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‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

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‫‪Properties and Testing‬‬
‫‪of Concrete Materials‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﺮف اﻟﺪورة‪ :‬أ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﺴﻢ ﺟﺎﺳﻢ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻓﺮﻳﺪ‬

‫‪2008/7/6‬ف إﻟﻰ ‪2008 /7/17‬ف‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials

The Theoretical Part:

Content
Subject Page
1-Introduction and Definitions …………………………………..…2

2-Aggregate:
a - Classification as to: Shape, Size, Surface Texture,
Source and Unit weight. …………………………………......3
b - Properties of aggregate
i- Main Properties required for compliance with specifications.…..6
ii- Properties required for choosing mix proportions ……… .…9
c- Moisture conditions. ……………………………………..….11
d- Deleterious materials ………………………………………11
e- Sampling and testing. …………………………………….…12

3-Cement:
a- Introduction and manufacture. …………………………13
b-The properties and composition of cement ………………..14
c- The hydration process …………………………..…….15
d- Types of cement. …………………………………………..16
e- Physical properties of cement. …………………………….18

4- Water:
a- Mixing water ……………………………………………….20
b-Curing water. ……………………………………………….21

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Introduction and Definitions

Concrete: is a word of Latin derivation ( con – together ) ( crete – to grow ) and its history
can be charted from 5000 BC.
It is a composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium within which are
embedded particles or fragments of aggregate. In hydraulic cement concrete the binder is
formed from a mixture of hydraulic cement and water.
Concrete composites of :-
1- cement 2- Aggregates 3- Water 4- Admixtures

Cement: an organic material or a mixture of inorganic materials that sets and develops
strength by chemical reaction with water by formation of hydrates and is capable of doing so
under water.

Aggregates: Granular materials, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, or iron blast- furnace
slag, used with cementing medium to form concrete or mortar. Aggregates act as a relatively
inexpensive inert filler, providing stability against volume changes and influencing strength
and stiffness.

Water: It reacts with the cement and also lubricates the fresh concrete enabling it to be
placed into position and compacted.

Admixtures: They are chemicals that can be added to the concrete immediately before or
during mixing and significantly change its fresh, early age or hardened state to economic or
physical advantage.

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Aggregates

The mineral aggregates comprise the relatively inert filler materials in a Portland-cement
concrete. As the aggregate usually occupies from 70 to 75 percent of the total volume of a
mass of concrete, its selection and proportioning should be given careful attention in order to
control the quality of the concrete structure.

Classification of aggregates:
Aggregates can be classified as to :

1- Size:
a- Fine aggregate: Aggregate smaller than (5 or 4.75 mm) in diameter is classified as
fine aggregate or sand.
b-Coarse aggregate: Aggregate larger than (5 or 4.75mm) in diameter is classified as
coarse aggregate.

2- Source:
a- Natural aggregate: The natural sands and gravels are the product of weathering
and the action of running water, while the stone sands and crushed stones are
reduced from natural rock by crushing and screening of quarried material.
b- Artificial aggregate: are usually produced for some special purposes, for
example: burned expanded clay aggregate for making lightweight concrete.
Some artificial aggregates are a by-product of industrial process such as blast
furnace slag.

3- Unit weight:
a- Normal weight aggregate: It is usually the natural aggregate
for which the unit weight is between (1500 to1800) kg/m3.

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Normal weight aggregate Lightweight aggregate (Pumic)

b- Lightweight aggregate: It can be artificial or natural.


The artificial lightweight aggregates are produced as both coarse and fine
materials. They have a lower density due to increase in porosity which results
in an overall lowering of the concrete strength ceiling.
Lightweight aggregates are not as dense as normal weight aggregates ( unit
weight less than 1000 kg/m3) and because their elastic modulus is lower,
produce concrete with a lower elastic modulus and a higher creep and
shrinkage.
Lightweight aggregates can be of natural sources such as Pumic ( a volcanic
rock).
c- Heavyweight aggregate: Where concrete of a high density is required, in
radiation shielding for example, heavyweight aggregates can be used. The unit
weight can be larger than 1800 kg/m3. Concrete densities of 3500-4500 kg/rn3
are obtained by using Barytes (a barium sulphate ore). Even greater concrete
densities are obtained using lead shot - around 7000 kg/m3.

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4- Particle Shape:
The particle shape is important in that it affects the workability of the plastic concrete.
The more rounded an aggregate the lower the inter particle friction, the smaller the
surface/unit volume and therefore less water is required for a given workability.
Therefore, a potentially higher strength is possible. Crushed aggregates can be used to
produce higher strength concrete ( greater than about 80 N/mm2 ) as a greater bond
strength can be achieved between the aggregate and the paste due to the rough angular
texture of the aggregate surface. Natural gravels and sands tend to have a more rounded
shape as a result of attrition water, whereas crushes rock aggregates tend to be more
angular in shape. Aggregates can be classified as to shape into:

Note: Rounded, Irregular and Angular particles are more suitable for concrete mixes.

5- Surface Texture
Smother particles tend to produce a more workable concrete. The bond strength is,
however likely to be higher with rough textured materials. The particles can be
Glassy, smooth, granular, rough, crystalline or honeycombed.

Properties of Aggregate
In fact, aggregate is not truly inert because its physical, thermal and, sometimes, chemical
properties influence the performance of the concrete, for example, by improving its volume
stability and durability over that of the cement paste. Generally Specifications require certain
properties of aggregate to be tested to accept the using of aggregate in the concrete mixes.
Other properties can be required for calculating concrete mix proportions.

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A-Main Properties required for compliance with specifications:


1- Particle size distribution.
2- Resistance to degradation of coarse aggregate by abrasion.
3- Presence of Materials finer than 75µm.
4- Presence of Clay lumps
5- Soundness.
6- Presence of sulfate or chloride ions in aggregates.
7- Flakiness or Elongation of the aggregate particles.
8- Presence of Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates.

B- Properties required for choosing mix proportions


1- Specific gravity and absorption.
2- Moisture content.
3- Loose or rodded unit weight of aggregates.
4- Nominal maximum size of aggregate and fineness modulus.

There may be other properties needed for special uses or conditions. The above properties
will be discussed here shortly before talking about the laboratory tests used to determine
these properties.

A-Main Properties required for compliance with specifications:


1- Particle size distribution:
The actual size of the aggregate particles influence the concrete mix. In practice it is
desirable to have particles of different sizes.
The aggregate is usually split into at least two different portions for ease of batching:
The common dividing point is 5mm ( or 4.75mm). Material larger than 5mm is termed
coarse aggregate or gravel and the material smaller than 5mm is termed fine aggregate,
fines or sand.

The distribution of the different sizes of particles in the coarse or fine aggregates is termed
grading. The grading may be coarse or fine depending on the distribution of the particles and
may be continuous (particles of different sizes) or single sized (particles of predominantly
one size).
The particle size distribution is extremely important in the design of any concrete mix. For
most practical concretes it is desirable to have the particle sizes evenly distributed from the
maximum size of coarse aggregate down to the smallest sand particles. This will enable the
aggregate to compact in the densest form leaving the minimum number of voids to be filled

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by the more expensive cement paste. It will also minimize the risk of segregation of the
plastic concrete during handling & placing.
The test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse
aggregates by sieving, is Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates, (ASTMC 136 – 96a)
or (BS 812-103.1).

2-Resistance to degradation of coarse aggregate


Hardness is the resistance of an aggregate to wear and is normally determined by an abrasion
test, while the toughness of an aggregate is defined as its resistance to failure by impact.
Hardness and toughness are particularly important when aggregates are to be used in a
concrete road pavement or heavy duty wearing surfaces.
A test used as a measure of degradation of mineral aggregates of standard grading resulting
from a combination of actions including abrasion or attrition, impact, and grinding is
"Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the
Los Angeles Machine" ASTM C 131 – 96). Another test used for the determination of the
aggregate crushing value (ACV) which gives a relative measure of the resistance of an
aggregate to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load is
"Methods for determination of aggregate crushing value (ACV)" (BS 812-110)

3&4-Presence of Clay lumps and materials finer than 75µm


Clay may be present in aggregate in the form of surface coatings which interfere with the
bond between the aggregate and the cement paste. In addition, silt and crusher dust may be
present either as surface coatings or as loose material. Even in the latter form. Silt and free
dust should not be present in large quantities because, owing to their fineness and therefore
large surface area, they increase the amount of water necessary to wet all the particles in the
mix.
Material finer than the 75-μm (No. 200) sieve can be separated from larger particles much
more efficiently and completely by wet sieving than through the use of dry sieving.
Therefore, accurate determinations of material finer than 75 μm in fine or coarse aggregate
are desired. Materials Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing
(ASTM C 117 – 95) and for clay lumps, the test is "Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in
Aggregates" (ASTM C 142 – 97)

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5-Soundness.
The soundness of an aggregate is a measure of its durability. which is defined as:
“The ability of individual particles to retain their integrity and not suffer physical. mechanical
or chemical changes to extents which could adversely affect the properties of the concrete in
either engineering or aesthetic respects.”
The physical causes of large or permanent volume changes of aggregate are freezing and
thawing, thermal changes at temperatures above freezing, and alternating wetting and drying.
If the aggregate is unsound such changes in physical conditions result in a deterioration of
the concrete in the form of local scaling, so called pop-outs, and even extensive surface
cracking. Unsoundness is exhibited by porous flints and cherts, especially lightweight ones
with a fine-textured pore structured pore structure, by some shales, and by other particles
containing clay minerals. The degree of unsoundness is expressed by the reduction in particle
size after a specified number of cycles.
A test method covers the testing of aggregates to estimate their soundness when subjected
to weathering action in concrete or other applications. This is accomplished repeated
immersion in saturated solutions of sodium or magnesium sulfate followed by oven drying to
partially or completely dehydrate the salt precipitated in permeable pore spaces. The internal
expansive force, derived from the rehydration of the salt upon re-immersion, simulates the
expansion of water on freezing. "Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or
Magnesium Sulfate"(ASTM C 88 – 99a)

6-Presence of sulfate or chloride ions in aggregates.


Because of the danger of chloride- induced corrosion of steel reinforcement, the BS
specifications specifies the maximum total chloride content in the mix. The chlorides may
arise from all ingredient of the mix. Apart of the danger of corrosion of steel reinforcement,
if salt is not removed, it will absorb moisture from the air and cause efflorescence- unsightly
white deposits on the surface of the concrete.
The presence of Sulphates will cause low ultimate strength and disintegration due to
expansion. "Methods for determination of sulphate content"(BS 812-118)
For chloride ions: "Method for determination of water-soluble chloride salts"
(BS 812-117)

7- Flakiness or Elongation of the aggregate particles.


The particle shape is of importance with regard to the properties of fresh and hardened
concrete. Particles with high ratio of surface area to volume are of particular interest as they
lower the workability of the mix. Elongated and flaky particles are of this type. The latter can
also adversely affect the durability of concrete as they tend to oriented in one plane, with
water and air voids forming underneath. The presence of elongated or flaky particles in
excess of 10 to per cent of the mass of coarse aggregate is generally considered undesirable,
although no recognized limits are laid down.
Methods for determination of particle shape (BS 812-105.1) for Flakiness index and (BS 812-
105.2) for Elongation index of coarse Aggregate.

8- Presence of Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates.


Natural aggregates may be sufficiently strong and resistant to wear and yet may not be
satisfactory for concrete-making if they contain organic impurities which interfere with the
hydration process. The organic matter consists of products of decay of vegetable matter in the
form of human or organic loam, which is usually present in sand rather than in coarse
aggregate, and is easily removed by washing. A test method used for that is "Organic
Impurities in Fine Aggregates for Concrete" (ASTM C 40 – 99)

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B- Properties required for choosing mix proportions


1- Absorption and Specific gravity.
The following definitions can be useful:
Absorption—the increase in the weight of aggregate due to water in the pores of the material,
but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the particles, expressed as a
percentage of the dry weight. The aggregate is considered “dry” when it has been maintained
at a temperature of 110 + 5°C for sufficient time to remove all uncombined water

Specific Gravity—the ratio of the mass (or weight in air) of a unit volume of a material to the
mass of the same volume of water at stated temperatures. Values are dimensionless.

Apparent Specific Gravity—the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of the
impermeable portion of aggregate at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal
volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature.

Bulk Specific Gravity—the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of aggregate (including
the permeable and impermeable voids in the particles, but not including the voids between
particles) at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free distilled
water at a stated temperature.

Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD)—the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of aggregate,
including the weight of water within the voids filled to the extent achieved by submerging in
water for approximately 24 h (but not including the voids between particles) at a stated
temperature, compared to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a
stated temperature.

Significance and Use


1 Bulk specific gravity is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the volume
occupied by the aggregate in various mixtures containing aggregate, including Portland
cement concrete, bituminous concrete, and other mixtures that are proportioned or analyzed
on an absolute volume basis. Bulk specific gravity is also used in the computation of voids in
aggregate in the unit weight test.
2 Bulk specific gravity (SSD) is used if the aggregate is wet, that is, if its absorption has
been satisfied. Conversely, the bulk specific gravity (oven-dry) is used for computations
when the aggregate is dry or assumed to be dry.
3 Apparent specific gravity pertains to the relative density of the solid material making up
the constituent particles not including the pore space within the particles which is accessible
to water.
4 Absorption values are used to calculate the change in the weight of an aggregate due to
water absorbed in the pore spaces within the constituent particles, compared to the dry
condition, when it is deemed that the aggregate has been in contact with water long enough to
satisfy most of the absorption potential. The laboratory standard for absorption is that
obtained after submerging dry aggregate for approximately 24h in water. Aggregates mined
from below the water table may have a higher absorption, when used, if not allowed to dry.
Conversely, some aggregates when used may contain an amount of absorbed moisture less
than the 24-h soaked condition. For an aggregate that has been in contact with water and that
has free moisture on the particle surfaces, the percentage of free moisture can be determined

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by deducting the absorption from the total moisture content determined The test method used
for calculating the specific gravities and absorption is (ASTM C127&128-88)

2-Moisture content.
One of the properties of the aggregates which should be known to design a concrete mix is
its moisture content. It is necessary in order to determine the net water -cement ratio in a
batch of concrete and to adjust batch quantities of ingredients for concrete. The test method
used for that is “Moisture Content of Concrete Aggregate” (ASTM C-566- 84)

3-Loose or rodded unit weight of aggregates


The following definitions can be useful:
Bulk density, of aggregate, the mass of a unit volume of bulk aggregate material, in which
the volume includes the volume of the individual particles and the volume of the voids
between the particles. Expressed in [kg/m3].
Unit weight, weight (mass) per unit volume. (Deprecated term–used preferred term bulk
density.)
Voids, in unit volume of aggregate, the space between particles in an aggregate mass not
occupied by solid mineral matter.
Note: Voids within particles, either permeable or impermeable, are not included.
Bulk density values are necessary for use for many methods of selecting proportions for
concrete mixtures.
The test method : “Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate in its compacted or loose condition”
(ASTM C 29 – 89) is used to determine bulk density values that are necessary for use for
many methods of selecting proportions for concrete mixtures.

4-Nominal maximum size of aggregate and fineness modulus


Nominal Maximum Size (of aggregate), in specifications for, or description of aggregate,
the smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of the aggregate is permitted to
pass.
Specifications on aggregates usually stipulate a sieve opening through which all of the
aggregate may, but need not, pass so that a stated maximum proportion of the aggregate may
be retained on that sieve. A sieve opening so designated is the nominal maximum size of the
aggregate.
The larger the aggregate particle the smaller the surface area to be wetted per unit mass(
specific surface). Thus, extending the grading of aggregate to a larger maximum size lowers
the water requirement of the mix so that, for specified workability and richness of the mix,
the water/cement ratio can be reduced a consequent increase in strength. However, there is a
limit of maximum size of aggregate.

Fineness Modulus, a factor obtained by adding the percentages of material in the sample
that is coarser than each of the following sieves (cumulative percentages retained), and
dividing the sum by 100: 150-μm (No. 100), 300-μm (No. 50), 600-μm (No. 30), 1.18-mm
(No. 16), 2.36-mm (No. 8), 4.75-mm (No. 4), 9.5-mm (3⁄8-in.), 19.0-mm (3⁄4-in.), 37.5-mm
(11⁄2-in.), 75-mm (3-in.), 150-mm (6-in.).
Usually, the fineness modulus is calculated for the fine aggregate rather than for coarse
aggregate. Typical values range from 2.3 and 3.0, a higher value indicating a coarser grading.
The usefulness of the fineness modulus lies in detecting slight variations in the aggregate
from the same source, which could affect the workability of the fresh concrete.

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Moisture Conditions of aggregate


The porosity, permeability and absorption of aggregate influence the bond between it and
the cement paste, the resistance of concrete to freezing and thawing, as well as chemical
stability, resistance to abrasion, and specific gravity.
When all the pores in the aggregate are full, it is said to be saturated and surface-dry.
If this aggregate is allowed to stand free in dry air, some water will evaporate so that the
aggregate is air-dry. Drying in an oven will remove the moisture; the aggregate is now oven
dry. The aggregate can be also moist or wet when all voids are full of water and the surface is
wet also.

Moisture conditions of aggregate.

Deleterious Materials
These are materials that can prove harmful to the concrete if present in sufficient quantity.

Some impurities can be removed by careful washing and screening at the aggregate
production plant.

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Sampling and testing


Two things to remember when performing a test on any material are:
1. The test must be performed in exactly the same way each time so that any change in the
result is only indicative of a change in the property being measured.
2. The sample being tested must be truly representative of the total quantity.
When testing aggregates the total weight of the sample being tested is no more than a few
kilogram's yet it has to be representative of a stockpile of several tonnes.
Sampling aggregates for concrete is usually based on random selection with each part of the
stock pile having an equal chance of being sampled.
The first requirement is to define the batch or stockpile quantity to be sampled, then to take a
number of scoopfuls which are then combined into a representative sample to be reduced into
one or more laboratory samples.
At the laboratory, the sample is reduced to an appropriate size using a riffle box or a
quartering board.

Details of tests are shown in the laboratory manual ( see Appendix )

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The cement
When all the ingredients are mixed, the cement and water react together and the resulting
reaction products bind the sand and coarse aggregate together to form concrete.
This reaction process is known as hydration and it continues throughout the life of the
concrete, providing the temperature is high enough and moisture is present.
It is important to realize that the reaction is a chemical one and not a drying out process as is
commonly thought.
The manufacturing process can be summarized in the following figure:

Manufacture steps of cement

INGREDIENTS
The essential ingredients of cement are lime and silica. Limestone has a high lime content,
while the clay contains the silica.

CRUSHING and MILLING


The raw materials are crushed and reduced to a size or less (0.075 mm).
of approximately 75 microns

BLENDING
There are two alternative ways of blending the materials together. In the wet process the
ingredients are mixed in a slurry, while in the dry process the particles are transported in an
air stream to the kiln. The dry process being the least energy intensive is now the preferred
method.

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HEAT EXCHANGE - Stage I


The blend is fed into a slightly inclined rotary kiln where the initial temperature is sufficient
to drive off any water. The dimensions of the kiln can be up to 230m long, land 7m diameter
and the temperature gradually increases along its length.

HEAT EXCHANGE - Stage 2


The second stage heats the mix to approximately 600 °C, when the calcium carbonate and
chalk decompose to produce quicklime.

HEAT EXCHANGE - Stage 3


The temperature in this zone is approximately 1500 °C and 20-30% of the material becomes a
liquid flux. The mass of lime, silica and alumina then fuse into balls of hard clinker.

DUST EXTRACTION
This is necessary to prevent harmful particles being discharged into the atmosphere.

CLI NKER
The clinker drops into coolers, and the heat that is exchanged is used to raise the temperature
of the air going into the kiln. At this stage, the size of the clinker particles is in the order of 2-
25 mm.

CLINKER GRINDING
The clinker/gypsum mix is ground to produce the cement The grinding continues until the
particle sizes are between 2 to 80 microns (0.002 to 0.080 mm).

GYPSUM
Gypsum (calcium sulphate), is added to the clinker to prevent rapid setting of the cement
when water is added.

Properties of Portland Cement


There are many different types of cement available, the most common of which is Portland
cement (PC). The properties of PC will now be discussed in detail and reference will be made
later to the other types of cements.

Portland cement is a fine powder that when mixed


with water becomes the glue that holds aggregates together in concrete.

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Cement Composition.
In the kiln the raw materials fuse together to form the cement clinker. This clinker is
composed of four primary compounds - each playing a different part in the hydration
reaction.
Tricalcium Dicalcium Tricalcium Tetracalcium
Silicate Silicate Aluminate Alumino-ferrite
C3S C2S C3A C4AF

The properties of the cement depend upon the proportions in which these compounds exist
Variations in compound composition can lead to significant variations in the properties of the
cement.
Hydration - The Chemical Reactions
When the water and cement are mixed a number of chemical reactions begin involving the
silicates and aluminates in the cement. These combine with the water producing the hydration
products which in time form the hardened cement paste (HCP).
The first reaction between C3A and the water is the most rapid of all. It needs to be controlled
to avoid “flash-setting”, this is achieved by the addition of gypsum
The formation of ettringite slows down the hydration of C3A by creating a barrier around the
cement grains.
This dormant period is extremely important since it allows time for the cement to be
transported to site and compacted
After a certain proportion of the sulphate has been consumed, the ettringite coating becomes
broken and a second reaction begins to take place
It is not until this second reaction occurs that the paste begins to stiffen significantly and
workability begins to drop. Shortly we can say:
Tricalcium Silicate, C3S, hydrates and hardens rapidly and is largely responsible for initial
set and early strength. In general, the early strength of Portland cement concrete is higher
with increased percentages of C3S.
Dicalcium Silicate, C2S, hydrates and hardens slowly and contributes largely to strength
increase at ages beyond one week.
Tricalcium Aluminate, C3A, liberates a large amount of heat during the first few days of
hydration and hardening. It also contributes slightly to early strength development. Cements
with low percentages of C3A are more resistant to soils and waters containing sulfates.
Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite, C4AF, is the product resulting from the use of iron and
aluminum raw materials to reduce the clinkering temperature during cement manufacture.
It contributes little to strength. Most color effects that make cement gray are due to C4AF and
its hydrates.
Calcium Sulfate, as anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate), gypsum (calcium sulfate
dihydrate), or hemihydrate, often called plaster of paris or bassanite (calcium sulfate
hemihydrate) is added to cement during final grinding to provide sulfate to react with C3Ato
form ettringite (calcium trisulfoaluminate). This controls the hydration of C3A. Without
sulfate, a cement would set rapidly. In addition to controlling setting and early strength gain,
the sulfate also helps control drying shrinkage and can influence strength through 28 days.

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Strength Contribution
Providing moisture is present, the cement can continue to hydrate for many years. However,
after about one year the rate of hydration is so slow that it is assumed to be fully hydrated and
therefore at full strength.
During this period each compound contributes a different amount to the strength of the
cement. This is best described by the diagram on the left.

Heat Evolution
During hydration the four main compounds generate different amounts of heat as shown in
the graph on the right.

TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT


Different types of Portland cement are manufactured to meet various normal physical and
chemical requirements for specific purposes. Portland cements are manufactured to meet the
specifications of ASTM C 150, AASHTO M 85, or ASTM C 1157.
ASTM C 150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, provides for eight types of
Portland cement using Roman numeral designations as follows:
Type I Normal
Type IA Normal, air-entraining
Type II Moderate sulfate resistance
Type IIA Moderate sulfate resistance, air-entraining
Type III High early strength
Type IIIA High early strength, air-entraining
Type IV Low heat of hydration
Type V High sulfate resistance

Type I Portland cement is a general-purpose cement suitable for all uses where the special
properties of other types are not required. Its uses in concrete include pavements, floors,
reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, tanks, reservoirs, pipe, masonry units, and precast
concrete products

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Type II Portland cement is used where precaution against moderate sulfate attack is
important. It is used in normal structures or elements exposed to soil or ground waters where
sulfate concentrations are higher than normal but not unusually severe. Type II cement has
moderate sulfate resistant properties because it contains no more than 8% tricalcium
aluminate (C3A).

Type III portland cement provides strength at an early period, usually a week or less. It is
chemically and physically similar to Type I cement, except that its particles have been ground
finer. It is used when forms need to be removed as soon as possible or when the structure
must be put into service quickly. In cold weather its use permits a reduction in the length of
the curing period. Although higher-cement content mixes of Type I cement can be used to
gain high early strength, Type III may provide it easier and more economically.

Type IV Portland cement is used where the rate and amount of heat generated from hydration
must be minimized. It develops strength at a slower rate than other cement types. Type IV
cement is intended for use in massive concrete structures, such as large gravity dams, where
the temperature rise resulting from heat generated during hardening must be minimized. Type
IV cement is rarely available.

Type V Portland cement is used in concrete exposed to severe sulfate action—principally


where soils or ground waters have a high sulfate content. It gains strength more slowly than
Type I cement. The high sulfate resistance of Type V cement is attributed to a low tricalcium
aluminate content, not more than 5%. Use of a low water to cementitious materials ratio and
low permeability are critical to the performance of any concrete exposed to sulfates. Even
Type V cement concrete cannot withstand a severe sulfate exposure if the concrete has a high
water to cementitious materials ratio. Type V cement, like other Portland cements, is not
resistant to acids and other highly corrosive substances.

Air-Entraining Portland Cements


Specifications for three types of air-entraining Portland cement (Types IA, IIA, and IIIA) are
given in ASTM C 150 and AASHTO M 85. They correspond in composition to ASTM Types
I, II, and III, respectively, except that small quantities of air-entraining material are
interground with the clinker during manufacture. These cements produce concrete with
improved resistance to freezing and thawing. Such concrete contains minute, well-distributed,
and completely separated air bubbles. Air entrainment for most concretes is achieved through
the use of an air-entraining admixture, rather than through the use of air-entraining cements.
Air-entraining cements are available only in certain areas.

White Portland Cements


White Portland cement is a true Portland cement that differs from gray cement chiefly in
color. It is made to conform to the specifications of ASTM C 150, usually Type I or Type III;
the manufacturing process is controlled so that the finished product will be white. White
Portland cement is made of selected raw materials containing negligible amounts of iron and
magnesium oxides—the substances that give cement its gray color. White Portland cement is
used primarily for architectural purposes in structural walls, precast and glass fiber reinforced
concrete (GFRC) facing panels, terrazzo surfaces, stucco, cement paint, tile grout, and
decorative concrete. Its use is recommended wherever white or colored concrete, grout, or
mortar is desired. White Portland cement should be specified as: white Portland cement
meeting the specifications of ASTM C 150, Type [I, II, III, or V]. White cement is also used

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to manufacture white masonry cement meeting ASTM C 91 and white plastic cement
meeting ASTM C 1328. White cement was first manufactured in the United States in York,
Pennsylvania in 1907.

Physical Properties of Cement


Specifications for cement place limits on both its physical properties and often chemical
composition. An understanding of the significance of some of the physical properties is
helpful in interpreting results of cement tests. Tests of the physical properties of the cements
should be used to evaluate the properties of the cement, rather than the concrete. Cement
specifications limit the properties with respect to the type of cement. Cement should be
sampled in accordance with ASTM C 183 (AASHTO T 127). During manufacture, cement is
continuously monitored for its chemistry and the following properties:
The fineness of cement affects heat released and the rate of hydration. Greater cement
fineness (smaller particle size) increases the rate at which cement hydrates and thus
accelerates strength development. The effects of greater fineness on paste strength are
manifested principally during the first seven days In the early 1900s, cement fineness was
expressed as
The Wagner turbidimeter test (ASTM C 115 or AASHTO T 98—Fig. 2-32), the 45
micrometer (No. 325) sieve (ASTM C 430 or AASHTO T 192—Fig. 2-33) or the
150-μm (No. 100) and 75-μm (No. 200) sieve (ASTM C 184 or AASHTO T 128), and the
electronic (x-ray or laser) particle size analyzer can also be used to test fineness.

Soundness
Soundness refers to the ability of a hardened paste to retain its volume. Lack of soundness or
delayed destructive expansion can be caused by excessive amounts of hard burned free lime
or magnesia. Most specifications for Portland cement limit the magnesia (periclase) content
and the maximum expansion as measured by the autoclave-expansion test. Since adoption of
the autoclave-expansion test (ASTM C 151 or AASHTO T 107) in 1943, there have been
exceedingly few cases of abnormal expansion attributed to unsound cement.

Consistency
Consistency refers to the relative mobility of a freshly mixed cement paste or mortar or to its
ability to flow. During cement testing, pastes are mixed to normal consistency as defined by a
penetration of 10 ± 1 mm of the Vicat plunger (see ASTM C 187 or AASHTO T 129)

Setting Time
The object of the setting time test is to determine (1) the time that elapses from the moment
water is added until the paste ceases to be fluid and plastic (called initial set) and (2) the time
required for the paste to acquire a certain degree of hardness (called final set). To determine
if a cement sets according to the time limits specified in cement specifications, tests are
performed using either the Vicat apparatus (ASTM C 191 or AASHTO T 131) or the
Gillmore needle (ASTM C 266 or AASHTO T 154 ).
The Vicat test governs if no test method is specified by the purchaser. Initial set of cement
paste must not occur too early and final set must not occur too late. The setting times indicate
that a paste is or is not undergoing normal hydra-

Compressive Strength
Compressive strength as specified by ASTM cement standards is that obtained from tests of
50-mm (2-in.) mortar cubes tested in accordance with ASTM C 109 (AASHTO T 106)

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These cubes are made and cured in a prescribed manner using a standard sand. Compressive
strength is influenced by the cement

Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity)


The density of cement is defined as the mass of a unit volume of the solids or particles,
excluding air between particles. It is reported as mega grams per cubic meter or grams per
cubic centimeter (the numeric value is the same for both units). The particle density of
Portland cement ranges from 3.10 to 3.25, averaging 3.15 Mg/

Mixing Water for Concrete

Water that is safe to drink is safe to use in concrete.

Water is mixed with the cement powder to form a paste which holds the aggregates
together like glue.
Almost any natural water that is drinkable and has no pronounced taste or odor can be used as
mixing water for making concrete. However, some waters that are not fit for drinking may be
suitable for use in concrete. Water of questionable suitability can be used for making concrete
if mortar cubes (ASTM C 109 or AASHTO T 106) made with it have 7-day strengths equal
to at least 90% of companion specimens made with drinkable or distilled water. In addition,
ASTM C 191 (AASHTO T 131) tests should be made to ensure that impurities in the mixing
water do not adversely shorten or extend the setting time of the cement. Acceptable criteria
for water to be used in concrete are given in ASTM C 94 (AASHTO M 157) and AASHTO
T 26. Excessive impurities in mixing water not only may affect setting time and concrete
strength, but also may cause efflorescence, staining, corrosion of reinforcement, volume
instability, and reduced durability. Therefore, certain optional limits may be set on chlorides,
sulfates, acid alkalies, and solids in the mixing water or appropriate tests can be performed to
determine the effect the impurity has on various properties. Some impurities may have little
effect on strength and setting time, yet they can adversely affect durability and other
properties. Water containing less than 2000 parts per million (ppm) of total dissolved solids
can generally be used satisfactorily for making concrete. Water containing more than 2000
ppm of dissolved solids should be tested for its effect on strength and time of set.

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Acceptance Criteria for Questionable Water Supplies (ASTM C 94 or AASHTO M 157)


Limits Test method
Compressive strength, minimum
percentage of 90 C 109* or T 106 90
control at 7 days C 109* or T 106

Time of set, deviation from control, hr:


from 1:00 earlier to 1:30 later C 191* or T 131
min

Curing water for concrete

Lawn sprinklers saturating burlap with water keep


the concrete continuously moist.

Generally, water satisfactory for mixing is also suitable for curing purpose. However, iron
or organic matter may cause staining, particularly if water flows slowly over concrete and
evaporates rapidly. In some cases, discolorationis of no significance, and any water suitable
for mixing, or even slightly inferior in quality, is aacceptable for curing. However, it is
essential that curing water be free from substances that attack hardened concrete. For
example, concrete is attacked by water containing free CO2. Flowing pure water, formed by
melting ice or by condensation, and containing little CO2, dissolves (CaOH)2 and causes
surface erosion. Curing with sea water may lead to attack of reinforcment.

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Appendix
Building Materials Laboratory Manual

A- The aggregate tests:


1- Reducing Field Sample of Aggregate to Test Sample
2- Moisture Content of Concrete Aggregate.
3- Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate.
4- Specific Gravity and Absorption of fine Aggregate.
5- Resistance to Degradation of Small-size coarse Aggregate by Abrasion in the Los
Angeles Machine.
6- Sieve Analysis of fine and coarse aggregates.
7- Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate.
8- Materials Finer than 75µm (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral aggregate.
9- Method of determination of particle shape " Flakiness index"
10- Method of determination of particle shape " Elongation index"
11- Method for determination of water-soluble chloride salts
12- Methods for determination of sulphate content
13- Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates for Concrete
14- Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate

B- The cement tests:


1- Fineness of cement.
2- Normal consistency.
3- Initial and final time of setting.
4- Density and specific gravity.
5- Compressive strength of cement mortar.
6- Tensile strength of cement mortar.

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Reducing Field Sample of Aggregate to Test Sample


ASTM C 702, D75

Purpose: To obtain laboratory samples of aggregates from stockpiles.

Equipment: Shovel, scoop , boom.

Procedure:
1-Obtain a sample of aggregate (about 50 kg) from three places in the
stockpile: from the top third, at the midpoint, and from the bottom third
of the volume of the pile.
2- Place the field sample on a hard, clean level surface.
3- Mix the material thoroughly by turning the entire sample three times.
4- Shovel the entire sample into a conical pile.
5- Carefully flatten the conical to a uniform thickness and diameter by
pressing down the apex with a shovel. ( The diameter should be
approximately four to eight times the thickness).
6- Divide the flattened mass into four equal quarters with a shovel.
7- Remove two diagonally opposite quarters. Brush the cleared spaces
clean.
8-Mix and quarter the remaining materials until the sample is reduced to
the desired size.

Note
The sample splitters can be used instead of flattening the mass on a level
surface.

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Fig. (1) The sample splitters for fine &coarse aggregates

Fig.(2) Reducing Field Sample of Aggregate to Test Sample

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Aggregate Tests
Test No.1:

“Moisture Content of Concrete Aggregate”


( ASTM C-566- 84)

Scope of test:
One of the properties of the aggregates which should be known to design a concrete
mix is its moisture content. It is necessary in order to determine the net water -cement ratio in
a batch of concrete made with job aggregate.

Materials:
The amount of materials depends on the nominal maximum size of aggregate as follows:

N.M.S Weight of Sample


(mm) (kg)

4.75 0.5
9.5 1.5
12.5 2
19 3
25 4
37.5 6

Apparatus:
1. A balance sensitive to 0.5gm.
2. Electrical oven at temperature 105 °C.
3. Container with a cover.
4. Sample splitter.

Procedure:
1- Prepare the container clean, record its empty weight (A).
2- Weigh the suitable sample of aggregate and keep it in a container, put the cover on.
3-The weight of the container with the cover and the gravel is (B).
4-Remove the cover, then put the sample in the oven at 105 °C for 24 hours.
5-Remove the sample forms the oven and put the cover on it, then leaves it for half
an hour, and then weigh it (D).
6- Repeat the same steps for the sand sample.

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Calculations and Results:

Moisture Content % = [ ( B – D ) / ( D – A )] x 100

Discussion:
1- Comment on the results you get.
2- Do you think that your results are affected by the weather conditions?

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Test 2:

“Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate”


(ASTM C 127 – 88)

Scope:

This test method covers the determination of Specific Gravity and Absorption of
coarse aggregate. The specific gravity may be expressed as bulk specific gravity, bulk
specific gravity SSD or apparent specific gravity. The bulk specific gravity and absorption
are based on aggregate after 24hour soaking in water.

Materials:

1- Coarse aggregate , must be sampled using sample splitter.


2- The weight of the sample depends on nominal maximum size (NMS) of the
aggregate as follows.

N.M.S Minimum Weight of Sample


(mm) (kg)
12.5 or less 2
19 3
25 4
37.5 5
50 8

Apparatus:
1-A weighing balance sensitive, readable and accurate to 0.5gm.
2-The balance shall be equipped with suitable apparatus for suspending the
sample container in water.
3.Sample container (A wire basket) [20cm diameter& 20cm in height].
4.Water tank; a watertight tank into which the sample container may be placed
while suspended below the balance.
5-Sieves; 4.75mm (No.4) or other sizes as needed

Procedure:

1- Take the sample of coarse aggregate using the sample splitter.


2-Sieve the sample with 4.75mm sieves and ignore the materials passing through
No.4.75 sieve. -
3- Wash the sample to remove dust..
4- Put the sample in the oven at 105°C for 24hours.
5- Get the sample out of the oven, leave it to cool then determine its weight.
6- Submerge the sample in water for 24hours.
7- Remove the sample from the water and roll it in a large absorbent cloth until all

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visible films of water are removed .Wipe the larger particles individually. Take
care to avoid evaporation of water from aggregate pores during the operation of
surface- drying.
8- Take the required weight of the sample in its (S.S.D) (saturated surface dry)
condition.
9-After weighing, immediately place the S.S.D sample in the sample container and
determine its weight in water at 23±1°C.Take care to remove all entrapped air
before weighing by shaking the container while immersed.
10-Dry the test sample to constant weight at a temperature of 110±5°C, Cool in air at
room temperature 1 to 3 hours, or until the aggregate has cooled to a temperature that is
comfortable to handle, and weigh.

Calculations :-

1-Specific Gravity:-

a. Bulk specific gravity: - Calculate the bulk specific gravity as follow :

Bulk Specific Gravity = A /(B-C)

Where:
A=Weight of oven-dry test sample in air,(gm).
B= Weight of S.S.D. sample in air,(gm).
C=Weight of saturated sample in water,(gm).

b- Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD) = B / (B-C)

c-Apparent Specific gravity: - Calculate the apparent sp. gr. As follows:

Apparent Specific Gravity = A / (A - C)

2- Absorption:-

Calculate the percentage of absorption as follows:

Absorption% = [(B – A) / A ]x100

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Discussion:
1-Comment on the results.
2- Compare the results with the typical values.
3- How can the percentage of absorption affect on a concrete mix?

Fig.(3) A balance with suitable apparatus for suspending the sample


container in water.

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Test No.3

“Specific Gravity and Absorption of fine Aggregate”

(ASTM C 128 – 88)

Scope:. This test method covers the determination of Bulk and Apparent Specific
Gravity and Absorption of fine aggregate.

Materials:- l kg of sand is used using sample splitter.

Apparatus:

1-A balance having capacity of 1kg or more sensitive to 0.1gm


2- Pycnometer: A flask or other suitable container into which the fine aggregate
sample can be introduced .It is usually of 500cm3 capacity.
3-Mold: a metal mold in the form of a frustum of a cone with dimensions as follows:
37mm inside diameter at the top, 90mm inside diameter at the bottom and 75mm in
height.
4-Tamper: A metal tamper weighing 340±15gm and having a flat circular tamping face
25mm in diameter.
5- Electrical Oven.
6- A container suitable to submerge the sample with water.

Preparation of the test Specimen:-


1-Obtain approximately 1kg of the fine aggregate using sample splitter.
2- Dry it in a suitable pan or vessel to constant weight at 110°C. Allow it to cool to a
comfortable handling temperature, cover with water by immersion and permit to stand
for 24 hours.
3- Decant excess water with care to avoid loss of fines, spread the sample on a flat
nonabsorbent surface exposed to a gently moving current of warm air.
4- Stir frequently to get homogeneous drying until achieving the saturated surface dry
condition. Use cone test for surface moisture. 5-
Hold the mold firmly on a smooth nonabsorbent surface with the large diameter down.
Place a portion of partially dried fine aggregate loosely in the mold by filling it to
over following and heaping additional materials above the top of the mold.
6- Lightly tamp the sand into the mold with 25 light drops of the tamper. Each drop
should start about 5mm above the top surface of the sand. Permit the tamper to fall freely
under gravitational attraction on each drop.
7- Adjust the surface, remove loose sand from the base and lift the mold vertically. If
surface moisture is still present the sand will retain the molded shape. When the sand
slumps slightly, it indicates that it has reached S.S.D condition.

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Procedure:-
1 -Weigh 500gm of the S.S.D sample.
2- Partially fill the pycnometer with water. Immediately put into the pycnometer
500gm saturated surface dry aggregate.
3- Then fill with additional water to approximately 90%of capacity.
4- Roll; invert the pycnometer to eliminate all air bubbles.
5-Adjust its temperature to 23±1.7 °C by putting the pycnometer in a water bath for an
hour.
6-Bring the water level in the pycuometer to its calibrated capacity.
7- Determine the total weight of the pycnometer, specimen and water.
8- Remove the fine aggregate from the pycnometer, dry to constant weight at temp.
110±5 oC, cool in air at room temperature for one hour, and weigh.
9- Determine the weight of the pycnometer filled to its capacity with water at 23 oC

Calculations:

1-Calculat the bulk specific gravity as follows:-

Bulk sp. gr. = A / ( B + S – C )

Where: A: Weight of oven —dry specimen in air, (gm).


B: Weight of pycnometer filled with water, (gm)
S: Weight of the saturated surface-dry specimen. (500 gm)
C: Weight of pycnometer with specimen and water to calibration
mark, (gm).

1-Calculat the bulk specific gravity (SSD) as follows:

Bulk sp. gr.(SSD) = S / ( B + S – C )

3- Calculate the apparent Specific Gravity as follows:-

Apparent sp. gr=. A / ( B + A - C )

3-Calculate the percentage of absorption as follows:-

Absorption = [ ( S – A) / A x] 100

Discussion:

1- Comment on the results.


2- Compare the results with the typical values.
3- How can the percentage of absorption affect on a concrete mix?

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Fig.(4) Exposing the fine


aggregate to a gently
moving current of warm
air.

Fig.(5) The fine aggregate is still damp. Fig.(6) The fine aggregate is
in SSD condition.

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Test No.4

“Resistance to Degradation of Small-size coarse Aggregate


by Abrasion in the Los Angeles Machine.”

ASTM C 131-81(1987)

Scope of test: This test method cover testing sizes of coarse of (12.5mm) for
resistance to degradation using the Los Angeles testing machine.

Summary of test:

The Los Angeles test is a measure of degradation of mineral aggregates of standard


grading resulting form a combination of actions including abrasion or attrition, impact, and
grinding in a rotating steel drum containing a specified number of steel spheres, the number
depending upon the grading of the test sample. As the drum rotates a shelf plate picks up the
sample and the steel spheres, carrying them around until they are dropped to the opposite side
of the drum, creating an impact- crushing effect. The contents then roll within the drum with
an abrading and grinding action until the shelf plate impacts and the cycle is repeated. After
the prescribed number of revolutions, the content is removed from the drum and the
aggregate portion is sieved to measure the degradation as percent loss.

Materials:
The test sample shall be washed and oven-dried at (105-110) CO and separated
into individual size fractions and recombined to the grading of table (1) most nearly
corresponding to the range of sizes in the aggregate as furnished for the work.
Apparatus:-
1. Los Angeles Machine.
2. Sieves.
3. Balance accurate to 0.5 gm.
4. Oven. and containers.
5. Charge – The Charge must consist of steel spheres averaging (46.8mm) in diameter and
each weighing between 390 to 445gm. The charge, depending upon the
grading of the test sample as follows:

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Grading No: of spheres Wt of charge (gm)

A 12 5000+25

B 11 4584+25

C 8 3330+20

D 6 2500+15

Procedure:

1. Put the sample of coarse aggregate in an oven at 105°C to get oven-dry sample.
2. Prepare the sample, then Weigh and record its weight to the nearest 1gm.
3.Placc the test sample and charge in the Los Angeles testing
machine and rotate the machine at 30to33 round/min for 500
revolutions.
4. Discharge the material from the machine and make preliminary separation of the
sample a sieve coarser then (1.7mm).The finer portion shall then be sieved on a 1.7mm
sieve.
5. The material coarser then the 1.7mm sieve shall be washed, oven dried at 105 oC to
substantially constant weight, and weighed to
the nearest 5gm.

Calculations:

%Abrasion = (wt of the initial sample- wt of retained of 1.7mm sieve) x 100


Wt of initial sample

or = wt of passing sieve (1.7mm) x 100


Wt. of initial sample

Note:

ASTM Specifications C33-86 requires that the abrasion percent should not exceed 50%
for coarse aggregate used in concrete mixes.

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Table (1): Grading of test samples:

Sieve size (mm) Weight of indicated sizes (gm)


Grading
Passing Retained
A B C D
on
37.5 25 1250+25 - - -
25 19 1250+25 - - -
19 12.5 1250+10 2500+10 - -
12.5 9.5 1250+10 2500+10 - -
9.5 6.3 - - 2500+10 -
6.3 4.75 - - 2500+10 -
4.75 2.36 - - - 5000+10
Total 5000+10 5000+10 5000+10 5000+10

Fig. (7) The Los


Angeles Machine.

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Test No.5

“Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate in its Compacted

or Loose condition”

(ASTM C 29 – 89)

Scope: This test method covers the determination of unit weight in a compacted or loose
condition and calculation of voids in fine and coarse aggregates. This test method is
applicable to aggregates not exceeding (100mm) in N.M.S.

Materials:
Sample of, preferably, oven dry fine aggregate and an other of oven-dry coarse aggregate.

Apparatus:-
1. A balance accurate to 0.5gm.
2. Measure: A cylindrical metal measure preferably provided with handles. Its
capacity shall conform to the limits below:

N.M.S (mm) Capacity of measure (m3)

12.5 0.0028

25 0.0093

37.5 0.014

100 0.028

Note: - The indicated size measure may be used to test aggregate of


N.M.S equal to or smaller than that listed.

3. Tamping Rod (A round, straight steel rod (l6mm) in diameter and


approximately 600mm in length with a rounded to a hemispherical tip.
4. Containers and shovel or scoop.

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Procedure:

A- Calibration of the measure:

1- Fill the measure with water at room temperature and cover with a
piece of plate glass in such away as to eliminate bubbles and excess water.
2- Determine the weight of the water in the measure.

3-Measure the temperature of water and determine its density from table below:-

Density of water

Temperature (0C) Density (kg/m3)

15.6 999.01

18.3 998.54

21.1 997.97

23 997.54

23.9 997.32

26.7 996.59

29.4 995.83

Note: Use interpolating if necessary.

4- Calculate the volume, V of the measure by dividing the weight of water required to
fill the measure by its density.

B- Procedure of the test:-

1. Weigh the cylinder (empty).

2. Fill the cylinder to overflowing by means of a shovel or scoop, discharging the


aggregate from a height not to exceed 50mm above the top the cylinder edge.
Exercise care to prevent, so far as possible, segregation of the particle sizes of which
the sample in composed. Level the surface of the aggregate with the fingers or straight
edge in such way that any slight projections of the larger pieces of the coarse
aggregate approximately balance the larger voids in the surface below the top of the
cylinder

3. Determine the weight of the measure plus its contents, and calculate the weight of the
aggregate by subtracting the empty weight of the cylinder.

4. Empty the cylinder and refill it again to one third of its height and rod the layer of
aggregate with (25) strokes of the tamping rod evenly distributed over the surface. Fill

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the cylinder two-thirds full and again level and rod as previous. Finally, of the
cylinder to overflowing and rod again in the manner previously mentioned. Level the
surface of the aggregate with the fingers or a straight edge in such away as that
mentioned in (step 3).

5. In Roding the first layer, do not allow the rod to strike the bottom of the measure
forcibly. In Roding the second layer and third layer, use only enough force to cause
the tamping rod to penetrate the previous layer of aggregate.

6. Determine the weight of the measure plus its contents and calculate the wt. Of
aggregate.

7. Repeat the same procedure for the fine aggregate sample.

Calculations:

1-Unit weight: calculate the unit weight for the rodding or shoveling procedure

follows:- M = ( G-T )/ V

Where :-
M= unit weight of the aggregate (kg/m3)
G= Weight of the aggregate plus the cylinder (kg)
T= Weight of the empty cylinder (kg)
V= Volume of the cylinder (m3)

Note: The unit weight determined by this test method is for aggregate in an oven- dry
condition.

2-Void content:- Calculate the void content in the aggregate using the unit weight
determined by either the rodding or shoveling procedure as follows:

%void= (S )(W) – (M) x100


( S) (W)

Where S= bulk specific gravity (from tests 2+3)


W= density of water (1000kg/m3 )

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3-Put your results in a table like that shown below.

Coarse Aggregate Fine Aggregate


Loose Compacted Loose Compacted
Unit weight
kg/m3

%Voids

Note:
Normal-Weight aggregate density: (1280-1920) kg/m3

Fig.(8) The cylindrical metal measures for the fine and coarse aggregates

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Test No.6

“Sieve Analysis of fine and coarse aggregates"

(ASTM C136 – 84a)

Scope: This method covers the determination of the particle size distribution the fine and
coarse aggregate by sieving.

Materials:
1. The weight of test sample of fine aggregate shall be, after drying, approximately (500
gm).
2. The weight of test sample of coarse aggregate shall conform with the following:

N.M.S (mm) Minimum Weight (kg)

9.5 1

12.5 2

19 5

25 10

37.5 15

Apparatus:

1. Balance: For fine aggregate accurate for 0.5gm.


For coarse aggregate accurate for 0.5gm.
2. Containers to carry the sample.
3. Oven.
4. Mechanical Sieve shaker.
5. Two sets of sieve:-For fine aggregate [ No.4 , No.8, No.16 , No.30 , No.50,
No.100]
For coarse aggregate [37.5mm , 19mm ,9.5mm, No.4 , No.8]
In addition to a pan and a cover for each set.

Procedure:
1- Put the sample in the oven at 110°C.
2-Determine the empty weight for each sieve and record.
3-Nest the sieve in order of decreasing size of opening from top to bottom place the
sample on the top sieve.
4- Agitate (shake) the sieve by placing the set on the mechanical shaker for 10min.

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5- Open the set of sieve carefully so that no loosing of materials is expected.


6-Weigh each sieve with the residue record its weight.
7- Tabulate your data in a suitable shape.
8. Make sure that the summation of the residue weights equals to the original sample
weight with a difference not more than 1% of the original weight.
9-The table should contain:-

No. of Sieve Sieve Residue Residue % Cum %


sieve empty Wt +residue Wt Wt % Residue Passing

10-Fineness Modulus for fine aggregate can be determined as: -


F.M. = Σ cumulative residue percentage
100

It must be within-(2.6 - 3.1) for sand.

Notes:

1-The sieves dimensions are:

No. of sieve 100 50 30 16 8 4 3/8'' 1/2'' 3/4'' 1'' 1.5''


Size of
0.150 0.3 0.6 1.18 2.36 4.75 9.5 12.5 19 25.4 37.5
opening (mm)

2- The results must be compared with ASTM Specification [C33-99a]


a- For Fine aggregate:

Sieve No. Sieve size % Passing


mm
3/8'' 9.5 100
No.4 4.75 95-100
No.8 2.36 80-100
No.16 1.18 50-85
No.30 0.600 25-60
No.50 0.300 5-30
No.100 0.150 0-10

b- For Coarse aggregate: See table (1).

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Fig. (9) The Mechanical Sieve Shaker.

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Test No.7

“Materials Finer than 75µm (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral

Aggregate by Washing ”

(ASTM C117-87)

Scope: This test method covers determination of the amount of materials finer than a 75µm
(N0.200) sieve in aggregate by washing. Clay particles and other aggregate particles that are
dispersed by the wash water, as well as water –soluble materials, will be removed from the
aggregate during the test.

Materials :

the mass of the test sample, after drying , shall conform with the following:

Nominal Max. Size Minimum Mass (gm)

4.5mm or smaller 300


9.5mm 1000
19mm 2500
37.5mm or larger 5000

Apparatus :

1- Balance accurate to 0.1g or 0.1% of the test mass , whichever greater.


2- Sieves: 75µm (No.200) sieve + 1.18mm (No.16) sieve .
3- Container.
4- Oven.

Procedure:

1- Dry the test sample to constant mass at a temperature of 110 CO ± 5 Co


Determine the mass to the nearest 0.1gm of the test sample.
2- Place the test sample in the container and add sufficient water to cover it. Agitate the
sample to result in complete separation of all particles finer than the 75µm
(No.200) sieve from the coarser particles, and to bring the fine materials into
suspension. immediately pour the wash water containing the suspended and
dissolved solids over the nested sieves, arranged with the coarser sieve on top .
3- Add a second charge of water to the sample in the container, agitate , and decant as
before. Repeat this operation until the wash water is clear.

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4- Return all materials retained on the nested sieve by flushing to the washed sample .
Dry the washed sample to constant mass at a temp. of 110 + 5 Co and determine the
mass to the nearest 0.1% of the original mass of the sample .
5- Calculate the amount of materials passing 75µm (No.200) sieve by washing as
follows:

B-C
A= × 100
B

Where :
A = percentage of material finer than 75µm sieve by washing .
B = Original dry mass of sample .(gm)
C = Dry mass of sample after washing.(gm)

Note:

According to [C33-99a] ASTM.


[A] must be not more than (3%), in fine aggregate for concrete, and not more than (1%), in
coarse aggregate.

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Test No.8

Method of determination of particle shape "Flakiness index"


BS 812-105.1:1989

Scope:
The test describes the method for determining the flakiness index of coarse aggregate.

Principle
Aggregate particles are classified as flaky when they have a thickness (smallest
dimension) of less than 0.6 of their mean sieve size. The flakiness index of an aggregate
sample is found by separating the flaky particles and expressing their mass as a percentage of
the mass tested. The test is not applicable to material passing a 6.30mm BS test sieve or
retained on a 63.0 mm BS test sieve.

Apparatus
1- A sample divider
2- A ventilated oven.
3- A balance accurate to 0.1% of the mass of the test portion.
4- Test sieves.
5- A mechanical sieve shaker.
6- Trays of suitable size.
7- A metal thickness gauge ( see figure).

Preparation of test sample


1- Reduce the sample using sample splitter to produce a test portion that complies with
table 2 with due allowance fo the later rejection of particles retained on a 63.0 mm
test sieve and passing a 6.30 mm test sieve.
2- Dry the test portion by heating at temperature of 105+5 oC .

Table 2
Minimum mass of test portion
Nominal size of
after rejection of oversize and
material
undersize particles
mm
kg
50 35
40 15
28 5
20 2
14 1
10 0.5

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Procedure
1- Carry out a sieve analysis in accordance with 7.3 of BS 812-103.1:1989 using the
standard sieves.
2- Discard all aggregates retained on the 63.0 mm test sieve and aggregates passing the
6.3 mm test sieve.
3- Weigh each of the individual size-fractions retained on the sieves, and store them in
separate trays with their size marked on the tray.
4- From the sums of the masses of the fractions in the trays(M1), calculate the individual
percentage retained on each of the various sieves. Discard any fraction whose mass is
5% or less of mass M1.Record the mass remaining (M2).
5- Gauge each fraction by using the thickness gauge : select the thickness gauge
appropriate to the size-fraction under testand gauge each particle of that size-fraction
separately by hand.
6- Combine and weigh all the particles passing each of the gauges (M3)

Calculation and expression of the results


The value of the flakiness index is calculated from the expression:
Flakiness index = M3/M2 x 100

Fig.10 Thickness gauge


( Dimensions are in millimeters )

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Test No.9

Method of determination of particle shape "Elongation index"


BS 812-105.2:1989

Scope:
The test describes the method for determining the elongation index of coarse aggregate.

Principle
Aggregate particles are classified as elongated when they have a length (greatest
dimension) of more than 1.8 of their mean sieve size. The flakiness index of an aggregate
sample is found by separating the flaky particles and expressing their mass as a percentage of
the mass tested. The test is not applicable to material passing a 6.30mm BS test sieve or
retained on a 50.0 mm BS test sieve.

.
Apparatus
1- A sample divider
2- A ventilated oven.
3- A balance accurate to 0.1% of the mass of the test portion.
4- Test sieves.
5- A mechanical sieve shaker.
6- Trays of suitable size.
7- A metal length gauge ( see figure).

Preparation of test sample


1- Reduce the sample using sample splitter to produce a test portion that complies with
table 2 with due allowance for the later rejection of particles retained on a 50.0 mm
test sieve and passing a 6.30 mm test sieve.
2- Dry the test portion by heating at temperature of 105+5 oC .

Table 2
Minimum mass of test portion
Nominal size of
after rejection of oversize and
material
undersize particles
mm
kg
40 15
28 5
20 2
14 1
10 0.5

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Procedure
1- Carry out a sieve analysis in accordance with 7.3 of BS 812-103.1:1989 using the
standard sieves.
2- Discard all aggregates retained on the 50.0 mm test sieve and aggregates passing the
6.3 mm test sieve.
3- Weigh each of the individual size-fractions retained on the sieves, and store them in
separate trays with their size marked on the tray.
4- From the sums of the masses of the fractions in the trays(M1), calculate the individual
percentage retained on each of the various sieves. Discard any fraction whose mass is
5% or less of mass M1.Record the mass remaining (M2).
5- Gauge each fraction as follows. Select the length gauge appropriate to the
size fraction under test (see Table 3) and gauge each particle separately by
hand. Elongated particles are those whose greatest dimension prevents them
from passing through the gauge, and these are placed to one side.
6- Combine and weigh all the elongated particles (M3)

Calculation and expression of the results


The value of the Elongation index is calculated from the expression:
Elongation index = M3/M2 x 100
where
M2 is the sum of the masses of fractions that have a mass greater than 5 % of the
total mass.
M3 is the mass of all the elongated particles.
Express the elongation index to the nearest whole number

Figure 11 — Metal length gauge

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Test No.10

Method for determination of water-soluble chloride salts

BS 812-117:1988

1 Scope
This Part of BS 812 describes the method for determination of the water-soluble chloride
salt content of aggregate.
Note: In appendix A, a qualitative test is described and appendix B describes a more rapid
method of test than the test described in the main text.

Appendix B Field tests for determination of chloride ions

Apparatus and reagents


1 Plastics bucket, capacity 10 L.
2 Water, preferably free from chloride ions. If this is not available, it is necessary to
measure the chloride content of the water ( use distilled water)
3 Beakers or plastics drinking cups, of any preferred volume. 100 mL to 250 mL is
the recommended range.
4 Filter paper, medium grade( Whatman No. 40 has been found suitable).
5 Balance, capable of weighing up to 10 kg accurate to 50 g.
6 Chloride test kit or strips.
Note: Two commercial materials which have been found to be suitable are:
a) Quantab test strips. Type 1175. (Miles Laboratories, Stoke Poges, Bucks); or
b) Hach tester, Chloride 7-P. (Camlab Ltd, Cambridge.)

Procedure
1 Extraction of chloride
Weigh 2 kg of fine aggregate or 4 kg of coarse or mixed aggregate directly into
a clean pre-weighed bucket. Weigh 2 kg of water into the bucket. Stir the materials
in the bucket intermittently for at least 15 min for fine aggregate or 10 h for coarse
or mixed aggregate.
Note 1 One hour extraction can be used for the coarse or mixed aggregate provided
the relationship between chloride extracted at 1 h and 10 h is known and can be
allowed for.
Note 2 These shorter extraction times may result in lower chloride contents than
the standard test. When the required extraction time is complete, allow the
aggregate to settle and remove some of the supernatant extraction liquid into a
beaker or cup.

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2 Measurement of chloride in the extract


( Using the Quantab test strip).
Fold a filter paper into a cone and place it apex down in the test liquid. Place a test strip in
the clear filtered solution appearing in the bottom of the filter paper cone. Follow the
manufacturer’s instructions at all times. When the operation of the strip is complete read off
the scale the height of the white column. Refer this reading to the calibration chart supplied
with the test strip, ensuring that the chart bears the same reference number as the bottle of the
test strips, and record the concentration of chloride as mg Cl–/L.

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Test No.11

Methods for determination of sulphate content


BS 812-118: 1988
Scope
This Part of BS 812 describes two methods for determining the sulphate content of
aggregates. The first method determines the water-soluble sulphate content of aggregates,
which applies to natural and synthetic aggregates to be used as drainage materials or for fill
or hard core, e.g. unbound road bases or sub-bases or foundations. The second method
determines the total sulphate content of aggregates, which applies to aggregates used in
concrete and cement bound materials.
Note1 The second method for the determination of total sulphate by acid extraction is
specified as it is impractical to produce a method for the determination of total water
Soluble sulphate because of low water solubility of calcium sulphate. For practical purposes
for aggregates in concrete the total sulphate content determined by this method is taken to be
the same as the total water-soluble sulphate content.
Note2 In Appendix A two procedures for a semi-quantitative test are described. It is strongly
recommended that one of these is used as a preliminary check before resorting to the test
described in the main text, which may be needed for compliance with
specification.

Appendix A Semi-quantitative test for the presence of sulphate ions


1 Apparatus and reagents
a Plastics bucket, capacity 10 L.
b Beaker or plastics drinking cup.
c Reagent for method 1
d Sulphate test strips6).
e Stop watch.

2 Procedure
i- Place approximately 5 kg of coarse aggregate or 1 kg of sand in the bucket and
add an equivalent mass of water of low sulphate content. Agitate the contents
intermittently for 7 h and then pour some solution into a beaker or plastics drinking
cup.
ii- Carry out the following procedure .
Allow any solids to settle and briefly dip the sulphate test strip into
the clear supernatant liquid. After 2 min observe the coloration of the three test
zones. If none of the test zones has changed from red to yellow the sulphate in
the aggregate can be taken to be less than 0.02 %.

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Test No.12

Standard Test Method for


Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates for Concrete
ASTM C 40 – 99

Scope
This test method covers two procedures for an approximate determination of the
presence of injurious organic impurities in fine aggregates that are to be used in hydraulic
cement mortar or concrete. One procedure uses a standard color solution and the other uses a
glass color standard.

Apparatus
1- Glass Bottles—Colorless glass graduated bottles, approximately 350 to 470-mL
nominal capacity. The graduations on the bottles shall be in millimeters
2- Balance.

Reagent and Standard Color Solution


1 Reagent Sodium Hydroxide Solution (3 %)—Dissolve 3 parts by mass of reagent
grade sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 97 parts of water.
2 Standard Color Solution—Dissolve reagent grade potassium dichromate
(K2Cr2O7) in concentrated sulfuric acid (sp gr 1.84) at the rate of 0.250 g/100 mL
of acid. The solution must be freshly made for the color comparison using gentle
heat if necessary to effect solution.

Test Sample
The test sample shall have a mass of about approximately 450 g (1 lb) and be
taken from the larger sample in accordance with Practice C 702.

Procedure
1- Fill a glass bottle to the approximately 130-mL (41⁄2- fluid oz) level with the
sample of the fine aggregate to be tested.
2- Add the sodium hydroxide solution until the volume of the fine aggregate and
liquid, indicated after shaking, is approximately 200 mL (7 fluid oz).
3- Stopper the bottle, shake vigorously, and then allow to stand for 24 h.

Determination of Color Value


1 Standard Color Solution Procedure—At the end of the 24-h standing period, fill a glass
bottle to the approximately 75-mL (21⁄2-fluid oz) level with the fresh standard color solution,
prepared not longer than 2 h previously, as prescribed above. Hold the bottle with the test
sample and the bottle with the standard color solution side-by-side, and compare the color of
light transmitted through the supernatant liquid above the sample with the color of light
transmitted through the standard color solution. Record whether the color of the supernatant
liquid is lighter, darker, or equal to the color of the standard color solution.

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Test No.13

Standard Test Method for


Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or
Magnesium Sulfate

ASTM C 88 – 99a

Scope
This test method covers the testing of aggregates to estimate their soundness when
subjected to weathering action in concrete or other applications. This is accomplished by
repeated immersion in saturated solutions of sodium or magnesium sulfate followed by oven
drying to partially or completely dehydrate the salt precipitated in permeable pore spaces.
The internal expansive force, derived from the rehydration of the salt upon re-immersion,
simulates the expansion of water on freezing. This test method furnishes information helpful
in judging the soundness of aggregates when adequate information is not available from
service records of the material exposed to actual weathering conditions.

Apparatus
1- Sieves—With square openings of the following sizes conforming to Specifications E11
or E 323, for sieving the samples in accordance with Sections 6, 7, and 9:
150 μm (No. 100) 8.0 mm (5⁄16 in.)
9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.)
300 μm (No. 50) 12.5 mm (1⁄2 in.)
16.0 mm (5⁄8 in.)
600 μm (No. 30) 19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.)
25.0 mm (1 in.)
1.18 mm (No. 16) 31.5 mm (11⁄4 in.)
2.36 mm (No. 8) 37.5 mm (11⁄2 in.)
50 mm (2 in.)
4.00 mm (No. 5) 63 mm (21⁄2 in.)
larger sizes by
4.75 mm (No. 4) 12.5-mm (1⁄2-in.) spread

2- Containers—Containers for immersing the samples of aggregate in the solution, in


accordance with the procedure described in this test method, shall be perforated in such a
manner as to permit free access of the solution to the sample and drainage of the solution
from the sample without loss of aggregate.

3- Temperature Regulation—Suitable means for regulating the temperature of the samples


during immersion in the sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate solution shall be provided.

4- Balances—For fine aggregate, a balance or scale accurate within 0.1 g over the range
required for this test; for coarse aggregate, a balance or scale accurate within 0.1 % or 1g,
whichever is greater, over the range required for this test.
5- Drying Oven—The oven shall be capable of being heated continuously at 230 6 9°F (110
6 5°C) and the rate of evaporation, at this range of temperature, shall be at least 25g/h for 4 h,
during which period the doors of the oven shall be kept closed. This rate shall be determined

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by the loss of water from 1-L Griffin low-form beakers, each initially containing 500 g of
water at a temperature of 70 + 3°F (21 + 2°C), placed at each corner and the center of each
shelf of the oven. The evaporation requirement is to apply to all test locations when the oven
is empty except for the beakers of water.
6- Specific Gravity Measurement—Hydrometers conforming to the requirements of
Specification E 100, or a suitable combination of graduated glassware and balance, capable
of measuring the solution specific gravity within +0.001.

Special Solutions Required


1- Prepare the solution for immersion of test samples from either sodium or magnesium
sulfate.
1.1 Sodium Sulfate Solution—Prepare a saturated solution of sodium sulfate by dissolving
a USP or equal grade of the salt in water at a temperature of 77 to 86°F (25 to 30°C). Add
sufficient salt (Note 4), of either the anhydrous (Na2SO4) or the crystalline
(Na2SO4·10H2O) form,6 to ensure not only saturation but also the presence of excess
crystals when the solution is ready for use in the tests. Thoroughly stir the mixture during
the addition of the salt and stir the solution at frequent intervals until used. To reduce
evaporation and prevent contamination, keep the solution covered at all times when access is
not needed. Allow the solution to cool to 70 + 2°F (21 + 1°C).
Again stir, and allow the solution to remain at the designated temperature for at least 48 h
before use. Prior to each use, break up the salt cake, if any, in the container, stir the solution
thoroughly, and determine the specific gravity of the solution. When used, the solution shall
have a specific gravity not less than 1.151 nor more than 1.174. Discard a discolored solution,
or filter it and check for specific gravity.
1.2 Barium Chloride Solution—Prepare 100 mL of 5 % barium chloride solution by
dissolving 5 g of BaCl2 in 100 mL of distilled water.

Samples
1- The sample shall be obtained in general accordance with Practice D 75 and reduced to test
portion size in accordance with Practice C 702.
2- Fine Aggregate—Fine aggregate for the test shall be passed through a 9.5-mm (3⁄8-in.)
sieve. The sample shall be of such size that it will yield not less than 100 g of each of the
following sizes, which shall be available in amounts of 5 % or more, expressed in terms of
the following sieves:
Passing Sieve Retained on Sieve
600 μm (No. 30) 300 μm (No. 50)
1.18 mm (No. 16) 600 μm (No. 30)
2.36 mm (No. 8) 1.18 mm (No. 16)
4.75 mm (No. 4) 2.36 mm (No. 8)
9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) 4.75 mm (No. 4)
3- Coarse Aggregate—Coarse aggregate for the test shall consist of material from which the
sizes finer than the No. 4 sieve have been removed. The sample shall be of such a size
that it will yield the following amounts of the indicated sizes that are available in amounts of
5 % or more:
Size (Square-Opening Sieves) Mass, g
9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) to 4.75 mm (No. 4) 300 + 5

19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.) to 9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) 1000 + 10


Consisting of:
12.5-mm (1⁄2-in.) to 9.5-mm (3⁄8-in.) material 330 + 5

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19.0-mm (3⁄4-in.) to 12.5-mm (1⁄2-in.) material 670 + 10

37.5-mm (11⁄2-in.) to 19.0-mm (3⁄4 in.) 1500 + 50


Consisting of:
25.0-mm (1-in.) to 19.0-mm (3⁄4-in.) material 500 + 30
37.5-mm (11⁄2-in.) to 25.0-mm (1-in.) material 1000 + 50

63-mm (21⁄2 in.) to 37.5-mm (11⁄2 in.) 5000 + 300


Consisting of:
50-mm (2 in.) to 37.5-mm (11⁄2-in.) material 2000 + 200
63-mm (21⁄2-in.) to 50-mm (2-in.) material 3000 + 300

Larger sizes by 25-mm (1-in.) spread in


sieve size, each fraction 7000 + 1000

4- When an aggregate to be tested contains appreciable amounts of both fine and coarse
material, having a grading with more than 10 weight % coarser than the 9.5-mm (3⁄8-in.)
sieve and, also, more than 10 weight % finer than the 4.75-mm (No. 4) sieve, test separate
samples of the minus No. 4 fraction and the plus No. 4 fraction in accordance with the
procedures for fine aggregate and coarse aggregate, respectively. Report the results separately
for the fine-aggregate fraction and the coarse-aggregate fraction, giving the percentages of
the coarse and fine-size fractions in the initial grading.

Preparation of Test Sample


1. Fine Aggregate—Thoroughly wash the sample of fine aggregate on a 300-μm (No. 50)
sieve, dry to constant weight at 230 + 9°F (110 + 5°C), and separate into the different sizes
by sieving, as follows: Make a rough separation of the graded sample by means of a nest of
the standard sieves specified above. From the fractions obtained in this manner, select
samples of sufficient size to yield 100 g after sieving to refusal. (In general, a 110g sample
will be sufficient.) Do not use fine aggregate sticking in the meshes of the sieves in preparing
the samples. Weigh samples consisting of 100 + 0.1 g out of each of the separated fractions
after final sieving and place in separate containers for the test.

2. Coarse Aggregate—Thoroughly wash and dry the sample of coarse aggregate to constant
weight at 230 + 6 9°F (110 + 5°C) and separate it into the different sizes shown in (3) above
by sieving to refusal. Weigh out quantities of the different sizes within the tolerances of (3)
and, where the test portion consists of two sizes, combine them to the designated total weight.
Record the weights of the test samples and their fractional components. In the case of sizes
larger than 19.0 mm (3⁄4in.), record the number of particles in the test samples.

Procedure
1- Storage of Samples in Solution—Immerse the samples in the prepared solution of sodium
sulfate or magnesium sulfate for not less than 16 h nor more than 18 h in such a manner that
the solution covers them to a depth of at least 1⁄2 in.
(Note ). Cover the containers to reduce evaporation and prevent the accidental addition of
extraneous substances. Maintain the samples immersed in the solution at a temperature of 70
+ 2°F (21 + 1°C) for the immersion period.

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2- Drying Samples After Immersion—After the immersion period, remove the aggregate
sample from the solution, permit it to drain for 15 + 5 min, and place in the drying oven. The
temperature of the oven shall have been brought previously to 230 +9°F (110+5°C). Dry the
samples at the specified temperature until constant weight has been achieved. Establish the
time required to attain constant weight as follows: with the oven containing the maximum
sample load expected, check the weight losses of test samples by removing and weighing
them, without cooling, at intervals of 2 to 4 h; make enough checks to establish required
drying time for the least favorable oven location. Constant weight will be considered to have
been achieved when weight loss is less than 0.1 % of sample weight in 4 h of drying. After
constant weight has been achieved, allow the samples to cool to room temperature, when they
shall again be immersed in the prepared solution as described above.

3- Number of Cycles—Repeat the process of alternate immersion and drying until the
required number of cycles is obtained.

4- After the completion of the final cycle and after the sample has cooled, wash the sample
free from the sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate as determined by the reaction of the wash
water with barium chloride (BaCl2). Wash by circulating water at 230 + 9°F (110 + 5°C).through
the samples in their containers. This may be done by placing them in a tank into which the
hot water can be introduced near the bottom and allowed to overflow. In the washing
operation, the samples shall not be subjected to impact or abrasion that may tend to break up
particles.

Quantitative Examination
1- Make the quantitative examination as follows:
1.1- After the sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate has been removed, dry each fraction of
the sample to constant weight at 230 + 9°F (110 + 5°C). Sieve the fine aggregate over the
same sieve on which it was retained before the test, and sieve the coarse aggregate over the
sieve shown below for the appropriate size of particle. For fine aggregate, the method and
duration of sieving shall be the same as were used in preparing the test samples. For coarse
aggregate, sieving shall be by hand, with agitation sufficient only to assure that all undersize
material passes the designated sieve. No extra manipulation shall be employed to break up
particles or cause them to pass the sieves. Weigh the material retained on each sieve and
record each amount. The difference between each of these amounts and the initial weight of
the fraction of the sample tested is the loss in the test and is to be expressed as a percentage of
the initial weight for use in Table 1.

Size of Aggregate Sieve used to determine loss

63 mm (21⁄2 in.) to 37.5 mm (11⁄2 in.) 31.5 mm (11⁄4 in.)


37.5 mm (11⁄2 in.) to 19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.) 16.0 mm (5⁄8 in.)
19 mm (3⁄4 in.) to 9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) 8.0 mm (5⁄16 in.)
9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) to 4.75 mm (No. 4) 4.0 mm (No. 5)

Qualitative Examination
1 Make a qualitative examination of test samples coarser than 19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.) as
follows (Note 9):
1.1 Separate the particles of each test sample into groups according to the action
produced by the test (Note 9).
1.2 Record the number of particles showing each type of distress.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 57


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Report
1 Report the following data :
1.1 Weight of each fraction of each sample before test,
1.2 Material from each fraction of the sample finer than the sieve designated for
sieving after test, expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the fraction,
1.3 Weighted average calculated in accordance with Test Method C 136 from the
percentage of loss for each fraction, based on the grading of the sample as
received for examination or, preferably, on the average grading of the material
from that portion of the supply of which the sample is representative except that:
1.3.1 For fine aggregates (with less than 10 % coarser than the 9.5-mm (3⁄8-in.)
sieve), assume sizes finer than the 300-μm (No. 50) sieve to have 0 % loss and
sizes coarser than the 9.5-mm (3⁄8-in.) sieve to have the same loss as the next
smaller size for which test data are available.
1.3.2 For coarse aggregate (with less than 10 % finer than the 4.75-mm (No. 4)
sieve), assume sizes finer than the 4.75-mm (No. 4) sieve to have the same loss
as the next larger size for which test data are available.
1.3.3 For an aggregate containing appreciable amounts of both fine and coarse
material tested as two separate samples as required in 6.4, compute the
weighted average losses separately for the minus No. 4 and plus No. 4 fractions
based on recomputed grading considering the fine fraction as 100 % and the
coarse fraction as 100 %.
Report the results separately giving the percentage of the minus No. 4 and plus
No.4 material in the initial grading.
1.3.4 For the purpose of calculating the weighted average, consider any sizes in 6.2
or 6.3 that contain less than 5 % of the sample to have the same loss as the
average of the next smaller and the next larger size, or if one of these sizes is
absent, to have the same loss as the next larger or next smaller size, whichever
is present.
1.4 Report the weighted percentage loss to the nearest whole number,
1.5 In the case of particles coarser than 19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.) before test: (1) The number
of particles in each fraction before test, and (2) the number of particles affected,
classified as to number disintegrating, splitting, crumbling, cracking, flaking, etc.,
as shown in Table 2, and
1.6 Kind of solution (sodium or magnesium sulfate) and whether the solution was
freshly prepared or previously used.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 58


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TABLE 1 Suggested Form for Recording Test Data (with Illustrative Test Values)

Original sample Fractions % passing % loss


% Before Test, g
Designated sieve
After test
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Soundness Test of Fine Aggregate

Minus 150 μm (No. 100) 6 ... ... ...


300 μm (No. 50) to No. 100 11 ... ... ...
600 μm (No. 30) to No. 50 26 100 4.2 1.1
1.18 mm (No. 16) to No. 30 25 100 4.8 1.2
2.36 mm (No. 8) to No. 16 17 100 8.0 1.4
4.75 mm (No. 4) to No. 8 11 100 11.2 1.2
9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) to No. 4 4 ... 11.2a 0.4
Totals 100.0 ... ... 5

Soundness Test of Coarse Aggregate

63 mm (21⁄2 in.) to 50 mm (2 in.) 2825 g


50 mm (2 in.) to 37.5 mm (11⁄2 in.) 1958 g 20 4783 4.8 1.0
37.5 mm (11⁄2 in.) to 25.0 mm (1 in.) 1012 g
25 mm (1 in.) to 19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.) 513 g 45 1525 8.0 3.6
19.0 mm (3⁄4 in.) to 12.5 mm (1⁄2 in.) 675 g
12.5 mm (in.) to 9.5 mm (in.) 333 g 23 1008 9.6 2.2
9.5 mm (3⁄8 in.) to 4.75 mm (No. 4) 298 g 12 298 11.2 1.3
Totals 100.0 ... ... 8

A The percentage loss (11.2 %) of the next smaller size is used as the percentage loss for this size, since this size contains less than 5 % of
the original sample as received.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 59


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Cement Tests

Test No. 14

“Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by No.100 or No. 200 Sieve”

(ASTM C 184-83)

Scope: This test method covers determination of the finesses of hydraulic cement by means
of the 150 µm (No.100) and 75µm (No.200) sieves.

Apparatus:-
1. Sieve:- Standard 150 µm (No.100) or 75µm (No.200) sieves.
2. Balance and weights.
3. Brush: a bristle brush will be required for use in cleaning the 150 µm or 75µm
sieve.
4. A pan and a cover for the sieve.

Procedure:
1. Place 50-gm sample of the cement on the clean, dry (No.100) or (No.200) sieve
with the pan attached.
2. While holding the sieve and uncovered pan in both hands, sieve with a gentle wrist
motion until most of the fine material has passed through and the residue looks fairly
clean (3 or 4 minutes).
3. Place the cover on the sieve and remove the pan.
4.With the sieve and cover held firmly in one hand, gently tap the side of the sieve with
the handle of the brush used for cleaning the sieve.
5.Empty the pan and wipe it out with a cloth, replace the sieve in the pan and
carefully remove the cover .
6. Continue sieving without the cover for 5 to 10 min or until not more than
(0.05gm) of the material passes through in 1 minutes of continuous sieving.
7.Carefully open the set and transfer the residue on the sieve to a white clean paper,
and record the weight.
8. Calculate the percentage residue as:

% residue = wt. of residue x 100


50
9. Specifications requires that %retained on sieve (No.200) Shall not exceed 22%. and
on sieve (No.100) not more than 10%.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 60


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Test No.15

“Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement”

ASTM ( C 187-86)

Scope: This test method cover the determination of the normal consistency of hydraulic
cement. That is by determining the amount of water required to prepare cement pastes for
Initial and final time of setting test.

Apparatus:
1.Weight and weighing devices.
2. Glass graduates (200 or 250) ml capacity.
3. Vicat apparatus with the plunger end, 10 mm in diameter.
4.Electrical mixer , trowel and containers.
5. Mixing glass plate 30cm x 30cm.

Procedure:

1- Weigh 400 g of cement and prepare the weight of water to be between 24% to 30% of
the cement, then place the dry paddle and the dry bowl in the mixing position in the
mixer.

2- Place all the mixing water in the bowl.

3- Add the cement to the water and allow 30 s for a absorption of the water.

4- Start the mixer at low speed for 30 s

5- Stop for (15 s) and make sure no materials have collected on the sides of the bowel.

6- Start mixing at medium speed for (1 min).

7- Quickly form the cement paste into the approximate shape of a ball with gloved hands

8- Putting hand at (15cm) distance, throw the cement paste ball from hand to hand six
times.

9- Press the ball into the larger end of the conical ring, completely fill the ring with
paste.

10- Remove the excess at the larger end by a single movement of the palm of the
hand. Place the ring on its larger end on the base of the plate of Vicat apparatus.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 61


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11- Slice off the excess paste at the smaller end at the top of the ring by a single sharp-
ended trowel and smooth the top. (Take care not to compress the paste).

12- Center the paste under the plunger end which shall be brought in contact with the
surface of the paste, and tighten the set-screw.

13- Set the movable indicator to the upper zero mark of the scale or take an initial
reading, and release the rod immediately. This must not exceed 30 seconds after
completion of mixing.

14- The paste shall be of normal consistency when the rod settles to a point 10±1mm
below the original surface in 30 seconds after being released.

15- . Make trial paste with varying percentages of water until the normal consistency is
obtained. Make each trial with fresh cement.

16- . Prepare a table in the form:

W/c Weight of cement Water Volume Penetration (mm)


(gm) (ml)
24%
26%
28%
30%

17. Draw the penetration — w/c curve.

pent.(mm)

w/c

18. From the curve state the w/c% which will give (10mm) that is the
percentage for Normal Consistency.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 62


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Fig.(12) The Vicat Apparatus.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 63


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Test No.16

“Initial and Final Time of Setting of Cement”


(ASTM C191-82)

Scope: This test covers determination of the time of Setting of cement by means of the Vicat
needle.

Apparatus:
1. Vicat Apparatus with the needle end, 1mm in diameter.
2. Weights and weighing Device.
3. Glass Graduates (200 or 250) ml capacity.
4. A trowel and containers.

Procedure:
1. Weigh (400) gm cement.
2. Prepare amount of water as to that calculated in normal consistency test.
3. Prepare a cement paste following same steps mentioned in the previous test (test No.
9). Place in Vicat conical ring like test No. 9. Don't forget to record the time since
the cement is added to the water.
4. Allow the time of setting specimen to remain in the moist cabinet for 30 minutes after
molding without being disturbed. Determine the Penetration of the 1mm needle at
this time and every (15) minutes until a penetration of 25mm or less is obtained
5. To read the penetration, lower the needle of Vicat Apparatus until it touches the
surface of the cement paste. Tighten the screw and take an initial reading. Release the set
screw and allow the needle to settle for 30 seconds, and then take the reading to
determine the penetration.
6. Note that no penetration shall be made closer than (6mm) from any previous
penetration and no penetration shall be made closer than (9.5mm) from the inside of the
mold. Record the results of all penetration, then by drawing a curve determine the time
when a penetration of 25 mm is obtained. This is the initial setting time
7. The final setting time is when the needle dose not sinks visible into the paste.
8. Draw a graph for (penetration — time). Show the time which gives penetration of (25
mm) this will be the initial setting time.

Note:

According to ASTM C150

Initial time of setting, not less than 45 min.

Final time of setting, not more than 375 min

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 64


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Test No.17

“Density and Specific Gravity of cement”


(ASTM C188-87)

Scope:
This test covers determination of the density of cement and its specific gravity. The
density of cement is defined as the mass of a unit volume of the solids.

Apparatus:
1- Le chatelire flask: the standard flask which is circular in cross section with special
shape and dimensions
2- Kerosene, free of water.
3- Balance.
4- Holder.
5- Water bath.

Procedure:
1- Fill the flask with Kerosene to a point on the stem between 0 and 1ml mark.
2- Put the flask in the water bath at a constant temperature for a sufficient period of time
in order to avoid flask temperature variations greater than 0.2 °C between the initial and
final readings.
3- Record the final reading on the flask.
4- Prepare (64) gm of cement weighed to the nearest (0.05) gm and place it in the
flask in small increments. Take care to avoid splashing and see that the cement dose
not adheres to the inside of the flask above the liquid.
5- After all the cement has been introduced, place the stopper in the flask and roll the
flask in an inclined position so as to free the cement from air until no further air
bubbles rise to the surface of the liquid.
6- Put the flask in the water bath as in step (2).
7- Take the final reading.

Calculations:
1- The difference between the first and the final readings represents the volume of
liquid displaced by the mass of cement used in the test.
2- Calculate the cement density ρ as:

ρcement = Mass of cement


Volume

Specific Gravity = ρ cement / ρ water

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 65


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Fig.(13) Le Chatelire flask.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 66


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Test No. 18

“Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars''

''Using 50 mm Cube Specimens”

( ASTM C109-88 )

Scope
This test method covers determination of the compressive strength of cement mortars,
using 2 in ( 50 mm ) cube specimens.

Apparatus
1- Weights and weighing device.
2- Glass Graduate .
3- Specimens molds: three cubes of (50mm) side.
4- Mixer ( electrically driven mechanical mixer of the type equipped with
paddle and mixing bowl).
5- Testing machine.
6- Tamper and trowel.

Materials:

Graded standard sand should be used (C778) . with cement in the


proportion 1 Cement : 2.75 Sand by weight. Use water – cement ratio of 0.485
for all Portland cements and 0.460 for all air- entraining Portland cements.

Note: For other than Portland and air- entraining Portland cements, do flow
table test , to determine the amount of mixing water.

Procedure:

A. Preparation of Mortar :-

1. Weigh (300)gm of cement and Prepare the corresponding weights of


standard sand and water.

2. Place the dry paddle and the dry bowl in the mixing position in the
mixer . Then introduce the materials for a batch into the bowl and mix in
the following manner:
i- Place all the mixing water in the bowl.
ii-Add the cement to the water, then start the mixer and mix at
the low speed (140 ± 5 r/ min) for (30 s).

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 67


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iii-Add the entire quantity of sand slowly over a (30 s) period , while
mixing at slow speed.
iv- Stop the mixer, change to medium speed (285 +10 r/min) and mix for 30 s.
v-Stop the mixer and let the mortar stand for 1.5 min . During the first (15 s)
of this interval, quickly scrape down into the batch any mortar that may
have collected on the side of the bowl.

vi-Finish by mixing for (1min) at medium speed.

B-Molding test specimens:


i-Thinly cover the interior faces of the specimen molds with oil.
ii-Start molding the specimens within a total time of not more than 2.5 min after
completion of mixing .
iii-Place a layer of mortar a bout 25 mm (half the depth of the mold ) in all the cube
specimens .
iv- Tamp the mortar in each cube 32 times (4x8) , about 4 rounds , each round to be at
right angles to the other.

8 4
3
7 2
1 6 1 5
2 5 6
3 7
4 8

The tamping pressure shall be just sufficient to insure uniform filling of the
molds.
v- The 4 rounds of taming shall be completed in one cube before going to the next .
vi-When the tamping of the first layer in all cubes is completed , fill the molds with
the remaining mortar and tamp as specified for the first layer .
vii- Cut off the mortar to a plane surface with a straight edge.
viii- Keep the molds in a moist room for 20-24 hours then open them and keep the
specimens in a water basin for a week.

C-Testing specimens:
1- After 7 days (+ 3 hours) , take the specimens out of the basin, dry them with a
clean cloth , put them, one after the other, in the testing machine.
2- The cubes must be put on one side , using extra steel plates up and down the
specimen .
3- Start loading in a speed of 1.4 kN /sec or (350 kg /cm2 ) in a minute
4- When failure, record load and the compressive strength.

Calculations:

1-Table the results:

Cube No. Load(kN) Compressive strength( MPa)

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 68


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2- Compare with [ ASTM C150-89]: σc ≥ 19.3 MPa [ For type I cement ] age 7 days

(Fig. 14 )The mixer to be used to mix the mortar

(Fig.15) The specimens molds

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 69


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

Test No. 19

Tensile Strength of Cement Mortar


(ASTM C 190-85)

Scope:
This test method covers the determination of the tensile strength of cement mortars
employing the Briquet specimens.

Apparatus:
1- Weights and weighing device.
2- Tools and containers for mixing.
3- Briquet molds.
4- Water basin.
5- Testing Machine.

Procedure:-
1- The proportions of materials for the standard mortar shall be 1 part of cement to 3 parts
standard sand by weight .For making 3 briquets, prepare 300 gm of cement
with 3x300 = 900 gm of standard sand. The percentage of water used in the standard
mortar shall depend upon the percentage of water required to produce a neat cement paste
of normal consistency from the same sample of cement as in table (1).

Table 1- Percentage of water for standard Mortars


Water for Mortar of 1part
Water for neat cement paste of
Cement to 3 parts standard Sand
Normal Consistency %
%
15 9
16 9.2
17 9.3
18 9.5
19 9.7
20 9.8
21 10
22 10.2
23 10.3
24 10.5
25 10.7
26 10.8
27 11
28 11.2
29 11.3
30 11.5

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 70


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Note:
The values being in percentage of the combined dry weights of the cement and standard
sand.

2-Mix dry cement with dry sand and make a crater in the middle, then pour water in the
crater, and turn the material on the outer edge into the crater within 30 seconds by the aid of
a trowel.
3- After an additional interval of 30 seconds for the absorption of the water, mix
thoroughly for 1.5 minutes.
4- Prepare Briquet molds, clean and thinly covered with a film of mineral oil.
5- Fill the molds heaping full without compacting, then press the mortar in,
firmly with the thumbs, applying the force 12 times to each Briquet at points
to include the entire surface.
6- Heap the mortar above the mold and smooth it off with a trowel.
7- Cover the mold with a plane glass and turn over the mold and plates. Remove the
top plate and repeat the operation of heaping, thumbing and smoothing off.
8- Keep all test specimens in moist room for 24 hours.
9-Open molds and immerse the specimens in water in the storage tank. Keep them in
water for a week.
10- Take specimens out of water, dry with clean cloth then fix them in
the testing machine (one after the other).
11-Record the load causing failure and the cross-sectional area at the fracture point.

Calculation :-

Load causing failure (P)


Tensile strength σt = -------------------------------------------------
Area at the fracture (A)

Note:
According to [ ASTM C 150-58]
σt ≥ 1896 kPa [ For type 1cement → 1days in moist air +6 days in water ]

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 71


Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials 6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008

(Fig.16) The testing machine for cement mortar specimens in tension.

(Fig.17) The briqute molds.

Prepared by Balsam J. Farid 72


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫ﺧﻮاص وﻓﺤﻮﺻﺎت ﻣﻮاد اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬


‫اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﻨﻈﺮي‬
‫اﻟﻤﻔﺮدات‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ وﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬اﻟﺮآﺎم ‪.Aggregate‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ‪ :‬اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ,‬اﻟﻤﻘﺎس ‪ ,‬ﻣﻠﻤﺲ اﻟﺴﻄﺢ ‪ ,‬اﻟﻤﺼﺪر واﻟﻮزن‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬ﺧﻮاص اﻟﺮآﺎم ‪.:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬اﻟﺨﻮص اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬ﺣﺎﻻت اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎم‪.‬‬
‫د‪ -‬اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻀﺎرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎم‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ‪.Cement‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ )ﻧﺒﺬة ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮة(‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬ﺧﻮاص اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي‪.‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ ‪.Hydration‬‬
‫د‪ -‬اآﺘﺴﺎب اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫هـ‪ -‬أﻧﻮاع ﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي‪.‬‬
‫و‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﻤﻨﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬اﻟﻤﺎء‪:‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬ﻣﺎء اﻟﺨﻠﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬ﻣﺎء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ وﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ‬
‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪Concrete‬‬
‫هﻲ ﻣﺎدة ﻣﺮآﺒﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﺑﺸﻜﻞ رﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎدة ﻻﺻﻘﺔ )اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ واﻟﻤﺎء( ﺗﻀﻢ داﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﺮآﺎم‪,‬أي إن اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬
‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ هﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬
‫‪-2‬اﻟﺮآﺎم‬
‫‪ -3‬اﻟﻤﺎء‬
‫‪ -4‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺎت‬

‫اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎدة ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮاد ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ وﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﺎء‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺮآﺎم‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎدة ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺮﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺤﺼﻰ‪ ،‬اﻟﺤﺠﺎرة اﻟﻤﻜﺴﺮة أو ﺧﺒﺚ أﻓﺮان اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‪ ,‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻣﻊ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ واﻟﻤﺎء ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ او اﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﻤﺎﻟﺊ ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻜﻠﻒ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺎ وﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺛﺒﺎت ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺿﺪ اﻟﺘﻤﺪد واﻟﺘﻘﻠﺺ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎء‪:‬‬
‫هﺬا اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ وآﺬﻟﻚ ﻹﻋﻄﺎء اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ واﻟﺪﻣﻚ‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻟﺐ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺎت‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻮاد آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﺿﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ أو ﺧﻼل ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻂ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺎزﺟﺔ أو اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺼﺐ أو اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺪة ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ أو ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺮآﺎم ‪Aggregate‬‬
‫ه ﻮ ﻳﻤﺜ ﻞ ‪ 70‬إﻟ ﻰ ‪ % 75‬ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﺤﺠ ﻢ اﻟﻜﻠ ﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳ ﺎﻧﺔ ‪،‬ﻟ ﺬا ﻳﺠ ﺐ اﻻهﺘﻤ ﺎم ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴ ﺎرﻩ ﺑﺎﻟ ﺸﻜﻞ وﺑﺎﻟﻜﻤﻴ ﺎت اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳ ﺒﺔ ﻷﺟ ﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮة اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ اﻟﺮآﺎم‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎن ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ اﻟﺮآﺎم ﺣﺴﺐ اﻵﺗﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ :‬وهﻮ اﻟﺮآﺎم ذو اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﺮ ) ‪ 4.75‬ﻣﻠﻢ او ‪ 5‬ﻣﻠﻢ ( وﻳﺴﻤﻰ اﻟﺮﻣﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ‪ :‬وهﻮ اﻟﺮآﺎم ذو اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﺮ) ‪ 4.75‬ﻣﻠﻢ او ‪ 5‬ﻣﻠﻢ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‪:‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ‪ :‬وهﻮ اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ او ﺟﺮﻳﺎن اﻷﻧﻬ ﺎر وﻣﻤﻜ ﻦ أن ﻳﻜ ﻮن رﻣ ﻞ أو ﺣ ﺼﻰ أو‬
‫ﺣﺠﺎرة آﺒﻴﺮة ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﺴﻴﺮهﺎ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺳﺎت ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ‪ :‬وهﻮ اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﺬي ﻳﺘﻢ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻷﻏ ﺮاض ﺧﺎﺻ ﺔ ﻣﺜ ﻞ اﻟﺤ ﺼﻮل ﻋﻠ ﻰ رآ ﺎم ﺧﻔﻴ ﻒ اﻟ ﻮزن أو ﻣﻤﻜ ﻦ أن‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮن ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻹﺣﺪى اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎت‪.‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪74‬‬


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫‪ -3‬وﺣﺪة اﻟﻮزن ‪:‬‬


‫ا‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم ذو اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻌﺎدي ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻮن وﺣﺪة اﻟﻮزن ﻟﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1800 - 1500‬آﻐﻢ‪/‬م‪.3‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم ﺧﻔﻴﻒ اﻟﻮزن ‪ :‬وهﻮ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ )‪ (Pumic‬وهﻲ ﺣﺠﺎرة ﺑﺮآﺎﻧﻴ ﺔ ‪،‬او ﺻ ﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺻ ﻐﻴﺮ او آﺒﻴ ﺮ اﻟﺤﺠ ﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ وﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﻋﺎدة ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ اﻟﻮزن‪ .‬وﺣﺪة اﻟﻮزن ﻟﻪ اﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬آﻐﻢ‪/‬م‪.3‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬اﻟﺮآﺎم ﺛﻘﻴﻞ اﻟﻮزن ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻼﺟﺊ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﺎت واﻷﻏ ﺮاض‬
‫اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮن وﺣﺪة اﻟﻮزن ﻟﻪ اآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1800‬آﻐﻢ‪/‬م‪ . 3‬وﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر )‪ (Barytes‬او ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬
‫)‪. (Lead shots‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ‪:‬‬


‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮة ﺗﻘﻠﻞ اﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎك ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت واﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ان ﺗﻐﻠﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﻧﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺗﻜﻮن اﻗﻞ وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ذات اﻟﺰواﻳﺎ او ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ‪ .‬اﻻ ان‬
‫اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ذات اﻟﺰواﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪ .‬وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ اﻻﺷﻜﺎل آﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮة‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬اﻟﺰاوﻳًﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬اﻟﻤﻔﻠﻄﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮة وﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ واﻟﺰاوﻳًﺔ هﻲ اﻷﺷﻜﺎل اﻷﻧﺴﺐ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﻲ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻣﻠﻤﺲ اﻟﺴﻄﺢ ‪:‬‬


‫اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻠﻤﺲ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ذات ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ أﻓﻀﻞ إﻻ أن اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﻮن اآﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻠﻤﺲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ زﻳﺎدة اﻟﺮﺑﻂ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻮاص اﻟﺮآﺎم‪:‬‬
‫ا‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت ‪.:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬اﻟﺘﺪرج اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﻬﺸﻢ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺨﺪش‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬وﺟﻮد اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ اﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎس ‪ 75‬ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮون‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬وﺟﻮد آﺘﻞ ﻃﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬اﻟﺜﺒﺎت )‪. (soundness‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ وﺟﻮد اﻳﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﻠﻮر او اﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎت‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﻠﻄﺢ او اﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت‪.‬‬
‫‪ -8‬وﺟﻮد ﻣﻮاد ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﻣﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ب‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت‪:‬‬


‫‪ -1‬اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬وﺣﺪة اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻤﺪﻣﻮك ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬اﻟﻤﻘﺎس اﻻﻗﺼﻰ وﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻨﻌﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﺳﻨﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ اﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ آﻞ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻤﺬآﻮرة أﻋﻼﻩ ‪.‬‬

‫ا‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‪:‬‬


‫‪ -1‬اﻟﺘﺪرج اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﻀﻞ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت ذات ﻣﻘﺎﺳﺎت ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺘﺪرج ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎس ﻣﻦ اآﺒﺮ ﻣﻘﺎس اﻟﻰ اﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻘﺎس ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﻞ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺮآﺎم‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺪاﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻗﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻠﺆهﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ وآﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ اﻧﻌﺰال اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻨﻘﻞ واﻟﺼﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﻬﺸﻢ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺨﺪش‪:‬‬
‫هﺬﻩ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎص ﻋﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺪ اﻟﻄﺮق او ﻟﻸﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪75‬‬


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫‪ -4 ، 3‬وﺟﻮد ﻣﻮاد ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ أو آﺘﻞ ﻃﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎم ‪:‬‬


‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻐﻠﻒ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﺮآﺎم وذﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﻘﻠﻞ اﻟ ﺮﺑﻂ ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟﺮآ ﺎم واﻟﻤﻮﻧ ﺔ اﻹﺳ ﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ ‪ .‬وﺳ ﻮاء أآﺎﻧ ﺖ اﻟﻤ ﻮاد اﻟﻄﻴﻨﻴ ﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻼف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت او ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮآﺎم ﻓﺎن وﺟﻮدهﺎ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻠﻄ ﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳ ﺎﻧﻴﺔ وذﻟ ﻚ ﺑ ﺴﺒﺐ ﺻ ﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬ ﺎ ﻓﻬ ﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮآﺎم وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺤﺘﺎج إﻟﻰ آﻤﻴﺔ اآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ اﻹﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ و ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻮاص اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬اﻟﺜﺒﺎت ‪: soundness‬‬
‫وﻳﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻬﺎ وﻋﺪم ﺣﺼﻮل ﺗﻐﻴﺮات ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ اوﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ اوآﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺪرﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻮاص اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ او اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﺳﺒﺎب ﻋﺪم ﺛﺒﺎت اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت هﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺮض ﻟﻪ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﺮات ﺣﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ اﻻﻧﺠﻤﺎد واﻟﺬوﺑﺎن ‪،‬اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮات‬
‫اﻟﺤﺮارﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺒﻠﻞ واﻟﺠﻔﺎف‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬وﺟﻮد اﻳﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﻠﻮر او اﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎت ‪:‬‬
‫وﺟﻮد اﻳﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﻠﻮر ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ان ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺻﺪأ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ ‪،‬اﻣﺎ اﻳﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎت ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺨﻔﺾ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺔ وﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺘﺖ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ اﻟﺘﻤﺪد‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬اﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ او اﻟﺘﻔﻠﻄﺢ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻮاص اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻄﺎزﺟﺔ او اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺪة ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻰ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﺎن ذﻟﻚ ﻳﺨﻔﺾ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪،‬وهﺬا ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻤﻔﻠﻄﺤﺔ و‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬واﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻤﻔﻠﻄﺤﺔ اﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺠﺰ اﻟﻤﺎء او ﻓﺮاﻏﺎت هﻮاﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ دﻳﻤﻮﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫)‪.(Durability‬‬
‫‪ -8‬وﺟﻮد ﺷﻮاﺋﺐ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﻣﻞ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﺎدة ﻳﻜﻮن ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ وﻣﻘﺎوم ﻟﻠﺘﺂآﻞ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اذا اﺣﺘﻮى ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻮاﺋﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻻﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ‪ .‬وﻳﻜﻮن اﺣﺘﻤﺎل وﺟﻮدهﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﻞ اآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ازاﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ب‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬


‫‪ -1‬اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎص واﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫*‪ -‬اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎص ‪ :‬هﻮ اﻟﺰﻳﺎدة ﻓﻲ وزن اﻟﺮآﺎم ﺑﺴﺒﺐ وﺟﻮد اﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة داﺧﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت وﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﻳﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ آﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮزن اﻟﺠﺎف ‪ .‬وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﺴﺐ اﻟﺨﻠﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺘﻮى‬
‫اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫*‪ -‬اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ وزن )ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء( ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎدة اﻟﻰ وزن ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﻘﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ درﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮارة ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬وهﻮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺑﻼ وﺣﺪات ‪.‬‬
‫*‪ -‬اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ اﻟﻈﺎهﺮي ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ وزن )ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء( ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎدة )ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺪون اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬة( اﻟﻰ وزن‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺴﺎوي ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﻘﻄﺮ ﻓﻲ درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫*‪ -‬اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ وزن )ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء( ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎدة )ﻳﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬة وﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬة ( إﻟﻰ وزن ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺴﺎوي ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﻘﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺮآﺎم ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ وﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ وﺣﺪة اﻟﻮزن‪.‬‬
‫*‪ -‬اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ) ‪ : (S S D‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻮزن ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء ﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎدة ) ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ وزن اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت‬
‫وذﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﻤﺮ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ‪ 24‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء ( اﻟﻰ وزن ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺴﺎوي ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﻘﻄﺮ ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم اذا‬
‫آﺎن اﻟﺮآﺎم رﻃﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﻣﻞ واﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ وذﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﺴﺐ اﻟﺨﻠﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎص ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮآﺎم ‪:‬‬
‫آﺘﻠﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮآﺎم ‪ .‬واﻟﺤﺠﻢ هﻨﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺮآﺎم واﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت اﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت أﻳﻀﺎ‪ .‬وﺗﻘﺎس ﺑﺎﻟـ آﻐﻢ‪/‬م‪. 3‬‬
‫اﻣﺎ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت ‪ voids‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮآﺎم هﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت وﻻ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت داﺧﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ‪ .‬وﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻬﺪ اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪76‬‬


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫‪ -4‬اﻟﻤﻘﺎس اﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺮآﺎم وﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺮوﻧﺔ‪:‬‬


‫*‪ -‬اﻟﻤﻘﺎس اﻻﻗﺼﻰ اﻟﻈﺎهﺮي ‪ :Nominal Max Size‬وﻳﻌﺮف ﺑﺄﻧﻪ اﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻘﺎس ﻣﻨﺨﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﺮآﺎم أن‬
‫ﺗﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ‪ .‬وﺑﺰﻳﺎدة اﻟﻤﻘﺎس اﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺮآﺎم ﺗﻘﻞ اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ واﻟﻤﺎء وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ أﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ إﻻ أن هﻨﺎك داﺋﻤﺎ ﺣﺪود ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎس اﻷﻗﺼﻰ اﻋﺘﻤﺎدا ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ واﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت ‪.‬‬
‫*‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻨﻌﻮﻣﺔ ‪ :‬هﻮ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺤﺴﺐ ﺑﺠﻤﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ آﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﻞ‬
‫)‪150µm,300µm,600µm,1.8mm,2.36mm,4.75mm,9.5mm,19mm,37.5mm divided by(100‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻻت اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎم ‪:‬‬


‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﻔﺎذﻳﺔ واﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎص ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎم ﻳﺆﺛﺮ آﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺮآﺎم واﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ اﻻﻧﺠﻤﺎد واﻟﺬوﺑﺎن وآﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮارﻳﺔ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ وﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺪش واﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن آﻞ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت ﻣﻤﻠﺆة ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء واﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺟﺎف ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ)ﻣﺸﺒﻊ ﺟﺎف اﻟﺴﻄﺢ( ‪.(S.SD) .‬‬
‫وﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺒﺨﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت ﻳﺘﺤﻮل اﻟﻰ ﺟﺎف ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء )‪ .(air dry‬ﻟﻜﻦ اذا ﺟﻔﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮن ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ آﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻴﺘﺤﻮل ﺑﺬﻟﻚ اﻟﺮآﺎم اﻟﻰ )ﺟﺎف ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮن ‪. (Oven dry‬‬
‫وﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﺮآﺎم رﻃﺐ او ﻣﺒﻠﻮل ) ‪ (moist or wet‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن آﻞ اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﺎت ﻣﺸﺒﻌﺔ وآﺬﻟﻚ هﻨﺎك رﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺳﻄﺤﻴﺔ اﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬

‫وﺟﻮداﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻀﺎرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎم‪:‬‬


‫هﻨﺎك ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻤﻮاد ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻀﺮة ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟﻮدهﺎ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎت آﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮآﺎم ﻣﺜﻞ ‪:‬اﻟﻄﻴﻦ‪،‬اﻟﻄﻤﻰ‪،‬ﻏﺒﺎر اﻟﻄﺒﺎﺷﻴﺮ‬
‫وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﻮاد ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ازاﻟﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺴﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫اﺧﺬ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج واﺟﺮاء اﻟﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎت ‪:‬‬


‫ﻋﻨﺪ إﺟﺮاء أي ﻓﺤﺺ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺬآﺮ اﻵﺗﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻳﺠﺐ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ آﻞ ﻣﺮة‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ ﻳﺠﺐ ان ﻳﻌﺒﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ آﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج اﻟﻤﻔﺤﻮص ﺑﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫وﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ رﺑﻌﻲ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ‪Cement‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺧﻠﻂ ﻣﻮاد اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ‪ ,‬ﻳﺠﺮي اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ واﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﻧﻮاﺗﺞ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﺮﺑﻂ اﻟﺮﻣﻞ واﻟﺮآﺎم‬
‫اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ هﺬﻩ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ ‪ hydration‬وﻣﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺸﺮط ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬
‫وﺗﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬وهﻮ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ‪:‬‬


‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎر ﻻﺟﻞ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﻠﻂ ﺣﺠﺎرة آﻠﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺠﺎرة رﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﻧﺘﺎج اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ وﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬اﻟﺘﻜﺴﻴﺮ واﻟﺘﻨﻌﻴﻢ ‪ :‬ﺗﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﺨﺎم وﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺼًﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ اﻟﻰ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ‪ 75‬ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮوﻣﺘﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻠﻂ ‪ :‬هﻨﺎك اﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﻤﻮاد ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﺮﻃﺐ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﻤﻮاد آﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﻃﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻠﻴﻈﺔ اﻟﻘﻮام‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﺠﺎف ﺗﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺗﻴﺎر‬
‫هﻮاﺋﻲ اﻟﻰ اﻟﻔﺮن‪ .‬ﺗﻔﻀﻞ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻻﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ اﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬اﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪ :1‬ﻳﻀﺦ اﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ اﻟﻰ ﻓﺮن دوار ﻣﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار ﺑﺴﻴﻂ وﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﺤﺮارة آﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺤﺐ اي ﻣﺎء ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ ‪ .‬وﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﻞ‬
‫اﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﻔﺮن اﻟﻰ ‪230‬م ﻃﻮل وﻗﻄﺮ ‪7‬م وﺗﺰداد درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﺗﺪرﻳﺠﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻃﻮل اﻟﻔﺮن‪.‬‬
‫• اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪ :2‬ﺗﺮﻓﻊ درﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ اﻟﻰ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ‪O600‬م ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﺤﻠﻞ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﺷﻴﺮ ﻣﻊ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮم و ﻳﺘﺤﻮل اﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺟﻴﺮ ﺣﻲ )‪. (Quick Lime‬‬
‫• اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪ :3‬اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﺼﻞ اﻟﻰ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ‪01500‬م و ‪ %30-20‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاد ﺗﺘﺤﻮل إﻟﻰ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ وﺑﻌﺪهﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺼﻬﺮ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ آﺮات اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪77‬‬


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺳﺤﺐ اﻟﻬﻮاء ‪ :‬وهﻮ ﺿﺮوري ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻠﻮث اﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﺠﻮي ﺑﻐﺒﺎر اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﻘﻂ اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﻓﻲ أﺣﻮاض ﻟﺘﺒﺮﻳﺪﻩ وﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻔﺮن وﻳﻜﻮن‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ )‪ (25 -2‬ﻣﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﺤﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ‪ :‬ﻳﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺠﺒﺲ وﻳﺴﺤﻘﺎن ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮل ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻰ )‪(80-2‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮون‪ .‬وﺗﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺠﺒﺲ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ اﻟﺘﺼﻠﺐ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻼﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺑﻤﺠﺮد إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻮاص اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي‪.:‬‬


‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﻣﻦ أرﺑﻊ ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت أوﻟﻴﺔ ‪،‬ﻳﻠﻌﺐ آﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ دورا ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ‪ ،‬وهﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪C3 S‬‬ ‫‪C2S‬‬ ‫‪C 3A‬‬ ‫‪C4AF‬‬
‫‪Tricalcium‬‬ ‫‪Dicalcium Silicate‬‬ ‫‪Tricalcium‬‬ ‫‪Tetracalcium Alimino-‬‬
‫‪Silicate‬‬ ‫‪Aluminate‬‬ ‫‪ferrite‬‬
‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺧﻮاص اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺐ وﺟﻮد هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺎت وﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺧﻠﻂ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﺎء ﺗﺒﺪأ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼت اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻮاﺗﺞ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﻧﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪.(HCP‬‬
‫اول ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ هﻮ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ C3A‬واﻟﻤﺎء وهﻮ أﺳﺮع اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼت وﻳﺠﺐ اﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮة ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ اﻟﺘﺼﻠﺐ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ )وذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺠﺒﺲ( وﺑﺘﻜﻮن ﻧﻮاﺗﺞ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺗﺒﻄﺄ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ ﻻن اﻟﻨﻮاﺗﺞ ﺗﺤﺠﺰ اﻟﻤﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ وهﺬﻩ اﻟﻔﺘﺮة‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺻﺒﻬﺎ ودﻣﻜﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮة ﺗﺘﻜﺴﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﺤﻮاﺟﺰ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻮاﺗﺞ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺗﺒﺪأ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﺪأ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض‪.‬‬
‫أهﻢ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻳﺆدي إﻟﻰ اآﺘﺴﺎب اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ هﻮ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻟـ ‪ C3S‬و ‪، C2S‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪ C3S‬اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮة ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ‪ C2S‬ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻪ أﺑﻄﺄ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ C3A‬ﻻ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﺴﺆول ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮر آﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻓﻲ اﻷﻳﺎم اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ C4AF‬ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺷﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺴﺒﺐ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻮن اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺮﻣﺎدي‪.‬‬
‫وﻳﻮﺿﺢ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ أدﻧﺎﻩ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ آﻞ ﻣﺮآﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ وآﺬﻟﻚ اﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎث اﻟﺤﺮاري ‪.‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪78‬‬


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫أﻧﻮاع اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي ‪:‬‬


‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺻﻨﺎع اﻧﻮاع ﻋﺪﻳﺪة ﻣﻦ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬
‫‪ASTMC150 , AASHTo M85 , ASTM C1157‬‬

‫ﻧﻮع ‪):I‬ﻋﺎدي(‬
‫وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﻼﻏﺮاض اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮن هﻨﺎك ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﻮع اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﻣﺜﻞ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻗﺎت‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻟﻸرﺿﻴﺎت ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺠﺴﻮر ‪ ،‬اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮدﻋﺎت ‪ ،‬اﻷﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬اﻟﻜﺘﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻮع ‪:II‬‬
‫وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻋﻨﺪ وﺟﻮد أﻣﻼح اﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎت ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﺔ او اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻮع ‪:III‬‬
‫وﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺤﻖ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ أآﺜﺮ ﻧﻌﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻴﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ أﺑﻜﺮ وذﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ اﻟﻘﻮاﻟﺐ ﺑﻮﻗﺖ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ أو ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﺑﻮﻗﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻮع ‪:IV‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻻن ﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ اﻗﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ‪ ،‬وﻳﺘﻢ اآﺘﺴﺎب اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺑﺒﻂء‪ .‬وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫آﺘﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺴﺪود ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻮع ‪:V‬‬
‫وﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎت ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ وﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺑﺒﻂء ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮع ‪.I‬‬
‫* هﻨﺎك اﻧﻮاع اﺧﺮى ﻣﺜﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي ذو اﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد‬
‫اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي اﺑﻴﺾ اﻟﻠﻮن وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﻤﻨﺖ‪:‬‬


‫‪ -‬اﻟﻨﻌﻮﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﺆﺛﺮ اﻟﻨﻌﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ )اﻻﻣﺎهﺔ(‪ ،‬آﻠﻤﺎ زادت ﻧﻌﻮﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ زادت ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﺠﻞ اآﺘﺴﺎب اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﺗﺤﺴﺐ ﻧﻌﻮﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﺤﺺ واآﻨﺮ او ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﻞ او ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺷﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬اﻟﺜﺒﺎت اﻟﺤﺠﻤﻲ ‪ :‬وهﻮ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺘﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ‪ .‬واﻟﻔﺤﺺ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ هﻮ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺺ ‪ soundness‬ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟـ ‪BS‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﺺ ‪ The autoclave-expansion‬ﺣﺴﺐ ‪.ASTM‬‬
‫‪ -‬اﻟﻘﻮام اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪ :‬هﻮ ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﻟﻘﺪرة اﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﻳﺎن ‪ ،‬وﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ذات ﻗﻮام ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ اذا ﺣﺼﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ اﺧﺘﺮاق‬
‫ﺑﻘﺪر ‪ 1±10‬ﻣﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺟﻬﺎز ﻓﺎﻳﻜﺖ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪.ASTM‬‬
‫‪ -‬زﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ ‪:‬هﺬا اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺤﻈﺔ اﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻰ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﻰ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻮل اﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﻟﻰ ﻟﺪﻧﺔ وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ هﺬا زﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ اﻻﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ و اﻟﺰﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﻟﻠﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻞ اﻟﻰ درﺟﺔ ﺗﺼﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ هﺬا زﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﺟﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪:‬وﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﺎت ﺑﻀﻠﻊ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام رﻣﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻊ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬
‫واﻟﻤﺎء وذﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ASTM‬وﺗﻔﺤﺺ ﺑﻌﺪهﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪-‬اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ واﻟﻮزن اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ‪ :‬وهﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ )ﺑﺪون اﻟﻬﻮاء ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت( وﺗﻘﺎس ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮام‪/‬ﺳﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫وﺗﺘﺮاوح ﻟﻼﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺒﻮرﺗﻼﻧﺪي ﺑﻴﻦ )‪ (3.25-3.1‬ﺑﻤﻌﺪل ‪3.15‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪79‬‬


‫‪Properties and Testing of Concrete Materials‬‬ ‫‪6/7/2008 - 17/7/2008‬‬

‫ﻣﺎء اﻟﺨﻠﻂ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬


‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎر أي ﻣﺎء ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺸﺮب وﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﻌﻢ واﻟﺮاﺋﺤﺔ ‪،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ ﻟﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫هﻨﺎك ﺑﻌﺾ اﻧﻮاع اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺸﺮب وﻣﻊ ذﻟﻚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺎآﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺟﺮاء ﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻻﻧﻀﻐﺎط ﻟﻤﻮﻧﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ واذا ﺣﺼﻠﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﻻﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ‪ %90‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻧﻀﻐﺎط ﻣﻜﻌﺒﺎت اﺧﺮى ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻻﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﺎء ﻣﻘﻄﺮ او ﻣﺎء‬
‫ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻟﻠﺸﺮب ‪ .‬ﻓﺎن اﻟﻤﺎء ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫آﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ اﻟﺘﺎآﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ زﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ اﻻﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ واﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫رﻏﻢ ذﻟﻚ ﻓﺎن اﻟﻤﺎء ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻟﻠﺸﺮب ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆدي اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻰ ﺣﺼﻮل ﺑﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ او ﺻﺪا ﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ او ﻋﺪم ﺛﺒﺎت ﺣﺠﻤﻲ وﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻣﺔ )‪.(durability‬‬

‫ﻣﺎء ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬


‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎم ‪،‬اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ او رش اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﻲ ان ﻳﺨﻠﻮ ﻣﺎء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ او اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ او ﺛﺎﻧﻲ اآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن اﻟﺤﺮ او هﻴﺪروآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮم اﻟﺬاﺋﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Prepared by Balsam J. Farid‬‬ ‫‪80‬‬