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Renewable Energy Systems 402 Tutorial 4 Micro-Hydro Power Systems

1. The hydro system of a micro-hydro power plant is shown in Figure 1.

Turbine Figure 1
The pressure, cross-sectional area and the height above the turbine at the points A,B,C,D and E are given in Table-1. The water discharge rate at all points is 0.2 m3/s. Table 1 A Pressure (kN/m2) Cross-sectional Area (m2) Height above Turbine (m) 0 1.0 100 B 0 1.0 90 C 343 0.2 45 D 686 0.2 0 E 0 0.0056 0

a) Determine the net head and the power of water at each point. (Ans: A: 100.002m, 196.2 kW; B: 90.002m, 176.58 kW; C: 80.02m, 157 kW; D: 69,98m, 137.3kW; E: 65m, 127.52kW) b) Calculate the power efficiency of (i) channel (ii) penstock (iii) nozzle (iv) the entire hydro system. (Ans. 90%, 77.75%, 92.87%, 65%)

c) State the reasons for the loss of power between two adjacent points in the hydro system.

2. A hydro power system has a gross head of 120 m. The head lost due to penstock is given by 4000Q 2 + 80Q where Q is the water flow rate in m3/s. Determine the following. (a) optimum flow rate (b) maximum power output (c) maximum efficiency (d) efficiency for a flow rate of 0.15m3/s (Ans. 0.0935 m3/s, 71.325 kW, 64.6%, 15%) 3. The pressure gauge at a micro-hydro station shows a reading of 700 kN/m. The 4-jet Pelton wheel is having a diameter of 0.6 m. At rated water flow rate, the diameter of each jet of water is 2 cm. The efficiency of the turbine at the rated speed of 625 rpm is 85%. The head lost in the nozzle can be neglected. Determine a) Rated water flow rate b) Mechanical power output under rated condition c) The torque-speed characteristic of the turbine under rated condition d) If the water-flow rate is reduced to 80% of rated value, derive the new torquespeed characteristic. (Ans. 0.047 m3/s, 27.976 kW, 427.44 -7.214(t -65.45), 341.95 5.77(t-65.45))