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# SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO - 1

## Apparatus Required: Step –up chopper Kit,

230 Volt /40Wlamp,
Power cord,
CRO,
Digital Multimeter.
Theory:

The basic step –up Chopper is shown in fig. The energy store in the
inductor in the on period of the switch Sc. The current flow through the inductor L
through the switch during Ton period and the Voltage VL across the inductor is equal
to V. When switch Sc is opened, the stored energy the inductor is discharged into
capacitor C and the load. During Toff period, the capacitor is assumed constant due
to large value of capacitor and also for steady operation, there must be zero average
voltage across L during the time period.

T = Ton+ Toff

Vc = V (Ton + Toff) = V T
Toff Toff

## Duty cycle δ = (1- Toff)/ T

So we get
Vc = V / (1 – δ)
If duty Cycle Approaches zero, and then we have

## Vc = V if delta approaches unity, we have Vc = V/o = ∞

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Thus theoretically the O/P Voltage can be varied from V to ∞ as delta is changed
from zero to one In practice delta is varied from 0 to 0.7.

The waveform across different components is shown in the fig. In the chopper
circuit Diode D2 protects the MOSFET against the negative surge voltage and the
capacitor C protects it against a positive voltage surge. The Chopper is operated at
the highest possible frequency in order to minimize the size of the filter.

Circuit Diagram:

Waveforms:

2
Procedure:

## 1. Ensure the frequency Potentiometer marked as FREQUENCY CONTROL

and “Duty Cycle Control” is fully in the extremely anti clockwise position
i.e. (minimum position).

2. Turn ON the main supply. The mains LED will glow. Ensure 230V, 40W
lamp is placed on lamp holder.

3. By controlling the Duty Cycle Control knob, Observed that the lamp
intensity can be controlled i.e. with increase in Duty Cycle the O/P voltage
increases.

4. The pulse I/P to the GATE of MOSFET can be observed across TP3 and
Ground and also observed the change in Duty Cycle.

## 5. We can changer the frequency by varying Potentiometer P1 & see the

change in frequency on CRO.

6. Observe the waveform at TP1, TP2, TP3 with respect to ground, as shown in
fig.

7. Observe the waveform across the job carefully and see the effect of changing
Ton & Toff periods of the MOSFET at the particular frequency.

8. The out put voltage across the lamp can be observed through a Multimeter
across the terminal TP6 &TP7.

9. The output waveform across the load can be seen across the Test Points.

Precaution:

## 1. Do not short the test points.

2. Do not rotes the pots P1 & P2 very fast.0prete that in a gentle manner.

3. Limit the duty Cycle to a maximum of 90%. Total drawn from the power
supply must be monitored and should be with in current rating of the
power supply. (I.e. 5 Amps)

3
SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO - 2

## Apparatus Required: Jone’s chopper Kit,

24Volt /30W lamp,
Power cord,
CRO,
Digital Multimeter.
Theory:

## A chopper can be considered as a switch used to obtained a variable

DC voltage from a source of constant DC voltage. Choppers are also terms as DC-
to-Dc Controllers or Time Ratio Controllers. TRC’s are used to obtain a fixed DC
I/P voltage from a variable DC voltage.

Operation Principle:

## The Jone’s Chopper circuit is based on class D commutation method.

The auxiliary Thyristor is used to switch a charged capacitor across the conducting
Thyristor with this additional Thyristor Ton and Toff can be independently controlled
the Thyristor SCR2 may be triggered first to charge the commutating capacitor C to
the polarity marked in the fig. When TH1 is triggered, the charge capacitor C
discharges around the path C, SCR1, L1, D2, and gets charged in the opposite
direction the diode D2 prevents the opposite current flow in the series circuit when
TH2 triggered reverse charged capacitor will be connected across the Thyristor
SCR1 and turn in off.

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If SCR 1 is triggered before the capacitor C is charged, then the loads
current in L2 will induced sufficient voltage of proper (i.e. opposite) polarity to
change C negatively.

Frequency Control:

## The potentiometer marked as frequency control varies the R-C time

constant and generates a variable frequency source. The pulse trance former is used
to couple the firing pulse to the main Thyristor SCR1.

On Time Control:

The UJT marked UJT is used to control the ON Time of the main
Thyristor SCR1.

Circuit Diagram:

5
Waveforms:

Procedure:

## 1. Ensure the frequency pot marked as “FREQUENCY CONTROL” and

“DUTY CYCLE CONTROL” is fully anti clockwise position. (i.e. minimum
position)

2. Turn ON the main supply the mains LED should glow. Ensure 24V, 30 W
lamp is placed on lamp holder.

3. By controlling the frequency control knob, observed that the lamp intensity
could be control.

## 4. Keep frequency control in minimum position and operate ON TIME control

knob. Observe the intensity variation on lamp.

5. Observe the waveforms at TP1, TP2 and across the load for these operations.

6. We can change the frequency by varying P1 & see the change in frequency
on CRO & by changing the P2 we can make changes in Duty Cycle.

Precaution:

1. If the intensity of the lamp is not controlled and if the lamp is glowing with
full intensity, then off the apparatus immediately, to avoid over heating of
the components.

6
Viva – Voice:

## 3. What is DUTY CYCLE?

7
SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO - 3

## Apparatus Required: Cycloconverter Kit,

24Volt /30W lamp,
CRO,
Digital Multimeter.
Introduction:

## Cycloconverters are basically frequency conversion devise and

transform higher frequency to lower frequency. The alternating voltage at supply
frequency is converted directly to lower frequency without any DC intermediate
stage. The advantage of Thyristor and Sophisticated transistorized control circuitry
has made them very popular for industrial applications.

Theory:

## The Cycloconveter consist of a number of phase control rectifier

circuits connected to an AC supply system, which provides the voltage necessary
for delayed phase communication the individual circuits are controlled so that a
low frequency output voltage waveform is fabricated from segments of input
voltage the power circuit of a simple single-phase cycloconverter. SCR1 & SCR2
comprise the positive going converter and SCR3 & SCR4 comprise the negative
going converter. Thus if SCR1 &SCR2 are activated for one cycle of input voltage
and SCR3 & SCR4 for next cycle, 2/1-frequency reduction can be realized.
Waveforms in a similar fashion it is possible to obtained an output, which is 1/3,
1/4, of the input frequency. This method of operation result in a simpler gating
circuits then are necessary with more complex schemes involving modulation of
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trigging angles with large frequency resource the advantage of more complex
schemes is that less filtering is required for given harmonic distortion in the output
waveforms.

Block Diagram:

Circuit Diagram:

9
Procedure:

1. Keep frequency selector switch in off position i.e. at the position mark 0.

2. Connect CRO across the load terminal. Load negative terminal and main
ground are isolated through onto isolator keep vertical amplifier sensitivity in
10 volts position.

## 3. Switch on main supply. Take frequency selection switch to divided by 2,

3,and 4 position and observe the output wave from by properly adjust the
time division switch on the time sweep control of CRO.

## 4. Now keep frequency selector switch to position of divided by 2, take the

CRO terminal to the logic gate site connect the CRO negative terminal to the
main ground and live input terminal to the binding posts marked in TP1, TP2,
TP3, TP4. For observation of the waveform.

## 5. Observe the waveform going at the gate terminal of the SCR.

6. Repeat the step 4 for divide by 4 position of frequency selector band switch.

Precaution:

## • When the output of cycloconvertor showing some irregularities due to

mismatching of clock then immediately reset the kit through the main
switch.

10
SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO - 4

Aim:
To study the half wave, full wave & fully controlled bridge rectifier
using SCR's.

Theory:
One important application of an SCR is the controlled half-
wave rectification. The AC supply to be rectified is supplied at the anode. Let
the peak inverse voltage appearing across secondary is less than the reverse
breakdown voltage of the SCR. This ensures that SCR will not breakdown
during negative half cycles of AC supply. The circuit action can be explained
as follows.

## During the negative half cycles of AC voltage appearing

across secondary, the SCR doesn't conduct irrespective of the gate voltage. In
this condition anode is negative w.r.t. Cathode and also PIV is less than the
reverse breakdown voltage.

## The SCR will conduct during positive half cycles provided

proper gate current is made to Flow. The larger the gate current, the lesser the
supply voltage at which SCR is turned ON.

The SCR half wave rectifier can be compared with the ordinary
half wave rectifier. The ordinary half-wave rectifier will conduct full positive half
cycle whereas an SCR half-wave rectifier can be made to conduct full or part of a
positive half cycle by adjusting the gate current. Therefore an SCR can control
power fed to the load and hence the name controlled rectifier.

## The SCR full wave rectifier, in all respects resembles the

ordinary center-tap circuit except that the two diodes have been replaced by two
SCR's. The gates of both SCR's get their supply from two gate controls. One SCR
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conducts during the positive half cycle and the other during the negative half-
cycle. Thus, full wave rectified output is obtained across the load. During the
positive half cycle of AC across secondary, the upper end of secondary is positive
and lower end negative. SCR1 will conduct. During the negative half cycle of AC
input upper end of secondary become negative and the lower end positive. Now
SCR2 will conduct it may be noted that current through the load is in the same
direction on both half-cycles of input AC. The advantage of this circuit over
ordinary full-wave rectifier circuit is that by adjusting the gate currents, the
conduction angle and so the output voltage can be changed.

Procedure:

## For Half Wave Rectifier:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig by connecting the dotted lines through
patch chords.

2. To observe the change in phase angle connect CRO across voltmeter points.
Connect load resistance (RL) in the circuit by connecting dotted line
through patch chord. Also connect voltmeter, millimeters & AC voltmeter in
the circuit through patch chords.

## 3. Set the load Resistance RL to 1 KΩ and switch ON the instrument as well as

CRO.

4. Now set the R2 Potentiometer to get complete half wave rectified signal on
CRO. Note down average DC voltage, DC current & AC ripples. Calculate
the value of Ripple factor by using formula

## b. (Standard value of ripple factor = 1.21)

5. Now change the firing angle of SCR by varying potentiometer R2 and every
time note down the observations of average DC voltage, current & AC
Ripples. Also note down firing angle from CRO.

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Circuit Diagram:

## For Full Wave Rectifier:

1 Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. By connecting the dotted lines through
patch chords.

## 2 To observe the change I.

3 Now set the R2 & R4 Potentiometer to get complete full wave rectified
signal on CRO. Note down average DC voltage, DC current & AC ripples.
Calculate the value of Ripple factor by using formula
Ripple Factor = AC Ripples (Voltage) / DC Voltage
(Standard value of ripple factor = 0.48)
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4 Now change the firing angle of SCR by varying potentiometer R 2 and R4 and
every time note down the observations of average DC voltage, current &
AC Ripples. Also note down firing angle from CRO.

## 5 Also note down the observations of voltage, current & AC Ripples by

varying the load Resistances (RL) n phase angle connect CRO across
voltmeter points. Connect load resistance (RL) in the circuit by connecting
dotted line through patch chord. Also connect voltmeter, millimeter & AC
voltmeter in the circuit through patch chords.
6 Set the load Resistance RL to 1 KΩ and switch ON the instrument as well as
CRO.

Circuit Diagram:

## For Full Wave Rectifier:

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For Fully Controlled Bridge Rectifier:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig. By connecting the dotted lines through
patch chords.

2. To observe the change in phase angle connect CRO across voltmeter points.
Connect load resistance (RL) in the circuit by connecting dotted fine
through patch chord. Also connect voltmeter, millimeters & AC voltmeter
in the circuit through patch chords.

as CRO.

## 4. Now set the R 2, R 4, R 6, & R8 potentiometer to get complete full wave

rectifier (through Bridge circuit) signal on CRO. Note down average DC
voltage, DC current & AC ripples. Calculate the value of Ripple factor by
using formula

## Ripple Factor = AC Ripples (Voltage) / DC Voltage

(Standard value of ripple factor = 0.48)

5 Now change the firing angle of SCR by varying potentiometers R 2, R4, R6 &
R8. Every time note down the observations of average DC voltage, current
& AC Ripples. Also note down firing angle from CRO.

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Circuit Diagram:

## For Bridge Rectifier:

Observation Table:

## For Half Wave Rectifier:

Ripple factor
Ripples
(AC
angle Voltage current resistance AC Volts / DC
Voltage)
volts

## For Full Wave Rectifier:

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Ripple factor
Ripples
(AC
angle Voltage current resistance AC Volts / DC
Voltage)
volts

## For bridge rectifier:

Ripple factor
Ripples
(AC
angle Voltage current resistance AC Volts / DC
Voltage)
volts

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SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO – 5

## Apparatus Required: Commutation circuit for SCR trainer kit,

Two single point patch chords.

Theory:

The gate has no control over the SCR. Once the anode current
flows exceeds the latching current level. External measures have to be
employed to commutate the flow of current. This is called turn off process.
The basic principle of forced Commutation is to be decreasing the SCR
current below the holding current of the device. This can be achieved either
by diverting the load current to a parallel path, or by reducing the load current
itself. The simplest of these is to use the reversing voltage from a sinusoidal
source; this commutation from AC line is a natural commutation and takes
place in AC circuits. In DC circuits, a voltage reversal is not readily available.
So it is necessary to use Auxiliary switching apparatus, special bypass
techniques and LC networks to generate turn off conditions. There are six
distinct classes of Forced Commutation:

## Class "A" - Self commutated by resonating the load.

Class "B"- Self-commutated by an LC circuit.
Class "C"- C or LC switched by another load carrying SCR.
Class "D"- C or LC switched by an Auxiliary SCR.
Class "E" - An external pulse source for commutation.
Class "F" - On line commutation.

Class A commutation:
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If an LC network is included as a part of load circuit. The turned
load will force the device commutation. To accomplish this action, the tuned
network is selected so that the circuit is never damped. When SCR is
triggered, a current flows through the LC circuit charging the Capacitor (C)
towards the supply voltage. After some time, the magnitude of current
reverses and tries to flow through the SCR in opposite direction. Owing to the
resonating effect of L & C. As a result, the SCR is commutated off.

## Circuit Diagram Of Class A Commutation:

Class B commutation:

## When circuit is switched ON and in the absence of gate trigger pulse

the Capacitor (C) is charged up. When the SCR is triggered current flows
through Load Resistance (RL) and a pulse current through the resonating LC
circuit.

This current discharges the Capacitor (C) from the initial polarity and
charges it in the reverse direction. The resonant circuit, current then reverses and
tries to flow through the SCR in opposition to the load current and during this
process the SCR turned OFF.

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Circuit Diagram:

Class C Commutation:

## The circuit using Class “C” commutation as shown in Fig.

When SCR2 is conducting, the Capacitor (C) is charged. If SCR 1 is triggered
now, C is switched across SCR 2 through SCR1 and the discharge current of C
opposes the flow of load current in SCR 2 and commutates it OFF. After this,
the Capacitor (C) is charged in the opposite polarity when the current is
supplied through SCR1.The same thing is repeated when SCR 2 is triggered if
the load indicated by R is Inductive. A suitable flywheel diode should be used
across the loads to carry the reactive current.

Circuit Diagram:

20
Class D Commutation:

## This class of commutation is rather popular due to the design

flexibility. There are many Inverter & chopper circuits under this class. SCR 2
must be triggered first in order to change up the Capacitor (C). As soon as
capacitor (C) is charged. SCR 2 is commutated off owing to lack of current.
When SCR1 is triggered, current flows in two paths the load. Current flows R L
and the commutating current through SCR 1, L, D & C. The charge on capacitor
(C) is reversed and held with the hole off Diode (D). At any desired turn SCR 1
is turned off. The hold off Diode (D) may be replaced by another SCR, which
will reduce the required value of C.

Circuit Diagram:

Class E commutation:

## There are many variations of circuit under this class of

commutation. The basic requirement under this class is a separate
commutating source supplying the commutation energy through out the
commutation period. This energy source may be a DC supply or pulses
introducing during the desired commutation period by an auxiliary
switching device SCR 1 is load bearing and SCR 2 is the commutation
device. When both SCR1, SCR2 are OFF capacitor (C) is resonantly
charged to the values between 1.5Ω and 1.8Ω according to circuit losses
through L1 & D in the polarity. As soon as SCR 1 is triggered load current
starts to flow through R1 & L2. SCR2 separates the Capacitor (C) & L 2.
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When SCR2 is triggered, a pulse current flows through L2 and a large
voltage is induced in it, which opposes the load current through SCR 1 and
turns it OFF.

## SCR 2 is automatically turned off after same time. When the

capacitor (C) charges up to the opposite polarity through the process of
resonance. It must be noted that L 1 should be much larger than L 2 & C
must be resonantly charged through L1 & D to assume the initial condition
before SCR1 is triggered for the Second time.

Circuit Diagram:

Class F Commutation:

The SCR conducts when its anode is positive and turns off when
anode voltage becomes negative with respect to its cathode or becomes zero.
Thus, under AC supply operation. The SCR is commutated off at alternate half
cycle. The frequency of the supply should be such that the half-cycle duration
is greatest than the turn off time of the SCR.

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Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

## Connect mains lead of the kit, the main output sockets of

230V/ 50Hz. Switch ON the power supply.

## For class A commutation:

1 Connect the 12V DC, input of Class "A" with correct polarity circuit
through patch chords as shown in Fig. (1).

## 2 Ensure that S1 is in ON position.

3 Press S1 to trigger the SCR. The indication will glow. It means SCR is
conducting.

## 5 Again press S1 to trigger SCR. It will not be triggered due to resonant

effect of L & C. Thus SCR will commutate OFF by inserting Resonant

## For class B commutation:

1 Connect the 12V DC, input of Class "B" with correct polarity circuit
through patch chords as shown in Fig. (2).

## 2 Ensure `S' is in OFF position.

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3 Press S3 to trigger the SCR. The indicator will glow & the SCR conducts.

4 Switch ON the `S' to introduce L-C series circuit parallel to the SCR.

## 5 Again press S3 to trigger SCR. It will not be triggered due to resonant

circuit. Thus self-commutation is attained.

## For Class C commutation:

1 Connect the 12V DC, input of Class "C" with correct polarity circuit
through patch chords as shown in Fig. (3).

## 2 Ensure S5 to trigger SCR2 & SCR2 starts conducts.

3 Now triggered the SCR1 by pressing switch S4. We will see that SCR2
commutated OFF.

4 The same thing is repeated when SCR 2 is triggered. Thus one the load
carrying SCR commutated off by the means of another load carrying SCR.

## For Class D commutation:

1 Connect the 12V DC, input of Class "D" with correct polarity circuit
through patch chords as shown in fig.

## 2 Switch ON the supply.

3 Now trigger the SCR 1 first by pressing switch S7. In order to charge up the
Capacitor (C).

conducting.

## 6 Now again trigger SCR2 by pressing switch S6 to commutate SCR1

turned off.

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7 SCR2 is automatically turned OFF.

## For Class E commutation:

1 Connect the 12V DC, input of Class "E" with correct polarity circuit
through patch chords as shown in Fig. (5).

## 7 SCR will be turned OFF. As large voltage is induced in inductance L2

which opposes flow of current through SCR1.

8 SCR2 will automatic turned OFF when the capacitor (C) charges up to the
opposite polarity through the process of resonance.

## For Class F commutation:

1 Connect the 6V DC, input of Class “F” with correct polarity circuit
through patch chords as shown in Fig.

## 2 Switch ON the supply.

3 Now press switch S mark. SCR conducting with respect to the triggering
50Hz supply.

4 Now release the path switch S and we will see SCR will commutated
OFF.

5 Thus for AC supply the SCR will commutate OFF at alternate half cycle
by itself.

6 We can also see waveforms across SCR for each circuit i.e., Class A, B,
C, D, E, and F.

25
SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO – 6

## Aim: To study the SCR triggering circuit.

DC Bias with Superimposed AC triggering R Triggering.
RC Triggering. (For Half Phase & Full Phase)
UJT Triggering.

Apparatus Required:
Nine Single point Patch cords, One Interconnectable
Patch cords, CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope).

Theory:
The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (abbreviated as SCR) is

## a three terminal semiconductor-switching device, which is probably the most

important circuit element after the diode and the transistor. SCR are used as a

## give controlled DC output, converting DC into AC in a SCR, load is connected in

26
series with anode. The anode is always kept at positive potential w.r.t. Cathode.

The ability of an SCR to control large circuit in a load by means of small gate

current makes this device useful in switching & control application by RC firing

circuit. There are several variations of RC trigger circuits. The most common

method for controlling the onset conduction in an SCR is by manse of gate voltage

control. The gate control circuit is also called Firing or Triggering circuit. These

circuits are usually low power electronic circuit. A firing circuit should fulfill the

## following tow functions.

i) If power circuit has more than one SCR, the firing circuit should
produce gating pulses for each SCR at the desired instant for proper
operation of the power circuit. These pulses must be periodic in
nature and sequence of firing must be corresponding with the type of
thyristoried power controller.
ii) The control signal generated by the firing circuit may not be able to
turn on the SCR. It is therefore common voltage pulses to a driver
circuit and the gate cathode circuit. A driver circuit consists of a pulse
amplifier and a pulse transformer.

## Resistance firing circuits:

Resistance trigger circuits are the simplest and
most economical. The range of firing angle control (0º to 90º).

RC firing circuit:
The limited range of firing angle control by
resistance firing circuit can be over come by RC firing There are several
variation of RC triggering circuit Resistance and RC triggering circuits
described above give prolonged pulses. As a result, power dissipation in the
gate circuit is large. At the same time, R and RC triggering circuits cannot be
used for automatic or feedback control systems. These difficulties can be
overcome by the use of UJT triggering circuits. Pulse triggering is preferred as
it offers several merits over R and RC triggering. Gate characteristics have a
wide spread. Pulses can be adjusted easily to suit such a wide spectrum of gate

27
characteristics. The power level triggering is low as the gate drive is
discontinuous; pulse triggering is therefore more efficient. As pulses with
higher gate current are permissible, pulse firing is more reliable and faster.

Procedure:
For DC Bias Alone Triggering: -

1 The circuit diagram for DC bias alone triggering is printed on the front
panel. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig (1) that is connect 12V DC to
the input of the circuit through patch cords and connect RL. Also connect
SCR in the circuit shown by dotted lines through patch cords.
2 RL should be Bulb or Resistor changeable from selector switch.
3 Connect CRO probes across load resistance RL and set the mode of CRO
to DC level.
4 Connect the output of 0-2VDC-power supply in the circuit through patch
cords and set the set volts potentiometer towards fully anticlockwise
direction.
5 Switch ON the instrument as well as CRO.
6 Now increase the 0-2V DC power supply in small steps and every time
note down the observation on CRO. We will observe that, as the 0-
2VDC-power supply increase, SCR will turn ON and input (12V DC)
will appear across the load Resistance RL.

Circuit Diagram:

28
For DC Bias with super imposed AC Triggering:

1. The circuit diagram for DC bias with super imposed AC triggering is printed on
the front panel Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. That is connecting 9V AC
to the input of the circuit through patch cords and connects RL. Also connect
SCR in the circuit shown by dotted lines through patch cords.
2. RL should be Bulb or Resistor changeable from selector switch.
3. Connect CRO probes across load resistance RL and set the mode of CRO to AC
level.
4. Connect the output of 0-2VDC-power supply in the circuit through patch cords
and set the volts potentiometer towards fully anticlockwise direction.
5. Switch ON the instrument as well as CRO.
6. Now increase the 0-2V DC power supply in small steps and every time note
down the observation on CRO. We will observe that, as the 0-2VDC-power
supply increases, SCR will start conducting through gate pulses and input sine
wave (9V AC) will appear across the load Resistance RL.

Circuit Diagram:

## For "UJT Triggering”:

1. The circuit diagram for UJT triggering is printed on the front panel Connect the
circuit as shown in Fig. (3) that is connect 9V AC to the input of bridge rectifier,
connect the output of bridge rectifier to signal input of UJT trigging circuit
through patch cords and connect RL. Also connect SCR in the circuit shown by
dotted lines through patch cords.
2. RL should be Bulb or Resistor changeable from selector switch.
3. Connect CRO probes across load resistance RL.
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4. Switch ON the instrument as well as CRO.
5. Now vary the value of potentiometer R3 & every time note down the
observation (change in phase) on CRO.

Circuit Diagram:

## For "R Triggering" (Half Phase Control):

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. That is connecting 9V AC to the input
of R Triggering circuit through patch cords. Connect R3 in the circuit.
2. Through patch cords and connect RL. Also connect SCR in the circuit
shown by dotted lines through patch cords.
3. RL should be Bulb or Resistor changeable from selector switch.
4. Connect CRO probes across Anode and Cathode of SCR.
5. Switch ON the instrument as well as CRO.
6. Now vary the value of potentiometer R2 & every time note down the
observation (change in phase, from 0-90°) on CRO.

30
Circuit Diagram:

## For "RC Triggering" (Half Phase Control):

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. (5) that is connect 9V AC to the input
of RC triggering circuit through patch cords. Connect C1 in the circuit in
place of R3 through patch cords and connect RL. Also connect SCR in the
circuit shown by dotted lines through patch cords.
2. RL should be Bulb or Resistor changeable from selector switch.
3. Connect CRO probes across Anode and Cathode of SCR.
4. Switch ON the instrument as well as CRO.
5. Now vary the value of potentiometer R2 & every time note down the
observation (change in phase, from 0-180°) on CRO.

Circuit Diagram:

31
For "RC Triggering" (Full Phase Control):
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. (6) that is connect 9V AC to the input of
Bridge Rectifier, connect the output of rectifier to input of RC Triggering circuit
(Full Phase Control) through patch cords. Connect C1 in the circuit through
patch cords and connect RL. Also connect SCR in the circuit shown by dotted
lines through patch cords.
2. RL should be Bulb or Resistor changeable from selector switch.
3. Connect CRO probes across Anode and Cathode of SCR or across load
resistance RL.
4. Switch ON the instrument as well as CRO.
5. Now vary the value of potentiometer R2 & every time note down the observation
(change in phase, from 0-360°) on CRO

Circuit Diagram:

32
SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO – 7

Aim:
To study the Characteristics and Applications of the following
Devices:
1 Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
2 Diac
3 Triac

Theory:

Thyristors:

## The silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is a three terminal

semiconductor switching device which is probably the most important
circuit element after the diode and the transistor. SCR are used as a
controlled switch to perform various functions such as rectification,
inversion and regulation of power flow. The SCR has assumed permanent
importance in electronics because it can be produced inversions to handle
currents up to several thousand amperes and voltages up to more than 1
KV. It is a unidirectional power switch and is being extensively used in
switching DC and AC, rectifying AC to give controlled DC output,
converting DC into AC etc. In a silicon-controlled rectifier, load is
connected in series with anode. The anode is always kept at positive
potential w.r.t. Cathode. The working of SCR can be studied under the
following two steps.

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Symbol of SCR

## Fig. Shows the SCR circuit with gate open i.e. no

voltage applied to the gate. Under this condition, junction J 2 is reverse
biased while junctions J 1 and J3 are forward biased. Hence the situations
in the junctions J1 and J3 is just as in an NPN transistor with base open.
Consequently, no current flows through the load RL and the SCR are
cut off. However if the applied voltage is gradually increased, a stage is
reached, when reverse biased junction J 2 breaks down. The SCR now
conducts heavily and is said to be in the ON state. The applied voltage
at which SCR conducts heavily without gate voltage is called Break
over voltage.

## The SCR can be made to conduct heavily at smaller

applied voltage by applying a small positive potential to the gate as
shown in Fig. Now junction J3 is forward biased and junction J 2 is
reverse biased. The electron from n type material start moving across
junction J3 towards left where as holes from P type toward the right.
Consequently, the electrons from junction J 3 are attracted across
junction J 2 and gate current starts flowing. As soon as the gate current
flows, anode current increases. The increased anode current in turn
makes more electrons available at junction J 2. This process continues
and in an extremely small time, junction J 2 breaks down and the SCR
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starts conducting heavily. Once SCR starts conducting, the gate loses
all controls. Even if gate voltage is removed, the anode current
does not decrease at all. The only way to stop conduction (i.e. bring
SCR in OFF condition) is to reduce the applied voltage to zero.

## Break over Voltage:

It is the minimum forward voltage, gate being open, at which SCR star
conducting heavily i.e. turned ON.

## It is the maximum reverse voltage (cathode positive w.r.t.

anode) that can be applied to an SCR without conducting in the reverse
direction.

Holding Current:

## It is the maximum anode current, gate being open, at which

SCR is turned off from ON conditions.

Diac:

## A Diac is a two terminal, three layer bi-directional device,

which can be switched from its OFF state to ON state for either polarity of applied
voltage. The two leads are connected to P-regions of silicon separated by an N-
region. The structure of the Diac is somewhat like a transistor with the following
basic differences.

## • There is no terminal attached to the base layer.

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• The doping concentrations are identical (unlike a bipolar transistor) to give
the device symmetrical properties.

Circuit Operation:

## When a positive or negative voltage is applied across the

terminals of a diac, only a small leakage current IBO will flow through the device.
As the applied voltage increased, the leakage current will continue to flow until the
voltage reaches the break over voltage VBo. At this point, avalanche breakdown of
the reversed-bias junction occurs and the device exhibits negative resistance i.e.
current through device increases with the decreasing values of applied voltage. The
voltage across the device then drops to 'break back' voltage VW.

Triac:

## A Triac is a three terminal semiconductor-switching device,

which can control alternating current in a load.

## Triac is an abbreviation for triode AC switch. `Tri'-indicates that the

device has three terminals and AC means that the device controls alternating
current or can conduct current in either direction. The symbol of Triac is shown in
Fig. Since a Triac can control conduction of both positive & negative half-cycles
of AC supply, it is sometimes called a bi-directional semi-conductor triode
switch. A triac is a bi-directional switch having three terminals. It can be seen that
even symbol of triac indicates that it can conduct for either polarity of voltage
across the main terminals. The gate provides control over conduction in either
direction. Triacs are commercially available to handle maximum r.m.s. Currents
from about 0.5A up to 25A, although special Triacs for up to about 1000Amp.
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Have been developed. As the current handling capacity increases so does the
semi-conductor element size and the containing package.

Symbol of Triac:

## 1. Connect the circuit as Shown in Fig.

2. Keep gate supply control knob to minimum position so that gate current
becomes zero.
3. Select millimeters range to 2.5mA and voltmeter range to 50Volts.
4. Increase anode supply VA and note down corresponding anode-cathode
voltage and anode current IA. As IA is small SCR is in `OFF' state.

NOTE: - Break over of SCR with open gate will take place at higher voltage (Say
100V maximum permissible forward voltage. It is undesirable to apply this
voltage, as SC is never used with open gate.

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When Gate is Positive w.r.t Cathode:

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.

2. Repeat step (2) to (4) as given above (in case of open gate circuit).
3. Select millimeters range to 50 mA.
4. Increase gate current (19) in small steps at a particular value of Ig, SCR
will turn ON resulting sudden increase in anode current IA, if IA exceeds
the current meter range reduce VA (Anode Voltage).
5. Change the range of voltmeter to 2.5V after triggering of SCR and note
down the Anode-Cathode voltage.
6. Also note down the gate current Ig required for triggering the SCR at a
given VAK.
To Record Holding Current (IH): -
7. Select millimeters range to 50 mA & voltmeter to 50VDC range.
8. Turn ON the SCR (Say for VAK = 15V) and turn the gate supply knob
to minimum position.
9. Decrease IA by decreasing anode supply gradually. At certain value of
VA, IA drops suddenly towards zero and VAK increases. This value of
anode current (IA) is the holding current (IH) Below If SCR will
remains in OFF state. On the other hand above IH SCR remains in ON
state.
To Record Holding Voltage (VH): -
10. Turn ON the SCR and change the range of voltmeter to 2.5V start
decreasing VAA slowly so that anode current decreases to holding
current IH. Record the corresponding value of VAK. This is the holding
voltage VH (appx. 0.8 to 0.9V).

Reverse Characteristics:

## 2. Repeat all the steps as in case of forward characteristics procedure.

3. Record all the possible results and plot the graph as shown in Fig. (15).
(In reverse characteristic SCR will not turn on).

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Characteristics of SCR:

## Procedure For Diac:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. Through patch cords. Initially set the
current meter range to 5mA.
2. Switch ON the instrument using ON/ OFF toggle switch provided on the
front panel.
3. Increase the voltage in steps with the voltage control potentiometer & note
down the value of current.
4. When the current exceeds the current meter range, change the range of
current meter 50mA.
5. At a particular value of voltage, when applied voltage approaches the break
over voltage VBo the device exhibits negative resistance i.e. current through
the device increases with the decreasing values of applied voltage.
6. Note down the observation in observation Table.

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7. Draw a graph between voltage and current, by taking voltage across X-axis
and current across Y-axis.

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.

2. Keep gate supply control knob to minimum position so that gate current
becomes zero.

## 3. Select millimeters range to 2.5mA connected in series of MT 1 and voltmeter

range 50Volts connected across MT1 & MT2.

4. Increase the 0-5V DC power supply in small steps and note down the
corresponding MT1 Current is small Triac is in OFF state.

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When Gate is positive /negative w.r.t MT2

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.

2. Repeat steps (2) to (4) as given in case of open gate circuit.
3. Select the millimeters range to 50 mA.
4. Increase gate current Ig in small steps, at a particular value of Ig. Triac will turn on
resulting sudden increase in MT1 current decrease in MT1-MT2 voltage.
5. Change the range of voltmeter to 2.5 V after triggering of the Triac.
6. Also note down the gate current Ig required for triggering the Triac.
7. Plot the graph.

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SRI SATYA SAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SEHORE

## BE Vth SEM (EX)

EXPERIMENT NO – 8

Aim:
To study the Conversion of DC to AC by using Single-phase Inverter Circuit
using Power MOSFET in Bridge configuration

Apparatus Required:
Two Single point 4mm Patch cords,
Three Lamps 100W, 60W, 40W,
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO),
DC Regulated Power Supply (+30V1 10Amp),
Digital Multimeter.

Theory:

## The Conversion of DC to AC by using Single-phase Inverter Circuit

using power MOSFET in bridge configuration. Single-phase inverter consist of
an astable multivibrator using 555 for frequency generation the next stage is
frequency divider followed by pre-amplification & amplification by power
MOSFET & the last stage is step down at output.

Astable Multivibrator:

## The universal timer IC 555 has been used in astable mode in

which frequency of 200Hz is generated. The output is taken at pin No. 3. The
output frequency can be changed through preset inside the cabinet. This output
is connected to IC 7473 input pin no. 1 & 5 simultaneously.

Frequency Divider:

## The frequency divider is achieved by using IC 7473, which is

dual JK flip-flop with clear. We use it as a divide by 4 to achieve 50Hz

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frequency on each output channel respectively and used to drive the pre-
amplifier circuit.

Pre-amplifier circuit

## These circuits are generally used to increase the strength of

signal. These signals used to drive the IInd amplifier circuit MOSFET present
after the pre amplifier circuit. The transistor T 1, & T2, used are the CL 100. The
Base of both transistor receive VDc through resistance R4 & R6 in lower & R5 &
R7 in upper transistor & similarly the signal to next transistor is from the
collector of pre-amplifier through R8 and R9.

## Ilnd Amplifier Circuit:

The output signal from the pre amplifier Circuit is led to the base
of the transistor circuit 100 i.e., (T3 & T4). These circuits are generally used to
increase the strength of signal. These signal are used to drive the power
MOSFET circuit. The Base of both transistors receives V Dc through resistance R2
& R3 and gives output from collector through RL & R13 to power MOSFET.

Power MOSFET:

## This is used to drive the circuit through bridge configuration.

IRF ZUUN power MOSFET is used for that. These are metal oxide
semiconductor field effect transistor enhancement type. V-MOSFET operating
current up to 49 Amp. It has D+ case type configuration

Procedure:

1. Connect the patch chord as shown by dotted lines on the front panel.

## 2. Connected the DC regulated power supply of +12VI10Amp (not

supplied) to the sockets providing on the front panel.

## 3. Switch ON the power supply from external source connected.

4. The Four analog moving coil meter connects internally two of them
show the reading to the input DC supply. Note switch OFF the load at
the output while taking the input readings. Note down this voltage as
Voff = OFF LOAD CURRENT i.e., Current taken by the circuit.

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5. Another voltage on the output section shows the AC voltage output
when there is no NO LOAD (VAc) and the current through the ammeter
is Zero (IAc) because there is no NO LOAD.

6. Connect the Load on the output i.e., the bulb holder providing on the
panel. Say 40 Watt. There is a change in the output voltage & well as in
output & input current. Note down the reading and not the graph
between output voltage (VAC) & input current (IDC). This is your voltage
& current characteristic.

## 7. We can also calculate efficiency or power and efficiency characteristics.

8. The output of these invertors is a square wave (not pulse). When the
load becomes big, the wave from of the output voltage will be slightly
changes by the nature of a coil of a transformer. We can observe the
output waveform from the sockets providing on the front panel at the
output.

9. There are three bulb holders where we can take the various readings by
making the calibration of load to plot the graphs.

Precaution:

1. Extra care should be taken while taking the reading from test points,
because of higher current.

2. Do not put extra load on the instrument or exceed 150 watt. It will
damage the instrument.