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# Solutions Manual

## Solutions to Chapter 1 Problems

S.1.1
The principal stresses are given directly by Eqs (1.11) and (1.12) in which x = 80 N/mm2 , y = 0 (or vice versa) and xy = 45 N/mm2 . Thus, from Eq. (1.11) I = i.e. I = 100.2 N/mm2 From Eq. (1.12) II = i.e. II = 20.2 N/mm2 The directions of the principal stresses are dened by the angle in Fig. 1.8(b) in which is given by Eq. (1.10). Hence tan 2 = which gives = 24 11 and = 114 11 2 45 = 1.125 80 0 80 1 802 + 4 452 2 2 80 1 802 + 4 452 + 2 2

It is clear from the derivation of Eqs (1.11) and (1.12) that the rst value of corresponds to I while the second value corresponds to II . Finally, the maximum shear stress is obtained from either of Eqs (1.14) or (1.15). Hence from Eq. (1.15) max = 100.2 (20.2) = 60.2 N/mm2 2

## and will act on planes at 45 to the principal planes.

Solutions Manual

S.1.2
The principal stresses are given directly by Eqs (1.11) and (1.12) in which x = 50 N/mm2 , y = 35 N/mm2 and xy = 40 N/mm2 . Thus, from Eq. (1.11) I = i.e. I = 65.9 N/mm2 and from Eq. (1.12) II = i.e. II = 50.9 N/mm2 From Fig. 1.8(b) and Eq. (1.10) tan 2 = which gives = 21 38 (I ) and = 111 38 (II ) 2 40 = 0.941 50 + 35 50 35 1 (50 + 35)2 + 4 402 2 2 50 35 1 + (50 + 35)2 + 4 402 2 2

The planes on which there is no direct stress may be found by considering the triangular element of unit thickness shown in Fig. S.1.2 where the plane AC represents the plane on which there is no direct stress. For equilibrium of the element in a direction perpendicular to AC 0 = 50AB cos 35BC sin + 40AB sin + 40BC cos
A

(i)

Fig. S.1.2

## Solutions to Chapter 1 Problems

Dividing through Eq. (i) by AB 0 = 50 cos 35 tan sin + 40 sin + 40 tan cos which, dividing through by cos , simplies to 0 = 50 35 tan2 + 80 tan from which tan = 2.797 or 0.511 Hence = 70 21 or 27 5

S.1.3
The construction of Mohrs circle for each stress combination follows the procedure described in Section 1.8 and is shown in Figs S.1.3(a)(d).

Fig. S.1.3(a)

Fig. S.1.3(b)

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Fig. S.1.3(c)

Fig. S.1.3(d)

S.1.4
The principal stresses at the point are determined, as indicated in the question, by transforming each state of stress into a x , y , xy stress system. Clearly, in the rst case x = 0, y = 10 N/mm2 , xy = 0 (Fig. S.1.4(a)). The two remaining cases are transformed by considering the equilibrium of the triangular element ABC in Figs S.1.4(b), (c), (e) and (f). Thus, using the method described in Section 1.6 and the principle of superposition (see Section 5.9), the second stress system of Figs S.1.4(b) and (c) becomes the x , y , xy system shown in Fig. S.1.4(d) while

## Solutions to Chapter 1 Problems

10 N/mm2

Fig. S.1.4(a)

Fig. S.1.4(b)

Fig. S.1.4(c)

Fig. S.1.4(d)

the third stress system of Figs S.1.4(e) and (f) transforms into the x , y , xy system of Fig. S.1.4(g). Finally, the states of stress shown in Figs S.1.4(a), (d) and (g) are superimposed to give the state of stress shown in Fig. S.1.4(h) from which it can be seen that I = II = 15 N/mm2 and that the x and y planes are principal planes.

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Fig. S.1.4(e)

Fig. S.1.4(f)

Fig. S.1.4(g)

Fig. S.1.4(h)

S.1.5
The geometry of Mohrs circle of stress is shown in Fig. S.1.5 in which the circle is constructed using the method described in Section 1.8. From Fig. S.1.5 x = OP1 = OB BC + CP1 (i)

## Solutions to Chapter 1 Problems

max Q1 (x, xy)

P2 O

C P1

B (I)

Q2 (sy,xy) max

Fig. S.1.5

In Eq. (i) OB = I , BC is the radius of the circle which is equal to max and
2 Q P2 = 2 2 CP1 = CQ1 1 1 max xy . Hence

x = I max + Similarly

2 2 max xy

## y = OP2 = OB BC CP2 in which CP2 = CP1 Thus y = I max

2 2 max xy

S.1.6
From bending theory the direct stress due to bending on the upper surface of the shaft at a point in the vertical plane of symmetry is given by x = My 25 106 75 = = 75 N/mm2 I 1504 /64

From the theory of the torsion of circular section shafts the shear stress at the same point is xy = Tr 50 106 75 = = 75 N/mm2 J 1504 /32

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Substituting these values in Eqs (1.11) and (1.12) in turn and noting that y = 0 I = i.e. I = 121.4 N/mm2 II = i.e. II = 46.4 N/mm2 The corresponding directions as dened by in Fig. 1.8(b) are given by Eq. (1.10) i.e. 2 75 =2 tan 2 = 75 0 Hence = 31 43 (I ) and = 121 43 (II ) 75 1 752 + 4 752 2 2 75 1 752 + 4 752 + 2 2

S.1.7
The direct strains are expressed in terms of the stresses using Eqs (1.42), i.e. x = 1 [x (y + z )] E 1 y = [y (x + z )] E 1 z = [z (x + y )] E 1 [x + y + z 2(x + y + z )] E (i) (ii) (iii)

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## Substituting in Eq. (i) x = so that E x = x (1 + ) Thus x = Ee E + x (1 2)(1 + ) (1 + ) Ee 1 2 1 Ee x x E 1 2

or, since G = E /2(1 + ) (see Section 1.15) x = e + 2Gx Similarly y = e + 2Gy and z = e + 2Gz

S.1.8
The implication in this problem is that the condition of plane strain also describes the condition of plane stress. Hence, from Eqs (1.52) x = 1 (x y ) E 1 y = (y x ) E (i) (ii)

xy 2(1 + ) = xy (see Section 1.15) G E The compatibility condition for plane strain is xy = 2 y 2 xy 2 x = + x y x 2 y2 (see Section 1.11)

(iii)

(iv)

Substituting in Eq. (iv) for x , y and xy from Eqs (i)(iii), respectively, gives 2(1 + ) 2 xy 2 2 = 2 (y x ) + 2 (x y ) x y x y (v)

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Also, from Eqs (1.6) and assuming that the body forces X and Y are zero zy x + =0 x y y xy + =0 y x (vi) (vii)

Differentiating Eq. (vi) with respect to x and Eq. (vii) with respect to y and adding gives 2 y 2 xy 2 xy 2 x + =0 + + x 2 y x y2 x y or 2 Substituting in Eq. (v) (1 + ) so that (1 + ) which simplies to 2 y 2 y 2 x 2 x + + + =0 x 2 y2 x 2 y2 or 2 2 + x 2 y2 (x + y ) = 0 2 y 2 x + x 2 y2 = 2 y 2 y 2 x 2 x + + x 2 y2 x 2 y2 2 y 2 x + x 2 y2 = 2 2 (y x ) + 2 (x y ) 2 x y 2 xy 2 y 2 x = + x y x 2 y2

S.1.9
Suppose that the load in the steel bar is Pst and that in the aluminium bar is Pal . Then, from equilibrium Pst + Pal = P From Eq. (1.40) st = Pst Ast Est al = Pal Aal Eal (i)

## Solutions to Chapter 1 Problems

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Since the bars contract by the same amount Pal Pst = Ast Est Aal Eal Solving Eqs (i) and (ii) Pst = Ast Est P Ast Est + Aal Eal Pal = Aal Eal P Ast Est + Aal Eal (ii)

from which the stresses are st = Est P Ast Est + Aal Eal al = Eal P Ast Est + Aal Eal (iii)

The areas of cross-section are Ast = 752 = 4417.9 mm2 4 Aal = (1002 752 ) = 3436.1 mm2 4

Substituting in Eq. (iii) we have st = al = 106 200 000 = 172.6 N/mm2 (compression) (4417.9 200 000 + 3436.1 80 000) 106 80 000 = 69.1 N/mm2 (compression) (4417.9 200 000 + 3436.1 80 000)

Due to the decrease in temperature in which no change in length is allowed the strain in the steel is st T and that in the aluminium is al T . Therefore due to the decrease in temperature st = Est st T = 200 000 0.000012 150 = 360.0 N/mm2 (tension) al = Eal al T = 80 000 0.000005 150 = 60.0 N/mm2 (tension) The nal stresses in the steel and aluminium are then st (total) = 360.0 172.6 = 187.4 N/mm2 (tension) al (total) = 60.0 69.1 = 9.1 N/mm2 (compression).

S.1.10
The principal strains are given directly by Eqs (1.69) and (1.70). Thus I = 1 1 (0.002 + 0.002) + (0.002 + 0.002)2 + (+0.002 + 0.002)2 2 2

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i.e. I = +0.00283 Similarly II = 0.00283 The principal directions are given by Eq. (1.71), i.e. tan 2 = Hence 2 = 45 or +135 and = 22.5 or +67.5 2(0.002) + 0.002 0.002 = 1 0.002 + 0.002

S.1.11
The principal strains at the point P are determined using Eqs (1.69) and (1.70). Thus I = i.e. I = 94.0 106 Similarly II = 217.0 106 The principal stresses follow from Eqs (1.67) and (1.68). Hence I = i.e. I = 1.29 N/mm2 Similarly II = 8.14 N/mm2 Since P lies on the neutral axis of the beam the direct stress due to bending is zero. Therefore, at P, x = 7 N/mm2 and y = 0. Now subtracting Eq. (1.12) from (1.11) I II =
2 + 4 2 x xy

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## i.e. 1.29 + 8.14 =

2 72 + 4xy

from which xy = 3.17 N/mm2 . The shear force at P is equal to Q so that the shear stress at P is given by xy = 3.17 = from which Q = 95 100 N = 95.1 kN. 3Q 2 150 300

## Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems

S.2.1
The stress system applied to the plate is shown in Fig. S.2.1. The origin, O, of the axes may be chosen at any point in the plate; let P be the point whose coordinates are (2, 3).
2p 4p

P (2,3)

4p 3p

3p O 4p 4p 2p
x

Fig. S.2.1