessions, tbose tbinqs ore tbe best Tbot Jo not coptivote by tbeir ottroctiveness.
__________ ___________ ___________
(178) It winds up as ashes in the end And, (even when alive,) being inert, it's set into motion by something else -
Tis nlthy form is (truly) ghastly. Why grasp to it as "mine?"
178. Bust onJ osbes ore tbe boJys jinol stote Tbis boJy wbicb, inert, is moveJ by otber forces. Tbis form so
friqbteninq onJ foul Wby Jo l so reqorJ it os my "self"?
________ ______ _____ __
(179) Whether it's alive or dead, What use is this device to me? What dinerence does it have
from a lump of clay and such things? But, oh no, you're not removing your pride (of identifying with it)!
179. Alive or JeoJ wbot Jifference Joes it moke? Wbot use is tbis mocbine to me?
Wbot Jifference will JiviJe it from o cloJ of eortb? Alos tbot l Jont riJ myself of priJe!
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 123
________ _____________ ________ _
(180) Sunering accumulates pointlessly Trough being partial toward the body; So what use is being fawning or
angry Over this thing that resembles a block of wood?
180. Tbrouqb lovisbinq ottention on tbis boJy, Sucb sorrow bove l brouqbt myself so senselessly. Wbot use is
oll my wontinq, oll my botinq, Ior wbot inJeeJ is like o loq of wooJ?
__________ _________ _________
(181) Whether nurtured by me in this way Or devoured by vultures and such,
It doesn't have sticky attachment or anger, So why do I have sticky attachment to it?
181. Wbetber l protect onJ pomper it, 0r wbetber it is eoten up by corrion birJs, Tbis boJy feels no pleosure,
no oversion. Wby tben Jo l cberisb it so mucb?
_______ ___________ _______ ____
(182) Something getting furious at being belittled Or something getting pleased at being praised -
If it doesn't know to be either of these, For whom am I exhausting myself?
182. Resentment wben it is revileJ,
0r pleosure wben it is esteemeJ, Neitber of tbese two my boJy feels. So wby Jo l exboust myself?
______ ________ _______
(183) "But those who desire this body - Tey and I are friends."
Well, since everyone desires the body of oneself, Why aren't they as dear to me too?
18S. lf l soy l Jo it since its loveJ by otber people, 0tbers wbom l tbus reqorJ os frienJs,
Since oll oppreciote tbe boJies tbot tbey bove, Wby Jo l not toke pleosure in tbem too?
___________ ________ _____ __
(184) Terefore, without partiality, this body's been given over by me For the benent of wandering beings.
Nevertheless, though it has many faults, It needs to be held like a tool for the job.
184. Tberefore, free from oll ottocbment, l will qive tbis boJy for tbe benejit of beinqs. AnJ tbouqb it is
ofjlicteJ by so mony foults, l sboll oJopt it os my necessory tool.
__________ _______________ ___________
(185) So enough of behaving like an infant, I'm following in the footsteps of the wise! (Tus,) recalling the teaching
on taking care, I shall turn back sleepiness and being muddleheaded.
18S. AnJ so, enouqb of oll my cbilJisb woys. lll follow in tbe footsteps of tbe wise; Recollinq tbeir oJvice on
corefulness, lll sbun oll sleep onJ mentol Jullness.
8. Far-Reaching Mental Stability - 124
____________ ____________ __________
(186) Like the compassionate onspring of the Triumphant, I shall bear the rigors of what's appropriate (to do);
For if I don't make a constant enort, day and night, When will my sunering ever come to an end?
186. like tbe BuJJbos beirs, in tbeir compossion, l will beor witb oll tbot sboulJ be borne.
Ior if l Jo not lobor niqbt onJ Joy, Wben will my sorrows reocb tbeir enJ?
_________ __________ _______
_____________ _____________ ____________
(187) Terefore, withdrawing my mind from distorted pathways, I shall continuously set it in absorbed
concentration On the perfect object, In order for its obscurations to be gone.
187. Tbus to bonisb oll obscurinq veils lll benJ my minJ from tbe mistoken potb; AnJ constontly upon tbe
perfect object l sboll rest my minJ in even meJitotion.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 125
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - Wisdom
_______ ___________ _______
(1) Te Sage has spoken about all these branches For the sake of discriminating awareness. Terefore, generate
discriminating awareness With the wish to pacify sunerings.
1. All tbese broncbes of tbe Boctrine Tbe FnliqbteneJ Soqe expounJeJ for tbe soke of wisJom.

tbey must cultivote tbis wisJom Wbo wisb to bove on enJ of sufferinq.
________ ________ ______ ______
(2) Surface and deepest, Tese are accepted as being the two truths.
Te deepest aren't cognitive objects of the dualistic mind; Te dualistic mind is spoken of (in terms of ) the surface.
2. Relotive onJ ultimote, Tbese tbe two trutbs ore JecloreJ to be.
Tbe ultimote is not witbin tbe reocb of intellect, Ior intellect is soiJ to be tbe relotive.
___________ _____ _______ __
(3) In light of that, the world is seen to be of two types: Yogis and common people. And regarding that, the world of
common people Is undermined by the yogi world.
S. ln liqbt of tbis, witbin tbe worlJ, two kinJs of people ore observeJ: Tbose witb yoqic insiqbt onJ tbe
common run of people. ln tbis reqorJ, tbe views of orJinory folk Are unJermineJ by yoqis wbo tbemselves ore
in tbe worlJ
______ ___________ ________
(4) Trough dinerences in their intelligence, Yogis too are undermined by progressively higher ones, By means of
examples accepted by both and because, When not scrutinizing, (both accept that causes function) for the sake of the
4. {Witbin wbose ronks Tbe lower, in Jeqrees of insiqbt, ore confuteJ by tbe biqber) By meons of tbe exomples
tbot tbe yoqis onJ tbe worlJly botb occept. AnJ for tbe soke of tbe result, onolysis is left osiJe.
__________ ______ ________ _
(5) Functional phenomena are seen by the (common) world And conceptualized to be absolutely existent, And not
like an illusion. It's in this regard Tat there's dispute between the yogis and the (common) world.
S. Wben orJinory folk perceive pbenomeno, Tbey look on tbem os reol, onJ not illusory. Tbis, tben, is tbe
subject of Jebote Wbere orJinory onJ yoqis Jiffer.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 126
______________ ____________ ______
(6) But even form and so on, (as perceived by) straightforward cognition itself, Is (established only) by popular
consensus and not by valid cognition; And that's false, like the popular consensus that What's unclean and so forth is
clean and so on.
6. Iorms onJ so fortb, wbicb we oll perceive, Fxist by qenerol occloim but not by voliJ reosoninq. Tbeyre folse
just like, for instonce, uncleon tbinqs ReqorJeJ in tbe common view os pure.
__________ __________ _______ ____
(7) For the sake of causing the (common) world to enter, Te Guardian (Buddha) has taught that there are (truly
existent) functional phenomena. Teir actual nature, however, is that they aren't "momentary things." (Suppose, like
the Sautrantikas,) you objected, "But, it's supposed to contradict the (common) surface (view)."
7. But tbot be miqbt instruct tbe worlJly, 0ur Protector spoke of "tbinqs." But tbese in trutb lock even
momentoriness. Now if you soy its wronq to cloim tbe momentory os relotive,
_________ _________ ________ _
(8) (Well ,) surface (truth asserted) by yogis has no fault, And that's a seeing of their actual nature in contrast with
the (common) world's (view); Otherwise, (their) ascertainment of the uncleanliness of a woman's (body, for
instance,) Would be undermined by the (common) world.
8. Tbere is no foult. Ior momentoriness ls relotive for yoqis, but for worlJly beinqs, ultimote. Were it
otberwise, tbe common view CoulJ foult tbe yoqic insiqbt into corporol impurity.
_________ _______ ________ ___
(9) (Furthermore,) from Triumphant Ones, who are like an illusion, (comes) positive force, In the same way as if they
(actually) were (truly existent) functional phenomena. Suppose you objected, "But, if a limited being were like an
illusion, Ten how could he take rebirth, once having died?"
9. "Tbrouqb o BuJJbo, wbo is but illusion, bow Joes merit sprinq?" As if tbe BuJJbo were existinq truly.
"But," you osk, "if beinqs ore like illusions, Eow, wben Jyinq, con tbey toke rebirtb?"
____________ ______ ________ ___
(10) (Well,) so long as conditions are gathered together, For that long an illusion lasts as well; And how could a
limited being be truly existent Merely because his continuity lasts longer?
10. As lonq os tbe conJitions ore ossembleJ, lllusions, likewise, will persist onJ monifest. Wby, tbrouqb simply
beinq more protrocteJ, SboulJ sentient beinqs be reqorJeJ os more reol?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 127
__________ _________ ________ __
(11) In murdering, and so on, a person that is (actually) an illusion, Tere's no negative force, since it hasn't a mind;
But, with someone having the (type of ) illusion a mind (actually) is, Positive and negative forces accrue.
11. lf one kills or borms tbe moqicol illusion of o mon, Tbere is no minJ in sucb o tbinq onJ tberefore tberes
no sin. But beinqs Jo inJeeJ bove miroqe-like minJs; Sin onJ merit will, in consequence, orise.
_____________ _________ _________ _
(12) Because mantras and so forth lack the ability, Tey cannot produce an (actual) illusory mind. And even that
illusory one that arises from varying conditions Is of varying sorts,
12. Tbere is no power in tbinqs like spells, So miroqe-like minJs Jo not occur tbrouqb tbem. lllusions sprinq
from vorious couses; Tbus illusions ore of Jifferent kinJs.
____________ _____ ______ ____
(Since) nowhere is there one condition Having the ability for (producing) all. (13) (Suppose you asked,) "If, in
deepest (truth), someone were released in (natural) nirvana And, in surface (truth), were circling in samsara;
1S. A sinqle couse for everytbinq Tbere never wos!
"lf ultimotely, beinqs ore in nirvono," you will soy, "But relotively circle in somsoro,
__________ _________ ___________ __
Ten, since Buddha as well would be circling in samsara, What use would there be with bodhisattva behavior?" (14)
(Well,) even an illusion cannot be turned back, Unless the continuity of its conditions is cut.
14. "Fven BuJJbobooJ reverts to tbe somsoric stote. So wby," you osk, "pursue tbe BoJbisottvo potb?" As lonq
os tberes no cuttinq of tbe cousol streom, Tbere is no boltinq even of illusory Jisploys.
___________ ______ ______ _____
Yet, when the continuity of its conditions is cut, It doesn't arise even in surface (truth). (15) (Suppose, like the
Chittamatrins, you then asked,) "When even the deceptive awareness (of it) doesn't (truly) exist, By what is the
illusion being focused on?"
1S. But wben tbe cousol streom is severeJ, Fven relotive pbenomeno Jo not oppeor.
"lf even tbot wbicb is JeceiveJ Joes not exist, Wbot is it," you will osk, "tbot sees illusion?"
_____ ________ ______ _______
(Well,) when the illusion itself doesn't (externally) exist, according to you, Ten, on what is it being focused? (16)
Suppose (you answered,) "In actuality, it exists as something else: It's an aspect of mind itself."
16. But if, for you, tbese some illusions bove no beinq, Wbot, inJeeJ, is tbere to be perceiveJ?
"But objects bove onotber moJe of beinq," you will soy, "Tbot very moJe is but tbe minJ itself."
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 128
_________ _________ ____________ _____
(Well,) when mind itself is what the illusion (actually) is, Ten what's being seen by what? (17) It's been said by the
Guardian for the World, in fact, "Mind cannot see mind."
17. But if tbe miroqe is tbe minJ itself, Wbot is tben perceiveJ by wbot? Tbe 6uorJion of tbe WorlJ bimself
bos soiJ Tbot minJ connot be seen by minJ.
___ _______ ______ ___
Just as the edge of a sword cannot cut itself, So (it is with) the mind. (18) (Suppose you responded,) "But, it's just
like how a candle name Perfectly illuminates itself as a phenomenon."
18. ln just tbe some woy, be bos soiJ, Tbe sworJs eJqe connot cut tbe sworJ. "But," you soy, "its like tbe jlome
Tbot perfectly illuminotes itself."
_________ ____________ _________ ___
(Well,) the name of a candle isn't being illuminated, Since it's not something that had been obscured by darkness.
(19) Suppose (you replied), "Well, a blue object, (for example,) doesn't depend on something else For its being blue,
as does a (clear) crystal;
19. Tbe jlome, in foct, con never liqbt itself. AnJ wby? Becouse tbe Jorkness never Jims it! "Tbe blueness of o
tbinq by noture blue," you soy, "BepenJs, unlike o crystol, upon notbinq else.
__________ ________ _______ ____
So like this, some things are seen that depend on another And some that do not so depend." (20) (Well,) when
something is (an example of ) non-blue, It can't make itself blue by itself; (And what blue object Can make itself blue
by itself?)
20. "likewise some perceptions Come from otber tbinqs, wbile some Jo not." But sometbinq tbots by noture
blue bos never of itself imposeJ A blueness on its non-blue self.
________ __________ _________ _____
(21) (Suppose you persisted,) "But, as it's cognized by a cognition, It can be said, 'Te candle name is illuminating
itself.'" (Well,) upon its being cognized by what can that statement be made, "A mind is illuminating itself?"
21. Tbe pbrose "Tbe lomp illuminotes itself" Tbe minJ con know onJ formulote. But wbot is tbere to know
onJ soy Tbot "minJ is self-illuminotinq?"
__________ _________ ____________ _
(22) And when it's never been seen by anyone, Ten discussing whether it's (self ) luminous Or not (self ) luminous is
meaningless, Like the beautiful looks of the daughter of a barren woman.
22. Tbe minJ, inJeeJ, is never seen by onytbinq. AnJ tberefore, wbetber it con know, or connot know, itself, ls
like tbe beouty of o borren womons Jouqbter: Sometbinq tbot its pointless to Jiscuss.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 129
______ _________ _______ __
(23) (Suppose you insisted,) "But, if renexive awareness doesn't exist, Ten how does a consciousness come to be
recalled?" (Well,) a recollection comes about from a connection With another (object) that was experienced, like the
poison from a rat.
2S. "But if," you osk, "tbe minJ is not self-knowinq, Eow Joes it remember wbot it knew?" We soy tbot, like tbe
poison of tbe woter rot, lts tbrouqb tbe link witb tbinqs experienceJ tbot memory occurs.
__________ _______ __________ __
(24) (And suppose you persisted,) "But, it can illuminate itself, because, When endowed with other conditions,
there's the seeing (of others' minds)." (Well,) a (buried treasure) vase that's seen from applying actualized magic eye
lotion Still wouldn't be the eye lotion itself.
24. "ln certoin coses," you will soy, "tbe minJ Con see tbe minJs of otbers, bow tben not itself?"
But tbrouqb tbe opplicotion of o moqic bolm, Tbe eye moy see tbe treosure, but tbe solve it Joes not see.
__________ ________ ________ ___
(25) How something is seen, heard, or known Is not being nullined in this at all. Here, (instead,) conceptual
cognition (of it) as truly existent, which has become the cause for sunering, Is being turned back.
2S. lts not inJeeJ our purpose to Jisprove Fxperiences of siqbt or sounJ or knowinq.
0ur oim is bere to unJermine tbe couse of sorrow: Tbe tbouqbt tbot sucb pbenomeno bove true existence.
____________ ___________ _________ ___
(26) (Suppose you said,) "An illusion (of an external object) isn't dinerent from the mind; Yet it can't be conceived as
non-dinerent." (Well,) if it were a (truly existent) functional phenomenon, how could it not be dinerent? And if (you
said) it's not dinerent, it couldn't be a (truly existent) functional phenomenon.
26. "lllusions ore not otber tbon tbe minJ," you soy, AnJ yet you Jont consiJer tbem tbe some.
Eow coulJ tbey not be Jifferent if tbe minJ is reol? AnJ bow con minJ be reol if you Jeny o Jifference?
________ ________ ________ ____
(27) Just as an illusion, though not truly existent, can still be seen, So too is it with what does the seeing. Suppose
(you still objected,) "But, samsara must have a (truly existent) functional phenomenon as its support; Otherwise, it
would be like space."
27. Altbouqb it is unreol, o miroqe con be seen; AnJ tbot wbicb sees is just tbe some.
"But somsoro must be boseJ on sometbinq reol," you soy, "0r else it is like empty spoce."
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 130
_________ _______ __________
(28) (Well,) how could a non-phenomenon come to have a function Trough its being supported on (a truly
existent) functional one? And the mind you (asserted) would get (reduced, in fact,) To something existing alone by
itself, accompanied by nothing.
28. But bow coulJ tbe unreol be cousolly effective, Fven if it rests on sometbinq reol?
Tbis minJ of yours is isoloteJ onJ olone, Alone, in solituJe, onJ unoccomponieJ.
__________ ___________ ______ ____
(29) And when the mind would be (naturally) free of cognized objects, Ten everyone would be a Tusly Gone
(Buddha). And if that were the case, what benent would there be In conceiving of mind-only?
29. lf tbe minJ inJeeJ is free of objects, All beinqs must be BuJJbos, Tbus-6one onJ enliqbteneJ. AnJ so, wbot
purpose con tbere be ln soyinq tbus, tbot tbere is "0nly HinJ"?
_______ __________ ______ ___
(30) (Suppose you asked,) "Even upon knowing the similarity (of things) with illusion, How does disturbing emotion
turn back, When it's the case that lust for an illusory woman Can arise even in the one who conjured her?"
S0. "Fven if we know tbot oll is like illusion, Eow," you osk, "will tbis Jispel ofjlictive possion? Hoqicions moy
inJeeJ tbemselves Jesire Tbe miroqe-women tbey tbemselves creote."
______ ____________ ______ _______
(31) (Well, that happens because) the conjurer hasn't rid himself yet Of the habit for disturbing emotion toward
knowable things, And so, when he sees her, His habit for voidness is still weak in force.
S1. Tbe reoson is tbey bove not riJ tbemselves 0f bobits of Jesirinq objects of perception; AnJ wben tbey qoze
upon sucb tbinqs, Tbeir optituJe for emptiness is weok inJeeJ.
_____________ _________ _______
_ ______
(32) However, by habituating himself to the habit of voidness, He'll rid himself of the habit of (cognizing)
phenomena (as truly existent). Ten, by habituating himself with "not existing at all," He'll later come to rid himself
even of (cognizing) that.
S2. By troininq in tbis optituJe for emptiness, Tbe bobit to perceive reol tbinqs will be relinquisbeJ. By
troininq in tbe tbouqbt "Tbere isnt onytbinq," Tbis view itself will olso be obonJoneJ.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 131
________ ___________ _______ ___
(33) When a (truly existent) functional phenomenon, which is conceived as "not existing," Is no longer taken as the
mental aim; Ten lacking a support, how can the nonfunctional phenomenon (of its non-true existence) Remain
before the dualistic mind?
SS. "Tbere is notbinq"wben tbis is osserteJ, No tbinq is tbere to be exomineJ. Eow con o "notbinq," wbolly
unsupporteJ, Rest before tbe minJ os sometbinq present?
______ _________ __________ ____
(34) When neither a (truly existent) functional phenomenon nor the nonfunctional one (of its non-true existence)
Remains before the dualistic mind, Ten since the other alternatives cannot be the case, Tere's full pacincation into
(a state) without mental aim (at the impossible).
S4. Wben sometbinq onJ its nonexistence Botb ore obsent from before tbe minJ, No otber option Joes tbe
lotter bove: lt comes to perfect rest, from concepts free.
___________ ______ _________ _
(35) (Ten,) just as a wish-fulnlling gem And a wish-granting tree fulnll all wishes; Likewise, through the power of
disciples to be tamed and of prayers, Te Enlightening Form of a Triumphant One appears.
SS. As tbe wisbinq jewel onJ tree of mirocles Iuljill onJ sotisfy oll bopes onJ wisbes, likewise, tbrouqb tbeir
proyers for tbose wbo miqbt be troineJ, Tbe pbysicol oppeoronce of tbe Conquerors occurs.
_________ ____________ ___
(36) For example, just as when a garudika healer has passed away After actualizing a wooden healing post, It still can
pacify poison and the like, Even when a long time's expired since his passing;
S6. Tbe beolinq sbrine of tbe qoruJo, Fven wben its builJer wos lonq JeoJ, ContinueJ even oqes tbence
To remeJy onJ sootbe oll ploques onJ venom.
___________ __________ ________
_ ___________
(37) So too, when a bodhisattva has passed into nirvana, After actualizing the healing-post (body) of a Triumphant
One In accord with bodhisattva behavior, It still can perform all that's to be done.
S7. likewise bovinq qoineJ tbe "sbrine of victory" ln occorJonce witb tbeir JeeJs for soke of BuJJbobooJ,
Tbouqb BoJbisottvos poss beyonJ oll qrief, Tbey yet con sotisfy oll enJs.
___________ _________ _________
_ ________
(38) (Suppose you asked,) "How can onerings made to something lacking a mind have results?" (Well,) why? Because
whether he's still here Or has already passed into nirvana, It's been proclaimed as being the same.
S8. "But bow," you osk, "con offerinqs moJe To beinqs freeJ from oll Jiscursiveness qive fruit?" lts soiJ tbot
wbetber BuJJbos live or poss beyonJ, Tbe offerinqs moJe to tbem ore equol in tbeir merit.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 132
________ _____ _________ __
(39) According to scriptural authority, results are there, Whether from the surface (viewpoint) or that of actuality. It's
like, for example, how (you'd say that onerings made) To a truly existent Buddha has results.
S9. Wbetber you ossert tbem in tbe ultimote or relotive, Herit, so tbe scriptures soy, orises, }ust os tbere will
be results Wben BuJJbos ore consiJereJ truly reol.
__________ _________ _____ _
(40) (Suppose, like the Hinayanists, you then objected,) "But, since liberation comes from seeing the (four noble)
truths, What's the use of seeing voidness?" (Well,) why? Because from scriptural authority it's been proclaimed Tat
without this path, there's no purined state.
40. "Were free," you soy, "tbrouqb seeinq tbe {Iour) Trutbs Wbot use is it to us, tbis view of emptiness?"
But os tbe scriptures bove tbemselves procloimeJ, Witbout tbis potb tbere con be no enliqbtenment.
__________ ______ ________ _
(41) Suppose (you then objected,) "But, Mahayana's not established (as valid)!" (Well,) how can your scriptures be
established? (If you answered,) "Because they're established for both parties." (Well,) they weren't established for you
from the start.
41. You soy tbe Hoboyono bos no certointy. But bow Jo you substontiote your own troJition? "Becouse it is
occepteJ by botb porties," you will soy. But ot tbe outset, you yourself lockeJ proof!
________ ________ ____________ _
(42) Any criterion that would give conndence in them Would equally (apply) to the Mahayana ones too. And if
acceptance by two dinerent parties could make something true, Ten the Vedas and so on would also become true.
42. Tbe reosons wby you trust in your troJition Hoy likewise be opplieJ to Hoboyono.
Horeover, if occorJ between two porties sbows tbe trutb, Tbe veJos onJ tbe rest ore olso true.
__________ ________ _______ _
(43) Suppose (you argued), "It's because the Mahayana ones are disputed." (Well,) because (your) scriptures are
disputed by non-Buddhists And some other (sections within your) scriptures by yourselves and others, Tey'd have to
be discarded (too).
4S. "Hoboyono is ot foult," you soy, "becouse it is contesteJ." But BuJJbist texts ore questioneJ by extremists,
Wbile BuJJbists olso vie omonq tbemselves; AnJ so your own troJition you must now obonJon.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 133
________ ________ ____________
_ ________
(44) (Suppose you said,) "But the teachings (of the four noble truths) are the root of the (absolute) monkhood (of
arhats)." (Well,) even (absolute) monkhood itself is on dimcult grounds, (Since) the nirvana of a mind still aimed (at
the impossible) Is on dimcult grounds.
44. Tbe true monk is tbe root of Bbormo, AnJ to be o monk is Jifjicult inJeeJ.
lts borJ for minJs enmesbeJ in tbouqbts To poss beyonJ tbe bonJs of sufferinq.
_________ ____ _______ ____
(45) (Suppose you replied,) "But they've become liberated, because they've rid themselves of disturbing
emotion." (Well,) that would need to have happened immediately upon that; However, it's seen that despite (their)
lacking disturbing emotion, Tey're still under the power of karma.
4S. You soy tberes liberotion in tbe instont Tbot Jejilements ore entirely forsoken.
Yet tbose wbo from Jejilements ore set free Continue to Jisploy tbe injluence of kormo.
_______ ______ ________ ______
(46) Suppose (you then said), "But it's dennite that they don't have, still to some extent, Craving (as a condition) for
obtaining (rebirth)." (Well,) why couldn't it be that a craving that's not with disturbing emotion (Is still existing in
them,) while still with bewilderment about all?
46. "0nly for o wbile," you soy. "Ior it is certoin Tbot tbe couses of rebirtb, tbeir crovinqs, ore no more." Tbey
bove no crovinq, qronteJ, tbrouqb Jejilement, But like tbeir iqnoronce, wby sboulJ tbey not bove crovinq
_________ ___ ___________ _
(47) Trough the circumstance of feeling, there's craving, And feeling still exists in them as well. So a mind still
having an aim (at the impossible) Will come to be settled on one or another.
47. Tbis crovinq is proJuceJ by virtue of sensotion, AnJ sensotion, tbis tbey surely bove. Concepts linqer still
witbin tbeir minJs; AnJ it is to tbese concepts tbot tbey clinq.
________ _______ _________
___ _________
(48) A mind that's parted from voidness May block (it), but it'll arise once again, As with a trance that lacks
distinguishing. Terefore, one needs to meditate on voidness.
48. Tbe minJ tbot bos not reolizeJ voiJness, Hoy be bolteJ, but will once oqoin orise, }ust os from o non-
perceptuol obsorption. Tberefore one must troin in emptiness.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 134
______ _________ ________ _
(49) (So again,) if you accept as spoken by the Buddha Any speech that's made it down into the sutras, Ten why not
accept the Mahayana, which, for the most part, Are equivalent to (your) sutras?
49. lf oll tbe worJs recorJeJ in tbe sutros You oJmit to be tbe BuJJbos perfect speecb, Wby Jont you now
occept tbe qreoter port of Hoboyono, Witb wbicb your sutros ore in perfect bormony?
____________ _________ ___________
_ __________
(50) If, because of one exception, All would become corrupt; Ten why, because of one equivalence to (your) sutras,
Wouldn't all have been spoken by the Buddha?
S0. lf Jue to just o sinqle jorrinq element, Tbe wbole is belJ to be ot foult, Wby sboulJ o sinqle sutro in
oqreement witb your texts Not vinJicote tbe rest os BuJJbos teocbinq?
______ ____________ _________ ___
(51) And who would consider unacceptable Some speech, the depths of which (Even) Mahakashyapa and the like
couldn't fathom, (Simply) because you can't understand it?
S1. Hobokosbyopo

bimself onJ otbers CoulJ not sounJ tbe Jeptbs of sucb o teocbinq. Wbo will tberefore soy
tbot tbeyre to be rejecteJ }ust becouse tbey ore not qrospeJ by you?
_________ ___________ _________
_ _______
(52) (After all,) the fruit of (realizing) voidness is this: Trough freedom from the extremes of attachment and fear,
Being able to stay in samsara For the sake of those sunering from being bewildered.
S2. To linqer onJ obiJe witbin somsoro, IreeJ from every crovinq onJ from every feor, ln orJer to ocbieve tbe
qooJ of tbose wbo iqnorontly suffer: Sucb is tbe fruit tbot emptiness will beor.
_______ _________ ________ _______
(53) As it's like this, derision's improper In the direction of voidness. Terefore, without indecisively wavering,
Meditate, please, on voidness.
SS. Tberefore it is incorrect To jinJ foult witb tbis view of emptiness. AnJ so, witb every Joubt obonJoneJ, We
sboulJ meJitote on it!
__________ __________ _______ __
(54) Voidness is the opponent for the darkness Of the emotional and cognitive obscurations; (So) how can someone
wishing for omniscience quickly Not meditate on it?
S4. Afjlictive possion onJ tbe veil upon coqnition Tbe cure for tbeir obscurity is emptiness. Eow tben sboll
tbey not meJitote on tbis Wbo wisb for swift ottoinment of omniscience?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 135
_________ _____ _________
(55) (Cognizing) phenomena (as truly existent) gives rise to sunering:
Generate fear for that. But (realizing) voidness pacines sunering: So why does fear generate for that?
SS. Wbotever is tbe source of sufferinq, let tbot be tbe object of our feor.
But voiJness will olloy our every qrief, Eow coulJ it be for us o tbinq of JreoJ?
_______ _____ ________
(56) (Go ahead and) be afraid of whatever, If there were something called a "me"; But as there's nothing that is a
"me," Ten whose fear will it be?
S6. lf sucb o tbinq os "l" exists inJeeJ, Tben terrors, qronteJ, will torment it. But since no self or "l" exists ot
oll, Wbot is tbere left for feors to terrify?
_______ ________ ___________ ___
(57) Teeth, hair, or nails are not a "me"; Nor am "I" bones or blood. ("I'm") neither mucous nor phlegm; And nor
am "I" lymph or pus.
S7. Tbe teetb, tbe boir, tbe noils ore not tbe "l," AnJ "l" is not tbe bones or blooJ, Tbe mucus from tbe nose onJ
pbleqm ore not tbe "l," AnJ neitber is it moJe of lympb or pus.
________ __________ _________ __
(58) "I" am not fat or sweat; Nor am "I" even lungs or a liver. "I'm" not any of the other inner organs; Nor am "I"
feces or urine.
S8. Tbe "l" is not tbe boJys qreose or sweot, Tbe lunqs onJ liver likewise Jo not constitute it. Neitber ore tbe
inner orqons "l," Nor yet tbe boJys excrement onJ woste.
__________ ____ __________ ____
(59) Flesh or skin is not a "me"; Nor am "I" temperature or energy-wind. In no way am "I" ever a bodily hole,
Nor are the six types of consciousness a "me."
S9. Tbe jlesb onJ skin ore not tbe "l," AnJ neitber ore tbe boJys wormtb onJ breotb. Tbe covities witbin tbe
frome ore not tbe "l," AnJ "l" is not occounteJ for in sixfolJ consciousness.
________ _________ ________ ______
(60) And if (a person) were a permanent cognizer (as Samkhya asserts, and) of a sound, Te sound would be cognized
all of the time. But when bereft of something it cognizes, what does it know, By means of which it could be called a
60. lf tbe beorinq consciousness is permonent, lt follows tbot its beorinq oll tbe time.
AnJ if tbere is no object, wbot Joes it coqnize? 0n wbot qrounJs Jo you coll it consciousness?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 136
_________ _______ __________ __
(61) If it could be a cognizer without cognizing (something), Ten absurdly a stick would also be a cognizer.
Terefore, it's certain that without something nearby that it's cognizing, It can't be a cognition.
61. lf sometbinq tbots unconscious knows, lt follows tbot o stick bos knowleJqe olso. Tberefore in tbe obsence
of o tbinq to know, lts cleor tbot consciousness will not orise.
___________ _______ _______ _____
(62) Suppose (you said), "It itself is then cognizing a sight." (Well,) why doesn't it also hear at that time?
If (you answered), "Because the sound's not nearby," (Well,) then it's no longer a cognizer of it.
62. lf tbe selfsome consciousness Jetects o form, At tbot time, wby Joes it not beor?
Perbops you soy tbe sounJs no lonqer tbere. Tben neitber is tbere consciousness of sounJ.
_________ __________ ______ ____
(63) How can something having the nature of the cognizer of a sound Become the cognizer of a sight? One can be
labeled a father and a son, But not as his absolute nature.
6S. Eow coulJ tbot wbicb bos tbe noture of o sounJ-perceiver Fver be tronsformeJ into o form-perceiver?
"A sinqle mon," you soy, "con be botb son onJ fotber." But tbese ore merely nomes; bis noture is not so.
______ _________ _______ ____
(64) And it's like this (because) sattva, rajas, and tamas (as the absolute nature of both a sound and a sight)
Are neither a son, nor are they a father; (And because) that (cognizer of a sight) has never been seen With a
fundamental nature connected with a cognizer of a sound.
64. AnJ likewise "poin," "neutrolity," onJ "pleosure" Are neitber fotberbooJ nor sonsbip; AnJ we inJeeJ bove
never yet observeJ A consciousness of form perceivinq sounJ.
____________ ________ ________ ___
(65) (Suppose you persisted,) "Like a dancer, it's still itself, but seen with another mode (of guise)." (Well then,) it
wouldn't be static. And suppose (you clarined), "It's still itself, but (its fundamental nature) is in another
mode." (Well then,) its oneness is one without any precedent.
6S. "But like on octor," you reply, "it tokes o Jifferent role onJ sees." lf so, tbis consciousness is not o constont
tbinq. AnJ if its loter moJe is still tbe jirst, Tbots iJentity inJeeJ onJ never seen before!
___________ ______ ______ ______
(66) Suppose (you explained), "But its assorted modes (of guise) are not true," Ten describe, please, its own (innate)
natural (guise). Suppose (you answered,) "It's being a cognizer." (Well then), absurdly it would follow that all persons
are one.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 137
66. "But its Jifferent moJes," you soy, "ore quite unreol." lts essence tberefore you must now Jescribe. You soy
tbot tbis is simply knowinq. lt follows tbot oll beinqs ore o sinqle tbinq.
__________ _________ ________
(67) (Further,) what has intention and what lacks intention - those two would, in fact, become one thing,
Because their existence is the same. And, if individualities were contrary to fact, Ten what could be their shared
67. Wbot bos minJ onJ wbot Joes not bove minJ Are tbus iJenticol, for botb ore equol in existinq. lf tbe
Jifferent kinJs of minJ ore oll unreol, Wbot common bosis con tbere be for tbem?
__________ ______________ ________
_ __________
(68) Furthermore, something lacking intention cannot be a self, (as Nyaya-Vaisheshika asserts), Because of its nature
of lack of intention, just like a vase and such things. Now (suppose you claimed), "It's cognizant because of a
conjunction with an intention," Ten it absurdly follows that (this) noncognizant (self ) has perished.
68. Sometbinq Jestitute of minJ, we bolJ, is not o self. Ior minJlessness meons motter, like o vose. "But," you
soy, "tbe self bos consciousness wben joineJ to minJ." Tben tbis refutes its noture of unconsciousness.
______ _________ _______ ______
(69) And if the self were (in fact) unchanging, What could have been done to it through (a connection with) an
intention? (Moreover,) space is noncognizant and inert like that, So, it (as well) could become a self.
69. lf tbe self, moreover, is immutoble, Wbot cbonqe in it coulJ minqlinq witb tbe minJ proJuce? AnJ seljbooJ
we miqbt equolly ofjirm 0f empty spoce, inert onJ Jestitute of minJ.
________ __________ ___________ _
(70) Suppose (you then objected), "But, without the (true) existence of a (static) self, Te connection between
behavioral cause and enect would be unreasonable, Since, if it perished after having done an action, Ten whose
action would it have been?"
70. "lf self Joes not exist," you soy, "Tbere is no link connectinq octions witb results. lf wben tbe JeeJ is Jone,
tbe Joer is no more, Wbo is tbere to reop tbe kormic fruit?"
_______ ______ _________ __
(71) (Well,) since it's established for both of us Tat the action and result have a dinerent basis, And that the self
hasn't an active role in this, Isn't it useless to debate on this (point)?
71. Tbe boses of tbe oct onJ fruit ore not tbe some, ln botb o self is witbout scope for oction. Tbis is voliJ botb
for you onJ us; Wbot point is tbere, tberefore, in our Jebote?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 138
__________ _______ __________ ___
(72) "Someone providing a causal (action) and conjoined with its result" - Tis has never been seen as an existent
thing. It's in reliance on the unity of a continuum that it is taught, "(Only) the agent can be the experiencer (of the
72. "A couse coterminous witb its result" ls sometbinq quite impossible to see. AnJ only in tbe context of o
sinqle mentol streom Con it be soiJ tbot one wbo octs will loter reop tbe fruit.
_______ ________ ___________ __
(73) Te already-passed and the not-yet-arisen minds Are not the self, since they don't exist (now).
And well, if the (presently) arising mind were the self, When it perishes, there would, in fact, be no self!
7S. Tbe tbouqbts now posseJ, onJ tbose to come, ore not tbe self; Tbey ore no more, or ore not yet. ls tben tbe
self tbe tbouqbt wbicb now is born? lf so, it sinks to notbinq wben tbe lotter foJes.
_______ ________ ________ ____
(74) For example, when the trunk of a plantain tree Is split into parts, nothing (is found);
Likewise, when searched for with discerning analysis, A self isn't (found as) an absolute thing.
74. Ior instonce, we moy toke bonono trees Cuttinq tbrouqb tbe jibers, jinJinq notbinq. likewise onolyticol
investiqotion Will jinJ no "l," no unJerlyinq self.
_________ ______ _________ ___
(75) (Suppose) you asked, "If a limited being didn't exist, Toward whom could there be compassion?" (Well,) it
would be toward one who was conceptually labeled by a bewildered (mind) Tat had committed itself to the goal of
its fruit.
7S. "lf beinqs," you will soy, "bove no existence, Wbo will be tbe object of compossion?" Tbose wbom iqnoronce
imputes, Ior wbose soke we bove pleJqeJ ourselves.
_________ _______ ________
(76) (Suppose you then asked,) "Whose fruit would it be, if there were no limited being?" (Well,) that's true. It's
accepted that (the wish) is due to bewilderment; (Yet,) for the sake of pacifying sunering completely, Bewilderment
about the fruit is not turned back.
76. "lf," you osk, "tbere ore no beinqs, wbo will qoin tbe fruit?" lts true! lt is tbrouqb iqnoronce tbot tbey ore
soiJ to be! But for tbe totol vonquisbinq of sorrow, Tbe qool, wbicb iqnoronce conceives, sboulJ not be
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 139
_______ ________ ______ __
(77) But because of bewilderment about the self, Te cause of sunering, self-innation, increases. (Suppose) you said,
"But, there's no turning back from that." (Well,) best is meditation on the lack of an (impossible) self.
77. Tbe source of sorrow is tbe priJe of soyinq "l," lts fostereJ onJ increoseJ by folse belief in self. To tbis you
moy believe tbot tbere is no reJress, But meJitotion on no-self will be tbe supreme woy.
_________ ______ ________ __
(78) A body is neither the feet nor the calves; Nor is a body the thighs or the hips. Te belly or the back is not a
body; Neither is a body the chest or the arms.
78. Wbot we coll tbe boJy is not feet or sbins; Tbe boJy, likewise, is not tbiqbs or loins. lts not tbe belly nor
inJeeJ tbe bock, AnJ from tbe cbest onJ orms tbe boJy is not formeJ.
__________ __________ _______
__________ ______
(79) Te sides of the torso or the hands are not a body; Nor is a body the armpits or the shoulders. Te inner organs
as well are not it; And neither is a body the head or also the neck. So what (alternative) could a body be here?
79. Tbe boJy is not ribs or bonJs, Armpits, sboulJers, bowels, or entroils. lt is not tbe beoJ, onJ it is not tbe
tbroot. Wbot is tbe "boJy," tben, in oll of tbis?
______ __________ __________
(80) If this body were located With a portion in all of these;
Ten, although the parts are located in the parts, Where is it itself located?
80. lf tbe "boJy" spreoJs itself AnJ witb tbe members coinciJes,
lts ports inJeeJ ore present in tbose ports. But wbere Joes "boJy," in itself, obiJe?
_________ ____________ ________ _
(81) And if a body itself, in its entirety, Were located (everywhere), in the hands and so forth, Tere would be as
many bodies As there were hands and so on.
81. But if tbe "boJy," sinqle onJ entire ls present in tbe bonJs onJ otber members,
Eowever mony ports tbere ore, tbe bonJs onJ oll tbe rest, Youll jinJ on equol quontity of "boJies."
_____ _______ _____________ _
(82) As a body's not (located) outside or inside (the parts), How could a body exist in terms of the hands and so
forth (as their possessor)? As it's also not (a possessor) separate from the hands and so on, How could it possibly be
(truly) existent?
82. lf "boJy" is not outsiJe or witbin its ports, Eow is it, tben, resiJinq in its members? AnJ since it is not otber
tbon its ports, Eow con you soy tbot it exists ot oll?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 140
________ ______ __________
__ _______
(83) Tus, a body's not (truly) existent; But, because of bewilderment in terms of the hands and so forth, A dualistic
mind arises of a body. It's like the dualistic mind that arises of a man in terms of a scarecrow, By its feature of having
been set up in its shape.
8S. Tbus tbere is no "boJy." lt is tbrouqb illusion, Witb reqorJ to bonJs onJ otber ports, tbot "boJy" os o
notion is conceiveJ }ust os on occount of its specijic sbope A pile of stones is token for o mon.
________ ________ _________ _
(84) For as long as the conditions are assembled, Te body (of a scarecrow) is seen as a man; Likewise, for as long as
there are hands and so on, A body is seen in terms of them.
84. As lonq os tbe conJitions ore ossembleJ, Tbe boJy will oppeor to be o mon.
As lonq os oll tbe ports ore likewise present, A boJy will oppeor tberein.
__________ ________ ________
_ _________
(85) Similarly, because of its being a composite of nngers, Which one could be a hand? (Te same with) that (nnger)
as well, because of its being a composite of joints; And a joint as well, from the breakdown into its own parts;
8S. likewise, since it is o qroup of jinqers, Tbe bonJ itself Joes not exist os sucb. AnJ so it is witb jinqers, moJe
of joints AnJ joints tbemselves consist of mony ports.
_____ _______ _________ __
(86) And a part as well, through a breakdown into particles; And that particle as well, because of directional
divisions; And a directional division too, because of its being without (nndable) parts, like space. Consequently, even
particles don't (truly) exist.
86. Tbese ports tbemselves will breok Jown into porticles, AnJ porticles JiviJe occorJinq to Jirection.
Tbese froqments, too, lock portless ports; tbey ore like spoce. Tbus even porticles bove no existence.
____ ____________ ______ ____
(87) Terefore, what discerning (person) would be attached To a bodily form, which is like a dream? And when, like
that, a body doesn't (truly) exist, Ten what's a male and what's a female?
87. All form, tberefore, is like o Jreom, AnJ wbo will be ottocbeJ to it, wbo tbus investiqotes? Tbe boJy, in tbis
woy, bos no existence; Wbot, tberefore, is mole onJ wbot is femole?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 141
______ ______ _______ _____
(88) If sunering existed by absolute nature, How is it that it doesn't undermine (experiencing) pleasures? And if
happiness, for those tormented by grief and the like, were a tasty dish or such things, Why doesn't it make them
88. lf sufferinq itself is truly reol, Wby is joy not oltoqetber quencbeJ tbereby? lf pleosures reol, tben wby will
pleosont tostes Not comfort onJ omuse o mon in oqony?
____________ _____ ___________ _
(89) Suppose (you answered), "It's not experienced, because it's outshone By something that's more intense."
(Well,) how can something not in the nature of an experience Still be something (in the category of ) a feeling?
89. lf tbe feelinq foils to be experienceJ, Tbrouqb beinq overwbelmeJ by sometbinq stronqer, Eow con
"feelinq" riqbtly be oscribeJ To tbot wbicb locks tbe cborocter of beinq felt?
_______ _________ _______ ___
(90) Suppose (you replied,) "Couldn't it still be sunering, but in a subtle state, When its gross (level) has been
displaced?" (Well, then) you could (also) say that, other than that, it was a slight (level of ) joy, And then, (absurdly,)
its subtle state would be one of that too.
90. Perbops you soy tbot only subtle poin remoins, lts qrosser form bos now been overmostereJ 0r rotber it
is felt os "mere pleosure." But wbot is subtle still remoins itself.
__________ ___________ __________ __
(91) Suppose (you said), "But, at the arising of incompatible conditions, Tere's the non-arising of sunering." (Well,)
doesn't that (come down to) establishing that A feeling is (merely) something hung on by a conceptual thought?
91. lf, becouse its opposite is present, Biscomfort foils to monifest, ls not tbe cloim tbot its o "feelinq" No more
tbon o mentol imputotion?
____ __________ __________ ______
(92) Because of just that, this discerning analysis Needs to be meditated as its opponent;
Te stability of mind that grows from the neld of examining Is the food of the yogis.
92. Since so it is, tbe ontiJote ls meJitotion onJ onolysis.
Absorption qrown in jielJs of tbeir investiqotion ls inJeeJ tbe fooJ onJ sustenonce of yoqis.
________ _____ ______ ___
(93) If there's a gap between a cognitive sensor and its object; Where could the meeting of the two occur? And if
there's no gap, they'd be a fused unity, So the meeting would be of what with what?
9S. lf between tbe sense power onJ o tbinq Tbere is o spoce, bow will tbe two terms meet? AnJ if tbere is no
spoce, tbey form o unity, AnJ tberefore wbot is it tbot meets witb wbot?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 142
_______ __________ _______ __
(94) Yet, there can't be penetration of a particle by a particle: Tey've no empty space and they're of uniform (size).
When there's no penetration, there's no commingling; And when there's no commingling, there's no meeting.
94. No penetrotion con tbere be of porticle by porticle, Ior tbey ore botb tbe some in lockinq volume.
But if tbey Jo not penetrote, tbey Jo not merqe; AnJ if tbey Jo not merqe, tberes no encounter.
_______ _______ ______ _____
(95) Moreover, for something that's partless, How could what might be called "a meeting"
properly take place? If a meeting and being partless can be observed (together), Ten show it, please!
9S. Ior bow coulJ onyone occept Tbot wbot is portless coulJ be soiJ to meet? AnJ you must sbow me, if you
ever sow, A contoct tokinq ploce between two portless tbinqs.
________ _______ _________ ___
(96) For a consciousness, which is immaterial, A meeting is an impossibility; (Tat's so) for a composite as well,
because it doesn't truly exist, As has been discerningly analyzed before.
96. Consciousness is immoteriol, AnJ so one connot speok of contoct witb it. A combinotion, too, bos no
reolity, }ust os we bove previously sbown.
______ _______ __ ____
(97) And so, like that, when contact doesn't truly exist, From what does a feeling arise? For what reason, (then,) is
there (all) this trouble? For whom and from what could injury come?
97. lf tberefore tberes no toucb or contoct, Wbence is it tbot feelinq tokes its rise? Wbot purpose is tbere,
tben, in oll our toil, Ior wbot is it, inJeeJ, tbot torments wbot?
______ ______ ___________ __
(98) And when there's no (truly existent) one that feels, And feeling, as well, doesn't (truly) exist, Ten seeing this
situation, O craving, Why don't you turn yourself back?
98. Since tbere is no subject for sensotion, AnJ sensotion, too, locks oll existence, Eow is crovinq not orresteJ
Wben oll tbis is cleorly unJerstooJ?
_______ _______ __________ _
(99) Nevertheless, (something) can be seen and also be touched Trough its having a nature similar to a dream or an
illusion. (Further,) a feeling cannot be perceived by a mind From arising simultaneously with it.
99. Wbot we see onJ wbot we toucb ls stuff of Jreoms onJ miroqes. lf feelinq is coinciJent witb consciousness,
lt follows tbot it is not seen tbereby.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 143
________ ______ _______ ___
(100) And, though a previous one can be remembered by one that arises later, It can't be experienced (by it). (In
short, a feeling) can't experience it's own self And it can't be experienced by something else.
100. lf tbe one orises jirst, tbe otber ofter, Hemory occurs onJ not Jirect sensotion. Sensotion is witbout
perception of itself AnJ likewise, by onotber it is not perceiveJ.
______ _______ _______ __
(101) As there's no (truly existent) one that feels, Ten, feeling cannot exist absolutely. So, in this bundle that lacks a
true self, Who can be injured by it?
101. Tbe oqent of sensotion bos no reol existence, Tbus sensotion, likewise, bos no beinq.
Wbot Jomoqe, tberefore, con sensotion Jo to it Tbis oqqreqote JepriveJ of self?
_________ _____________ __________
_ _______
(102) A mind's not situated in cognitive sensors, in sights and so on, Nor in the space in between; A mind isn't
inside, nor is it outside, Nor can it be found, in fact, anywhere else.
102. Tbe minJ witbin tbe senses Joes not Jwell, lt bos no ploce in outer tbinqs like form. AnJ in between, tbe
minJ Joes not obiJe: Not out, not in, not elsewbere, con tbe minJ be founJ.
___________ _________ _____
(103) Something that isn't the body nor something else, Neither commingled, nor separate in any way,
Isn't anything (truly existent) at all. Because of that, Limited beings are by nature released in parinirvana.
10S. lt is not in tbe boJy, yet is nowbere else. lt Joes not merqe witb it nor stonJ oportSometbinq sucb os
tbis Joes not exist, not even sliqbtly. Beinqs by tbeir noture ore beyonJ tbe reocb of sufferinq.
________ _______ _________ _
(104) If the cognition (of something) were prior to what it cognized, Ten what's it to be aimed at for its arising (to
occur)? And if a cognition were simultaneous with what it cognized, (Still,) what's it to be aimed at for its arising (to
104. lf consciousness preceJes tbe coqnizeJ object, Witb reqorJ to wbot Joes it orise?
lf consciousness orises ot tbe some time os its object, Aqoin, reqorJinq wbot Joes it orise?
________ _______ __________ _____
(105) Yet, if it occurred after what it cognized, Ten from what did the cognition (of it) arise? Similarly, it can't be
determined that there's A (truly existent) arising of any phenomenon.
10S. lf consciousness comes loter tbon its object, 0nce oqoin, from wbot Joes it orise? Tbus tbe oriqin of oll
pbenomeno FxceeJs tbe reocb of unJerstonJinq.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 144
________ ______ __________ ____
(106) (Suppose you objected,) "But if it were like that, then surface (true) things wouldn't exist (at all); And so how,
in this case, could there be the two truths? Moreover, if they were being (projected) by others (as veiling) surface
(truths), Ten how could there be someone with a limited mind (unveiled and) released with nirvana?"
106. "lf tbis is so," you soy, "tbere is no relotive, AnJ tben tbe two trutbswbot becomes of tbem? Horeover, if
tbe relotive Jerives from beinqs minJs, Eow con tbey poss beyonJ tbeir sorrows?"
____________ ________ ____ ________
(107) (Well,) this would be the deceptive conception of the limited minds of others, But that isn't surface (truth)
from our own (point of view). What's ascertained afterwards, that (still) exists, And if not, then surface truth turns
out to be something that doesn't exist.
107. But tbot is just tbe tbouqbt of otbers; lt is not wbot l meon by tbe relotive. lf subsequently tbere ore
tbouqbts, tbe relotives still tbere; lf not, tbe relotive bos ceoseJ inJeeJ.
_________ _____________ ___________ ___
(108) (And so,) what's conceptually examining and what's conceptually examined, Te two of them are
(dependently) supported, one by the other. And it's by being (dependently) supported by what's in accord with
popular consensus, Tat all analytical discernment is expressed.
108. Tbe onolyzinq minJ onJ wbot is onolyzeJ Are linkeJ toqetber, mutuolly JepenJent.
lt is on tbe bosis of conventionol consensus Tbot oll investiqotion is expresseJ.
______ _______ ____ ____
(109) But (suppose you objected), "When it would need to be analytically discerned By a discernment that has in
fact been analytically discerned, Ten there would be an innnite regress for that discernment as well, Because of its
need to be analytically discerned."
109. "But wben," you soy, "tbe process of onolysis ls moJe, in turn, tbe object of our scrutiny, Tbis investiqotion
likewise moy be onolyzeJ, AnJ tbus we jinJ on injinite reqress."
_______ _______ ________ _
(110) (Well,) when what's analytically discerned is being discerned, A supporting (basis) for that discernment doesn't
exist. And because of its being without a supporting (basis), it doesn't arise: Tat's called (its natural) release in
110. lf pbenomeno ore truly onolyzeJ, No bosis for onolysis remoins.
AnJ wben tbe object is removeJ, tbe subject too subsiJes. Tbot inJeeJ is soiJ to be nirvono.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 145
_________ ________ _________ __
(111) And as for the likes of someone, for whom these two are truly existent, He indeed is on very dimcult grounds;
(Because,) if it's from the power of a cognition that an object's established, Ten, what supporting (basis) is there for
(establishing) the true existence of the cognition?
111. Tbose wbo soy tbot botb ore true, Are borJ-presseJ to mointoin tbeir cose. lf consciousness reveols tbe
trutb of tbinqs, 0n wbot qrounJs, in its turn, Joes consciousness exist?
__________ _____ ________ _____
(112) And if it's from (the power of ) what's cognized that a cognition is established, Ten, what support is there for
(establishing) the true existence of what's cognized? On the other hand, if their existence (is established) by the power
of each other, Ten the non-true existence of both would in fact be the case.
112. lf knowleJqe objects sbow tbot consciousness exists, Wbot is it tbot sbows tbot tbey exist? lf botb subsist
tbrouqb mutuol JepenJence, Botb will tbereby lose tbeir true existence.
________ _______ _______ ________
(113) (For example,) if, without a child, someone is not a father, (Ten,) from whom can it arise that someone is a
child? (Because,) in the absence of a child, there can be no father. Similar to that, is the non-true existence of those
11S. lf, witbout o son, o mon connot be fotber, Wbence, inJeeJ, will sucb o son orise? Tbere is no fotber in tbe
obsence of o son. }ust so, tbe minJ onJ object bove no true existence.
_______ ____________ __________ __
(114) (Suppose you asked,) "A sprout grows from a seed, And just as (the true existence of ) the seed is indicated by
it, Why, by the arising of a cognition from what's cognized, Can't its true existence (also) be concluded?"
114. "Tbe plont orises from tbe seeJ," you soy, "AnJ tbrouqb it is tbe seeJ JeJuceJ.
lts just tbe some witb consciousness orisinq from its object. Eow con it foil to sbow tbe tbinqs existence?"
_________ _________ _________ ___
(115) (Well,) when it's from a cognition dinerent from the sprout Tat it can be concluded that a seed exists, What
can it be from, by means of which, the (true) existence Of a cognition cognizing something it cognizes can be
11S. A consciousness tbots Jifferent from tbe plont itself BeJuces tbe existence of tbe seeJ.
But wbot will sbow tbot consciousness exists, Wbereby tbe object is itself estoblisbeJ?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 146
____________ ___________ ________ _
(116) (Charvakas, please,) from straightforward cognition, Te common world, in fact, sees for itself everything
causal. (After all,) a diversity of (plants): lotus stalks and the like, Grows by means of a diversity of causes.
116. ln everyJoy perception Tberes o couse for everytbinq. Tbe Jifferent seqments of tbe lotus jlower Arise
from o voriety of couses.
_________ _______ ________ _____
(117) Suppose (you asked), "By what has the diversity of causes been made?" (Well,) from a diversity of previous
causes. And (suppose you asked further), "Because of what does a cause have the ability to give rise to an
enect?" (Well,) it's from the power of previous causes.
117. "But wbot qives rise," you osk, "to sucb voriety of couses?" An even eorlier voriety of couses, we Jeclore.
"AnJ bow," you osk, "Jo couses qive tbeir fruits?" Tbrouqb power, we onswer, of preceJinq couses.
________ _________ ________ __
(118) If, (as Nyaya-Vaisheshika asserts,) the Powerful Lord Ishvara were the cause of the world, So tell me, what is
Ishvara in fact? If you said, "Te elements," then so be it, But why (all) the fuss over merely a name?
118. lf lsbvoro is belJ to be tbe couse of beinqs, You must now Jejine for us bis noture. lf, by tbis, you simply
meon tbe elements, No neeJ to tire ourselves Jisputinq nomes!
_______ _________ ________ __
(119) However, earth and the rest are multipart, Nonstatic, inert, and not divine; Tey're things to be walked over
and unclean. So that can't be the Powerful Lord Ishvara.
119. Yet eortb onJ otber elements ore mony, lmpermonent, inert, witbout Jivinity. TrompleJ unJerfoot, tbey
ore impure, AnJ tbus tbey connot be o 6oJ 0mnipotent.
__________ _____________ ________
(120) Ishvara can't be space, because that's inert; He can't be the self, since that's been refuted before. And even (if
you said), "Te nature of being a creator is in reference to something inconceivable," Well then, what's the use of
talking about something that's inconceivable?
120. Tbe Beity connot be spoceinert onJ unproJuctive. Ee connot be tbe self, for tbis we bove refuteJ.
Ees inconceivoble, tbey soytben likewise bis creotorsbip. ls tbere ony point, tberefore, to sucb o cloim?
________ _______ __________
(121) And what could it be that he wished to create? Te self? Well, aren't that, the earth (element) and the rest,
And Ishvara supposed to be eternal by nature? Moreover, the arising of cognition from cognizable objects
121. Wbot is it tbot be wisbes to creote? Eos be moJe tbe self onJ oll tbe elements? But ore not self onJ
elements onJ be bimself eternol? AnJ consciousness, we know, orises from its object.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 147
_________ _________ _______ ___
(122) Is without a beginning, as is happiness and sunering from karma. So tell me, what's been created by him? And
if there's no beginning to the cause, How could there be a nrst instance of its enect?
122. Poin onJ pleosure bove, from oll time, sprunq from kormo, So tell us, wbot bos bis Bivinity proJuceJ?
AnJ if tberes no beqinninq in tbe couse, Eow con tbere be beqinninqs in its fruits?
_______ _________ ___________ __
(123) And why doesn't he always create, When he doesn't depend on anything else? Tere's nothing else existing not
created by him, So what is it on which he depends (to create)?
12S. Wby ore creotures not creoteJ constontly, Ior lsbvoro relies on notbinq but bimself? AnJ if tberes
notbinq tbot be bos not moJe, Wbot remoins on wbicb be miqbt JepenJ?
__________ _________ ________ __
(124) If what he depends on is a gathering (of conditions), (Ten, again,) the Powerful Lord Ishvara would become
not the cause: (For,) when they're gathered, he'd lack the power not to create, And in their absence, he'd lack the
power to create.
124. lf lsbvoro JepenJs, tbe couse of oll ls but tbe meetinq of conJitions onJ not lsbvoro. Wben tbese obtoin,
be connot but creote; Wben tbese ore obsent, be is powerless to moke.
_________ ________ ____
(125) And if the Powerful Lord Ishvara must create when not wanting to, It absurdly follows that he's under the
power of something else. And if it's when wanting to, he's under the power of want. So where's (the power of ) the
Powerful Lord who's creating?
12S. lf Almiqbty 6oJ Joes not intenJ, But yet creotes, onotber tbinq bos forceJ bim.
lf be wisbes to creote, bes swoyeJ by bis Jesire. So even tbouqb Creotor, wbot of bis omnipotence?
________ _________ _______ ____
(126) Tose (Mimamsakas) who assert static particles (as the creator) Have already been turned back before;
While the Samkhyas assert Static primal matter as the cause of the world.
126. Tbose wbo bolJ tbe permonence of porticles Were inJeeJ refuteJ eorlier. Tbe Somkbyos ore tbe ones
wbo bolJ Tbot permonent prokriti is tbe couse of tbe evolvinq worlJ.
_________ ____________ ________ ____
(127) (For them,) the universal constituents, Known as sattva/pleasure, rajas/pain, and tamas/neutral sensation,
Abiding not in imbalance are called primal matter; (While their) imbalance is said to be the world.
127. "Pleosure," "poin," "neutrolity," so-colleJ, Are quolities wbicb, wben tbey rest ln equilibrium ore termeJ
"prokriti." Tbe universe orises wben tbis bolonce is JisturbeJ.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 148
__________ ________ _________
(128) But it's illogical for a (partless) unity to be something threefold by nature; And therefore, it doesn't exist.
Likewise, the universal constituents can't be (truly) existent, Because each of them too has three aspects.
128. Tbree notures in o unity ore JisolloweJ, AnJ tbus prokriti is witbout existence. Tbese quolities likewise
Jo not exist, Ior eocb of tbem inJeeJ is tbree.
__________ _____ __________ _
(129) And in the absence of the universal constituents, Te (true) existence of sound and the rest becomes very
farfetched. Moreover, it's impossible for pleasure and so on To exist in non-conscious clothing and the likes.
129. lf tbese quolities bove no existence, A tbinq like sounJ is very for from plousible! AnJ clotb onJ otber
minJless objects Connot be tbe seot of feelinqs sucb os pleosure.
_________ __________ _______
(130) Suppose (you said), "Functional phenomena (exist) in the natural guise of their causes." (Well,) haven't
functional phenomena already been analyzed? (In any case,) the causes, for you, are pleasure and so on themselves:
But cotton clothing and the likes don't arise from that at all.
1S0. "But," you soy, "tbese tbinqs possess tbe noture of tbeir couse." But bove we not investiqoteJ "tbinqs"
olreoJy? Ior you tbe couse is "pleosure" onJ tbe like, AnJ yet from pleosure, clotb bos never sprunq!
____________ ________ ________ __
(131) And, if pleasure and so on were to exist from cotton clothing and the likes, Ten from their absence, pleasure
and so on wouldn't exist. Moreover, a static state of pleasure and so on Has never been focused upon.
1S1. Pleosure, rotber, is proJuceJ from clotb. lf tbis is nonexistent, pleosure likewise.
As for permonence of pleosure onJ tbe rest Well, tberes o tbinq tbots never been observeJ!
_________ ______ _____ ___
(132) If manifest pleasure and so on were (truly) existent (statically), Why isn't (their) experience (always) perceived?
Suppose (you said,) "(Te sensation) itself goes to a subtle (unmanifest) state." (Well,) how can it be (both) gross and
1S2. lf pleosure onJ tbe rest ore monifestly present, Eow comes it tbot tbeyre not perceiveJ? AnJ if you cloim
tbey toke on subtle form, Eow is it tbot tbey ore botb qross onJ subtle?
_________ ________ _________ ___
(133) Since it would have become subtle (and unmanifest), after having left its gross (manifest) state, Its gross and
subtle states are nonstatic. So why not accept the nonstaticness like that Of all functional phenomena?
1SS. lf coorseness is obonJoneJ, subtlety ossumeJ, Subtlety onJ qrossness botb lock permonence. So wby not
qront tbot, in tbis woy, All tbinqs possess tbe cborocter of tronsience?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 149
___________ _________ ______ ____
(134) And if its gross (manifest) state were no dinerent from pleasure (itself ), Ten the nonstaticness of pleasure is
obvious. Suppose you asserted, "But something totally nonexistent (in the cause) Couldn't be produced, because of
its being nonexistent."
1S4. lf tbe coorser ospect is none otber tbon tbe pleosure, lts cleor tbot pleosure is itself impermonent.
lf you cloim tbot wbot Joes not exist in ony sense {Becouse it bos no beinq) connot monifest,
________ _______ _________ ____
(135) (Well,) then production of something nonexistent as a manifest (object) Would be (the self-contradiction) into
which you're positioned, although you don't want it. And if the enect were positioned in the cause, Ten a consumer
of food would be an eater of excrement!
1SS. Altbouqb you bove JenieJ tbe birtb of tbinqs Tbot JiJ not previously exist, its tbis tbot youre now
soyinq! But if results exist witbin tbeir couse, Tbose wbo eot tbeir fooJ consume tbeir excrement.
________ __________ ___________ _
(136) And for the price of cotton clothing, Cottonseed could be bought and worn (instead)! Suppose (you said),
"(Although) common people don't see (it), because of bewilderment, Precisely that is the position (established) by
(Kapila,) the Knower of Reality."
1S6. AnJ likewise witb tbe money tbey woulJ spenJ on clotbinq, let tbem rotber buy tbe cotton qroins to
weor! "But," you soy, "tbe worlJ is iqnoront onJ blinJ. Ior tbis is touqbt by tbose wbo know tbe trutb."
_______ ______ __________ _____
(137) (Well,) cognition of that must (also) exist In common people, so why isn't it seen? Suppose (you answered,)
"(Tat lies) in common people's Not being valid cognizers (for that)." (Well,) what they see as manifest, then, would
(also) not be true.
1S7. Tbis knowleJqe must be present in tbe worlJly too! AnJ if tbey bove it, wby Jo tbey not see?
lf now you soy tbot wbot tbe worlJly see bos no voliJity, Tbis meons tbot wbot tbey cleorly see is folse.
________ _________ _____ _____
(138) (Suppose you retorted), "(But you too assert that) a valid cognizer (for the common world) is not a valid
cognizer (for deepest truth). And if that's the case, then wouldn't what was validly cognized by it (also) become false,
And therefore, in actuality, meditation on the voidness (Of functional phenomena) by it become incorrect?"
1S8. "lf," you osk, "tberes no voliJity in voliJ knowleJqe, ls not oll tbot it ossesses folse? AnJ tberefore it
becomes untenoble To meJitote on voiJness, ultimote reolity."
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 150
_________ ______ _______
(139) (Well, yes, but) when functional phenomena (labeled and) conceptually analyzed are not contacted, Te
nonfunctional phenomenon of their (nontrue existence) would (also) not be grasped. Terefore, concerning any truly
existent functional phenomenon that's false, Te falsehood of the nonfunctional phenomenon of its nontrue
existence would be obvious.
1S9. lf tbere is no object for onolysis, Tbere con be no qrospinq of its nonexistence. AnJ so Jeceptive objects of
wbotever kinJ Will olso bove o nonexistence equolly Jeceptive.
_____ _________ ______ _______
(140) Tus, upon the death of a son in a dream, Te conceptual thought that he doesn't exist Stops (the arising of )
the conceptual thought Tat he does exist, and yet it is false.
140. Wben tberefore in ones Jreom o cbilJ bos JieJ, Tbe stote of minJ tbot tbinks it is no more Supplonts tbe
tbouqbt tbot it is livinq still. AnJ yet botb tbouqbts ore equolly Jeceptive.
_______ _____ ______ _____
(141) Terefore, with discerning analysis like this, Nothing exists that's from no cause at all, Or that's sitting there,
nxed in conditions, Whether separate ones or combined.
141. Tberefore, os we see tbrouqb sucb investiqotion, Notbinq is tbot Joes not bove o couse; AnJ notbinq is
existent in its couses Token one by one or in tbe oqqreqote.
_________ _________ _________ _
(142) In fact, nothing has come from something else; And nothing remains, and nothing goes. (So,) anything taken
as truly existent by bewildered minds, What dinerence does it have from an illusion?
142. lt Joes not come from somewbere else, Neitber Joes it stoy nor yet Jeport. Eow will wbot confusion tokes
for trutb ln ony sense be Jifferent from o miroqe?
_______ __________ ______ __
(143) (So,) examine something emanated by illusion And something emanated by causes: Where does it come from?
Where does it go?
14S. Tbinqs, tben, boJieJ fortb by moqic spells, AnJ tbot wbicb is JisployeJ by Jint of couses Wbence bove
tbese orisen? we sboulJ osk; AnJ wbere tbey qo to, tbot we sboulJ exomine!
________ ________ ______________
(144) How can there be true existence In some virtual object like a renection, Which is seen (only) in conjunction
with something (else) And which doesn't exist when that's absent?
144. Wbot is seen wben circumstonces meet AnJ is not seen in obsence of tbe some ls not reol; it is like on
imoqe in o mirror. Eow con true existence be oscribeJ to it?
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 151
_____ _______ _____ _____
(145) For a functional phenomenon that was (truly) existing, What need would there be for a cause? Ten again, if
something were (truly) not existing, What need would there be for a cause?
14S. Wbot neeJ is tbere for couse ln sometbinq tbots olreoJy reol? But tben, wbot neeJ is tbere for couse ln
sometbinq tbot Joes not exist?
_________ _______ __________ _
(146) Tere can be no transformation of a non-phenomenon, Even by means of a hundred million causes! How can
something in that state become a functional phenomenon? But what else could come into functional existence?
146. Fven tbrouqb o bunJreJ million couses, No cbonqe tokes ploce in nonexistent tbinqs, Ior in tbot stote of
"non-tbinq," bow coulJ "tbinqs" occur? AnJ into wbot coulJ nonexistent tbinqs tronsform?
_______ ________ ________ _
(147) If it isn't a functional phenomenon at the time of being a non-phenomenon, When will it come to exist as a
functional phenomenon? But without its functional existence coming to arise, It won't leave being a non-
147. Since tbinqs connot become wben tbey ore nonexistent, Wben coulJ sucb existent tbinqs occur? Ior
insofor os entities Jo not orise, Nonentities tbemselves will not Jeport.
______ ________ ________
(148) Without leaving being a non-phenomenon, No occasion will occur for its coming to exist as a functional
phenomenon. And a functional phenomenon cannot go to a state of nonfunctionality, Because it would absurdly
follow that it had a bipolar true nature.
148. AnJ if nonentity is not JisperseJ, No cbonce is tbere for entity to monifest. AnJ entity connot be cbonqeJ
into nonentity, Ior otberwise it bos o Jouble noture.
_______ _____ _______ ___
(149) In that way, as cessation doesn't (truly) exist, And (the arising) of phenomena doesn't (truly) exist either, Tus
this entire world always has been Non-truly arising and non-truly ceasing.
149. Tbus tbere ore no entities AnJ likewise tberes no ceosinq of tbe some. AnJ tberefore beinqs, eocb onJ
every one, Are witbout oriqin onJ never ceose.
______ ______ _____ __
(150) (Terefore,) wandering beings resemble a dream; Upon discerning analysis, they're the same as a plantain tree.
Whether they're released with nirvana or not released, Tere's no dinerence in their actual way of existing.
1S0. WonJerinq beinqs, tbus, resemble Jreoms, AnJ olso tbe bonono tree, if you exomine well.
ln ultimote reolity tberes no Jistinquisbinq Between tbe stotes of sorrow onJ beyonJ oll sorrow.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 152
_______ ____ _________ __
(151) With all phenomena devoid in that way, What is there that would've been received; What is there that
would've been taken away?Who is there who'll become shown respect or contempt, and by whom?
1S1. Witb tbinqs tbot in tbis woy ore empty Wbot is tbere to qoin onJ wbot to lose? Wbo is tbere to poy me
court onJ bonors, AnJ wbo is tbere to scorn onJ to revile me?
__________ ___ ______ ___
(152) What is there, from which there's pleasure or pain? What is there, to be disliked or liked?
What craving is there, that's searching for an actual (nndable) nature, And what is it for, that there's craving?
1S2. Pleosure, sorrowwbence Jo tbese orise? Wbot is tbere to qive me joy onJ poin? AnJ if l seorcb tbeir
very sucbness, Wbo is crovinq? Wbot is croveJ?
_________ _______ _______
(153) Upon discerning analysis, (what) world of living beings (is there)? Who is (possibly) there that will die (from
here)? Who is there that'll come to exist? Who is there that has existed? Who is there that is a relative? (Who is there
that is) a friend? (And who is there whose friend it is?)
1SS. Fxomine now tbis worlJ of livinq beinqs: Wbo is tbere tberein to poss owoy? Wbot is tbere to come, onJ
wbot bos been? AnJ wbo, inJeeJ, ore relotives onJ frienJs?
_________ __________ ________
_ ________
(154) Tose of my type, understand please Tat all (of them) are like space. But, those wishing for happiness for a
"self" Get agitated and overexcited
1S4. Hoy beinqs like myself Jiscern onJ qrosp Tbot oll tbinqs bove tbe cborocter of spoce! But tbose wbo seek
tbeir boppiness onJ eose, Tbrouqb Jisputes or enjoyments,
_____ _____ _________
(155) Trough nghts and festivities as the cause; And then, through the (resulting) distress and overexertion,
(Disheartening) disputes, and kninngs and stabbings of each other, Tey pass their lives with tremendous dimculties
through (their) negative acts.
1SS. All ore Jeeply troubleJ, or else tbrilleJ witb joy. Tbey suffer, strive, contenJ omonq tbemselves, Slosbinq,
stobbinq, injurinq eocb otber: Tbey live tbeir lives enqulfeJ in evil onJ trovoil.
____ ________ __________ _
(156) And (despite) coming and coming to the better rebirth states And experiencing and experiencing manifold
pleasures, Tey fall, after death, to the worse rebirth states And unbearable sunerings for a very long time.
1S6. Irom time to time tbey surfoce in tbe stotes of bliss, AbonJoninq tbemselves to mony pleosures.
But Jyinq, Jown tbey foll to suffer torment, lonq, unbeoroble, in reolms of sorrow.
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 153
_______ ____ ________ ___
(157) In compulsive existence, clins (to fall from) are aplenty; And there it's like this, when actuality is not (known).
But since (this and what's) there, in fact, contradict one another, In compulsive existence, it's not like this, when
actuality (is known).
1S7. Hony ore tbe cbosms onJ obysses of existence, Wbere tbe trutb of sucbness is not founJ. All is
controJiction, oll Jeniol; Sucbness in tbis worlJ is not like tbis.
______ ___________ _______
(158) Tere, too, there are incomparable, violent Oceans of sunering beyond any end; Tere, like that, there's little
strength; Tere, as well, there's little life span;
1S8. Eere, exceeJinq oll Jescription, ls tbe sboreless seo of poin unbeoroble. Eere it is tbot strenqtb is low,
AnJ lives ore jlickerinq onJ brief.
______ ____ ______ __
(159) Tere, as well, with activities for longevity and health, With hunger and exhaustion, With sleep and calamities,
and likewise With fruitless company with infantile people,
1S9. All octivities for soke of life onJ beoltb, Relief of bunqer onJ of weoriness, Time consumeJ in sleep, oll
occiJent onJ injury, AnJ sterile frienJsbips witb tbe cbilJisb
____ _______ ________ __
(160) A lifetime passes quickly, and in vain. Yet, analytical discernment is so dimcult to gain! So there, as well,
where's there a means For turning back chronic distraction?
160. Tbus life posses quickly, meoninqless. True JiscernmentborJ it is to bove! Eow tberefore sboll we ever
jinJ tbe meons To curb tbe futile wonJerinqs of tbe minJ?
______ _________ ______ ___
(161) Tere, as well, demonic force is working hard To bring about a fall to the most awful rebirth states. Tere,
(because) there's a profusion of false paths, Indecisively wavering is so hard to transcend.
161. Iurtber, evil forces work onJ stroin To cost us Jown into tbe stotes of woe; HonifolJ ore folse, Jeceptive
troils, AnJ it is borJ to Jissipote our Joubts.
____ _________ ________ _
(162) And with the dimculty of gaining a respite again, And the advent of a Buddha even more dimcult to gain, And
the rapids of disturbing emotion so dimcult to get out of, Alas, sunering will just go on and on.
162. EorJ it is to jinJ oqoin tbis stote of freeJom, EorJer yet to come upon enliqbteneJ teocbers, EorJ,
inJeeJ, to turn osiJe tbe torrent of Jejilement! Alos, our sorrows foll in enJless streoms!
9. Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness - 154
_______ ________ __________ __
(163) Oh dear, it's really nt to feel sad About those who are caught in a rapids of sunering And who fail to see their
own terrible situations, Although they're in extremely terrible states.
16S. Alos inJeeJ tbot livinq beinqs, CorrieJ on tbe jlooJ of bitter poin, Eowever terrible tbeir pliqbt moy be,
Bo not perceive tbey suffer so!
______ _______ ________ ___
(164) For example, just as some people, abluting and abluting, Would jump into nre again and again, And though,
in extremely terrible states, Proudly (consider) themselves in extremely wonderful situations;
164. Tbey ore like tbose wbo botbe tbemselves repeoteJly AnJ tben proceeJ to scorcb tbemselves witb jire.
Tbey suffer qreotly in tbis woy, Yet tbere tbey stoy, procloiminq louJ tbeir bliss.
____ ____________ ________ __
(165) Likewise, there are those who frolic about, Fooling around, as if there weren't old age and death. But nrst,
they'll be made to lose their lives, And then comes an unbearable fall to a worse rebirth state.
16S. likewise tbere ore some wbo live onJ oct As tbouqb olJ oqe onJ Jeotb will never come to tbem. But jirst
tbeyre sloin onJ tben tbere comes Tbe JreoJful foll into tbe stotes of loss.
_________ ____________ _______
__ __________
(166) Oh, when shall I come to bring peace To those tortured by the nres of sunerings like that, With a rain of my
buildup of happiness Pouring forth from the clouds of my positive force?
166. Wben sboll l be oble to olloy onJ quencb Tbe JreoJful beot of sufferinqs blozinq jires Witb plenteous
roins of my own bliss Tbot pour torrentiol from my clouJs of merit?
__________ _________________ ________
___ ________ _____________ _____
(167) Oh, when shall I respectfully build up a network of positive force In a manner of no mental aim (at impossible
existence), And then teach voidness to those Who've been ruined by (such) mental aim.
167. Hy weoltb of merit qotbereJ in, Witb reverence but witbout conceptuol torqet, Wben sboll l reveol tbis
trutb of emptiness To tbose wbo qo to ruin tbrouqb belief in reol existence?
10. Dedication - 155
10. Dedication
_________ ___________ ______
__ _________
(1) Trough my constructive act of having (renected upon and) composed Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior,
May all wandering beings become (adornments for the world,) Engaged in the behavior of bodhisattvas.
1. By oll tbe virtue l bove now omosseJ By composition of tbis book, wbicb speoks 0f entry to tbe BoJbisottvo
woy, Hoy every beinq treoJ tbe potb to BuJJbobooJ.
_____________ _________ _________
__ __________
(2) As many beings as there are in all directions, Diseased with sunerings of body and mind, May they all obtain
oceans of happiness and joy Trough the forces of my positive acts.
2. Hoy beinqs everywbere wbo suffer Torment in tbeir minJs onJ boJies Eove, by virtue of my merit, }oy onJ
boppiness in bounJless meosure.
_____ _________ __________
(3) To the end of (their) recurring samsara, May their happiness never become (old and) decrepit; (Instead), may
those who wander obtain, without interruption, Te (bodhisattvas') unsurpassed bliss.
S. As lonq os tbey moy linqer in somsoro, Hoy tbeir joy be unJiminisbeJ; Hoy tbey toste of unsurposseJ
beotituJe ln constont onJ unbroken continuity.
__________ ________ _______
(4) Whatever joyless realm beings, as many as there are, Troughout the realms of the world, May those beings with
limited bodies all enjoy Te (joy and) bliss of a Pure Land of Bliss.
4. Tbrouqbout tbe spberes onJ reocbes of tbe worlJ, ln bellisb stotes os mony os tbere ore, Hoy beinqs wbo
obiJe tbere toste Tbe bliss onJ peoce of Sukbovoti.
___________ ____________ _______
__ ____________
(5) May those tortured by cold nnd warmth; And those tortured by heat be cooled By the boundless (oceans of )
water pouring down From the billowing clouds of bodhisattvas.
S. Hoy tbose couqbt in tbe freezinq ice be wormeJ, AnJ from qreot clouJs of BoJbisottvos Torrents roin in
bounJless streoms To cool tbose burninq in infernol jires.
10. Dedication - 156
______ _______ ____
(6) May the sword-leaved forest become for them A beautiful pleasure-grove; And may the diabolical trees of thorns
Transform into wish-granting trees.
6. Hoy forests wbere tbe leoves ore bloJes onJ sworJs Become sweet qroves onJ pleosont wooJlonJ qloJes.
AnJ moy tbe trees of mirocles oppeor, Supplontinq tbose upon tbe bill of Sbolmoli.
_____ _________________ ___
________ _____________
(7) May the joyless realm regions become delights With lakes fragrant from (lake-born) lotuses thickly (rising up),
And made enchanting with the bewitching cries Of cranes, wild ducks, geese, swans, and the like.
7. AnJ moy tbe very pits of bell be sweet Witb froqront pools oll perfumeJ witb tbe scent of lotuses, AnJ lovely
witb tbe cries of swon onJ qoose AnJ woterfowl so pleosinq to tbe eor.
________ _______________ ______
________ ______________
(8) May those mounds of glowing charcoals become mounds of gems, And the naming ground a polished (mosaic)
noor of crystal; And may the mountains of the crushing joyless realms become Celestial temples for onerings, nlled
with (Buddhas) Gone to Bliss.
8. Hoy jiery cools turn into beops of jewels, Tbe burninq qrounJ become on even crystol jloor, Hoy crusbinq
bills become sublime oboJes: 0fferinq temples, Jwellinqs of tbe BuJJbos.
____________ ___________ _________
____ ____________
(9) May the missiles of glowing charcoals and burning rocks, From this day on, become a rain of nowers; And may
bombarding (battle) with those missiles, one against the other, From this day on, become tossing (battle) with
nowers, for frolic sake.
9. Hoy tbe boil of weopons, lovo, jiery stones Become bencefortb o roin of jlowers.
AnJ oll tbe mutuol wounJinqs witb sborp bloJes Be now o roin of jlowers tbrown in ploy.
_________ ______________ ____
____________ _________________
(10) May those sunk in the Uncrossable Infernal River, (with waters) like nre, All their nesh fallen on, skeletons
jasmine in color, Gain the bodies of celestials, by the force of my constructive deeds, And bask in the Gently Flowing
Heavenly River, in the company of celestial maidens.
10. AnJ tbose enqulfeJ in jiery voitoroni, Tbeir jlesb JestroyeJ, tbeir bones bleocbeJ wbite os kunJo jlowers,
Hoy tbey, tbrouqb oll my merits strenqtb, bove qoJlike forms AnJ sport witb qoJJesses in HonJokinis
peoceful streoms.
10. Dedication - 157
_________________ __________
_____________ __________________
________ _____________________
(11) Wondering, "Why are the terrifying henchmen of the Lord of Death, crows, and vultures here (suddenly)
scared, And whose is this soothing (moonlike) force that's eclipsing the darkness everywhere and giving rise to (our)
happiness and joy?" Gazing upward and having beheld a shining Vajrapani, poised in the expanse of the sky, From
the strength of delight, their dark karmic forces dispelled, may they (depart) in his company, together with him.
11. "Wbot feor is it," tbeyll osk, "tbot qrips tbe bencbmen of tbe BeoJly lorJ, tbe friqbtful vultures, onJ tbe
corrion crows? Wbot noble strenqtb is it tbot brinqs us joy onJ Jrives owoy our JreoJful niqbt?" AnJ lookinq
skyworJ tbey will see tbe sbininq form of vojroponi. Tben moy tbeir sins be quencbeJ in joy onJ moy tbey qo
to bim.
_____________ ____________
__ ____________ _______________
(12) Seeing the joyless realm nres nzzle and fade out From a falling rain of water lilies, mixed with scented water, And
wondering, "What can this be?" suddenly relieved with joy, May these joyless realm beings behold Kamalapani,
(Water Lily in His Hand).
12. AnJ wben tbey see tbe seetbinq lovo-jlooJ of bell FxtinquisbeJ in o roin of blossoms, JrencbeJ in froqront
streoms, At once fuljilleJ in bliss, tbeyll osk, "Eow con tbis be?" Hoy tben tbe Jenizens of bell bebolJ tbe 0ne
Wbo EolJs tbe lotus.
_________________ ____________
______ ______________________ ___
(13) "Friends, shed your fears and come! (Come) here quickly! (We're brought back to life!) Who's come before us?
It's the radiant Youth with (Five) Knots of Hair (Manjushri), the bestower of fearlessness, By whose power all
sunering's removed, rushing (streams) of joy now forth, And bodhichitta is born, as is loving anection, (the mother)
nurturing those who wander, everywhere.
1S. "IrienJs, tbrow owoy your feors onJ quickly qotber bere. Ior wbo is it wbo comes to us to bonisb JreoJ,
tbis qleominq youtb witb bounJ-up boir, Tbis lovinq BoJbisottvo sovinq onJ protectinq every beinq, Wbose
power relieves oll poin, bestowinq joy?
_________________ _____________
__________ _____________________
__ ________________
(14) "(All of ) you, behold him whose lotus feet are touched in honor by the crowned (foreheads) of hundreds of
celestial beings, Whose gaze is moist with compassion, and on whose head rains a shower of assorted nowers,
(Tossed) from rooftop chambers, delightful with the singing of thousands of celestial maidens resounding his praise."
Seeing Manjughosha (before them) like that, may the joyless realm beings instantly raise a cheer.
10. Dedication - 158
14. "BebolJ tbe bunJreJ qoJs wbo loy tbeir crowns before bis lotus feet, Tbe roin of jlowers tbot folls upon bis
beoJ, bis eyes moist witb compossion, Tbe splenJor of bis bouse tbot ecboes proises of o tbousonJ qoJJesses!"
Hoy tbose in bell tbus cry on seeinq Hojuqbosbo.
______________ _______________
________________ ___________
(15) Tus, beholding, through my constructive acts as the roots, Unobscured clouds of bodhisattvas - Samantabhadra
and the rest - Showering cool fragrant rains of joy, May those joyless realm beings rejoice. (May the intense pains and
fears Of the joyless realm beings be stilled; And may everyone living in the worse rebirth states Be freed from the
worse rebirth states.)
1S. AnJ likewise, tbrouqb my roots of virtue, Seeinq BoJbisottvos like SomontobboJro, free from stoin, Tbose
clouJs of bliss oll loJen witb o coolinq scenteJ roin, Hoy oll tbose lonquisbinq in bell come now to perfect joy.
_________ _________ _________
(16) May animals be parted from the fear Of being devoured by each other; And may the clutching ghosts Become as
happy as the people of the Northern Island-World.
16. AnJ moy tbe stoopinq onimols be freeJ Irom feor of beinq preyeJ upon, eocb otbers fooJ. AnJ moy tbe
fomisbeJ spirits bove sucb joy As tbose wbo Jwell witbin tbe nortbern continent.
_____________ ___________ __________
_ __________
(17) May the clutching ghosts Be satiated, bathed, and cooled forever By streams of milk, pouring from the hand Of
Arya Avalokiteshvara.
17. AnJ moy tbey be replete onJ sotisjieJ By streoms of milk tbot pour Irom noble lorJ Avolokitos bonJ,
AnJ botbinq in it, moy tbey be refresbeJ onJ cooleJ.
_____________ __________ ________
(18) May the blind see sights, And forever may the deaf hear sounds; And may the pregnant give birth Without any
pain, as did (Shakyamuni's mother,) Mayadevi.
18. AnJ moy tbe blinJ receive tbeir siqbt, AnJ moy tbe Jeof beqin to beor, AnJ women neor tbeir time brinq
fortb, like HoyoJevi,

free from oll trovoil.
__________ ___________ __________
(19) May the naked nnd clothing, Te hungry food, And the thirsty water And delicious things to drink.
19. AnJ moy tbe nokeJ now be clotbeJ, AnJ oll tbe bunqry eot tbeir jill. AnJ moy tbose porcbeJ witb tbirst
receive Pure woters onJ Jelicious Jrink.
10. Dedication - 159
_____________ __________ _______
_ ______________
(20) May the poor nnd wealth, Tose stricken with grief nnd joy; And may the discouraged become uplifted And
perfectly steadfast.
20. Hoy tbe poor onJ Jestitute jinJ weoltb, Tbe boqqorJ onJ tbe coreworn, joy. Hoy tbose now in Jespoir be
wbole in minJ, FnJoweJ witb sterlinq constoncy.
_________ _____ _______ __
(21) May as many limited beings as are sick Be swiftly set free from sickness; And may the sicknesses of wandering
beings, Without exception, never recur.
21. Hoy every beinq oilinq witb Jiseose Be freeJ ot once from every moloJy. Hoy every sickness tbot ofjlicts
tbe livinq Be wbolly onJ forever obsent from tbe worlJ.
____________ __________ ___________
_ _____________
(22) May those with fear become fearless, Tose in bondage be released, Tose lacking strength become strong, And
their hearts become friendly toward each other.
22. Hoy tbose wbo qo in JreoJ bove no more feor. Hoy coptives be uncboineJ onJ now set free. AnJ moy tbe
weok receive tbeir strenqtb. Hoy livinq beinqs belp eocb otber in kinJness.
_________ _____________ ______
(23) May every direction Be auspicious for all travelers; And whatever aims they're going for Be accomplished
without any need for enort.
2S. Hoy trovelers upon tbe rooJ IinJ boppiness no motter wbere tbey qo, AnJ moy tbey qoin, witbout tbe
neeJ of toil, Tbe qools on wbicb tbey set tbeir beorts.
___________ ________ _________
(24) May those who set out on boats and ships Succeed in fulnlling their hearts' desires, And safely returning to the
water's shore, Rejoice with their families.
24. Hoy tbose wbo put to seo in boot or sbip, Attoin tbe ports tbot tbey Jesire, AnJ moy tbey sofely come to
sbore AnJ sweet reunion witb tbeir kitb onJ kin.
10. Dedication - 160
_________ _________ ____________
__ _______
(25) May those who've strayed onto desolate detours Meet fellow travelers and, without fear Of thieves, bandits,
tigers, and the like, Journey at ease, without fatigue.
2S. Hoy tbose wbo lose tbeir woy onJ wonJer ln tbe wilJ jinJ fellow trovelers. AnJ sofe from tbreot of tbieves
onJ sovoqe beosts, Hoy tbey be tireless onJ tbeir journey liqbt.
__________ __________ _______
___ ________
(26) May those fallen asleep, become drunk, or deranged, In danger in trackless tracts, such as jungles and the like,
As well as the young and the elderly without any guardian, Be protected by the gods.
26. Hoy cbilJren onJ tbe oqeJ, onJ oll tbose witbout protection WonJerinq in tbe feorful, potbless wostes,
Wbo foll osleep unconscious of tbeir peril, Eove pure celestiol beinqs os tbeir quorJions.
______ ________ ___________
(27) May they be free from all states that lack respite, Be endowed with belief in the facts, discriminating awareness,
and anectionate care, Have a splendid sustenance, (appearance,) and demeanor, And always be mindful of previous
27. Hoy oll be freeJ from stotes of bonJoqe, Hoy tbey be possesseJ of wisJom, foitb, onJ love. Witb perfect
sustenonce onJ conJuct, Hoy tbey olwoys bove remembronce of tbeir former lives.
____________ ________ _____
_ ______
(28) May everyone have inexhaustible wealth As with a Treasury of Space, And without dispute and without any
violence, Use (it) according to their personal wills.
28. Hoy everyone bove unrestricteJ weoltb }ust like tbe treosury of spoce, Fnjoyinq it occorJinq to tbeir wisb,
Witbout o troce of borm or enmity.
__________ __________ __________
_ _______________
(29) May those limited beings who have little splendor Come to have magnincent splendor; And may those in
dimcult straits, with disngured bodies, Come to have splendid beautiful bodies.
29. Hoy beinqs Jestitute of splenJor, Be moqnijicent onJ briqbt. AnJ tbose wbo suffer from Jeformity Acquire
qreot beouty onJ perfection.
10. Dedication - 161
_________ _______ ___________
(30) As many women as there are in the world, May they attain the status of men; And may the lowly attain high
position, And the arrogant become humble.
S0. Hoy oll tbe women of tbe worlJ Attoin tbe strenqtb of mosculinity.
AnJ moy tbe lowly come to
excellence, Tbe prouJ onJ bouqbty lose tbeir orroqonce.
__________ __________ _________
_ ________
(31) By this positive force of mine, May all limited beings, without an exception, Rid themselves of all negative acts
And always engage in what is constructive.
S1. AnJ tbus by oll tbe merit l bove qoineJ, Hoy every beinq, leovinq none osiJe, AbonJon oll tbeir evil woys
Fmbrocinq qooJness now onJ ever more.
_________ _______ __________
___ _________
(32) May they never be parted from a bodhichitta aim; May they be absorbed in bodhisattva behavior; May they be
taken care of by the Buddhas, And be rid of Mara's demonic acts.
S2. Irom boJbicbitto moy tbey never seporote, AnJ constontly enqoqe in BoJbisottvo octions. Hoy tbey be
occepteJ os Jisciples by tbe BuJJbos, Browinq bock from wbot is Jemons work.
_________ _______ _______
(33) May all limited beings Have immeasurably long lives; May they always live happily, Without the word "death"
being even known.
SS. AnJ moy tbese beinqs, eocb onJ every one, Fnjoy on unsurposseJ lonqevity. livinq olwoys in contentment,
Hoy tbe very nome of Jeotb be stronqe to tbem.
___________ ___________ ___________
_ _____________
(34) May all directions abound With pleasure groves of wish-granting trees, Replete with Buddhas and Buddhas'
spiritual onspring, Proclaiming the melodious Dharma.
S4. ln oll tbe ten Jirections onJ on every siJe Hoy qroves of wisb-fuljillinq trees obounJ, ResounJinq witb tbe
sweetness of tbe Teocbinqs, Spoken by tbe BuJJbos onJ tbeir BoJbisottvo beirs.
10. Dedication - 162
_______ _________ _________
(35) May the ground everywhere Lie as smooth as the palm of the hand, Free of pebbles and the like, Gentle, and be
made of beryl.
SS. AnJ moy tbe eortb be wbolesome everywbere, Iree from boulJers, cliffs, onJ cbosms, Ilot onJ even like o
level polm, AnJ smootb like lopis lozuli.
_____ __________ _______
_ ______________
(36) As the circles of disciples, May hosts of bodhisattvas be seated all around, Gracing the surface of the earth
With their personal splendor.
S6. Ior mony circles of Jisciples, Hoy multituJes of BoJbisottvos live in every lonJ, AJorninq tbem witb every
________ _____ __________
(37) May all embodied beings Unceasingly hear the melodious Dharma From birds, from trees, From all beams of
light, and even from the sky.
S7. Irom birJsonq onJ tbe siqbinq of tbe trees, Irom sbofts of liqbt onJ from tbe sky itself, Hoy livinq beinqs,
eocb onJ every one, Perceive tbe constont sounJ of Bbormo.
_______ _________ _________
__ _________
(38) May they always encounter the Buddhas And the Buddhas' spiritual onspring, And make onerings to the
Spiritual Teacher of the World, With clouds of onerings without any end.
S8. AnJ olwoys moy tbey come into tbe presence of tbe BuJJbos, AnJ meet witb BoJbisottvos, offsprinq of tbe
some. Witb clouJs of offerinqs unbounJeJ, Hoy tbe teocbers of tbe worlJ be worsbippeJ.
________ ____________ __________
(39) May the gods cause timely rains to fall And may there be bountiful harvests; May kings rule in accord with the
Dharma And the people of the world thrive well.
S9. Hoy kinJly spirits brinq tbe roins on time, Ior borvests to be ricb onJ plentiful. Hoy princes rule
occorJinq to tbe Bbormo; Hoy tbe worlJ be blesseJ witb oll prosperity.
10. Dedication - 163
__________ ______________ ______
____ _________
(40) May medicines be potent, And the chanting of hidden mantras be successful; May dakini-witches, cannibal
demons, and the likes Be endowed with compassionate minds.
40. Hoy meJicines be full of strenqtb; Hoy secret worJs of power be cbonteJ witb success. Hoy spirits of tbe
oir tbot feeJ on jlesb Be kinJ, tbeir minJs imbueJ witb pity.
_________ ________ _________
_ _____
(41) May no limited being ever have pain, Nor act with negative force, nor be sick, Nor be frightened, nor be
derided, Nor ever be depressed.
41. Hoy beinqs never suffer onquisb. let tbem not be sick nor evilly bebove. Hoy tbey bove no feor, nor suffer
insults. Alwoys moy tbeir minJs be free from sorrow.
__________ ______________ ________
(42) May the monasteries be well-established, Spread with reading and recitation; May the monastic community be
always in harmony, And the monastic purpose be fulnlled.
42. ln monosteries, temples, onJ tbe like, Hoy reoJinq onJ recitinq wiJely jlourisb. Hoy bormony prevoil
omonq tbe Sonqbo; Hoy its purposes be oll fuljilleJ.
______ __________ ________
_ _________
(43) May monks who wish to train (their minds) Find isolated places, And being rid of all distractions, Absorb
themselves in meditation, their minds nt for the task.
4S. Hoy orJoineJ monks, intent upon tbe proctice, IinJ perfect ploces for retreot in solituJe, AbonJon every
voqront tbouqbt, AnJ meJitote witb troineJ onJ serviceoble minJs.
_________ ________ ________
(44) May nuns have material support, And be rid of connict and harm; And likewise may all renunciates Have
unbroken ethical discipline.
44. Hoy nuns bove oll tbeir wonts supplieJ; Hoy quorrelinq onJ spite be stronqe to tbem. let oll wbo bove
embroceJ monostic life 0pbolJ o pure onJ unimpoireJ observonce.
10. Dedication - 164
________ _________ _______
__ __________
(45) May those with poor ethical discipline, being disgusted, (Devote themselves) always to cleansing themselves of
their negative karmic force; And once they've reached the better rebirth states, May their (vows of ) tamed behavior
remain unbroken.
4S. Hoy tbose wbo breok tbeir Jiscipline repent, AnJ olwoys moy tbey strive to cleonse owoy tbeir foults. AnJ
tbus moy tbey ocquire o fortunote rebirtb, Wberein to proctice stoinless Jiscipline.
___________ ___________ ______
(46) May the learned be shown respect, And receive alms (and material support). May their mental continuums be
completely pure, And (their fame) renowned in all directions.
46. Hoy wise onJ leorneJ beinqs be revereJ, AnJ olwoys be sustoineJ by olms. Hoy tbey be pure in minJ,
AnJ moy tbeir fome spreoJ for onJ wiJe.
________ ______ __________
(47) Without experiencing the sunerings of the worse rebirth states, And without conduct that's dimcult to carry
out, May (wandering beings) swiftly attain Buddhahood, With bodies superior to those of the gods.
47. Hoy beinqs never lonquisb in tbe lower reolms, Hoy poin onJ borJsbip be unknown to tbem. Witb boJies
qreoter tbon tbe qoJs, Hoy tbey ottoin enliqbtenment witbout Jeloy.
__________ __________ _________
___ _______
(48) May all limited beings honor all the Buddhas, Numerous times (and in numerous ways), And may they always
be happy (to the highest degree) With the inconceivable bliss of the Buddhas.
48. Hoy beinqs time onJ time oqoin Hoke offerinqs to oll tbe BuJJbos. AnJ witb tbe BuJJbos unimoqineJ
bliss Hoy tbey enjoy unJimmeJ onJ constont boppiness.
_____________ ___________ _______
___ __________
(49) May the bodhisattvas' heart-wishes (To be able) to benent the world be fulnlled, And may whatever those
guardians have intended Indeed come to pass, for limited beings.
49. Hoy oll tbe BoJbisottvos now fuljill Tbeir biqb intention for tbe soke of wonJerers. Hoy sentient beinqs
now obtoin All tbot tbeir 6uorJions wisb for tbem.
10. Dedication - 165
__________ ___________
(50) May the self-realized pratyekabuddhas be happy, And likewise the shravaka listeners, (Always being honored
with respect By gods, anti-gods, and by men.)
S0. AnJ moy tbe Eeorers onJ ProtyekobuJJbos

6oin tbeir perfect boppiness.
____________ _______ _______
(51) And may I too, through the kindness of Manjughosha, Always gain mindfulness of previous lives And
ordination as a renunciate, Till attaining the (realized bodhisattva nrst) stage of mind, the Joyous One.
S1. AnJ till, tbrouqb Hojuqbosbos perfect kinJness, l ottoin tbe qrounJ of Perfect }oy,
Hoy l remember oll
my lives AnJ enter into tbe monostic stote.
__________ __________ ___________
(52) May I live (nlled with strength) On a simple (diet) of food), even (just) grain; And may I obtain isolated places
to live in, Filled with perfection, in all of my lives.
S2. Tbus moy l obiJe, sustoineJ By simple, orJinory fore. AnJ in every life obtoin A Jwellinq ploce in perfect
_______ ___ __________
(53) Whenever I might wish to see Or might wish to ask about any little thing, May I behold the Guardian,
Manjunatha himself, Without any impediment.
SS. Wbenever l Jesire to qoze on bim 0r put to bim tbe sliqbtest question, Hoy l bebolJ witb unobstructeJ
siqbt Hy own protector Hojuqbosbo.
_______________ ____________ ______
____ _______
(54) Just as Manjushri works To fulnll the aims of all limited beings To the far reaches of space in the ten directions,
May my behavior become just like that.
S4. To sotisfy tbe neeJs of beinqs Bwellinq in tbe ten Jirections, to tbe morqins of tbe sky, Hoy l rejlect in oll
my JeeJs Tbe perfect exploits of Hojusbri.
10. Dedication - 166
__________ _________ __________
(55) For as long as space remains, And for as long as wandering beings remain, May I too remain for that long,
Dispelling the sunerings of wandering beings.
SS. AnJ now os lonq os spoce enJures, As lonq os tbere ore beinqs to be founJ, Hoy l continue likewise to
remoin To Jrive owoy tbe sorrows of tbe worlJ.
_______ ________ _________
__ _______
(56) Whatever sunerings wandering beings might have, May all of them ripen on me, And through the bodhisattva
assembly, May wandering beings enjoy happiness.
S6. Tbe poins onJ sorrows of oll wonJerinq beinqs Hoy tbey ripen wbolly on myself. AnJ moy tbe virtuous
compony of BoJbisottvos Alwoys brinq obout tbe boppiness of beinqs.
___________ __________ ________
(57) May the teachings, the sole medicine for the sunerings of wandering beings And the source of all happiness,
Continue to endure for a very long time, With material support and shows of respect.
S7. Hoy tbe Boctrine, only cure for sorrow, Source of every bliss onJ boppiness,
Be blesseJ witb weoltb, upbelJ witb venerotion, AnJ tbrouqbout o vost continuonce of time, enJure!
________ ________ _______
_ __________
(58) I prostrate to Manjughosha, through whose kindness My thought has become constructive; I prostrate as well to
my spiritual teacher and friend, Trough whose kindness, I've been able to have it expand.
S8. AnJ now to Hojuqbosbo l prostrote, Wbose kinJness is tbe wellsprinq of my qooJ intent. AnJ to my
virtuous frienJs l olso bow Wbose inspirotion qove me strenqtb to qrow.
_____________ __________ ___
10. Dedication - 167
__________ ___________ _________
___ _________________________
___ __________________________
_________________ ____
Tis concludes Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior, composed by the great teacher Shantideva (nrst half of the eighth
century C. E.). It was translated (into Tibetan), edited, and settled upon from a Kashmiri manuscript by the learned
Indian master Sarvajna-deva and the editor-translator monk Peltseg (early ninth century C. E.). It was then corrected
in accordance with a Magadha edition and commentary, retranslated and settled upon by the learned Indian master
Dharma-shribhadra and the editor-translator monks Rinchen-zangpo (958 - 1051) and Shakya-lodro. Ten, at a later
time, it was further corrected, retranslated, and nnalized by the learned Indian master Sumati-kirti and the editor-
translator monk Loden-sherab (1059 - 1109).
Tbis completes tbe BoJbisottvocboryovotoro, Tbe Woy of tbe BoJbisottvo, wbicb wos composeJ by tbe
moster SbontiJevo. Tbe text wos tronsloteJ, eJiteJ, onJ jinolizeJ in Tibeton on tbe bosis of o monuscript from
Kosbmir by tbe lnJion scbolor SorvojoJevo onJ tbe monk, tronslotor, onJ eJitor Kowo Peltsek. At o loter
time, tbis version wos reviseJ onJ jinolizeJ in occorJonce witb tbe version from HoqoJbo, toqetber witb its
commentory, by tbe lnJion scbolor BbormosbribboJro onJ tbe Tibeton monks, tronslotors onJ eJitors,
Rincben Zonqpo onJ Sbokyo loJro. Still loter, it wos oqoin reviseJ onJ jinolizeJ by tbe lnJion scbolor
Sumotikirti onJ tbe monk, tronslotor, onJ eJitor Nqok loJen Sberob.
Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior - Shantideva - postface
Tis is the printer-friendly version of: http: / / www.berzinarchives.com / web / x / nav / group.html_1487505749.html
(sPyod-'jug, Bodhisattvacharyavatara) by Shantideva translated from the Tibetan, as clarined by the Sanskrit by
Alexander Berzin, 2004
Introductory Note on the Translation Te Diversity of Textual Versions and Editions
Te translation of Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior (sPyod-'jug, Skt. Bodhisattvacarya-avatara) by Shantideva presents
many textual problems. Written in Sanskrit during the nrst half of the eighth century C. E., several versions of the
manuscript have passed down through the centuries. Te Nepalese-German Manuscript Cataloguing Project, for
example, has micronlmed forty-one handwritten manuscripts, of varying lengths. As far as I know, a comparative
study has yet to be made on them.
A Tibetan translation of a Sanskrit recension, which may or may not be the same as any of the above-mentioned
forty-one, has recently been discovered among the manuscripts buried at Dunhuang at the end of the tenth century.
It contains 210 12 less number of verses than the Tibetan canonical version.
According to the colophon of the Tibetan canonical version, the text was nrst translated into Tibetan in the early
ninth century, during the Old Translation Period, based on a Kashmiri manuscript. Te translators were the Indian
master Sarvajna-deva and the Tibetan editor-translator monk Peltseg (dPal-brtsegs). Peltseg was one of the compilers
of Te Grand (Lexicon) for Understanding Specifc (Terms) (Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po, Skt. Mahavyutpatti),
the nrst compendium of standardized Tibetan translation terms for Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit.
Te text was retranslated from a Magadha edition and commentary during the nrst half of eleventh century by the
Indian master Dharma-shribhadra and the Tibetan editor-translator monks Rinchen-zangpo (Rin-chen bzang-po)
(958 - 1051) and Shakya-lodro (Shakya blo-gros). It is not clear which commentary this was. Rinchen-zangpo was the
founder of the New Translation Period in Tibet.
Te text was further corrected, retranslated, and nnalized by the learned Indian master Sumati-kirti and the editor-
translator monk Loden-sherab (Blo-ldan shes-rab) (1059 - 1109). Tis is the version preserved in the Tibetan canon,
although various editions of the canon and of later publications of the Tibetan text have a number of textual
discrepancies. Te two earlier versions of the Tibetan translation have not survived, as far as I know.
According to the main compiler of the Tibetan canon, Buton (Bu-ston Rin-chen grub) (1290 - 1364), a hundred
commentaries were written in Sanskrit to Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior, but only eight were translated into
Tibetan. Te most well known one, perhaps because of the twentieth-century publication of the Sanskrit original, is
Commentary on the Dicult Points of Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior (sPyod-'jug dka'-'grel, Skt. Bodhisattvacarya-
avatara-panjika). It was written by Prajnakaramati, in the eleventh century, and comments only on the nrst nine
chapters of the root text.
Sumati-kirti, the Indian pandit who helped with the Tibetan translation of the root text used for the canonical
version, translated chapters 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9 of Prajnakaramati's commentary into Tibetan together with the Tibetan
translator Darma-drag (Dar-ma grags). Te in-between chapters were translated by the Tibetan Lodro-zangdrag (Blo-
gros bzang-grags). Tus, it is quite likely that the Sanskrit version used for the translation of the nrst nine chapters of
the root text was the same as that which appears in Prajnakaramati's commentary. Taking into consideration that
there are several slightly dinerent manuscript versions of this edition of the Sanskrit root text and commentary, there
are still quite a number of discrepancies between the Sanskrit original and the Tibetan translation of the root text.
Te same is true concerning the published Sanskrit and canonical Tibetan versions of the tenth chapter, missing in
Prajnakaramati's work.
Many Tibetan masters from the four traditions of Tibetan Buddhism have written commentaries on the root text,
based on the canonical version. Several of them were aware of the textual discrepancies and made occasional reference
to dinerent readings of some of the root verses as found in the Tibetan translations of the Sanskrit commentaries.
Moreover, these Tibetan commentaries present a wide range of interpretation of the root verses.
Te only conclusion that we can safely draw from the above sketch is that it is impossible, at present, to decide what
is the authentic version of the text and what was its original or "actual" meaning. All of the versions and their
commentaries make sense within the context of Buddha's teachings. Tis accords with the principle that the
enlightening words of a Buddha contain many levels of meaning and each disciple will understand them according to
his or her stage of progress.
Faced with this situation, how best to translate the text into modern languages? Many English translations of
Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior have already been made, some from the Sanskrit version that appears with the
Prajnakaramati commentary, plus the tenth chapter omitted there, and some from the Tibetan canonical translation.
One of English works has even presented translations of both the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions for verses that
signincantly diner from each other. None, however, has attempted to reconcile discrepancies between the two that
may have arisen simply due to scribe's errors or dinerences in the structures of the two languages. Tis has been the
challenge attempted here.
Moreover, some translations have favored accuracy over poetics, and others have sacrinced accuracy for the sake of
poetic beauty. Here, I have attempted to preserve the two.
Translation Method for Resolving Discrepancies between Tibetan and Sanskrit
I have received discourses on Shantideva's text twice from His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama and twice from
Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey. When His Holiness teaches the text, he often corrects the canonical Tibetan translation
based on explanations he received from Khunu Lama Rinpoche Tenzin Gyeltsen, a great master well versed in
Sanskrit. Moreover, His Holiness's explanations always emphasize that the text is meant for meditation and everyday
practice. Terefore, textual corrections need to be made based not only on what accords with Sanskrit grammar, but
also on what accords more closely with practical advice on bodhisattva behavior. I have based the present translation
on this precedent and this principle. Accordingly, I have followed primarily the canonical Tibetan version, but
amended it, when necessary, according to the Sanskrit version that appears in the Prajnakaramati commentary, plus
the published tenth chapter.
To say that the text is meant for use in meditation means that the whole or selected parts are to be read or recited
from memory each day, aloud or silently, and renected upon. Tis implies that the verses all connect with each other
to form a nowing presentation of the various topics. Te text does not consist of disjointed verses. Preservation of the
now of presentation or argument, then, is one of the main criteria I have used for establishing the context within
which each verse needs to nt. I have therefore tried, as much as possible, to preserve the now by adding conjunctions
and so on, in parentheses, to help make the connections clearer.
Some of the dinerences in the Tibetan and Sanskrit versions may have arisen due to the Tibetan having been based
on a slightly dinerent Sanskrit manuscript version than the one that is currently available in published form. In such
cases, I have followed the Tibetan version, so long as it nts in the context of the now. It would be awkward to try to
translate and incorporate both language versions into one text for lines that are totally dinerent, and also there is no
clear way to decide which version is more authentic.
Some of the discrepancies are due to a dinerence of one letter in a word, such as AkAra (appearance) in Sanskrit and
the Tibetan translation obviously from AhAra (sustenance). A drop of water creating a smudge on a page of a
handwritten manuscript, or a scribe's error can be the cause of such discrepancies. In such cases, when both meanings
make sense in the context of the now of verses, I have translated both, with the Sanskrit in parentheses. When only
one version has made sense in the context of the now of verses, I have translated only that. Such cases have usually
favored the Sanskrit version.
Sometimes, Tibetan nouns are followed by an instrumental particle when the Sanskrit grammar requires it to be
genitive, or vice versa. Such discrepancies may also have arisen due to a scribe's error or a smudge. In such cases, as
well, I have followed the Sanskrit version when it makes more sense in the context.
One and a half verses from Sanskrit are missing from the Tibetan, and I have added them in parentheses. When
words and phrases in the Sanskrit version have been omitted in the Tibetan translation, and they nt in well with the
context, I have also added them in parentheses.
Te greatest apparent source of discrepancies, however, is the dimculty of rendering the complexities of Sanskrit
grammar into Tibetan. Te two languages are extremely dinerent in structure. Sanskrit is one of the most highly
innected Indo-European languages, while Tibetan belongs to the Sinitic family of languages and is far less innected.
Moreover, it is innected according to dinerent parameters. When the Tibetan is obviously trying to render the
Sanskrit construction, and the verb or noun forms are ambiguous in Tibetan due to the limitations of Tibetan
grammar, I have followed the Sanskrit grammar.
For example, Tibetan often renders both the dative and ablative cases of Sanskrit nouns with the postposition phyir,
and does not distinguish the vocative from the nominative case. Te Sanskrit present, past, and future participles,
both active and passive, are often all represented by the past tense of a Tibetan verb together with the auxiliary byas.
Te Sanskrit optative, imperative, and future tenses are mostly all translated with the future of a Tibetan verb
together with the auxiliary bya. Tird person imperative constructions, as well as locative absolutes, present particular
challenges. Tibetan also has dimculty in clearly distinguishing the Sanskrit active, middle, and passive voices, and
often leaves out distinctions of singular, dual, and plural. Interrogative and relative pronouns are not easily
distinguished from each other, and so on.
Te only exception to this guideline concerns the person of the verbs. Te Sanskrit version sometimes uses the nrst
person, as when the meditator is addressing himself or herself. Sometimes it uses the second person, when the
meditator is addressing his or her mind. And sometimes it uses the third person, as in making a general statement, or
a participle construction, which avoids the issue of person. Tibetan verbs do not have personal endings, whereas
Sanskrit verbs do. When the Sanskrit occasionally uses a pronoun, the Tibetan translates it. Otherwise, the Tibetan is
not clear. I have rendered nrst and second person verbs in Sanskrit into nrst and second person in English. However,
for the sake of making the text more obviously applicable to personal meditation practice, I have occasionally
rendered the Sanskrit third person and participle constructions with the nrst person in English.
Neither Sanskrit nor Tibetan dinerentiates gender in third person singular verbs. For the sake of simplicity, I have
translated them all as masculine, based on the fact that Shantideva was a monk and was writing primarily for monks.
Shantideva's presentation of meditation on the uncleanliness of the body, as an antidote to longing desire,
attachment, and distraction in meditation, is gender neutral in both Sanskrit and Tibetan. Although some of the
commentaries specify that the discussion refers to the body of a woman, since that would be the most relevant for a
monk audience, I have left the discussion gender neutral as in the original.
Sometimes the Tibetan terms chosen for translating a Sanskrit term have several meanings. When a secondary
meaning of the Tibetan corresponds more closely to the Sanskrit term, and the primary meaning does not, I have
chosen the secondary meaning, since this was obviously the meaning intended by the translators. When both the
Sanskrit and Tibetan terms have several disparate meanings, I have chosen the meaning that is common to both.
Further, sometimes there is a discrepancy in the two versions concerning which words modify or go together with
which other words in the verse. In the Sanskrit version, the case and number endings indicate the connections quite
clearly, whereas Tibetan is not innected in the same way. When the Sanskrit makes more sense from the context, I
have followed the Sanskrit. When the dinerences seem insignincant, I have followed the Tibetan.
Occasionally, the order of the phrases in the verses do not correspond with each other, and change the emphasis in
the verse. When the Sanskrit ordering gives an emphasis that nts better into the context of the now of the verses, or is
more poetic, I have followed the Sanskrit. When it has not made much dinerence, I have followed the Tibetan.
Another complication concerns poetic devices. Te Sanskrit frequently uses alliteration, puns, and plays on words,
which are not conveyed in the Tibetan. I have attempted to convey this device by using them sporadically throughout
the English translation, although not necessarily where they appear in Sanskrit. Te Sanskrit often repeats a word
several times within a verse, or uses it in dinerent forms and innections, while the Tibetan often uses several terms.
Although English style may frown upon such repetition, I have followed the Sanskrit style as much as possible, to
convey some of the navor of Sanskrit poetics. When Tibetan has repeated a word several times within a verse, but the
Sanskrit has employed dinerent terms, I have generally followed the Sanskrit, especially when the Tibetan repetition
may have been due to a scarcity of synonyms in Tibetan.
Moreover, both the Sanskrit and the Tibetan are in metered verse. Although I have not used a strict meter for the
English text, I have tried as much as possible to render it into a loose English meter, so that it nows easily from the
mouth. Hopefully, this will make the text more conducive for recitation, meditation, and memorization. Because of
the rules of meter, both Sanskrit and Tibetan frequently need to add nller conjunctions, particles, and words of
emphasis, to nll out the meter. I have translated them when they also contribute meaning within the context, and
have occasionally added nller conjunctions, such as "and," in English, also for the sake of meter.
Many passages, especially in the ninth chapter on far-reaching discriminating awareness (the perfection of wisdom)
have several interpretations, as evidenced by the wide variety of commentaries. As a root text, the verses therefore
need to be as neutral as possible in meaning, so that they can act as a root from which the various explanations and
levels of understanding can grow. On the other hand, the verses also need to make sense on their own, even without
commentary. I have attempted to meet both needs, by adding as few words in parentheses as possible to such
passages. When I have added "true" in parentheses before "existence," for example, this accords with the fact that all
the commentaries interpret the text from the Madhyamaka viewpoint, despite dinerences in presentation of
Acknowledgements (Berzin edition)
I wish to thank Renate and Rainer Noack, who requested me to teach Engaging in Bodhisattva Behavior weekly at the
Buddhistische Gesellschaft Berlin, and to the students there who requested me to teach it slowly, thoroughly, and
deeply, regardless of how long this might take. Te course began in November 2000, took one year to complete the
nrst eight chapters, and has been on the ninth chapter for the last three years, with still a little less than half of that
chapter covered. Tis has anorded the opportunity to delve into each word of the text and its background, and to
prepare for the class a rough running translation of the verses that would accord more closely with the explanations.
I wish to thank Christian Drger and Christian Steinert, who have been translating these rough English verses into
German as we have been going along, and for encouraging me to continue the process.
I wish also to thank Albrecht Seeger, who requested me to go through the Tibetan text with him over the last half
year. Tis became the circumstance for revising my entire translation, in accord with the Sanskrit, so that I could
explain each grammatical construction and the translators' choice of Tibetan words. Going through the text, word for
word, with him has helped to nne-tune the accuracy of the translation, so that, as much as possible, each word in the
Tibetan version is accounted for in the English.
Finally, I wish to thank His Holiness the Dalai Lama, who will be teaching the entire text in Zrich, Switzerland, in
August 2005. His planned teaching has inspired me to prepare this translation in timely fashion, so that it may be of
benent for that occasion and serve His Holiness's aims. May it be of benent to all.
Appendix 1 (from Padmakara edition)
The Life of Sha! ntideva
Generally speaking, our main sources for the life of Shantideva are the Tibetan historians Butn
and Jetsn
In addition, a short account (apparently a combination and abbreviation of the previous two) is to be found
in the writings of the eighteenth-century Tibetan scholar Yeshe Peljor,
and more recent scholarship has brought to light a
short Sanskrit life of Shantideva preserved in a fourteenth-century Nepalese manuscript.
Te following account is taken
from Te Nectar of Majushris Speech, a commentary on Te Way of the Bodhisattva by Kunzang Pelden, who has
followed Butn closely, preferring him to Taranatha, whose account, however, he must have known.

Te author of the Bodhicharyavatara was the learned master and noble Bodhisattva Shantideva, who possessed in
perfect measure the three qualincations necessary for the composing of shastras.
His life was marked by seven
extraordinary events, in particular the fact that he was accepted and blessed by his supreme yidam deity, the venerable
Majughosha. Te seven extraordinary events are listed as follows:
Te pleasing of his supreme yidam deity;
Te perfect deeds at Nalanda;
Te healing of a connict; and the taking as disciples those of strange opinions, As well as beggars, unbelievers, and a
Te great being Shantideva was born in the southern country of Saurashtra.

He was the son of the king,
Kalyanavarman, and went by the name of Shantivarman. From his youth he was devoted to the Buddhas of earlier
ages, and having a natural amnity for the Mahayana, he held the teachers of religion and the monastic order in great
respect. He was a benefactor to all, masters and servants alike, and he cared most tenderly for the lowly, the sick, and
the destitute. With his heart nxed solely upon the ways of enlightenment, he became expert in every art and science.
In particular, he requested the Tikshnamajushri-sadhana
from a certain ascetic mendicant. He practiced this and
beheld the yidam deity.
When at length his father the king died, it was decided that the royal power should be conferred on Shantivarman,
and a great throne made of precious substances was duly set in place. But in his dreams that night, the prince saw
Majughosha sitting on the very throne that he himself was to ascend the following day. Majughosha spoke to him
and said:
My dear and only son, this is my throne,
And I Majushri am your spiritual guide.
It is not right that you and I should take
An equal place and sit upon one seat.
With that, Shantivarman woke from his dream and understood that it would be wrong for him to assume the
kingship. Feeling no desire for the great wealth of the realm, he departed and entered the glorious monastery of
Nalanda where he received ordination from Jayadeva, the chief of its nve hundred panditas, taking the name of

Regarding his inner spiritual life, he received the teachings of the entire Tripitaka from the Noble One [Majushri].
He meditated on them and condensed their precious contents into two shastras: the Digest of All Disciplines
(Shikshasamucchaya) and the Digest of the Sutras (Sutrasamucchaya). But though he gained boundless qualities of
elimination and realization,
the other monks knew nothing of this; and since to all outward appearances his
behavior seemed to be restricted to the activities of eating (bhuj), sleeping (sup), and strolling around (kutim gata),
they gave him the nickname of Bhusuku. Such was their estimate of his outward conduct. Tis man, they
complained, performs none of the three duties

required of the monks of this monastery. He has no right to enjoy
the food and alms onered in religion to the Sangha. We must drive him away!
Teir plan was to take it in turns to expound the scriptures so that, when Shantidevas turn came round, he would be
embarrassed and run away. Tey repeatedly urged him to preach, but on each occasion he refused, saying that he
didnt know anything. So they asked the abbot to order him, and when he did so, Shantideva immediately promised
to give a teaching. At this, a few of the monks began to have misgivings, not knowing what to think. In order to put
him to the test, they arranged a great quantity of onerings on the ground outside the monastery. Tey invited a large
congregation of people and set up an enormously high lion throne in their midst. Tey then sent for Shantideva; and
most of the monks were thrown into a confusion when they suddenly caught sight of him sitting high up on the
throne, not knowing how he had managed to get there. Would you like me to recite some well-known teaching of
the Buddha? Shantideva asked. Or would you prefer something you have never heard before?
Everyone was thunderstruck. Please tell us something completely new, they said.
Now the Shikshasamucchaya is too long, but on the other hand the Sutrasamucchaya is too short. So Shantideva
expounded the Bodhicharyavatara, which, though vast in meaning, is quite brief. Te noble Majushri appeared,
seated in the sky, and many of the people saw him and had great faith. Even more remarkable, when Shantideva came
to the beginning of stanza 34 of the ninth chapter, When something and its nonexistence both are absent from
before the mind . . . , he and Majushri began to rise higher and higher into the sky until at last they disappeared.
Shantidevas voice, however, continued to resound so that the transmission was completed. Tose in the congregation
who possessed extraordinary powers of memory wrote down the teaching as they had recalled it; but they produced
texts of varying length: some of seven hundred stanzas, some of a thousand, and some of even more. Te panditas of
Kashmir produced a text of seven hundred stanzas in nine chapters, while those of central India (Magadha) came up
with a text of a thousand stanzas in ten chapters. Disagreement and uncertainty reigned. Moreover, they did not
know the texts that Shantideva was referring to when he mentioned that they should read the Shikshasamucchaya
repeatedly, and occasionally consult the shorter Sutrasamucchaya.
After a time, it was discovered that Shantideva was living in the south, at the stupa of Shridakshina.

Two of the
panditas who had supernormal powers of memory went to see him, intending to invite him back. But when they met
him, it proved inconvenient for Shantideva to return. Nevertheless, in answer to their inquiries, he amrmed that the
correct version corresponded to what the scholars of Magadha had produced. As for the Shikshasamucchaya and the
Sutrasamucchaya, he said that they would nnd both texts written in a nne scholarly hand and hidden in the roof beam
of his monastic cell at Nalanda. He then instructed the two panditas, giving them explanations and transmission.
Shantideva later traveled to the east where, through a demonstration of miraculous power, he resolved a serious
connict, creating harmony and happiness between the contending parties.
He also accepted as his disciples a group of nve hundred people living not too far west of Magadha, who were holders
of strange, non-Buddhist beliefs. For there had occurred a great natural disaster, and the people were tormented by
famine. Tey told Shantideva that if he could save their lives, they would respect his teachings. Te master took his
begging bowl with cooked rice received in alms and, blessing it with profound concentration, fed and satisned them
all. Turning them from their uncouth superstitions, he introduced them to the Buddhas Doctrine. Some time
afterward, in the course of another terrible famine, he restored to life and health at least a thousand beggars who were
emaciated and dying of starvation.
Later, Shantideva became a bodyguard of King Arivishana, who was threatened by Machala in the east (i.e., in

Meditating upon himself as inseparable from Majughosha, he took a wooden sword with its scabbard
and imbued it with such tremendous power of Dharma that, so armed, he was able to subdue any and every
onslaught. He brought about such harmony that he became the object of universal respect. Some people were,
however, intensely jealous of him and protested to the king. Tis man is an imposter! they cried. We demand an
inquiry. How could he possibly have defended you? He has no weapon other than a wooden sword!
Te king was moved to anger and the weapons were examined one by one. When Shantideva was ordered to take out
his sword, he replied that it would be wrong to do so since it would injure the king.
Even if it harms me, said the king, take it out!
Going on with him to a solitary place, Shantideva requested the king to cover one of his eyes with his hand and to
look with the other. With that, the sword was drawn, and its brightness was so intense that the kings eye shot from
his brow and fell to the ground. He and his escort were overcome with terror and begged Shantideva for forgiveness,
asking him for refuge. Shantideva placed the eye back into its socket, and through his blessings, the kings sight was
painlessly restored. Te whole country was inspired with faith and embraced the Dharma.
Later on, Shantideva went to Shriparvata in the south. Tere he took to the life of the naked Ucchushma beggars and
sustained himself on the water thrown away after the washing of dishes and cooking pots. It happened that
Kachalaha, a serving woman of King Khatavihara, once saw that if any of the washing water splashed on Shantideva
as she was pouring it out, it was as if it had fallen on red hot iron. It would boil and hiss.
Now, at that time, a Hindu teacher called Shankaradeva appealed to the king and issued the following challenge. He
said that he would draw the mandala of Maheshvara in the sky and that if the Buddhist teachers were unable to
destroy it, then all Buddhist images and writings should be consigned to the names, and everyone obliged to accept
the tenets of his religion. Te king convoked the Buddhist Sangha and informed them of the challenge. But nobody
could undertake to destroy the mandala. Te king was deeply troubled, but when the serving woman told him what
she had seen, he ordered that Shantideva be summoned. Tey searched high and low and eventually found him
sitting under a tree. When they explained the situation, he announced that he was equal to the challenge but that he
would need a jug nlled with water, two pieces of cloth, and nre. Everything was prepared according to his
On the evening of the following day, the Hindu yogi drew some lines on the sky and departed. Everyone began to
feel afraid. But early next morning, as the mandala was being drawn, no sooner was the eastern gate nnished than
Shantideva entered into a profound concentration. At once there arose a tremendous hurricane. Te mandala was
swept away into the void; and the crops, trees, and even the villages were on the brink of destruction. Te people
were scattered; the Hindu teacher was caught up in the wind like a little bird and swept away, and a great darkness
fell over the land. But a light shone out from between Shantidevas eyebrows showing the way for the king and queen.
Tey had been stripped of their clothes and were covered with dust. And so with the nre he warmed them, with the
water he washed them, and with the cloth he dressed and comforted them. When, through his power of
concentration, the people had been gathered together, washed, anointed, clothed, and set at ease, Shantideva
introduced many of them to the Buddhas teaching. He caused heathen places of worship to be demolished and
centers of the Buddhist teaching to nourish, spread, and remain for a long time. As a result, the country came to be
known as the place where the non-Buddhists were defeated.
Historical Note
In his Tattvasiddhi,
Shantarakshita, the celebrated Indian master invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen, quotes
an entire stanza from the Bodhicharyavatara (1.10). Tis shows that Shantideva must have been well-known before
763 when Shantarakshita nrst visited Tibet. Tus we have a nnal date, while an initial date is supplied by the seventh-
century Chinese pilgrim I- Tsing, who compiled an exhaustive list of all the most important Madhyamaka masters of
his time. He makes no mention of Shantideva (or, for that matter, Jayadeva), thus indicating that the author of the
Bodhicharyavatara had not yet been born, or at least was still unknown, by the year 685, when I-Tsing returned to
China. We can therefore say with a fair degree of certainty that Shantideva nourished in the nrst half of the eighth
It is interesting to renect also that not only was the Bodhicharyavatara widely acclaimed in India (Butn says that
more than a hundred commentaries were composed on it in Sanskrit alone),
but it was translated almost
immediately into Tibetan by Kawa Peltsek.

Tis is in itself a remarkable circumstance and indicates the speed
with which the Bodhicharyavatara had established itself as a text of major importance. It will be remembered that,
like Shantideva, Shantarakshita was also from the monastery of Nalanda; and we may justinably speculate that he
looked upon the work of his illustrious confrere as a valuable tool in the propagation of the Mahayana in Tibet.
Moreover, the historical proximity between the Indian master and his Tibetan translator makes it quite plausible that
accurate details of Shantidevas life might have passed into Tibetan tradition. Admittedly, Butn wrote at a distance of
four centuries, and his account is brief and hagiographical, but he must have had his sources. And if these derive
from ancient Tibetan records, it is at least reasonable to conclude that details in his biography of Shantideva may not
be as fanciful as modern scholarship tends to suppose.
In any case, certain indisputable facts emerge and are connrmed elsewhere. We know that Shantideva was a monk, at
least for part of his life and certainly at the time when he composed the Bodhicharyavatara. Tere is no reason to
doubt that he was ordained at Nalanda, the principal seat of Madhyamaka philosophy. We know too that he
composed three works: his masterpiece the Bodhicharyavatara, the Shikshasamucchaya, and the Sutrasamucchaya.
Te tantric trajectory of Shantidevas life should be noted. Granted, there is no hint of tantric teaching in either the
Bodhicharyavatara or Shikshasamucchaya, but the gist of the traditional account, which is credible enough, tends to
support the attribution to Shantideva of a certain number of tantric texts translated into Tibetan and preserved in the
Appendix 2 (from Padmakara edition)
Equalizing Self and Other
Te following passage is taken from Te Nectar of Majushris Speech, by Kunzang Pelden. It explains stanzas 90 to 98 of
chapter 8, giving the metaphysical basis for the meditation on equality of self and other, and thus the whole practice of
compassion according to Mahayana Buddhism. At the same time it throws interesting light on the teachings on
reincarnation and karma (subjects frequently misunderstood), and shows how these are in agreement with the view that
neither persons nor things possess an essential core that is solid and unchanging.
[90] Two things are to be practiced on the level of relative bodhichitta: meditation on the equality of self and other,
and meditation on the exchange of self and other. Without training in the former, the latter is impossible. Tis is why
Shantideva says that we should nrst meditate strenuously on equality of self and other; for without it, a perfectly pure
altruistic attitude cannot arise.
All beings, ourselves included, are in exactly the same predicament of wanting to be happy and not wanting to suner.
For this reason we must vigorously train in ways to develop the intention to protect others as much as ourselves,
creating happiness and dispelling sunering. We may think that this is impossible, but it isnt.
Although they have no ultimate grounds for doing so, all beings think in terms of I and mine. Because of this,
they have a conception of other, nxated on as something alien although this too has no basis in reality. Aside
from being merely mental imputations, I and other are totally unreal. Tey are both illusory. Moreover, when the
nonexistence of I is realized, the notion of other also disappears, for the simple reason that other is only posited
in relation to the thought of I. Just as it is impossible to cut the sky in two with a knife, when the space-like quality
of egolessness is realized, it is no longer possible to make a separation between I and other, and there arises an
attitude of wanting to protect others as oneself and of taking them as ones own. As it is said, Whoever casts aside
the ordinary, trivial view of self, will discover the profound meaning of great Selfhood.

Tus, for the realization
of the equality of I and other, it is essential to grasp that I and other are merely labels without any basis in
reality. Tis vital point of egolessness is dimcult to understand, dimcult even for a person of high intelligence. Tus,
as the teachings say, it is of great importance that egolessness be clearly demonstrated and assimilated.
[91] Te way to renect upon equality is as follows. We can distinguish the various parts of our bodies: hands, feet,
head, inner organs, and so on. Nevertheless, in a moment of danger, we protect them all, not wanting any of them to
be hurt, considering that they all form a single body. We think, Tis is my body, and we cling to it and protect it as
a whole, regarding it as a single entity. In the same way, the whole aggregate of beings in the six realms, who in their
dinerent joys and sorrows are all like us in wanting to be happy and not wanting to suner, should be identined as a
single entity, our I. We should protect them from sunering in just the same way as we now protect ourselves.
Suppose we were to ask someone how many bodies he had. What are you talking about? he would reply. I have
nothing but this one body! Well, we continue, are there many bodies that you should take care of? No, he will
say, I take care only of this one body of mine. Tis is what he may say, but the fact is that when he talks about his
body, he is doing no more than applying a name to a collection of dinerent items. Te word body does not at all
refer to a single indivisible whole. In other words, there is no reason why the name body should be attached here [to
these items] and why it is inappropriate to attach it elsewhere. Te word body is fastened, without ultimate
justincation, to what is merely a heap of component items. It is the mind that says my body, and it is on the basis of
this idea of a single entity that it is possible to impute the notions of I, mine, and all the rest. To claim, moreover,
that it is reasonable to attach the name I to this aggregate, and not to another aggregate, is quite unfounded.
Consequently, it is taught that the name I can be applied to the whole collection of sunering beings. It is possible
for the mind to think, Tey are myself. And if, having identined them in this way, it habituates itself to such an
orientation, the idea of I with regard to other sentient beings will in fact arise, with the result that one will come to
care for them as much as one now cares for oneself.
[92] But how is it possible for such an attitude to arise, given that others do not feel my pain, and I do not feel theirs?
Te meaning of the root text may be interpreted as meaning that, while these sunerings of mine have no enect upon
the bodies of other living beings, they are nevertheless the sunerings of my I. Tey are unbearable to me because I
cling to them as mine. [93] Although the pains of others do not actually befall me, because I am a Bodhisattva and
consider others as myself, their pains are mine as well, and are therefore unbearable to me.
How is it that when sunering comes to me, the pain anects only myself and leaves others untouched? In my present
incarnation, just as from beginningless time until now, my mind entered amid the generative substances of my
parents as they came together. Subsequently, there came into being what I now identify as my body. And it is
precisely because I seize on it as myself that I am unable to tolerate its being injured. But within sunering itself, there
is no separation between my sunering and anothers sunering. Terefore, although anothers pain does not
actually amict me now, if that other is identined as I or mine, his or her sunering becomes unbearable to me
Maitriyogin, the disciple of the Lord Atisha, did indeed feel the sunering of other beings as his own.

was the experience of one who had attained the Bodhisattva grounds of realization. However, even on the level of
ordinary people, we can take the example of a mother who would rather die than that her dear child should fall sick.
Because she identines with her baby, the childs sunering is actually unbearable for her. Other people who do not
identify with the child are for this very reason unanected by its pain. If they did identify with it, the childs sunering
would be intolerable for them as well.
Moreover, a long period of habituation is not necessary for this kind of experience to occur. Take the example of a
horse that is being put up for sale. Right up to the moment when the deal is struck, if the horse lacks grass or water,
or if it is ill, or if it has any other discomfortall this will be unbearable for its owner, while it will not at all anect
the client. But as soon as the transaction takes place, it is the buyer who will be unable to stand the horses sunering,
while the seller will be completely indinerent. Within the horse itself, there is no basis whatever for the distinction
this mans horse or that mans horse. It is identined as being this mans or that mans according to how it is labeled
by thought.
In the same way, there is not the slightest reason for saying that the notion of I must be applied to me and not to
another. I and other are no more than a matter of conceptual labeling. Te I of myself is other for someone
else, and what is other for myself is I for another. Te notions of here and there are simply points of view,
designated by the mind in dependence on each other. Tere is no such thing as an absolute here or an absolute
there. In just the same way, there is no absolute I and no absolute other. It is just a matter of imputation. And
so, on account of this crucial point, the Dharma teaches that when I is ascribed to others, namely, sentient beings,
the attitude of accepting and taking them as ones own will naturally arise.
Tis is how Buddhas and Bodhisattvas claim sentient beings as their own selves in the way explained above, so that
even the slightest pain of others is for them as if their entire body were on nre. And they do not have the slightest
hesitation in doing so, just as when the Buddha claimed as his own the swan that Devadatta had shot down with an
Similarly, Machig
said that in the centuries after her, perverted practitioners of chd would with violent
means subjugate the wealth-gods, ghosts, and demons, whom she had taken with the crook of her compassion
meaning by this that she had taken these gods and spirits to herself as beings whom she cherished.
As we have said, taking sentient beings as ones own does not require lengthy training. For example, if you tell
someone that you will give him an old horse, no sooner are the words out of your mouth than the other person has
already appropriated the horse and cannot bear it if the horse is in distress. Still it might be thought that, because one
has drifted into such bad mental habits, the thought of taking others as oneself will never arise. But the Lord Buddha
has said that in all the world, he never saw anything easier to educate than the mind itself, once it is set on the right
path and steps are taken to subjugate it. On the other hand, he also said that there is nothing more dimcult to govern
than an untrained mind. Terefore, if we do not let our minds stray onto wrong paths but train them, it is perfectly
possible to bring them into submission. Conversely, if we fail to subdue our minds, it will be impossible for us to
overcome anything else. Tis is why the teachings say that we should strive to subdue our minds.
[94] Shantidevas justincation for the necessity of eliminating sunering is presented in the form of a probative
His thesis is that he will eliminate all the sunerings of others, that is, the sunerings that will not bring
them any ultimate benent. His reason is that their sunering does them no good and, by way of example, he says that
he will remove it just as he removes his own discomforts of hunger, thirst, and so on. By a similar procedure, he says
that he will benent others and make them happy, because they are living beings, and, once again by way of example,
he will do this in the same way that he attends to the comfort of his own body. [95] Since there is not the slightest
dinerence between ourselves and others (in that all want to be happy), what reason could we possibly have for not
working for the happiness of others? It does not make sense that we should work only in our own interest. [96] In the
same way, there is not the slightest dinerence between ourselves and others in that no one wants to experience
sunering. Terefore what reason do we have for failing to protect others from sunering? It does not make sense that
we should strive only to protect ourselves.
[97] Now suppose someone were to object saying, Yes, I am anected by my own sunering, and therefore I have to
protect myself. But when sunering happens to someone else, nothing at that moment is actually hurting me,
therefore anothers sunering is not something I have to protect myself from. But major and obvious sunerings (from
the sunerings of the next life in the hell realms to the pains that will come tomorrow or next month), or the more
subtle kinds of sunering occurring from moment to momentall such discomforts, great or small (due to lack of
food, clothing, or whatever), are located in the future. Tey are not actually harming us in the present moment. If
these future pains are not tormenting us now, what do we have to protect ourselves from? It makes no sense to do so.
[98] But we may think that these sunerings are not the same as those of other beings. For even though such sunerings
are not anecting us now, we protect ourselves nevertheless because we will experience them in the future. But to cling,
on the gross level, to the aggregates of this life and the next life as constituting a single entity, and to cling also, on the
subtle level, to the aggregates of one instant and the next as being the same thing, is a mistaken conception, nothing
more. When we renect about our present and future lives in the light of such arguments, [we can see that] the entity
that dies and passes out of life is not the same as that which is born in the succeeding existence. Conversely, that
which takes birth in the next life, wherever that may be, is not the same thing as that which has perished in the
previous existence.
Te length of time spent in the human world is the result of past karma. When this is exhausted, as the nnal moment
of the human consciousness ends, it creates the immediate cause [of the new life], while the karma that brings about
birth in a hell realm, or whatever, constitutes the cooperative cause. Wherever people are subsequently born, whether
in hell or elsewhere, they have at death a human body, whereas at birth, they will have the body of a hell being and so
on. In other words, the previous consciousness now terminated is that of a human, while at the moment of the later
birth, the consciousness is that of a hell being. Te two are thus distinct. When the mind and body of a human come
to an end, the mind and body of the following life come into being. It is not that there is a movement or
transmigration of something from a former to a subsequent state. As it is said:
Like recitation, name, and looking glass,
Or seal or lens, seed, sound, astringent taste,
Te aggregates continue in their seamless course,
Yet nothing is transferred, and this the wise should know.
When, for example, one uses a lamp to light another lamp, the later name cannot be lit without dependence on the
nrst; but at the same time, the nrst name does not pass into the second one.
If the earlier entity is terminated, however, and the later one arises in such a way that the two are quite separate, it
will be objected that, in that case, the enect of former actions is necessarily lost, while (in the course of the
subsequent existence) karmic enects will be encountered that have not been accumulated. But this is not so.
Phenomenal appearanceswhich arise ineluctably through the interdependence of causal conditionscannot
withstand analysis,
they lie beyond the scope of both the eternalist and nihilist positions. Te assertion that
karmic enects are not lost is a special feature of the Buddhist teachings. It lies within the exclusive purview of an
omniscient mind, and it is thus to be accepted through reliance on the word of the Conqueror.
As it is said:
What arises in dependence on another
Is not at all that thing itself
But neither is it something else:
Tere is no break, there is no permanence.
All we have are relatively imputed terms. While being neither identical nor dinerent, [earlier and later moments of
consciousness] appear. Consciousness manifests in dinerent ways according to karma, whether good or bad. But in
itself, it consists of moments of mere knowing, clear and cognizant, arising uninterruptedly in like kind.
notions of permanence or discontinuity
do not apply to it. Tus the results of karma are not lost, and one never
encounters karmic enects that have not been accumulated.
If, on a more subtle level, one considers the momentary nature of phenomena, everything in the outer or inner
sphere consists of point-instants. Te earlier moment ceases and the later one supervenes so that the one is distinct
from the other. Likewise, when the karma for remaining in the human state provides the circumstances, and the nnal
moment of consciousness [in that state] provides the cause, the following moment of consciousness comes to birth
and arises in like kind. But the two moments are separate.
Appendix 3 (from Padmakara edition)
Exchanging Self and Other
Te following passage, also taken from the commentary of Kunzang Pelden, is an explanation of exchanging self and
other. A commentary on stanzas 140 to 154 of chapter 8, it explains how one can, by a feat of sympathetic
imagination, place oneself in the position of others. In so doing, one gains an appreciation of how one appears in
their eyes and of how and why they feel the way they do.
The Exchange of Self and Other
[140] When you perform the meditation of exchange, take other beings, whether inferiors, superiors, or equals, and
consider them as yourself, putting yourself in their position. When you have changed places, meditate without
allowing any other thought to come in the way. Put yourself in the position of someone worse on than you and allow
yourself to feel envy. Ten put yourself in the position of someone on the same level and soak yourself in a sense of
competitiveness and rivalry. Finally, taking the place of someone better on, allow yourself to feel pride and
The Practice of Envy from the Point of View of Someone Less Well Off (Stanzas 141146)
In each of these three meditations [following Shantidevas lead], whenever the text says he or this person, the
reference is to your own I (now regarded as another person). When the text says you, it is referring to this other
person (better on, equal, or worse on in relation to yourself ) with whom you have now identined.
You must now
systematically generate the antidotes to pride, rivalry, and jealousy. Te reason for doing this is that as soon as even
the slightest virtue appears in the mind-stream, these three denlements follow in its trail. Tey are like demons that
sap ones integritywhich explains the importance given to their antidotes. Now, of the eight worldly concerns,
honor, possessions, adulation, and happiness are the things that make you proud.
So perform the exchange, placing yourself in the position of someone contemptible, someone despised, a beggar or
tramp. Imagine that you become the poor person and that the poor person becomes you. Now allow yourself to feel
that persons envy. [141] Looking up at your former self (your ego, now regarded as someone else), someone talented,
think how happy he must be, praised and respected by all and sundry. You on the other hand are nothing, nobody,
a complete down-and-out, despised and utterly miserable. Te person you are looking at is rich, has plenty to eat,
clothes to wear, money to spendwhile you have nothing. He is respected for being learned, talented, well
disciplined. You, on the other hand, are dismissed as a fool. He enjoys a wealth of every comfort and happiness; you
by contrast are a pauper, your mind weighed down with worries, your body racked with disease, sunering, and the
discomforts of heat and cold. [142] You have to work like a slave, digging, harvesting grasswhile he can just sit
back with nothing to do. As these thoughts pass through your mind, feel your envy. He even has servants and a
private horse, on whom he innicts a great deal of discomfort and sunering. He is not even aware that they are in
distress, and there he is, oh so comfortable. And as if that werent enough, he gets angry and lashes out, whipping and
beating them. Put yourself in the position of his poor victims and take their sunering on yourself. If you manage to
do this, it is said that you will come to recognize their sorrows. Compassion for them will grow and you will stop
hurting them.
Once again, renect that he is talented, of good family, wealthy, and surrounded by friends. You on the other hand are
a complete nobody, well known to be good at nothing. [143] But, even though you have nothing to show for
yourself, you might well ask him what reason he has to be so arrogant. After all, the existence or nonexistence of good
qualities and the concepts of high and low are all relative. Tere are no absolute values. Even people who are low-
down like you can be found to have something good about them, relatively speaking. Compared with someone with
even greater talent, he is not so great. Compared with someone even more disfavored, feeble with age, lame, blind,
and so forth, you are much better-on. After all, you can still walk on your own two feet; you can see with your eyes;
you are not yet crippled with age. You have at least something.
Tis stanza, which begins What! A nobody without distinction? could be understood in a dinerent sense, namely,
that you have it in you to acquire all the excellence of training, since you have all the qualities of the utterly pure
tathagatagarbha, the essence of Buddhahood, implicit in your nature. Tus you are far from being bereft of good
qualities. [144] If he retorts that you are despicable because your discipline and understanding are a disgrace, or that
you have no resources and so forth, this is not because you are evil in yourself, or that you are just inept; it is because
your amictions of desire, ignorance, avarice, and so on are so powerful that you are helpless. And so you should
retort, saying:
All right, if youre such a great and wonderful Bodhisattva, you should help me as much as you can; you should
encourage and remedy the poor condition of my discipline, view, and resources. If you do help me, I am even
prepared to accept punishment from youharsh words and beating just like a child at school learning to read and
write who has to take a beating from the teacher. [145] But the fact is that you, the great Bodhisattva, are doing
nothing for me; you dont even give me a scrap of food or something to drink. So why are you passing yourself on as
someone so great? You have no right to look down on me, no right to behave so scornfully to me and to people like
me. And anyway, even if you did have any genuine virtues, if you cant give me any relief or help, what use are they to
me? Teyre totally irrelevant.[146] After all, if you are a Bodhisattva but can stand by without the slightest intention
of helping and saving me and those like me, who through the power of our evil karma are on our way to the lower
realms like falling into the mouth of a ferocious beastif you have no compassion, you are yourself guilty of
something completely unspeakable! But not only do you not acknowledge this, you are all the time passing yourself
on as someone wonderful. Te fact is, however, that you have no qualities at all. In your arrogance, you want to put
yourself on the same level as the real Bodhisattvas, those beings who are truly skilled and who in their compassion
really do carry the burdens of others. Your behavior is totally outrageous!
Tis is how to meditate on envy and resentment as the chief antidote to pride. By appreciating the sunering involved
in being a poor and insignincant person, without talents or honor, you come to realize how wrong it is to be arrogant
and scornful. It dawns on you how unpleasant it is for someone in a humble position when you are proud and
supercilious toward them. You should stop behaving like this and begin to treat people with respect, providing them
with sustenance and clothing, and working to help them in practical ways.
The Practice of Jealous Rivalry from the Point of View of an Equal (Stanzas 147150)
Next you should make the exchange by taking the place of someone similar to, or slightly better than, yourself
someone with whom you feel competitive, whether in religious or worldly anairs. [147] Tell yourself that, however
good he is in terms of reputation and wealth, you will do better. Whatever possessions he has, and whatever respect
he has in other peoples eyes, you will deprive him of them, whether in religious disputation or even by nghtingand
you will make sure you get them all for yourself. [148] In every way possible, you will advertise far and wide your
own spiritual and material gifts, while hushing up whatever talents he has, so that no one will ever see or hear about
them. [149] At the same time, you will cover up whatever faults you have, hiding them from the public gaze, while at
the same time gossiping about all the shortcomings of your rival, making quite sure that everyone knows about them.
Under the impression that you are beyond reproach, lots of people will congratulate you, while for him it will be just
the opposite. From now on, you will be the wealthy one, the center of attention. For him, there will be nothing.
[150] For a long time, and with intense satisfaction, you will gloat over the penalties he will have to suner for
breaking his vows of religion, or because he has misbehaved in worldly life. You will make him an object of scorn and
derision, and in public gatherings you will make him despicable in the eyes of others, digging out and exposing all his
secret sins.
By using a spirit of rivalry in this way as an antidote to jealousy, you will come to recognize your own faults in being
competitive with others. Ten you will stop behaving like this and instead do whatever you can to help your rivals
with presents and honors.
The Practice of Pride from the Point of View of Someone Better-Off (Stanzas 151154)
Now imagine yourself in the position of someone who is better-on, who looks down on you with pride and derision.
[151] [And from this vantage point] think that it has come to your notice that he, this tiresome nonentity, is trying
to put himself on a par with you. But what comparison could anyone possibly make between you and himwhether
in learning or intelligence, in good looks, social class, wealth, and possessions? Te whole idea is ridiculous. Its like
comparing the earth with the sky! [152] Hearing everyone talking about your talents, about all your learning and so
on, saying how it sets you apart from such an abject individual, all this is extremely gratifying. Te thrill of it is so
intense that your skin is covered with goose pimples. You should really enjoy the feeling!
[153] If, through his own hard work, and despite the obstacles he has to contend with, he manages to make some
headway, you agree that, so long as he abases himself and works subserviently according to your instructions, this
low-down wretch will get no more than the merest necessities in return: food to nll his stomach and enough clothes
on his back to keep out the wind. But as for any extras, you, being the stronger, will connscate them and deprive
him. [154] Every kind of pleasure that this inferior might have, you will undermine, and in addition, you will
constantly attack him, piling on all kinds of unpleasantness.
But why are you being so vicious? Because of all the many hundreds of times that this person [your own ego] has
harmed you while you were wandering in samsara. Or again, this stanza could be explained as meaning that you will
wear away the satisfaction of this self-cherishing mentality and constantly undermine it, because this self-centered
attitude has brought you sunering so many hundreds of times in the hells and other places of samsara. Tis is how
Shantideva shows the fault of not being rid of pride.
In this way, use this meditation on pride as the principal antidote to jealous resentment. When people who are
superior to you behave proudly and insult you with their overweening attitude, you will think to yourself: Why are
these people being so arrogant and onensive? But instead of being envious and resentful, change places with them.
Using the meditation on pride, place yourself in that position of superiority, and ask yourself whether you have the
same feelings of pride and condescension. And if you nnd that you too are proud and condescending and have scorn
and contempt for those lower down than yourself, you will be able to look at those who are now behaving arrogantly
toward you and think, Well, yes, I can see why they feel the way they do. And so you will serve them respectfully,
avoiding attitudes of rivalry and contention.
Tis text has been edited with Tibetan (typed by http://www.dharmadownload.org/) by Jean-Marc Falcombello, at
Montchardon Karma Migyur Ling, till the 29 of July 2012.
. Tose who go in bliss (Tib. bde gshegs, Skt. sugata): a title of the Buddhas.
. Te word dharmakaya (Tib. chos sku, Skt. dharmakaya) means dharma body. According to the commentarial tradition, two
interpretations are possible. Te term may be taken to mean simply the body of the Dharma of realization and
transmission (which is the interpretation of Kunzang Pelden and other authorities), with the result that the nrst line of the poem
is a salutation to the Tree Jewels of Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. On the other hand, it may be understood as referring to the
dharmakaya or truth body, the ultimate aspect of a Buddha, as contrasted with the rupakaya or form body (further
subdivided into the sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya).
. Te heirs of the Buddhas are the Bodhisattvas. We have preferred this translation, which is gender-inclusive and corresponds
more closely to Shantidevas obvious intention than the literal rendering of sons (Tib. sras) as this is likely to be understood by
a modern Western readership. Tis interpretation is in fact supported by one of the earliest known Tibetan commentaries on the
Bodhicharyavatara (composed by Sonam Tsemo, 11421182), where sras is glossed as gdung tshob (inheritor, successor). In the
present context, reference is actually being made to noble Bodhisattvas, so-called because their realization corresponds to the
Mahayana path of seeing and beyond, in other words, who are abiding on the Bodhisattva bhumis or grounds, and who are
therefore sublime objects of refuge.
. In order to progress toward enlightenment, it is necessary to possess eight forms of ease or freedom, and ten forms of wealth or
endowment. Te former are the freedoms of not being born (1) in one of the hells; (2) as a preta or hungry ghost; (3) as an
animal; (4) in the realms of the gods; (5) among barbarians who are ignorant of the teachings and practices of the
Buddhadharma; (6) as one with wrong views concerning karma and so forth; (7) in a time and place where a Buddha has not
appeared; and (8) as mentally or physically handicapped.
Te ten forms of wealth or endowment are subdivided into nve considered intrinsic and nve considered extrinsic to the
personality. Te nve intrinsic endowments are (1) to be born a human being; (2) to inhabit a central land, i.e., where the
Dharma is proclaimed; (3) to be in possession of normal faculties; (4) to be one who is not karmically inclined to great
negativity; and (5) to have faith in the Dharma. Te nve extrinsic endowments are the facts that (1) a Buddha has appeared in
the universe in which one is living, and at an accessible time; (2) that he has expounded the Doctrine; (3) that his Doctrine still
persists; (4) that it is practiced; and (5) that one has been accepted as a disciple by a spiritual master.
. Te Tibetan consistently uses the expression thub pa or thub dbang (able one, powerful one) to translate the Sanskrit muni
(sage, ascetic). Te translation mighty Sages, as a synonym of Buddhas, is an amalgam of these two ideas.
. Te reference is to Maitreya, the Buddha of the future, as recounted in the Gandavyuha- sutra.
. Tathagata (Tib. de bzhin gshegs pa): literally, one thus gone; a synonym for Buddha.
. A reference to the Subahu-paripriccha-sutra, the Sutra of the Questions of Subahu. Lost in the original Sanskrit, this sutra is
preserved in Chinese translation.
. According to ancient Indian tradition, the rishis were sages who perceived the sound of the Vedas and transmitted them to the
world. Tey form a class by themselves between gods and humans.
. Brahma, the creator of the universe according to the Vedas.
. Tose who wander through the world is a translation of the Tibetan gro ba (lit. one who moves), a common epithet for
sentient beings who migrate helplessly from one samsaric state to another.
. Te actual confession, from which this chapter takes its name, begins at stanza 27. It is preceded by the traditional formulas
of homage and onering. See note 48.
. Samantabhadra is the Bodhisattva associated with prayer and unlimited onerings; Majughosha (also known as Majushri) is
the Bodhisattva personifying wisdom; Lokeshvara, Lord of the World, otherwise known as Avalokiteshvara (Tib. spyan ras
gzigs), is the Bodhisattva of compassion.
. Te expression Jewels of Sacred Dharma refers to the Dharma of realization and the Dharma of transmission, i.e., the
scriptures. Te latter is divided into twelve categories: (1) sutra (Tib. mdo sde), condensed discourses covering a single topic; (2)
geya (Tib. dbyangs bsnyad), poetic epitome (of more detailed teachings in prose); (3) vyakarana (Tib. lung bstan), prophecies;
(4) gatha (Tib. tshigs bcad), discourses in verse; (5) udana (Tib. ched du brjod pa), teachings not requested by anyone but
spoken intentionally by the Buddha in order to propagate the Dharma; (6) nidana (Tib. gleng gzhi), instructions following
specinc incidents (e.g., the rules of Vinaya); (7) avadana (Tib. rtogs brjod), life stories of certain contemporaries of the Buddha;
(8) itivrittaka (Tib. de lta bu byung ba), historical accounts; (9) jataka (Tib. skyes rabs), previous lives of the Buddha; (10) vaipulya
(Tib. shin tu rgyas pa), long expositions of vast and profound teachings; (11) adbhutadharma (Tib. rmad byung), extraordinary
unprecedented teachings; (12) upadesha (Tib. gtan dbab), topics of specinc knowledge that clinch the meaning of the Vinaya and
the Sutras. Te latter are the classincations of samsaric phenomena (aggregates, elements, ayatanas); the outline of the
phenomena of the path (grounds and paths of realization, various concentrations); and the enumeration of the phenomena of the
result (the kayas, wisdoms, etc.).
. In the traditional practice of prostration, it is normal to imagine that one possesses innumerable bodies, all prostrating at the
same time.
. Western readers sometimes object to the use of the word sin in translations of Buddhist texts, on the grounds that it carries
too many Judeo-Christian associations. Tey apparently fail to realize that the same principle might equally apply to a host of
other terms, such as love, compassion, vow, monk, cause, meditation, etc., whose meanings, in the cultural, philosophical, and
religious setting in which they evolved, are notably dinerent from the ideas that they are expected to convey in a Buddhist
context. When used to express Buddhist ideas, many common English words require careful redennition in order to remove
exclusively Jewish or Christian connotations. In the case of the word sin, once the associations connected with the doctrine of the
Fall, divine punishment, etc., are discounted, its standard meaning (an evil act, whether by nature or by virtue of being a
transgression of a vow or precept, that will provoke deadly consequences if not purined by confession) corresponds closely with
the sense of sdig pa (Skt. papa) as used by Shantideva. See V. and A. Wallace, p. 24.
. Yama, the King of Deathnot a sentient being but a symbol and personincation of death.
. Akashagarbha and Kshitigarbha are two of the eight major Bodhisattvas known as the Buddhas eight close sons.
. Te happiness or sunering of postmortem states can arise only as the fruit of past actions. At the moment of death, we are
helped or harmed only by the virtue or evil contained in our own mind-streams. We can be neither helped nor harmed through
the actions of others. By what criterion, then, are we to distinguish, at the moment of death, between friend and foe?
. Tere are two kinds of negative actions: those that are evil by their nature and those that are evil because they contravene an
injunction of the Buddha or violate a promise or vow. Te former category comprises the ten nonvirtuous actions: killing,
stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle chatter, covetousness, harmful intent, and false views. Te
second category comprises acts that contravene commitments of Buddhist vows and precepts, thus preventing the practitioner
from progressing on the path.
. According to the Buddhist teachings, the experience of beings in samsara falls into six broad categories, states, or realms.
Birth in these worlds is the fruit of past karma or action. Tere are three unfortunate states (the states of loss referred to in this
verse) in which sunering predominates over every other experience: that of animals, hungry ghosts, and beings in the hells. Tere
are three fortunate realms where sunering is mitigated by temporary pleasures, namely, the heavens of the gods, the realms of the
asuras or demigods, and the human condition. Te misery of beings in the lower realms is compounded by the fact that their
ability to create the positive energy necessary to propel them into higher existences is very weak, while negativity abounds.
. Shantideva rejoices in the condition of beings in the higher samsaric realms of human beings, asuras (demigods), and gods.
In all these states, the experience of happiness and pleasure is possible even though they are never beyond the possibility of
. From the moment when, through a direct realization of emptiness, the path of seeing is entered, and throughout the path of
meditation until the point where perfect Buddhahood is attained, the progress of the Bodhisattva passes through ten bhumis or
grounds of realization. Bodhisattvas residing on these grounds are considered noble beings (Tib. phags pa), who have passed
beyond the world in the sense that henceforth they can no longer fall back into the ordinary condition of samsara. Tis two-line
stanza does not appear in the extant Sanskrit version. For an explanation of the nve paths of accumulation, joining, seeing,
meditation, and no more learning, see Treasury of Precious Qualities, pp. 301304.
. Te reference here is to the seven traditional actions of accumulating merit, often expressed in a verse formula known as the
seven-branch prayer. Tese actions are homage, onering, confession, rejoicing in all good actions, the request for teaching, the
request that the teachers remain in the world and not pass into nirvana, and dedication. Te nrst three actions formed the
content of the previous chapter; the remaining four are expressed here in the opening stanzas of chap. 3. See Crosby and Skilton,
pp. 913, for a description of the sevenfold supreme worship.
. A reference to the antarakalpa, an age of extreme decline nguring in the ancient Indian conception of temporal sequences, in
which the quality of human life is gradually reduced until the age of ten years marks the summit of growth and capacity. It is a
time of extreme instability and famine.
. Te celebrated case of this was that of the Buddhas disciple Shariputra, as recorded in the Saddharmapundarika-sutra, the
Lotus Sutra. It is said that Shariputra was a practitioner of the Mahayana who had progressed far along the path. One day a
demon appeared to him and, wishing to put him to the test and if possible contrive his downfall, asked him for his right hand.
Shariputra cut it on and gave it to the demon. But the demon was angry and refused to accept it, complaining that Shariputra
had impolitely onered it to him with his left! At this point, it is said that Shariputra lost hope of ever being able to satisfy the
desires of beings, and turned from the Mahayana to pursue the path to arhatship.
. Te ability to perceive and benent from the teachings of a Buddha requires the correct karmic disposition and implies the
presence of a considerable degree of merit in the mind-stream of the beings concerned. Te fact that one has not been liberated
through the teachings of the Buddhas of the past serves to underline the importance of the present moment, when one has
encountered the Dharma, and throws into relief the great signincance of a relationship with an accomplished spiritual master.
. According to Buddhist teachings (see remarks in the introduction), karmic results follow ineluctably upon the perpetration of
acts, irrespective of conscious attitude or moral conscience (although the quality and force of the act may be signincantly anected
thereby). Tus beings in the lower realms, animals for example, do indeed accumulate karma and must sooner or later experience
the consequences of their actions, even though these may be performed under the irresistible innuence of instinct. And the
karmic situation is compounded, rather than mitigated, by an unconsciousness of the Dharma. Te strength of instinctual habit
and the ignorance of what behavior is to be adopted and what behavior is to be abandoned are among the principal miseries of
existence in states other than that of the precious human condition.
. See note 21.
. Mount Sumeru, the axis of the universe according to traditional Hindu-Buddhist cosmology.
. Te point being made is that pledges should be honored. In order to liberate others it is necessary to be free oneself; and
Shantideva is saying that the purincation of ones own denlements is the best way of helping others. It is the indispensable nrst
. As a spur for the practice of pure ethics, and as an object for meditation on compassion, the Buddhist teachings describe the
various experiences of the hell realms in considerable detail. Te torments that beings undergo there, as well as the topography of
the hells themselves, are, as in any other realm of samsara, ultimately unrealthe hallucinatory, dreamlike result of actions
committed in the past. Te karmic fruit of sexual misconduct is the situation in which beings nnd themselves upon the infernal
hill of shalmali trees. Tere they see a vision of the former object of their passion. Climbing the hill, cutting themselves all the
while on the razor-sharp leaves of the trees, they nnd that their former lovers turn into horrible monsters (a demoness in the case
of the heterosexual male) who begin to devour them. See Patrul Rinpoches Te Words of My Perfect Teacher (Altamira edition), p.
67, for a vivid description of this encounter.
. Te triple world comprises the three worlds of samsara: the desire realm (Skt. kamadhatu), the form realm (Skt. rupadhatu),
and the realm of formlessness (Skt. arupyadhatu). Te desire realm consists of the six states of samsara from the hells up to and
including the six levels of the desire-realm gods. Te form and formless realms are celestial existences superior to those of the
desire realm. See Treasury of Precious Qualities, p. 414.
. Tese are the clins and mountains that repeatedly rush together and overwhelm the beings caught between them. See Patrul
Rinpoches Te Words of My Perfect Teacher, p. 64.
. In other words, when monks are engaged in charitable work, it is not necessary for them to stick rigidly to all the minutiae of
monastic observance.
. For example, meditation on patience as an antidote to anger, or on the disgusting aspects of the body as an antidote to desire.
. Te expression neld of excellence refers to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas; the neld of benents refers to all those who
bring benentsparents, friends, and so on; the nelds of sorrow (or, more usually, the neld of compassion) refers to all other
beings who suner or who are in some way disadvantaged, e.g., the sick, wayworn travelers, and others.
. Te six perfections (Skt. paramita) form the essential practice of the Mahayana. Tey are generosity, ethical discipline,
patience, diligence, concentration, and wisdom.
. According to Mahayana teaching, in extreme circumstances and when the motives are exclusively those of compassion,
actions of body and speech (though not of mind), normally proscribed in the list of ten nonvirtues (see note 44) may be
. In other words, the doctrine of the Mahayanavast in activities and skillful means, and deep in wisdom of emptiness.
. A reference to the Mahayana and Shravakayana respectively.
. Making the person believe, for example, that tantric practice is alone worthwhile, and giving to understand that study and
the rules of ethical discipline may be neglected.
. A tooth stick or tooth-wood is an implement for cleaning the teeth. In his journal, the Chinese traveler I-Tsing recorded
the elaborate rules of etiquette laid down in the monasteries of medieval India to regulate the use and disposal of these utensils.
See I-Tsing, trans. J. Takakusu, A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malaya Archipelago AD 671 695
(Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1998), pp. 24, 3335.
. According to the literal precepts of the Vinaya discipline (originally conceived within the context of traditional Indian
society), it is an infraction for monks and nuns to be alone with members of the opposite sex to whom they are unrelated by
family ties.
. In India and Tibet, contrary to the West, the snapping of the nngers is considered a polite way of attracting attention.
. Te Sutra in Tree Sections, the Triskandhaka-sutra, consists of confession before the thirty- nve Buddhas, verses in praise of
virtue, and a dedication of merits.
. Te Biography of the Glorious Sambhava, the Shrisambhava-vimoksha, is in fact a chapter of the Gandavyuha-sutra, in which
the following passage is to be found:
If you would pay due homage to the spiritual master, let your mind be like the earth, never tiring of the burden of supporting
everything; like a diamond, indestructible in its intent; like a rampart, wherein sunering can nnd no breach; like a slave, never
jibbing at all that must be done; like a faithful beast of burden, never restive; like a ferryboat, always willing to go back and forth;
and like a perfect son who drinks in with his eyes the countenance of his spiritual father.
O noble child, look upon yourself as a sick man, upon your spiritual master as a physician, his teaching as a healing draft, and
your sincere practice as the path to health.
. Te Akashagarbha-sutra.
. Te Shikshasamucchaya. See references to Shantideva, appendix 1, and in the bibliography.
. According to Kunzang Pelden, Shikshasamucchaya and Sutrasamucchaya are the names of two treatises composed by
Shantideva and two treatises composed by Nagarjuna. Whereas Shantidevas Shikshasamucchaya still exists, his Sutrasamucchaya
has been lost. By contrast, the existence of Nagarjunas Sutrasamucchaya is attested to in the Madhyamakashastra-stuti attributed
to Chandrakirti (see Ruegg, p. 8.), whereas the Shikshasamucchaya, attributed to him here, seems to be unknown in other
. A reference to the devotees of the Hindu goddess Durga, whose cult demanded the practice of extreme austerities.
. In the next nine stanzas, Shantideva discusses and undermines the ordinary common sense attitude to enemies and other
irritants. Te argument proceeds as follows. First, in stanzas 2226, Shantideva amrms that there is no such thing as an
independent agent, i.e., one acting in the absence of conditioning factors. Usually it is thought reasonable to resent the hostile
behavior of another being, while it is generally recognized that anger against an inanimate object is futile and somehow irrational,
since the object in question only harms us under the innuence of other forces. But Shantideva argues that this is equally true of
animate sources of our sunering. Tey too are impelled by the extrinsic factors of negative emotion. It is as irrational to hate a
human aggressor, victim in turn of his or her own denlements, as it is to hate a tree that has been blown over by the wind and has
nattened our car. Anger against enemies cannot be justined, says Shantideva, because ultimately they are not themselves to
blame. Te point is repeated in stanza 41.
Of course, there is an obvious objection to this. Even admitting the power of emotion, it seems wrong to place animate and
inanimate entities in the same category. A human aggressor, unlike a tree, is after all an accountable agent; and a persons actions
cannot be denned simply in terms of other factorsas a mere interplay of impersonal forces. According to this line of reasoning,
there must surely exist a proper object of resentment, namely, the aggressors themselvesor, to put it another way, the selves
of the aggressors.
Tis raises a specincally metaphysical question, and even though much greater attention is paid to it in the course of the ninth
chapter, Shantideva is obliged here to focus brieny (stanzas 2730) on the ideas of primal substance (Skt. pradhana) and the
self (Skt. atman), as upheld variously by the dinerent schools of non-Buddhist Indian philosophy. For all these schools, it was
axiomatic that the self and the primal substance were (1) independent entities and (2) permanent or immutable. But Shantideva
points out that if there were such a thing as an independent, permanent self, temporary emotional states such as hostility could
never be said to arise in it without denying the self s permanence. Tat which was not hostile and that which is now hostile
are not the same entity. Consequently, if the self is unchanging, it can never premeditate and actualize hostility (stanzas 27.34
and 28.12) and thus cannot be held responsible for an act of aggression. In other words, a theory of the self can never rationally
justify resentment and retaliation against an aggressor. However abstruse these arguments may seem, it should be noted that their
purpose is entirely practical. Te knowledge that attackers are driven by other forces, and are not themselves enemies, is a powerful
aid in controlling and eliminating ones own aggressive response.
. Lines 3 and 4 of stanza 28 are a brief reference to the Samkhya theory of purusha and prakriti. If the self is permanent and
immutable, it follows that its apprehension of an object must be permanent also. A succession of dinerent perceptions is
impossible. Tus the self of another being cannot become hostile. If it is hostile now, it must always have been so and will remain
so permanentlywhich is absurd. According to Buddhist teaching, when a thing is said to be permanent, this means not only
that it is exempt from gross impermanence and is eternal (for it cannot be broken or destroyed), but also that, throughout its
existence, it escapes the enects of subtle impermanence and remains completely immutable. From the Buddhist point of view, no
such phenomenon exists.
. Stanzas 29 and 30 refer to the Nyaya-Vaisheshika school. According to this theory, and in contrast with that of the Samkhya
school and the Vedanta after it, the (permanent) selfas distinct from the mindis regarded as knowable. In other words, it is
the object, rather than the subject, of consciousness. It is believed to enter into relation with the mind and subsequently to
identify experiences as its own. Here again, belief in the permanence of the self entails insuperable dimculties. If the self is
permanent, how could it ever be said to meet with new factors and assimilate them? In holding that the self is conscious or
unconscious, respectively, the Samkhya and Nyaya-Vaisheshika schools occupy, from the Madhyamaka point of view, two
extremes of the metaphysical spectrum. When these two views are refuted, all intermediary positions are disposed of at the same
time. Tis is doubtless why Shantideva juxtaposes the two theories here, as he does again in the ninth chapter.
. Te groves of razor trees are one of the four neighboring hells. Tere is a fourfold group of these neighboring hells in each
of the cardinal points around the hot hells. See Words of My Perfect Teacher, p. 67.
. In other words, for Shantideva, a monk, the enjoyment of honors and reputation is as inappropriate as gambling and drink.
. Kunzang Pelden explains this verse as follows. A person who has perfect love for others becomes an excellent object of
reverence, and onerings made to such a person are productive of extremely positive karmic results. But the perfect love of a saint
only comes about in relation to other beings, which in turn reveals the value and importance of the latter.
. Tis idea is further developed in the course of chapter 8. See the commentary in appendix 2.
. Te Tibetan word translated here as diligence is brtson grus, a rendering of the Sanskrit virya. While expressing a sense of
strong endeavor, the Tibetan, according to Shantideva, suggests a sense of joy and enthusiasm, features that are brought out
powerfully in the course of the present chapter. Te Sanskrit term carries with it a sense of indomitable strength and courage, and
is connected with our words virile, virago, as well as virtue. Te general sense is one of great courage and perseverance:
fearlessness in the face of adversity.
. Te Tibetan word for sleep here is gnyid log. Judging from the translations of Crosby and Skilton, V. and A. Wallace, and
Berzin, the Sanskrit term can be construed as referring also to sexual intercourse. Sleep and sexual activity are of course natural
human functions. But the question How can you take pleasure in sleep and sex? expressed in such a matter of fact way and
without further comment, is a strange one to put to an audience of celibate monks. Te second syllable of the Tibetan term
could perhaps be interpreted as an abbreviation for log g.yem (sexual misconduct), in which case, the question in the given
context would have some point. However, the commentary of Kunzang Pelden does not advert to this and understands gnyid log
simply as sleep.
. In other words, as though ones death were an event far on in the future. According to Buddhist teaching, the worldly gods,
although not actually immortal, enjoy an immense longevity. Compared with them, the length of human life is the merest
. Tese practices are discussed at length in chapter 8. See also appendixes 2 and 3.
. Shravaka (Tib. nyan thos, lit. hearers) is the name given to the Hinayana disciples of the Buddha. Tey aim to free
themselves from samsara and attain the perfect cessation of all sunering. Tey lack, however, the attitude of universal compassion
and responsibility, which is bodhichitta. Te fruit of their path is arhatship, not Buddhahood.
. Tis is a description of the way Bodhisattvas are born in Sukhavati (Tib. bde ba can), the pure land of the Buddha Amitabha.
A pure land or buddhaneld (Skt. Buddha-kshetra, Tib. rgyal bai zhing) is a dimension or world manifested through the
enlightened aspirations of a Buddha or Bodhisattva in conjunction with the meritorious karma of sentient beings. Tose born in
a buddhaneld are able to progress swiftly to enlightenment.
. Te Vajradhvaja-sutra, Te Diamond Banner Sutra, is in fact a subsection of the larger Avatamsaka-sutra. Te following
passage is taken from it: When the sun shines, O Devaputra, it illuminates the entire world, regardless of the blindness of beings
and the mountain shadows. In the same way, Bodhisattvas appear for the liberation of beings, regardless of the obstacles that
these may present.
. In other words, one should conndently undertake the action of applying the antidotes, courageously decide not to fall under
the power of the aictions, and have self-assurance in amrming ones ability to abandon evil behavior and cultivate wholesome
. Following the terms of the comparison, the crows are the faults; ones weakness is the dying serpent.
. Here, and in the following verses, a distinction is drawn between two kinds of pride. On the one hand, there is the positive
quality of conndence leading to courage and perseverance and, on the other, the negative quality of arrogance and conceit,
resulting in the overweening behavior that is often the mask of weakness and self-doubt. Using the same term in both senses,
Shantideva plays on the word pride in a way that might at nrst be confusing. For the sake of clarity in the translation, the two
kinds of pride are more pointedly distinguished.
. Tis stanza does not appear in the Sanskrit text that is now available to us. Some commentators have, moreover, questioned
the authenticity of the half-stanza 62a. It is, however, generally included.
. Wholesome disillusion (Tib. skyo ba or skyo shes) indicates a sense of revulsion and weariness with the futile sunerings of
. Te context here and in the following stanzas is that of the complicated rituals of courtship and marriage in Indian society. In
brutal contrast with the delights of romantic attachment and physical love, Shantideva forces on us a general contemplation of
the physical realities of life and death.
. In other words, the uterus and the generative substances.
. See appendix 2.
. In other words, Shantideva will help others in just the same way that he attends to the needs of his own body.
. Te Bodhisattva Supushpachandra was forbidden by the king Shuradatta to teach the Dharma on pain of death. Knowing,
however, that many would benent from his teaching, Supushpachandra disobeyed and went cheerfully to his execution. Te story
is found in the Samadhiraja-sutra.
. Blood refers to the generative substance (ovum) of the mother.
. In the Gandavyuha-sutra, Avalokiteshvara says, Let whoever stands before a crowd invoke my name three times and have no
. In other words, the way of Dharma, leading to the realization of Buddhahoodnot, of course, the heavens of the worldly
. Compare the sentiments of this and the following stanzas with stanza 12 of the same chapter. Also see appendix 2 for a full
. If I give the appreciation of others as the reason for the infatuated attention I give to my own body, it follows that I should be
similarly attentive to the physical comfort of others, since their appreciation is equally applied to their own bodies.
. Tis stanza only occurs in the Tibetan translation; there is no equivalent in any extant Sanskrit version.
. As already stated in the introduction, the ninth chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara is an extremely concise exposition of the
Madhyamaka view, recapitulating its various stages of development and polemical interaction with other schools, both Buddhist
and non-Buddhist. It is worth bearing in mind that on that famous occasion when Shantideva recited his text from the lofty
throne at Nalanda, he did so to a public already deeply versed in both the content and history of Madhyamaka. And his ninth
chapter was no doubt intended as a brilliant and perhaps even lighthearted exposition of a highly recondite subject to a specialist
audience of philosophers and academics. As it stands, the ninth chapter is scarcely comprehensible to the unassisted reader, and
an extensive commentary is indispensable. Tose of Kunzang Pelden and Minyak Kunzang Snam are already available in
translation, and the interested student will also derive much assistance from the other commentaries listed in the Bibliography. In
an attempt to render the root text at least intelligible, almost all translators have resorted to the expedient of indicating in
parentheses the dinerent points of view (Samkhya, Nyaya-Vaisheshika, Abhidharmika, and so on) referred to as the chapter
progresses. But it is doubtful whether, in the absence of an extensive commentary, these additions do any more than complicate
the issue and increase the dismay of the bewildered reader. In any case, they tend to obscure the fact that the ninth chapter, like
the rest of the book, is composed in seamless verse, and is in fact a fast-moving, scintillating tour de force. With regard to the
present translation, the aim has been to facilitate comprehension as much as possible, and a certain latitude of expression seemed
justinable, mainly in the way of explanatory paraphrase where possible and appropriate. Te interpretation given in the
commentary of Kunzang Pelden, and by implication that of his teachers Patrul Rinpoche and Mipham Rinpoche, has been
consistently followed. See also Crosby and Skilton, p. 111, for a helpful breakdown of the subject matter of this chapter.
. Tibetan habitually uses two expressions to refer to the relative truth: kun rdzob and tha snyad. Although they are often
employed interchangeably as synonyms, these terms have slightly dinerent connotations. Kun rdzob kyi bden pa literally means
the all-concealing truth. It refers to phenomena as they are encountered in everyday life, and to the fact that their appearance
(as independently existing entities) conceals their true nature (i.e., their emptiness of such independent and intrinsic being). In so
far as the things and situations encountered in life are accepted as genuine in the common consensus (as contrasted with magical
illusions, mirages, etc.), they are true, but only relatively so, since the way they appear does not correspond with their actual
status. We have therefore systematically translated kun rdzob kyi bden pa as relative truth. Ta snyad, on the other hand, means
name, conventional expression. Ta snyad kyi bden pa (which we have translated as conventional truth) refers to phenomena
insofar as they can be conceived by the ordinary mind and spoken of within the limits of conventional discourse.
. Tis refers to Buddhist thinkers and practitioners who with varying degrees of success have acquired an understanding of the
true status of phenomena. In terms of the nve paths, which in Buddhism are used to map out the progress of the mind toward
the attainment of omniscience or complete enlightenment, the yogis in question are on the nrst and the second, namely,
accumulation and joining. Tey have not yet attained the path of seeing, where the mind enjoys a direct experience of the
emptiness of phenomena, at which point it is said to pass beyond the world, that is, samsara. For although the yogis on the path
of seeing have yet to achieve Buddhahood, they can never fall back into samsaric existence.
. According to the Sanskrit commentary of Prajakaramati, stanzas 49 to 51 have been misplaced and are not in their correct
position. According to the commentary of Gyalse Togme Zangpo, they could be inserted between verses 43 and 44. Here we
have followed the positioning of Kunzang Pelden and Mipham Rinpoche.
. Mahakashyapa became, after the Buddhas parinirvana, the leader of the Sangha and played an important role in the
preservation of the teachings.
. Sukhavati, the pure land of Buddha Amitabha.
. See note 32.
. Vaitarani: name of a river in hell. Mandakini: name of a river in heaven.
. Te One Who Holds the Lotus (Skt. padmapani, Tib. phyag na pad ma): a title of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.
. Te northern continent (Skt. uttarakuru, Tib. sgra mi snyan): the continent to the north of Mount Sumeru, according to
traditional Buddhist cosmology. (Our world, Jambudvipa, is the southern continent.) Te northern continent is said to be a
place of great harmony and prosperity.
. Mayadevi: the mother of Buddha Shakyamuni.
. Shantideva simply says, May all women in the world become men. It is obvious that he does not mean this literally since
this would involve the extinction of the human race. We have translated freely, following the commentary of Kunzang Pelden:
May all the women in the worldwho are lacking in physical strength, who have to suner the pain of bearing children, and
who are tormented with the thirty-two special kinds of sickness that amict womenacquire the same advantages as those who
have a male body.
. A Pratyekabuddha or solitary realizer is a practitioner of the Hinayana level who attains the cessation of sunering without
relying on a teacher.
. Perfect Joy (Skt. pramudita-bhumi, Tib. sa rab tu dga ba): name of the nrst of the ten Bodhisattva bhumis or grounds of
realization. See note 23.
. Shakya Lodr was a disciple, along with Rinchen Zangpo, of Atisha Dipamkara, who re- established Buddhism in Tibet
following the period of persecution in the reign of King Langdarma. See the Blue Annals, p. 262. Nothing is known with
certainty about the Indian panditas with whom the translators worked. It is possible that the Sumatikirti who assisted Ngok
Loden Sherab (10591109) was the same pandita who helped Marpa (10121099) in his translation of texts from the Samvara
cycle. See Blue Annals, p. 384.
. Butn (Bu ston), 12901364, an adherent of the Sakya school and a major scholar of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. He
established and compiled the Scriptural Canon.
. Taranatha, alias Kunga Nyingpo (Kun dga snying po), 15751608, a celebrated Tibetan scholar and member of the Jonangpa
. Yeshe Peljor (ye shes dpal byor), 17041777?, author of Paksam Jnzang (dpag bsam ljon bzang), translated and edited by Shri
Sarat Chandra Das with the title Te History of the Rise, Progress and Downfall of Buddhism in India. See Amalia Pezzali,
Santideva: Mystique bouddhiste des VIIe et VIIIe sicles.
. See Pezzali, pp. 2732.
. Te accounts of Butn and Taranatha are the most elaborate and detailed of the four cited. Tey do not, however, agree on
a number of particulars, most importantly in the chronological presentation of events. Taranatha places the incident of
Majushris sword and recognition of Shantideva as an accomplished master before his entry into monastic life at Nalanda.
Butn does the reverse. Pezzali opts for the order given by Taranatha, considering it incomprehensible that Shantideva should
have become a royal bodyguard after being a monk at Nalanda. In so doing, she is perhaps betraying a Western prejudice,
assuming, possibly on the basis of Christian precedents, that it would be normal for monastic renunciation to come at the end of
a worldly career. But from the point of view of Indian Buddhism, and also Tibetan Buddhism (where the same tendency is
observable to this day), the order of events given by Butn, and followed by Kunzang Pelden, is more plausible, namely a
moment of renunciation followed by a period of training in the monastery (admittedly of an extraordinary kind), culminating in
the abandonment of clerical restrictions and the embracing of the lifestyle of a wandering siddha. Indeed, the story of
Busukhuwa, in Songs and Histories of the Eighty-Four Buddhist Siddhas, seems clearly to refer to Shantideva; and the tantric aspect
of the lives of the siddhas will perhaps explain the presence in the Tibetan Tengyur of tantric commentaries attributed to
. Shastra (Tib. bstan bcos), a commentary specincally illustrating the meaning of the Buddhas words. Te three qualincations
for composing shastras are perfect realization of the ultimate reality, the vision of the yidam deity, and a complete knowledge of
the nve sciences.
. Nalandai bkod pa phun tshogs (the perfect conduct at Nalanda). Tis refers to Shantidevas activities at Nalanda, the most
obvious of which was the teaching of the Bodhicharyavatara, but also includes Shantidevas secret studies, meditations, and
. Now in modern Gujarat.
. Tib. jam dpal rnon poi sgrub thabs, a sadhana, or meditative practice, based on the Bodhisattva Majushri, performed with
a view to the development of intelligence and sharp faculties. Te fact that Shantideva had a vision of Majushri means that he
became fully accomplished in the sadhana.
. According to tradition, still observed today, Shantideva assumed an element of the name of his ordaining abbot.
. Spiritual qualities that shine forth in proportion as the emotional and cognitive veils are removed from the mind. See
Treasury of Precious Qualities, pp. 125134.
. I.e., study, meditation, and activities such as printing books, making medicines, etc.
. See chap. 5, stanzas 105106.
. Tib. mchod rten dpal yon can.
. Tis reference to the threats of Machala is unclear. We have been unable to verify the Sanskrit names given here. We have
taken the liberty of following Butn, whose account Kunzang Pelden has, in all other respects, followed closely.
. See B. Bhattacharya, Foreword to the Tattvasamgraha (Baroda, 1926). Here Bhattacharya announces his discovery of the
Tattvasiddhi, a hitherto unknown tantric treatise in Sanskrit. Te colophon declares and, according to Bhattacharya, the style of
the document connrms, that the text was composed by Shantarakshita.
. Perhaps an emblematic ngure. Fourteen of these commentaries were translated into Tibetan. See bibliography.
. Kawa Peltsek (ka ba dpal brtsegs), one of the earliest and greatest of Tibetan translators. He was probably one of the seven
who were tried, i.e. the nrst Tibetans to take monastic vows (so called because their ordination was an experiment made to
establish whether Tibetans were capable of monastic commitment.) Kawa Peltseks name does not always ngure in the list of the
seven (there are various accounts), but there is little reason to doubt that he was ordained by Shantarakshita.
. Te Shikshasamucchaya still exists in Sanskrit, and a Tibetan translation (Tib. bslab btus) is preserved in the Tengyur. Te
Sutrasamucchaya (Tib. mdo btus) has been lost. Indeed, the existence of a Sutrasamucchaya by Shantideva, distinct from the work
of the same name attributed to Nagarjuna, has been questioned by Western scholarship. See Pezzali.
. I.e., the state in which the duality of self and other is totally transcended.
. Te whole force of this argument is rooted in the fundamental Buddhist axiom that, however closely they are associated, the
material body and the immaterial mind are entities of a completely dinerent nature. Certain conclusions follow from this, which
may be illustrated by the example of a physical illness. A cancerous organ, let us say, is not actually painful in itself. It is simply a
piece of nesh, the cellular structure of which has mutated beyond its normal condition. Insofar as the organ belongs to a body
enlivened by the animating presence of a mind, however, the organ is recognized as the seat of sensations that are identined as
pain. And the painful feelings may be aggravated by emotions such as anxiety and fear deriving from the minds identincation of
the malaise as its own. In this way, sunering arises, and the misery of thinking, for example, I am in pain; I have cancer; my life
is ruined; I am going to die. In any given illness, however, the mind, being immaterial, does notand cannotdirectly feel the
purely physical state of its material support. Nevertheless, the abnormal condition of the body becomes the minds sunering to
the extent that the former is identined with, clung to, and accepted by, the latter. If, as Kunzang Pelden believes, clinging to the
body as mine (and therefore adopting its ailments as my sunering) is a matter of psychological orientation and habit, it
follows that by a strenuous process of mental training, it can be redirected. Te mind may be taught to identify as its own pain,
not only that of its present physical support, but also that of the bodies of others. When the object of identincation and clinging
is changed, the experience of sunering and pain, and the scope of that experience, will also change.
. It is recorded that once, when Maitriyogin was teaching, someone threw a stone at a barking dog so that the animal was
badly injured. Maitriyogin gave a scream of pain and fell from the throne on which he was sitting. To the astonishment and
embarrassment of the disciples, who had been inclined to dismiss the masters behavior as an exaggerated theatrical performance,
Maitriyogin pulled up his shirt so that they could see a great wound on his side, in exactly the same place where the dog had
been struck.
. It is recorded in the Mahabhinishkramana that Devadatta, the cousin of prince Siddhartha, took a bow and arrow and shot
down a swan. Te creature was grounded but not killed. Te future Buddha took the bird upon his knees and comforted it.
Devadatta sent to claim his prize, no doubt intending to kill it, but the Buddha refused to hand it over, saying that the swan was
An exquisite description of the incident is to be found in Te Light of Asia by Sir Edwin Arnold, p.11.
. . . Ten our Lord
Laid the swans neck beside his own smooth cheek And gravely spake, Say no! the bird is mine,
Te nrst of myriad things that shall be mine
By right of mercy and loves lordliness . . .
. Tis is a reference to Machig Labdrn, the great Tibetan yogini and disciple of the Indian master Padampa Sangye. She is
particularly celebrated as the propagator of chd (Tib. gcod), a meditative practice in which an onering is made of ones own
body as sustenance for malevolent spirits.
. Khenpo Kunpel considers that Shantideva has constructed stanza 94 in the form of a probative argument (Skt. prayoga, Tib.
byor ba, sometimes, though less satisfactorily, translated as syllogism). According to the rules of Indian logic, a probative
argument consists of a thesis or statement, made up of a subject and predicate, supported by a valid sign or reason, and illustrated
by an example. Te standard model of a probative argument runs as follows. Tis hill has nre on it (thesis) because there is
smoke there (sign or reason), just as we nnd in a kitchen (example). Following the same format, Shantidevas argument runs: I
will eliminate the sunerings of others (thesis) because sunering does not benent them (reason), just as I remove my own
discomforts (example). Given that probative arguments are normally understood to enect a demonstration or proof of
something, to describe the statement in stanza 94 in such terms seems rather forced. But it is important to realize that for
Shantideva, the decision to benent others is a matter of impersonal, logical necessity; it is not a question of moralistic sentiment
and the need to feel that one is being good.
. Tis means that, excluding mere randomness, they cannot be shown to be directly produced by their antecedents. In other
words, it is impossible for reason to explain the relation between a cause and its enect, even though the causal process never fails.
. Tis verse is taken from the Fundamental Treatise on the Middle Way (Mula-madhyamaka- karika) by Nagarjuna. (18.10)
. Tib. rigs dra rgyun mi chad pa. Tis means that when a moment of consciousness passes, a new one arises identical to it in
naturei.e., mere cognizancebut varying in color according to karmic circumstances. Tere is simply a continuum of
interlinked moments; there is no subpositum, no underlying entity, that endures as the experiencer of a stream of extrinsic
. Tib. rtag chad.
. Troughout this description of the exchange of self and other, Shantideva uses the contrasting pronouns I and he.
Following Tibetan usage, these same pronouns appear in the commentary without the meaning being obscured. We have found,
however, that it is clearer to translate the Tibetan word bdag (I) as you, since the speaker in the commentary is Khenpo
Kunpel, who is addressing the reader. Needless to say, these renections are addressed to all readers regardless of sex, and so the
third-person pronoun could just as well be she as he. Te constant repetition of both pronouns would be very tedious, so, in
deference to Shantidevas own personal situation (a man living in a community of monks), we have kept the masculine pronoun.