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1(38)
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72 / . . . . :
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ISBN 589329
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. . , 2006
(.), 2006
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ISBN 589329



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04372 26.03.2001 .
,
192171, , . , . 53.
./: (812) 5608947
Email: office@aletheia.spb.ru
www.aletheia.spb.ru

, . , ., 9. . (095) 3364532
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Printed in Russia
1ac,cnxc b
BBEEHHE
B nayuno: coomecrne iryir (ne rouin apennn na npoe:y
reneanca rpeuecion ]noco]nn. Croponnnin o(noro nanpanennn or-
crannair nonyi ca:oirnocri rpeuecioro reopernuecioro :imennn,
croponnnin (pyroro cionni cno(nri nce i npn:i: aan:crnonannn: c
Bocroia. B (encrnnreinocrn nonpoc o nocrounix nnnnnnx na aapo-
(enne n paannrne rpeuecion ]noco]nn oiaainaercn oee coni:.
Hn croponnnin anroxronnoro nponcxo(ennn rpeuecion ]noco]nn n
nayin, nn npnnnnmne npornnonoonyi rouiy apennn n no(uepinnai-
mne opnenrainie ncroin ioc:oornuecinx yuennn (pennerpeuecinx
:icnreen VlV nn. (o n... ne c:orn (ari iaprnni, ioropan i
ncecroponne orpaaa peainoe nooenne nemen, n aa(aua coa(annn
raion iaprnni (o cnx nop cronr neci:a ocrpo.
]n onpe(eennn oee nn :enee nepcneirnnnix no(xo(on i peme-
nni npoe:i reneanca ]noco]nn neoxo(n:o io:neicnoe pacc:orpe-
nne cnryannn e(nnoro iyirypnoro npocrpancrna, connmencn n Cpe(n-
ae:no:opie n nepno( VllV nn. (o n..., ioropan ne :ora ne oiaaari
nnnnnn na paannrne .nncioro :npa. Bocrounie nnnnnn na rpeueciyi
iyirypy coornercrnyimen .noxn, eccnopno, n:en :ecro, no ne ce(yer
nn(eri aa .rn:n coni:n n (nreini:n nponecca:n, nniai ne yia(i-
naimn:ncn n nepno( nann o(noro noioennn, npocrix aan:crnonannn.
Ha nam narn( cnpane(nno .ro n (n noa:onix npancinx nnn-
nnn na noanninonenne n cranonenne pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn. Ecn
:i (onyciae: noa:onocri nocrounix nnnnnn, n n ro: unce npanc-
inx, ro nepe( na:n nenaeno ncraer nonpoc o ]op:ax n rnnax .roro
nnnnnn (npn:oe, onocpe(onannoe, naan:noe) n ero peainon anaun:oc-
rn (n paannrnn ]noco]nn. Hn nni:n cona:n, ocnonnan aa(aua, ni-
reiaiman na raioro (onymennn, .ro nonn:anne roro, nacioiio ce-
no ce(onan ]noco]i (ecn ce(onan noome) aa npancin:n opaa-
na:n. B raio: cyuae nyno onpe(enricn c re:, k.k pemari .ror non-
poc, onpe(enri cnocoi ero pemennn. Boa:ono, uro n:enno ncropnio-
A. 1. 1a.: 6 1ac,cnxc 7
]noco]cine ocnonannn, narn( na npoe:y nanyrpn ca:on ]noco-
]nn, cnoconi (ari y(onernopnreinie peayirari.
Bonpoc o nnenocrounix nnnnnnx na rpeueciyi iyirypy iai
lux ex Orien: (anno n airnnno paapaarinaercn n nayunon nreparype.
Hpn .ro: nnn:anne ncce(onareen nanpaneno no npen:ymecrny na
Neconora:ni n ee nnnnne na naii, :n], iyir, pnrya n nciyccrno
lpennn nepno(a lecno(a n lo:epa. Hanoimee anauenne n .ron oac-
rn n:eir rpy(i mnennapcioro cnennancra n oacrn (pennerpeuecion
]noornn, ]noco]nn n penrnn Bairepa Lypiepra (Wal:er Burker:),
ero nnorpa]nn no io:naparnnni: ncce(onannn: Bocroia n lpennn
nacunrinaer cnime rpn(narn paor, anaunreinan uacri ioropix :o-
norpa]nn, n ocoennocrn Die Orien:alisierende Epoche in der griechischen
Peligion und Li:era:ur
1
n Homo necans. ln:erpre:a:ionen al:griechischer
Operri:us und Ny:hen
2
, raie ce(yer oparnri nnn:anne na innry
J.::n.nn, 1.1u:kc:1, 1.o1a/z. lunk:ionen und Leis:ungen des Ny:hos.
Drei al:orien:alische Beispiele
8
. Ha oreuecrnennix ncce(onannn or:e-
rn: paory 1.1. Xx.cnka. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi
4
.
Hpn ncen airnnnocrn n paapaorie (annon omen re:arnin ncce(ona-
ren npairnuecin ne iacaircn nonpoca o nnnnnnx Hpana na lpenni, n
re: oee ocraercn n cropone npe(]noco]cinn n ]noco]cinn .e-
:enr rpeuecion iyirypi, ocoenno pannero nepno(a. Or:ern:, uro n
conpe:ennix aapyenix ncce(onannnx ]airnuecin orcyrcrnyir pa-
ori, n ioropix nonpoci nocrounix nnnnnn na pannii rpeueciyi
]noco]ni pacc:arpnnanci i n oomaime: nn(e, aa nciiuenne:
ncce(onannn A.1. 1c:1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:
b
, n
ioropon, no:n:o npancinx, mnpoio ocnemeni :econora:cine n nn(nnc-
ine napaen, no ca:a paora ne nmena ne(ocrarion n :ero(oornuec-
io: nane. ]pyron anaun:on paoron nnnercn crarin B. Lypiepra
lranisches bei Anaximandros
6
, no ona ne (aer omen iaprnni npancinx
nnnnnn na pannnn nepno( ]noco]nn. B oreuecrnennon nayie (n ]no-
co]cion n ro: unce) cnennainix ncce(onannn no (annon npoe:a-
rnie ner. Cymecrnyer crarin .1. .cc,ca. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn-
:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei
1
, n ioropon on yiaainaer na npancine
nnnnnn na ]noco]ni Anaicn:an(pa, no no :noro: onnpaercn na yia-
aannyi nime paory N. Y.cra. Yno:nnair ea iaioro-no cnennaino-
ro ncce(onannn n cciion na onpe(eennix anropon o npancinx nn-
nnnnx na rpeueciyi ]noco]ni H.]. Poancinn
2
n .A. eeion
8
.
Ni npe(arae: rnnorernuecinn no(xo( i (annon npoe:arnie: na
nam narn(, ce(yer ]nicnponari ne ]air nnnnnn, a roiio ero noa:o-
nocri. Hpnunnon raioro niopa nocyno cocronnne ncrounnion, iai
rpeuecinx, rai n npancinx, ioropie cnino ]par:enrnponani n aauacryi
ornocnrcn i oee noa(ne:y npe:enn. Hpn paore c (pennn:n npancin:n
reicra:n noanniair nanecrnie aarpy(nennn c nepeno(o:. ro iacaercn
cpe(neneionix nexennncinx reicron, ne nyno aainari o nnnnnn na
nexennnciyi (cpe(nenepcn(ciyi) nreparypy iaccnuecion anrnunon
]noco]nn Harona, a ocoenno Apncroren. B cny .roro name nnn:anne
y(er nanpaneno ne roiio na reicronin :arepna, n noe apennn y(er
niiuen mnpoinn ipyr (ononnreinix :arepnaon, niiuan :n] n rpa(n-
nni pnryaa iai reicr, .nncine ncropnuecine cnn(ereicrna. Ni coana-
reino oriaaanci or noncia npn:ix reicronix coornercrnnn n iaiinpo-
nannn, nocioiiy ropaa(o oee nnrepecni: n (anno: cyuae na: noiaaa-
oci npe(crannri n(ennie, ionnenryainie, cierno-rnnoornuecine na-
paen n nx anana. Tain: opaao:, :i no(omn i npoe:e npancinx
nnnnnn, aann:an cyryo cienrnueciyi noannni, n noarae:, uro ce(yer
ocranonnricn ne na noncie ]aira nnnnnn, a na pannonainix oneniax
noa:onocrn naan:o(encrnnn (nyx rpa(nnnn, npnue: (ae ne croiio n
iiue nx ncropnuecion noa:onocrn, noonreinin orner n (anno:
cyuae npe(ocranner mnpoioe noe (n ]anraann, a c rouin apennn cnoco-
on onenin roro ]airnuecioro :arepnaa, ioropi: :i oa(ae: c noannnn
ero cnoconocrn cynri ocnonanne: (n nino(on o npancinx nnnnnnx.
1
1u:kc:1 1. Die Orien:alisierende Epoiiche in der griechischen Peligion und Li:era:ur
; Vorge:ragen am. 8. Nai 1982 |von] W. Burker:. Heidelberg: Win:er, 1982.
2
1u:kc:1 1. Homo necans. ln:erpre:a:ionen al:griechischer Operri:us und Ny:hen.
Berlin, New York: De Gruy:er, 1972.
8
::n.nn J., 1u:kc:1 1., o1a/z 1. lunk:ionen und Leis:ungen des Ny:hos. Drei
al:orien:alische Beispiele. lreiburg, Schweiz: Univer-si:a :sverlag, Go::ingen:
Vandenhoeck & Puprech:, 1982.
4
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N.: Hayia, l. pe(.
nocr. nr. 1990.
b
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord: A: :he Clarendon
Press, 1971.
6
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106.
1
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 1, .cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p,
a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2.
2
1a.nckxx 1.. Necro Anaicn:ena n cranonennn rpeuecioro nayunoro :im-
ennn ;; Balcanica. nnrnncrnuecine ncce(onannn. N.: Hayia, 1979. C. 177
189, 1a.nckxx 1.. Paannrne ecrecrnoanannn n .noxy anrnunocrn. Pannnn rpe-
uecian nayia o npnpo(e. N.: Hayia, 1979.
8
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. N.: Hayia, 1991, .c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren-
(ennnn aapyenon anecroornn ;; Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2, .c.c-
kaa ... Anecra n conpe:ennon nayie. N., 1992.
A. 1. 1a.: 8 1ac,cnxc 9
Annnci uacrii npoe:i nnenocrounix nnnnnn na paannrne
.nncion iyirypi n, n ro: unce, ]noco]nn, npoe:a npancinx nn-
nnnn, cymecrnyn c cepe(nni XlX n., ornocnreino mnpoio craa ocne-
maricn n nayunon nreparype, no ipannen :epe, n noce(nne nnri(ecnr
er. Hnrepec i npancion re:arnie n conocranennn c rpeuecion ]noco-
]nen ouenn(en n onpan(an ca:on ncropnen pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn,
nocioiiy npn anaunreino: ionuecrne yno:nnannn n anrnunon ]no-
co]cion rpa(nnnn o oyuennn y nocrounix :y(penon, 3opoacrp i
npairnuecin e(nncrnenni: n nanoee uacro yno:nnae:i: nocrouni:
yunree:, n ecrecrnenno, uro nepeno( Anecri na ]pannyacinn naii
(1771) y neioropix ncce(onareen ne :or ne nianari nnoro nnrepeca i
noa:onocrn onapyennn npancinx n(en y rpeuecinx ]noco]on. Kai
npanno, nonnenne nonix rpy(on, nocnnmennix npoe:e npancinx nn-
nnnn na rpeueciyi ]noco]ni, conna(ao c nepno(a:n nonix oripirnn n
oacrn npanncrnin, n n nepnyi ouepe(i c nepno(a:n nayuennn Anecri
1
.
Hepnan ocroponan ]op:ynponia nonpoca o npancinx nnnnnnx
nonnnaci n rpy(ax l. Schleiermacher n nauae XlX n.: npoanananponan
]par:enri lepainra, on c(ea nino( o nnnnnn npancion :y(pocrn
na yuenne 3]ecna. Hecioiio noa(nee (18191821) i .ro:y nonpocy
oparncn l. Creuzer
2
. On onpe(en yuenne lepainra nnone n (yxe
3opoacrpa, roiio ocenennoe ncnon .nnncrnuecion ornion, iai aneno
:e(y nocrouni: .e:enrapna:o: n rpeuecin: pannonana:o:. B cepe-
(nne XlX n. A. Gladisch n pn(e rpy(on
8
naon cnoi reopni, coracno
ioropon pannne rpeuecine ]noco]i Hn]arop, lepainr, Kceno]an,
3:ne(oi n Anaicarop ncnoiaonan paanunie penrnoanie npe(-
cranennn (n nocrpoennn cocrnennix ]noco]cinx cncre:, ioropie
noa(nee in oomeni Harono:. lpeuecian ]noco]nn npe(cranaa
a(eci iai nepmnna nnreeiryainoro paannrnn ueoneia
4
. 3ra n(en ne
noyuna cepieanon no((epin n nayuno: coomecrne, n noce ipnrnin
3. Ueepo:
b
(oroe npe:n ocranaaci nenocrpeonannon nayuni: coo-
mecrno:
1
. B 1910 r. P. Eisler nocrynpona nanune omero npancioro
ncrounnia (n cranonennn yuennn op]nion, 4epein(a Cnpoccioro n
Anaicn:an(pa Nnercioro
2
. B cnoen crarie Zoroas:rian :eachings and
Greek Philosophy A.-H. Chrous:
8
npnno(nr oioo (nyx (ecnrion paor
1-n noonnni XX n., nocnnmennix nonpocy nponninonennn aopoacr-
pnncioro yuennn n rpeueciyi ]noco]ni. Nnorne na .rnx paor rai-
e ne noyunn mnpoioro peaonanca. Kai npanno, anropi na ocnona-
nnn onpe(eennoro rnnoornuecioro cxo(crna :e(y neioropi:n .e:en-
ra:n n n(en:n aopoacrpnncioro yuennn n rpeuecinx ]noco]on crannr
nonpoc o aan:crnonannn nn nnnnnn npancion iyirypi na rpeueciyi.
O(naio ouenn(no, uro nanune iainx i ro nn io napaeen eme ne
ronopnr o nnnnnn. Ho cyrn, npoe:a npancinx nnnnnn, iai n nocrou-
nix nnnnnn n neo:, na rpeueciyi iyirypy ocraercn npoe:on n ana-
unreinon crenenn :ero(oornuecion. Bnepnie oparnnmnncn i .ro:y
nonpocy B. Lypiepr
4
or:eua, uro nocrounie nnnnnn npnanaircn n orno-
mennn :nornx cocrannimnx rpeuecion iyirypi. Tai, nanpn:ep, or:e-
uaercn nannoncioe nponcxo(enne rpeuecion :are:arnin n acrpono:nn,
:e(nnnni, Anaicn:an(py npnnncinaercn nne(enne rno:ona (coneunix
uacon), nanecrnix na Bocroie aa(oro (o roro
b
. Hyno aa:ernri, uro ne-
ioropie anropi orpnnair iaiyi i ro nn io nepe(auy anannn c Bocro-
ia, no ipannen :epe, (o .noxn Aeican(pa Naie(oncioro, iai, nanpn:ep,
.A. A:y(i, co cciion na T. Xnra n H.]. Poancioro
6
.
Heioropi:n yueni:n, c yuero: ncex conocren, ioropie :oryr cro-
nri nepe( ncce(onaree: npn opamennn i (anno:y nonpocy, npnanaercn
1
Hepno(i nayuennn Anecri: (l) 17711826 rr., (ll) 18881880-e rr. XlX n., (lll) (o
80-x rr. XX n., (lV conpe:ennin) c 80-x rr. XX n. Ho(ponee c:. 1.:xnckxx
1.C. Anecra ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr., om. pe(.,
npn:eu., cnpan. paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., Aypna Hena PXlH, 1997. C. 8146].
2
C:cuzc: 1. Symbolik und Ny:hologie der al:en Volker. 2
nd
ed., 18191821. C:.
raie: 1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord: A: :he Clarendon
Press, 1971. C. 166.
8
C/.c::c/ uu:1. Die Peligion und die Philosophie in ihrer wel:geschich:lichen
En:wickelung und S:ellung zu einander nach den Urkunden dargeleg:. Breslau:
l. Hir:, 18b2, C/.c::c/ Augus:. Heraklei:as und Zoroas:er. Leipzig, 18b9.
4
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. C. 166167.
b
1c..c . Ouepi ncropnn rpeuecion ]noco]nn. Hep. c 1-ro ne:. na(. CH., 1886.
1
1cccx,x J.A. Kon(aeia B.B. lepainr n ]pennnn Bocroi (ipnrnuecine aa:er-
in) ;; Hayunie (oia(i nicmen mioi. 4noco]cine nayin. 1981. N b. N.,
1981. C. 94
2
1::/c: 1. Wel:enman:el und Himmelszel:. Peligions-geschich:liche Un:ersuchungen
zur Urgeschich:e des an:iken Wel:bildes. 2 vols. Nunich, C. H. Beck, 1910.
8
C/:au:1 .-1. The lnluence o Zoroas:rian Teachings on Pla:o, Aris:o:le, and
Greek Philosophy in General ;; New scholas:icism. Wash., 1980. Vol.b4. N 8.
4
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros ;; Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106.
b
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayia: Nare:arnia ]pennero Ernnra,
Bannonnn n lpennn. |Hn]aropencioe yuenne o rap:onnn]. Hep. c ro. H.H.
Beceoncioro. N., 19b9, 1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(e-
nne acrpono:nn. Hep. c anr. l.E. Kyprnna, no( pe(. A.A. lypmrenna. N., 1991,
1a.nckxx 1.. Paannrne ecrecrnoanannn n .noxy anrnunocrn. Pannnn rpeuec-
ian nayia o npnpo(e. N., 1979, 1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros ;;
Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie. 1968. V. 106.
6
2+,,: .. Hn]arop n pannen rpa(nnnn ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 198b.
N 2. C. 128.
A. 1. 1a.: 10 1ac,cnxc 11
npncyrcrnne npancinx .e:enron n paanunix iyirypax. J.H. Charleswor:h
1
or:euaer npancine nnnnnn na ny(enciyi reoorni, n uacrnocrn, n (oiy-
:enre ny(encion rpa(nnnn, n:enye:o: Hcropnn aroconennix cino-
nen Pexannra, on or:euaer :noecrno napaeen c npancion (oaopoac-
rpnncion :n]oornuecion rpa(nnnen. Te:a :ecroonrannn aennix
:yen paapaarinaercn n crarie ]. N. ]y(io Lein ocrpon Axna n
nn(onpancian :n]oornn
2
, n ioropon on, raie iai n npe(i(ymnn nc-
ce(onarei, npnanaer npe(cranennn o neioe: y(aenno: :ecre, n ioro-
po: onrair aroconennie :yn (n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn .ro :ecro
n:enyercn Lei: ocrpono: Axna) iai nocrouno-npancine no nponc-
xo(enni. Kpo:e roro, J.H. Charleswor:h n nimeyno:nnyron paore
(aer cciin na S.S. Har:man, G. Widengren, A. Hul:gard, ioropie (oia-
ainan :erminus ad quem (n npancinx anoiannrnuecinx n(en n nepno(
oi. VlV nn. (o n..., ioropie y(nnnreino cxo(ni c ny(encion n xpncrn-
ancion anoiannrnuecion nreparypon
8
. H.N. ]inionon or:euaer, uro
oecrno Any n xyppnrcion :n]oornn aann:aer ca:oe or(aennoe neo,
uro ne coornercrnyer xyppnrcion rpa(nnnn, no nnone :oer iri coor-
neceno c npancin:n ioc:oornuecin:n npe(cranennn:n
1
. Hpn nce: ro:,
n nonpoce o nponcxo(ennn rpeuecion ]noco]nn nocrounie (n uacrno-
crn, npancine) nnnnnn (o cnx nop n:eir craryc npoe:i, ioropan nce
eme (er cnoero pemennn. Ho cona: B. Lypiepra, .ra npoe:a cyme-
crnyer roiio no coopaennn: :ero(nuecion ocroponocrn n, oee
roro, ocraercn n cropone na-aa ne(ocrarounon io:nerenrnocrn ee ncce(o-
nareen n .ron oacrn
2
.
Loee roro, :i niny(eni coracnricn c N. Y.cro:
8
, uro oi-
mnncrno yuenix, ynepennix n nanoee nainx n: oacrnx anannn, n
(pyrnx uyncrnyir cen neio:nerenrni:n, ocoenno ra:, r(e (o .roro
ye in c(eani omnounie nino(i: ycranonnri apiepi erue, ue:
nx npeo(oeri. Pemenne ion npoe:i ne oxo(nrcn ea onpe(een-
non (on cienrnnna:a n neioropon oc:orpnreinocrn. ]encrnnreino,
io i oueni c:ei: maro: (eari o(noanaunie n ecio:npo:nccnie
yrnep(ennn ornocnreino npancion n pannerpeuecion rpa(nnnn: nc-
ce(onarei crainnaercn c neci:a cepieani:n aarpy(nennn:n, cnnaan-
ni:n, npe(e ncero, c cocronnne: ncrounnion.
Hn o(no counnenne nepno(a pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn nonoc-
rii (o nac ne (omo. Ni pacnoarae: neioropi: unco: nnrar na coun-
nennn noa(nen anrnunocrn n anaunreini: cno(o: cnn(ereicrn, ioro-
pie nnor(a nocnr co:nnreinin n anei(ornuecinn xapairep. Teicri, co-
(epamne nnrari (ocoiparnion, oiaainaircn narpyeni pemennn:n
necioiinx rpa(nnnn: iai :nnn:y:, .ro cocrnennie pemennn (oicorpa-
]on, npnna(eamnx i noa(neanrnunon rpa(nnnn, nepcnn iaccnuecion
rpa(nnnn (Haron, Apncrorei), anropnrer ioropon (oicorpa]i nourn
ncer(a yunrinair, n ecn io::enrarop npnna(ea pannexpncrnancion
rpa(nnnn, ne nciiueno n xpncrnancioe co(epanne n ncce(ye:ix rei-
crax. Orcyrcrnne opnrnnainix reicron niny(aer ncce(onareen cy-
(nri o ]noco]nn nepnoro nepno(a no cnn(ereicrna: (oicorpa]on, n
aauacryi nx nino(i n coopaennn .icrpanonpyircn nenocpe(crnenno
na ]noco]ni (ocoiparnion.
1
C/.:/c:a:1/ J.1. Greek, Persian, Poman, Syrian, and Egyp:ian lnluences in
early Jewish Theology ;; Hellenica and Judaica. LeuvenParis: Edi:ions Pee:ers,
1986.
2
,,ka .A. Lein ocrpon Axna n nn(onpancian :n]oornn ;; Bocroi
Oriens.1998. N 1.
8
S.S. Har:man yrnep(aer, uro npancian, raie iai n ny(encian n xpncrnancian
anoiannrnia, cnnaani c nonomenne: nepnonpe(ia, npopoion n .cxaroornuec-
inx cnacnreen |1.:1n.n o.o. Da:ierung der jungaves:ischen Apokalip:ik ;;
Apocalip:icism in :he Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas: ; Proceedings o
:he ln:erna:ional Colloquium on Apocalip:icism. Uppsala, Augus: 1217, 1979.
Ed. D. Hellholm ; J.C.B. Nohr (Paul Siebeck). Tu bingen, 1989. P. 64]. G.Widengren
naainaer 3aparymrpy (76 nn. (o n...) nepnin anoiannrni |1:ccn:cn C.
Lei:ende ldeen und Quellen der iranischen Apokalip:ik ;; Apocalip:icism in :he
Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas: ; Proceedings o :he ln:erna:ional
Colloquium on Apocalip:icism. Uppsala, Augus: 1217, 1979. Ed. D. Hellholm ;
J.C.B. Nohr (Paul Siebeck). Tubingen, 1989. P. 8b]. ]n Bn(enrpena (na ran-
nix nynira xapairepncrnin :a(oanecrnncioro Anoianncnca .ro nepa n
nocipecenne na :eprnix n paannrne opaaa n cn:nonin Caominnra, Cnacnre-
n par excellence. A.Hul:grd (oiaainaer, uro npancinn anoiannrna: (oen
iri (arnponan (o V n. (o n... |1u/1:c nc:c:. lorms and Origin o lranian
Apocalip:icism ;; Apocalip:icism in :he Nedi:erranean World and :he Near
Eas: ; Proceedings o :he ln:erna:ional Colloquium on Apocalip:icism. Uppsala,
Augus: 1217, 1979. Ed. D. Hellholm ; J.C.B. Nohr (Paul Siebeck). Tubingen,
1989]. 3a:ern:, uro raie n K.Honnep co cciion na Ed Neyer |Ac,c: 1c.
Geschich:e des Al:er:ums. S:a:u::gar:. Berlin: J.G. Go::a`sche buchhandlung
nacholger, 1907] noaraer, uro npo]ernuecine penrnn cy(ii, yna(ia n cna-
cennn, cpe(n ioropix n ny(encian reoornn, nonnnnci no( nnnnne: nepcn(c-
inx aanoenannn |1ac 1. Oripiroe omecrno n ero nparn ; Hep. c anr. no(
om. pe(. B.H. Ca(oncioro. T. 1. api Harona |Penpnnr 1991 r.]. N., 1992],
C/.:/c:a:1/ J.1. Greek, Persian, Poman, Syrian, and Egyp:ian lnluences in early
Jewish Theology ;; Hellenica and Judaica. LeuvenParis: Edi:ions Pee:ers,
1986. P. 228.
1
:skanaa 1.A. Apxanuecine :n]i Bocroia n 3ana(a. N., 1990. C. 222.
2
me:hodischer Vorsich: und zus:a ndigkei:shalber beisei:ezuschieben |1u:kc:1
1. lranisches bei Anaximandros ;; Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie. 1968.
V. 106. C. 100.]
A. 1. 1a.: 12 1ac,cnxc 18
Cnryannn c npancin:n ncrounnia:n npe(crannercn ne na:noro yu-
men. Kopnyc reicron Anecri n aopoacrpnncine reicri na cpe(nenep-
cn(cio: naiie, rai naainae:an nexennncian nreparypa, no cnoe:y ore:y
anaunreini. Te: ne :enee, oa iopnyca reicron ornocnreino noa(no
aanncani. Crapenmnn na coxpannnmnxcn cnncion Anecri (arnpyercn
1278 r., nanoee pannne nexennncine reicri ornocnr i lX n. n...
Teicr Anecri nanncan na .accfxxcka+ naiie, ioropin, iai no-
arair neioropie anropi, ye n l ric. (o n... i :eprni: naiio: n
ncnoiaonacn roiio n iyironix nenx
1
. Anecrnncinn a]annr i
coa(an pena:n (n aanncn cnnmennix reicron ne panee lV n ne no-
a(nee Vl n. n...
2
. Ho :nenni H.N. ]inionona, ocnonnie uacrn Anecri
(oni in cymecrnonari n aanncn (o .noxn Aeican(pa Naie(oncio-
ro, nocioiiy noce lV n. (o n... aa(aua peioncrpyinnn xapairepnix
ocoennocren croi apxanuecioro naiia, iai anecrnncinn npe(cranner-
cn oueni aarpy(nnreinon
8
.
nmi (n neioropix na .rnx reicron ycranoneno nanoee pan-
nee nanncanne n (pennenmee co(epanne. B iopnyce Anecri, .ro, no-
nepnix, lari ce:na(nari ran Acni, nryprnuecinx :onrnen-
nix necnonennn, :onrnennie necnn, coa(anne ioropix rpa(nnnn
npnnncinaer nenocpe(crnenno 3aparymrpe, (arnpyircn lXVll nn. (o
n... Heioropie rani Acni (r. 911, b8) ornocnr i axe:enn(cio:y
nepno(y. Or(einie Amri xnaenie necnn oecrna:, raine iai
Ap(nncyp-nmr n Nnxp-nmr (arnpyircn VllV nn. (o n...
4
Ha nexennncion nreparypi nanoee (pennn:n no co(epanni
npe(crannircn Lyn(axnmn (Cornopenne ocnoni), nnnimnncn nepe-
oenne: n nepeno(o: ne(ome(mero ]a:(a(-nacia Anecri, (arnpye-
:oro V n. (o n... n Nenor-n Xpar (Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a), ioropin
co(epnr anaunreinin nacr apxanuecinx :n]oornuecinx cne(ennn
b
.
Ha nam narn(, ncce(yn npoe:y npancinx nnnnnn na ]op:npo-
nanne n paannrne pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn, nenoa:ono orpannun-
naricn roiio ]par:enrapni:n reicra:n pannerpeuecinx ]noco]on n
aopoacrpnncin:n reicra:n. Paanocroponnee n nononennoe ocnemenne
npoe:i noa:ono roiio c npnneuenne: oee mnpoioro ipyra :a-
repnaon. Hocioiiy npoe:a npancioro nnnnnn na rpeueciyi iyi-
rypy n neo: nac nnrepecyer n ron :epe, n iaion ee ncce(onanne cno-
cocrnyer npo(nnenni n ncce(onannn, npe(e ncero nnrepecyimen
nac oee yaion npoe:i npancioro nnnnnn na reneanc rpeuecion
]noco]nn, ro coornercrnenno, n rpeuecio: :arepnae ocoin nnrepec
(n nac npe(crannir reicri, ornocnmnecn ne roiio i pannerpeuecion
]noco]nn, no raie :n]oornuecinn :arepna, :n] iai reicr, uro
cnnaano c poii :n]oornn n ]op:nponannn npe(]noco]nn. Henoa-
:ono n raio: cyuae oonrn (annie ncropnuecion n .rnorpa]nuecion
nayi, n nepnyi ouepe(i .nncine ncropnuecine cnn(ereicrna, na-
nenmn: na ioropix nnnercn Hcropnn lepo(ora
1
. Xorn reorpa]nuec-
inn an(ma]r, ncropnio-iyirypnie n nnrnncrnuecine (annie, pen-
rnoano-:n]nuecine npe(cranennn Anecri, iai cunrair neioropie
ncce(onaren nocrouno-npancioro nponcxo(ennn
2
, re: ne :enee,
lepo(or, oropaan aana(no-npancine (nepcn(cine) peann, pacnoara
oueni nani:n cne(ennn:n n ]aira:n, ioropi:n ne ce(yer npenepe-
rari. Kpo:e roro, paanunie conpe:ennie ncce(onannn, raine iai, na-
npn:ep, .rnorpa]nuecine (annie c lnn(yiyma
8
n apxeoornuecine pac-
ionin n Naprnane
4
, noanonir (ari conepmenno nonoe nn(enne neioro-
pix acneiron (annon npoe:i.
Hpn opamennn i npancion n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn: necono o-
napynri anaunreinoe unco :arepnaon paanoro xapairepa, noano-
nimnx crannri nonpoc o iyirypnix napaenx n (ae aan:crnona-
nnnx. B io: cyuae, paoran c n:eimn:ncn napaen:n, :i y(e:
no noa:onocrn ce(onari ueripe: ornuecin: yconnn:, ioropie in
npe(oeni B.K. Loxnni: n ornomennn ninnennn nnnnnn. ]n ni-
ne(ennn ioro .e:enra X n ion rpa(nnnn B na ion rpa(nnnn A
neoxo(n:o nanune iai :nnn:y: ueripex ornuecinx yconnn:
8
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 170.
1
Ha(o ciaaari, uro .ro nanoee pa(niainan n npnanannan (aeio ne nce:n
anropa:n onenia cnryannn.
2
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.-N., 1998. C. bb.
8
:skanaa 1.A. Hcropnn Nn(nn or (pennenmnx npe:en (o ionna lV n. (o n...
N.-.: Ha(-no Aia(e:nn nayi CCCP, 19b6. C. 48.
4
1.:xnckxx 1.C. Anecra ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr.,
om. pe(., npn:eu., cnpan. paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., 1997. C. 44.
b
Oa ncrounnia na(ani na pyccio: naiie: Jaa.cfxxckxc fckcfa. Cy(ennn
]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa(). Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (py-
rne reicri. ; Ha(. no(roroneno O.N.ynaionon. N., 1997. Knnra co(epnr
]aicn:ne pyionncn, rpancnrepanni nexennncioro reicra, cnaena nepeno-
(a:n n no(poni:n io::enrapnn:n.
1
1ca,af. Hcropnn: n 9-rn innrax. Hep. l.A. Crparanoncioro. N., 1999.
2
1.:xnckxx 1.C. Anecra ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr.,
om. pe(., npn:eu., cnpan. paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., 1997. C. 4b.
8
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. ; Hep. c ne:. K.]. Unnnnon. N., 1986.
4
1:snkaa 1.1. Torooi21 n nyrn ero ncropnuecion nnrepnperannn ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 1, Capnann(n A.B. Hporoaopoacrpnncinn xpa:
n Naprnane n npoe:a noanninonennn aopoacrpna:a ;; Becrnni (pennen
ncropnn. 1989. N 1.
A. 1. 1a.: 14 1ac,cnxc 1b
1) :e(y A n B n:eircn iyirypno-ncropnuecine ionrairi, (ocra-
rounie (n oecneuennn noa:onocrn n(ennoro o:ena :e(y nn:n,
2) X n A aacnn(ereicrnonan (ocronepno panime, ue: n B,
8) X n B ne n:eer anroxronnix npene(enron,
4) X n B n:eer neonponepn:ie cnennainie (ne omne) cxo(-
crna c X n A
1
.
B neo:, n:eercn necioiio noa:onix napnanron (n orncnennn
cymecrnonannn rpeio-npancinx napaeen. Hpe(crannercn neecoopaa-
ni: cnauaa ni(enri, nacioiio .ro noanonir n:eimnecn ncrounnin,
re napaen, ioropie (onyciair napnanri nx orncnennn ea opamennn
i rnnoreae npancioro nnnnnn na pannerpeueciyi iyirypy. Hanpn:ep, .ro
:oryr iri napaen, cnnaannie c nein: omn: ncrounnio:, c omnoc-
rii nponcxo(ennn rpa(nnnn (n (anno: cyuae, c nn(oenponencion), om-
nocrii xo(a ncropnuecioro paannrnn (nyx neaanncn:ix rpa(nnnn. 3ro, na
nam narn(, noanonr cymecrnenno yrounnri nn cyanri nanpanennn nc-
ce(onareicioro noncia, ioropie :ono cunrari oee nn :enee nepc-
neirnnni:n (n onenin oocnonannocrn yiaaannon rnnoreai.
Hcropnuecine (annie cnn(ereicrnyir n noiay :o(en aan:crno-
nannn rpeuecin:n anropa:n neioropix npancinx iyirypnix opaanon,
nocioiiy noanonir nciiunri neaanncn:oe connaino-iyirypnoe paa-
nnrne (nyx rpa(nnnn npancion n rpeuecion n cny onpe(eennoro
e(nncrna ncropnuecioro :ecra n npe:enn, n ioropo: (c onpe(eennon
nexn, .noxn) pacc:arpnnae:ie iyirypi naunnair cnoe conpnennoe
paannrne. Ecn pacc:arpnnari reanc o noa:onix npancinx nnnnnnx
na rpeueciyi iyirypy n ]noco]ni n VlllVl nn. (o n... n cpannennn,
ciae:, c ernnercin:n na rpeueciyi iyirypy, ouenn(no, uro nenocpe(-
crnennie ionrairi c npancin: :npo: na onpe(eenno: .rane ncropnn n
rpeion, n npannen (oni iri mnpe n:enno n cny reppnropnainon
naocrn n oripirocrn npancioro omecrna. Ernner or lpennn or(enn
ecrecrnennie npnpo(nie apiepi n anaunreinan y(aennocri or rpe-
uecioro :npa. Hano:nn:, uro Haniparnc, nepnan rpeuecian ioonnn
n Ernnre ia ocnonana :noro noae :aoaanncinx ioonnn oi.
664610 rr. (o n... npn ]apaone Hca::ernxe l.
Hciiuenne nooennn o neaanncn:o: paannrnn rpeuecioro n npan-
cioro iyirypnix apeaon n cnoi ouepe(i aacranner oee npncrai-
noe nnn:anne y(enri re: :n]a:, ioropie :ono ornecrn i neaanncn-
:i: napaen:, rai naainae:i: po(nun: nn :nrpnpyimn: :n]o-
ornuecin: ciera:, ioropie oyconeni omn: xo(o: paannrnn apxa-
nuecioro ueoneia n yconnn:n cpe(i ero onrannn. Ci(a ornocnr :n]i
o 3ooro: neie, o y:npaime: n nocipecaime: oecrne, naneunie
:n]i n neioropie (pyrne. B (anno: cyuae, oee npncrpacrnoe cpanne-
nne rainx :n]on n (nyx nnrepecyimnx nac iyirypax, noa:ono, noano-
no i nanrn re ]airi, ioropie y(yr ronopnri ciopee n noiay nnn-
nnn, ue: n noiay rnnoornuecioro cxo(crna n neaanncn:oro paannrnn.
Nono ni(enri anaunreinoe unco napaeen, orncnn:oe o-
mn: nn(oenponencin: nponcxo(enne:. Peman aa(auy ni(eennn ra-
inx napaeen, :i (oni coracnricn c H.N. ]iniononi:, uro ner
e(nnon n nena:ennon nn(oenponencion :enrainocrn nn n oacrn :n-
]oornn, nn n ion nnon connaino-ncnxoornuecion oacrn
1
. 3ro
no-nepnix. Bo-nropix, npancine ne:ena in ne :enee (aein or npa-
nn(oenponencion :n]oornn, ue:, nanpn:ep, (opnnni nn axenni n
npairnuecin neci n:eimnncn :arepna peayirar peioncrpyinnn,
noa:ono, ne ncer(a nepnon.
Kpo:e roro, n:eercn eme o(na cepieanan npoe:a n nane iyi-
rypnoro paannrnn, iacaimancn iai rpeuecioro :npa, rai n npancioro.
Kor(a peui n(er o rpeuecion rpa(nnnn, ro, ronopn o nn(oenponencinx
iopnnx neioropix npe(cranennn, re: ne :enee, ne nyno aainari o
cymecrnenno: ionuecrne ncropnio-iyirypnix nanacronannn, n(ymnx
eme c .noxn ipnro-:niencion nnnnnaannn, ne nciiuan npn .ro: ana-
unreinoro ernnercioro nnnnnn na nx ]op:nponanne. ]eio(nponari
rpeuecinn :n]oornuecinn :arepna na npe(:er nn(oenponencioro npo-
ncxo(ennn upeaniuanno rpy(no, ne(apo:, iai nnca H.N. ]inio-
non, A. ]i:eani n :norne (pyrne reopernin oxo(nr rpeuecinn
:arepna
2
. Taine cieri rpeuecion :n]oornn, epymne cnoe nauao
n paanunix nnenocrounix iyirypax, npn conocranennn c npanc-
in: :arepnao: (ono ornecrn i paapn(y neaanncn:ix napaeen.
ro iacaercn npancioro :npa, ro, (ae n:en noa:onocri peion-
crpynponari neine omne (n npannen nooennn ioc:oronnuecioro n
ioc:oornuecioro xapairepa, nyno no:nnri, uro nce .rn nino(i y(yr
n oimon crenenn oomaimn:n n nonepxnocrni:n, nocioiiy npanc-
inn :np aarparnnae:oro nepno(a (oi. VlllV nn. (o n...), nec:orpn na
nonrnuecine nponecci nnyrpn nero, i n anaunreinon :epe paaomen.
Bcno:nn: xorn i cnn(ereicrno lepo(ora (Vll, 6196) o noncie Kcepica
(48646b rr. (o n...), n ioropo: nepeuncnercn oimoe ionuecrno
ne:en, :norne na ioropix nnnircn npancin:n no nponcxo(enni, no
npn .ro: ne npnuncnircn i nepcn(cin: nonna:. C (pyron croponi,
ne(annne apxeoornuecine pacionin xpa:a n Naprnane, coueranmero n
1
1axn 1.1. Cranonenne n paannrne cpannnreinon ]noco]nn iai nayunon
(ncnnnnni: nn(nncinn neirop ;; Cpannnreinan ]noco]nn. N.: Ha(areic-
ian ]np:a Bocrounan nreparypa PAH, 2000. C. 88.
1
:skanaa 1.A. Apxanuecine :n]i Bocroia n 3ana(a. N., 1990. C. 111.
2
:skanaa 1.A. Apxanuecine :n]i Bocroia n 3ana(a. N., 1990. C. 214.
A. 1. 1a.: 16 1ac,cnxc 17
cee xpa: ornn, xpa: iyironix noannnnn n :ecro aaxoponennn, noano-
nir c(eari neioropie npe(napnreinie nino(i ornocnreino cyme-
crnonannn omene:ennoro iyira npannen, anaornunie xpa:i nan(eni
na reppnropnn Lairpnn
1
.
B ro: cyuae, ecn n unce npancio-pannerpeuecinx napaeen y(a-
oci i oriciari re, orncnenne ioropix nenoa:ono n pa:iax nepeunc-
ennix napnanron, onn :orn i pacc:arpnnaricn iai aacynnaimne
npe(nournreinoro n ca:oro npncrainoro nnn:annn npn onenie oocno-
nannocrn rnnoreai npancioro nnnnnn na pannerpeueciyi iyirypy.
ro iacaercn re:i reneanca rpeuecion ]noco]nn, ro :i ynorpe-
ne: .ro conocoueranne n (nyx anauennnx. Bo-nepnix, n anauennn pa-
aonoro coirnn, ioropi: io nonnenne nnepnie ]noco]nn iai iaue-
crnenno nonoro, nene(o:oro npe(e ]eno:ena (yxonnon nann n ioro-
poe io nauao: ncropnio-]noco]cioro nponecca n pa:iax onpe(e-
ennon iyirypnon rpa(nnnn
2
. Bo-nropix, n anauennn nenpepinno npo-
(oaimerocn nponecca nopo(ennn ]noco]nn omecrnenni: coana-
nne:
2
. Paay:eercn, nropoe anauenne :i pacc:arpnnae: n npe(eax yc-
ranonennix na:n xponoornuecinx pa:oi.
Hac raie y(er nnrepeconari nonpoc, :ora n ncropnio-iyi-
rypnan naocri rpeuecioro n npancioro :npon oiaaari nnnnne na noa-
nninonenne, cranonenne n paannrne rpeuecion ]noco]nn. 3ror non-
poc ce(yer pacc:arpnnari c (nyx noannnn: no-nepnix, neoxo(n:o no-
nnri, :ono n noome ronopnri o npancio: nnnnnn na ror :o:enr,
ior(a ]noco]nn eme ne io n ior(a eme roiio cia(inanci npe(no-
ciin (n ee noanninonennn. Hnaue ronopn, ecri n ocnonannn noa-
rari, uro npe(nociin noanninonennn ]noco]nn n lpennn connci
ne ea nnnnnn npancinx penrnoano-:n]oornuecinx npe(cranennn.
Bo-nropix, ce(yer pacc:orperi, n:en n anauenne npancine (oirpnni
n nponecce reneanca ]noco]nn. Ni npe(noarae:, uro raian rouia
apennn nnone npano:epna. Hpn .ro: :i n neioropon crenenn onnpae:-
cn n na ca:y anrnunyi ncropnio-]noco]ciyi rpa(nnni, cnn(erei-
crnyimyi iai o panne: nepno(e ]op:nponannn ]noco]nn, rai n o
nepno(e iaccnuecion rpeuecion ]noco]nn. Coracno anrnunon ncro-
pnio-]noco]cion rpa(nnnn, npn(epnnaimencn nnnn yunreiyue-
nni, npe(crannren pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn, rai nn nnaue, cnn-
aani c nnenocrouni:n n, n uacrnocrn, c npancion rpa(nnnn:n. Ha
nam narn(, roiio oon(n nce nimeyiaaannie rpy(nocrn nn paapemnn
nx re: nn nni: opaao: :ono nnornyi no(onrn i nocranonie nonpo-
ca o peainocrn n crenenn npancioro nnnnnn na reneanc rpeuecion
]noco]nn n nauainin nepno( ee ncropnn.
Hpoe:a noa(encrnnn nnenocrounix nnnnnaannn na iyiry-
py oipyaimnx nx apxanuecinx omecrn, n ro: unce Apxanueciyi
lpenni, cymecrnyer oioo (nyx croernn. Ha cero(nnmnnn (eni n nayu-
non nreparype npairnuecin ner noapaennn ornocnreino cymecrnen-
non pon nocrounix cnnaen (n ]op:nponannn n cranonennn pannerpe-
uecion nnnnnaannn
1
. nco paor, nocnnmennix paapaorie npoe:i
nnenocrounix cnnaen apxanuecion lpennn anaunreino. B.H. Anen-
io npnno(nr oee nnrn(ecnrn n:en aapyenix ncce(onareen, ioro-
pi:n ncipira naan:ocnnai nnenocrounon n rpeuecion iyiryp n ee
paanunix acneirax
2
. Beco:in nia( n ncce(onanne (annon npoe:a-
rnin nnecn oreuecrnennie yuenie
8
. Te: ne :enee, nnrepec i no(onon
re:arnie ne ocaenaer, no(ipennercn noni:n oripirnn:n n oacrn
apxeoornn, uro n cnoi ouepe(i rpeyer oc:icennn n nnrepnperannn,
iai nonix (annix, rai n :o(epnnaannn ocnonnix nonpocon, pemae:ix n
(anno: nanpanennn, c yuero: .roro :arepnaa. 3a(aua cero(nnmnero (nn
n pemennn .ron npoe:i ninnenne ionipernon iaprnni naan:o-
(encrnnn Lnnero Bocroia n apxanuecion lpennn n paanunix c]epax,
nyren n yconnn nponninonennn peann o(non iyirypi n (pyryi
4
.
Hepnie ionrairi apxanuecion lpennn c Lnnn: Bocroio: orno-
cnr, no :enimen :epe, io ll ric. (o n...
b
Nnnoncian iyirypa ionrairn-
ponaa c Knnpo: n Naon Aanen
6
. Konrairi c Ernnro: (arnpyircn
apxeoora:n nau. ll ric. (o n... B .ror nepno( :niencine rpein airnnno
yuacrnyir n nonrnuecinx n noennix coirnnx na Lnne: Bocroie,
]nrypnpyn n ernnercinx n xerrcinx (oiy:enrax nropon noonnni ll ric.
(o n...
7
Ernnercine ncrounnin coomair o napo(ax :opn rpynnax
1
C.x.nx,x .1. Hporoaopoacrpnncinn xpa: n Naprnane n npoe:a noannino-
nennn aopoacrpna:a ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 1. C. 166.
2
1a.n 1.1. Nero(oornuecine npoe:i ncce(onannn reneanca ]noco]nn ;;
ly:annrapnie nayin n Cnnpn. 199b. N 2. C. 88.
2
1a.n 1.1. Nero(oornuecine npoe:i ncce(onannn reneanca ]noco]nn ;;
ly:annrapnie nayin n Cnnpn. 199b. N 2. C. 88.
1
J.xuca .1. Kyirypnin nepenopor n ]pennen lpennn VlllV nn. (o n... .,
198b. C. 1718, Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N.
1990. C. 119, 121.
2
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 121122.
8
C:. Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990.
4
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 121.
b
n,cca 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn ;; Hcropnn Enponi. T.1. ]pennnn Enpona.
N., 1988, Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990.
6
C.xa. 1. ]pennnn Bocroi n ncroin rpeuecion nnnnnaannn ;; Becrnni (pen-
nen ncropnn. 1977. N 2. C. 8.
7
C.xa. 1. ]pennnn Bocroi n ncroin rpeuecion nnnnnaannn ;; Becrnni (pen-
nen ncropnn. 1977. N 2. C. 4, Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn
Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 122.
A. 1. 1a.: 18 1ac,cnxc 19
paanoopaanix no .rnnuecio:y cocrany ne:en, cpe(n ioropix ]nrypn-
pyir :nnoncine rpein Kpnra n axencine rpein Knnpa
8
. Heioropie
ernnercine aan:crnonannn n :niencion iyirype (arnpyircn XVl n. (o
n... Or(einie ncce(onaren yrnep(air, uro npe(cranennn o ioec-
nnuno: oe npnmn n lpenni na Ernnra
1
.
B ionne ll ric. (o n... yia( nann :niencinx rpeion paapymen na-
crynenne: cenepo-rpeuecinx ne:en. Hacrynnnmnn ipnanc nopaan npai-
rnuecin nce c]epi nann :niencion nnnnnaannn or :arepnainon
iyirypi (o penrnn n iyira
2
. Te: ne :enee, iyirypnan npee:crnennocri
:e(y rpeuecin:n omecrna:n ne npepinaaci, nocioiiy anaunreinan
uacri naceennn ocranaaci na cnonx :ecrax, coxpannn (ocrnennn :nien-
cion .noxn
8
. Nnorouncennie pe:nnncnennnn :nnoncio-:niencioro nepn-
o(a npocennaircn n penrnn n iyire
4
, n .nnuecion rpa(nnnn
b
.
C nacrynenne: re:nix neion nnenocrounie ionrairi ne in
npepnani. B nepnyi ouepe(i, n:enno na Knnpe, r(e coxpanncn ionrnny-
nrer :e(y :niencion (axencion) n noa(nenmen rpeuecion (.nncion)
rpa(nnnn:n
6
, noccranannnaircn nnenocrounie ionrairi. B XllX
nn. (o n... uacri Knnpa ioonnaonana ]nnninnna:n, ocymecrnnnmn:n
roproni npairnuecin co nce: nnenocrouni: :npo:
7
. Ho ncen nn(n-
:ocrn, ne ea nnnnnn ]nnninnnen, i Vlll n. (o n... rpein npoonn
cocrnennie ropronie nyrn :e(y Bocroio: n 3ren(on, i .ro:y npe:e-
nn ornocnr opaaonanne rpeuecinx ]airopnn n Cnpnn n 4nnninn.
Kpnro-:niencine ionrairi c Ernnro: raie npo(oeni rpeia:n
rpeuecine nae:nnin ncnoiayircn n opie aa nacri, craninie noce-
ennn rpeion n Ernnre ornocnr i 664610 rr.
8
B .ror e nepno(, iai :i
ronopnn, ocnonana nepnan rpeuecian ioonnn n Ernnre Haniparnc.
Haunnan c X n., .nni paccenircn nourn no nce:y 3rencio:y
accenny, n peayirare .roro nonoro :nrpannonnoro (nnennn na aana(-
no: noepeie Naon Aann n npn:iiaimnx i ne:y ocrponax noannin
nn in naceeni rpeia:n nanenmne nonci, n:enmne nciiunrei-
noe anauenne (n noce(yimero iyirypnoro paannrnn 3a(i: n Xll n.
(o n... ocnonan 3]ec, n XlX nn. (o n... Nner, ioropin i Vlll n. i
ipynnenmn: .iono:nuecin: nenrpo: .nncioro :npa, a n nepno( io-
onnaannn :nerni ocnonan oee 70 ioonnn (n ro: unce Oinni).
]ainenmne .rani paannrnn rpeuecion iyirypi nponcxo(nn na
]one mnpoion rpeuecion reppnropnainon .icnancnn, nome(men n ncro-
pni iai Benian ioonnaannn. Nono ciaaari, uro nponecc cranonennn
rpeuecion iyirypi n ee (ainenmnn pacnner nauacn c .noxn Benion
ioonnaannn (omenpnnnran (arnponia cepe(nna Vlll ionen Vl n. (o
n...). Koonnaannn ninea rpeion na cocronnnn ornocnreinon naonnnn,
n ioropo: onn oiaaanci noce na(ennn :niencion iyirypi. H:enno n
.ro npe:n onpe(enircn nanoee xapairepnie uepri n ocoennocrn nnnn-
naannn anrnunoro rnna, ncropni paannrnn ioropon nenoa:ono npe(cra-
nnri n orpine or Lnnenocrounon. Hpe(mecrnonanmne Benion ioonn-
aannn :nrpannonnie nponecci XlllX nn. (o n... in orpannueni pa:ia-
:n 3rencioro accenna. Bixo( aa npe(ei .roro aa:inyroro :npa, nanpn-
:ep nyremecrnne n Cnpni nn Ernner, (ae n cpannnreino noa(nen ro:e-
poncion O(nccee pacnennnaercn iai oueni c:eoe npe(npnnrne.
Heco:nenno, uro niro(noe reorpa]nuecioe nooenne rpeion, n
ocoennocrn nonnncinx ioonnn n Naon Aann, (ono io cirpari
onpe(eennoe crn:ynpyimee noa(encrnne na iyirypnin nponecc
1
. Pa-
ay:eercn, nenoa:ono nciiunri n(ennie n iyirypnie cnnan :e(y
napo(a:n (pennero :npa, n ro: unce rpeia:n n nx coce(n:n: iyiryp-
nie ionrairi lpennn c Bocroio: n:en cnoi conyi ncropni, n ne
ncer(a in ra(in:n n npn:onnenni:n
2
.
B:ecre c re: c oimon crenenii (ocronepnocrn or:euaircn onpe-
(eennie ncropnio-iyirypnie .e:enri n oacrn rocy(apcrnennoro
ycrponcrna, naiia, :n]o-penrnoanon npairnin, ioropie pacnennnaircn
no iai noannimne ne ea nnnnnn nnenocrounix iyiryp, no iai
nenocpe(crnennie aan:crnonannn na nnx na npornennn npairnuecin ncex
ncropnuecinx nepno(on cymecrnonannn anrnunon nnnnnaannn. Haune: c
pacc:orpennn Kpnro-:niencioro rocy(apcrnennoro ycrponcrna. Paay:eer-
8
1a+,ckxx 1... lpein n noxo(ax napo(on :opn (Ernnercine :aprnnann i
re:e rponncion nonni) ;; Bocroi. 1994. N 1. C. 89b8, Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxan-
uecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 182.
1
C.xa. 1. ]pennnn Bocroi n ncroin rpeuecion nnnnnaannn ;; Becrnni (pen-
nen ncropnn. 1977. N 2. C. 8.
2
n,cca 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn ;; Hcropnn Enponi. T.1. ]pennnn Enpona.
N., 1988. C. 217219.
8
Ja.aa .. 4aie Hpo:eren. Ouepin anrnunon omecrnennon :icn. 2-e
na(., ncnp. n (on. .: Ha(areicrno ennnrp. yn-ra, 1991. C. 26.
4
n,cca 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn ;; Hcropnn Enponi. T.1. ]pennnn Enpona.
N., 1988. C. 219.
b
1.cxn ..C. ]pennenmne necnn Hna(i ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1992.
N 2. C. 80.
6
C.xa. 1. ]pennnn Bocroi n ncroin rpeuecion nnnnnaannn ;; Becrnni (pen-
nen ncropnn. 1977. N 2. C. 4.
7
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 182.
8
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 189.
1
J.xuca .1. Kyirypnin nepenopor n ]pennen lpennn VlllV nn. (o n... .,
198b. C. 1819.
2
1cccx,x J.A. 1an,.c.k. 1.1. lepainr n ]pennnn Bocroi (ipnrnuecine aa:er-
in) ;; Hayunie (oia(i nicmen mioi. 4noco]cine nayin. 1981. N b. N.,
1981. C. 99.
A. 1. 1a.: 20 1ac,cnxc 21
1
Tk+cnca .1. Bocroi n Nnieni ;; Bonpoci ncropnn. 19b9. N 12. C. b874.
2
1a.skaa. 1.J. Heioropie uepri connaino-.iono:nuecioro ycrponcrna rpeuec-
inx omecrn ll ric. (o n... ;; Anrnunan lpennn. Hpoe:i paannrnn nonca.
To: 1. Cranonenne n paannrne nonca. N., Hayia, 1988. C. 8788, 4647.
8
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 128.
4
Onna H. ]pennnn Bocroi n ncroin rpeuecion nnnnnaannn ;; Becrnni (pen-
nen ncropnn. 1977. N 2. C. 4b.
b
1a+,ckxx 1... lpein n noxo(ax napo(on :opn (Ernnercine :aprnnann i
re:e rponncion nonni) ;; Bocroi. 1994. N 1. C. 46.
6
1a+,ckxx 1... lpein n noxo(ax napo(on :opn (Ernnercine :aprnnann i
re:e rponncion nonni) ;; Bocroi. 1994. N 1. C. 49.
7
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 218.
cn, n neo: npe(nociin n xo( ncropnuecioro paannrnn Apxanuecion lpe-
nnn n Lnnero Bocroia ne nnnircn acoirno ro(ecrnenni:n
1
n,
re: ne :enee, n connaino-.iono:nuecinx ornomennnx :niencion lpennn
onapynnaircn neioropie uepri, xapairepnie (n nnenocrounon
rocy(apcrnennocrn. B uacrnocrn neioropie ae:einie ycranonennn na-
xo(nr onpe(eennie anaornn n aaionax napn Xa::ypann
2
. B :niencio:
naiie onapyeni aan:crnonannn neioropix rep:nnon, orpaaimnx rop-
ronie cnnan c Ernnro:, Lnoco:, Tnpo:, Cn(ono:
8
. ro iacaercn rpeuec-
ioro a]annra, ornocnreino ero nponcxo(ennn npe(araercn rnnoreaa,
coracno ioropon ocnonanne: (n rpeuecioro a]annra nocyno cene-
po-cnpnncioe apa:encioe nnci:o, n ioropo: ncnoiaonanci anain (n
racnix. H roiio na noce(yimen cra(nn ]op:nponannn :oer n(rn
peui o npnneuennn ]nnninncioro nnci:a
4
. B irono: nane n pnryai-
non npairnie axennen :ono npoce(nri ipnrcine, enanrnncine n ern-
nercine nnnnnn
b
. K :aoaanncin: aan:crnonannn:, nanpn:ep, :ono
npnuncnri eren(y o no(e Nonce, noarannnme: orpn( n cocrane na-
po(on :opn. B 4eccann e:y coornercrnyer npopouecrnyimnn noyor c
re: e n:ene: n pn( :aoaanncinx rononn:on
6
.
Cymecrnyer omnpnin nayunin :arepna, (e:oncrpnpyimnn aa-
nncn:ocri :nornx rpeuecinx :n]oore: or ce:nrcinx n xerro-xyppnrc-
inx, xorn n ocnonno: .rn :n]oore:i aan:crnonani onocpe(onanno uepea
ipnro-:nnonciyi n :nienciyi .noxn. 3an:crnonanne na ce:nrcinx nc-
rounnion pn(a rpeuecinx :n]oore:, npe(cranennix y lo:epa n lecn-
o(a, raie nocxo(nr i :niencio:y npe:enn. 3ro nni o Ka(:e n Ka(:n-
(ax, ciaaannn o Ne:nape, Enpone, 4ennice, lap:onnn, Tnpecnn, Ai-
reone, o eraimnx nepconaax (Hiap, H(ac, Aapnc), Acone n nrn-
nax. Ce:nrcine .e:enri cnini n iyire ]nonnca (:n] o 3arpee iai
nnocracn ]nonnca) n iyire Aciennn (Aciaa])
7
.
Pn( .nnuecinx :ornnon raie nocxo(nr i nocrouni: ncrounnia:.
Ciaaanne Hna(i o Axne n Lpncen(e napaeino yrapnrcion e-
ren(e, oe nepcnn nocxo(nr i o(non ncxo(non rpa(nnnn, nyremecrnne
O(nccen n An( n:eer cxo(crno c nncxo(enne: lnira:ema n npencno(-
nii. Ernnercioe nponcxo(enne n:eer :n] o Ho. Nn]oore:a o inio-
ne Hon]e:e na O(nccen n:eer my:epo-aiia(cine napaen (lnira-
:em nepnonauaino i o(noraai:, nauainan crpoia necnn o lnira:e-
me nepeoena n rpennanponana iai Polyphemos Kyklops :noropeun-
nin ipyroraain). Knion onpe(enercn, iai n n ce:nrcion na(nncn na
ApcanTama, ipyroraai: y lecno(a n o(noraai: y noce(yimnx
anropon
1
. Bnu. Bc. Hnanon or:ern reicryainoe cxo(crno op]nuecioro
napnanra Teoronnn, pacciaaa o opie oron, c xerrcion nepcnen ron e
:n]oore:i. Hcce(onanne noiaainaer, uro rpeuecinn reicr, noa:ono,
nnnercn nepeno(o: c xerrcioro
2
. Ho.:i lecno(a co(epar raie napa-
en nreparypnoro n connainoro nanon. Or:euaircn npn:ie reicry-
ainie conna(ennn :e(y nannoncin: .noco: o cornopennn :npa 3ny-
:a 3nm n Teoronnn. He nciiueno, uro coa(anne Teoronnn nanen-
no cncre:arnuni:n :n]oornuecin:n nnia:n Lnnero Bocroia. 3a-
:erni nocrounie nnnnnn n nponane(ennnx rpeuecion npnin. Tai, or:e-
uaoci onpe(eennoe cxo(crno ernnercinx ionnix necen n npnin Can-
]o
8
. Haionen, ]air naueprannn iapri :npa n .noxy Anaicn:an(pa oana-
uaer, uro ona ia nocrpeonana n orpaaer anaunreinyi :oninocri
rpeuecioro naceennn. Bce .ro no(rnep(aer oripirocri rpeuecioro o-
mecrna n ero roronnocri nocnpnnn:ari nonoe, uro (ono io orpaanri-
cn n na naan:oornomennn c npancion rpa(nnnen.
Hpancine ne:ena ne nnnnci (pennn:n naceinnia:n Lnnero
Bocroia, n, ce(onareino, ne n:en rainx ryoinx iyirypnix iopnen,
iai, nanpn:ep, naan:oornomennn rpeuecion n ernnercion iyiryp. Tec-
nie iyirypno-ncropnuecine cnnan, n uacrnocrn, nonrnuecine n noen-
nie, :e(y pacc:arpnnae:i:n rpa(nnnn:n, eccnopno, cnococrnonan
icrpo:y nponninonenni .e:enron .rnx (nyx iyiryp (pyr n (pyra.
Hpancine ne:ena naunnair airnnnoe aaceenne Lnnero Bocroia
i l ric. (o n... Hpanonaiunoe naceenne io mnpoio pacnpocrpaneno, n
pn(e panonon cocrannn oimnncrno, n 3ana(no: Hpane, n oacrnx i
aana(y or reppnropnn Nn(nn, n panone oaepa Yp:nn, cenepo-nocrounix
panonax conpe:ennoro Hpaia n pn(e (pyrnx n lXVlll nn. (o n..., a no
noce(nn: (anni:, noa:ono (ae panime
4
. K Xl n. (o n... naunnaercn
1
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 218.
2
Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 219.
8
Onna H. ]pennnn Bocroi n ncroin rpeuecion nnnnnaannn ;; Becrnni (pen-
nen ncropnn. 1977. N 2. C. b.
4
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N., 1998. C. 24, 1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx
ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970. C. 884887.
A. 1. 1a.: 22
nocrenennoe paa(eenne nn(onpancion ne:ennon omnocrn, naunnair ]op-
:nponaricn n o]op:nircn i VllVl neia: ca:ocronreinie :n]oornuec-
ine nnii or(einix rpynn npancinx ne:en: nocrounix cin]o-cap:ar-
cian :n]oornn, n aana(nix (penne:n(nncian, (pennenepcn(cian, co-
r(nncian n (p.
1
. B lXVlll nn. (o n... :n(nne opaaonan :noecrno :einx
ropo(on-rocy(apcrn. B 678672 rr. :n(nne, ore(nnnnmnci c pn(o: npanc-
inx ne:en, (onnci neaanncn:ocrn or Accnpnn, .ro coirne orpaeno n
rpy(e lepo(ora (l, 106). B Vll n. (o n... Nn(nn ia nenrpo: npancion
:arepnainon n (yxonnon iyirypi, nnoce(crnnn paannnae:on nepca:n
2
,
n, icrarn, lepo(or n noneax c:emnnaer :n(nn c nepca:n, xorn crporo
paanuaer n ncropnuecinx uacrnx. locy(apcrno Hapcyam
8
, naxo(nnmeecn na
nocroie 3a:a, yno:nnaercn n accnpnncinx na(nncnx n lXVll nn. (o n... B
bb8 r. nape: Hepcnn cra Knp ll, ocnonanmnn cronny Hepcnn Hacapra(i,
on noiopn n bb0 r. Nn(ni, n b46 r. n(ni n nime i 3rencio:y :opi
4
.
lpein nonnnnci na reppnropnn Naon Aann oi. Xlll n. (o n... Hx
(ainenman nani ma orni(i ne n yconnnx connainon n nonrnuec-
ion naonnnn: c .roro npe:enn naunnaircn airnnnie aanoenannn Accn-
pnncion (epani, c lX n. (o n... n coirnn niiuaercn Nn(nn iai ye
rocy(apcrnennoe, a ne ne:ennoe opaaonanne. Kcrarn ronopn, accnpnn-
cine annai ocrannn or .roro nepno(a :noecrno cne(ennn ne roiio
o :n(nnnax, no n o po(crnennix n: nepcn(cin: ne:ena:.
Hpancine ne:ena eme (o opaaonannn rocy(apcrnennix crpyiryp
:orn mnpoio naan:o(encrnonari c :ecrni: naceenne: Naon Aann, n
ro: unce c nonnnna:n iai :nnn:y: c lX n. (o n... C opaaonanne:
npancinx rocy(apcrn Nn(nncioro napcrna, aare: Hepcn(cioro .rn
ionrairi noapocn. Ouenn(no, uro npn anaunreinix ionrairax c Ln-
nenocrouni: :npo: n onpe(eennix (annix o rpeio-nocrounix aan:-
crnonannnx :i ne (oni orneprari n noa:onocri npancinx nnnnnn
na paannrne rpeuecion iyirypi. 3ra noa:onocri no(rnep(aercn, ipo:e
roro, mnpoin: nnrepeco: rpeion i cnon: npancin: coce(n:, re: oee
c roro :o:enra, ior(a onn cran npnoperari peainyi nonrnueciyi
cny n Naon Aann, uro, paay:eercn, ne :oro ne orpaanricn na neaann-
cn:ocrn nonnncinx rpeuecinx noncon.
1
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N. 1998. C. 24.
2
]an(a:aen N.A. Honrnuecian ncropnn Axe:enn(cion (epani. N., 198b.
C. 142148.
8
B ocnone naanannn enr npancinn .rnonn:, ioropin oanauaer no-nn(n:o:y,
ro e, uro n Hapca, Hepcn(a, c:. 1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx
ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970. C. 187148
4
.n,.+.ca A.. Honrnuecian ncropnn Axe:enn(cion (epani. N., 198b.
C. 112128.
IABA I. HIAHCKAA MH4OIEHIHO3HAA TIAHHHA
1. HEKOTOIIE HAHIABEHHA HIAHCKOH MH4O
IEHIHO3HOH TIAHHHH
Hapaen :e(y npancion n rpeuecion rpa(nnnen (encrnnreino
cymecrnyir, no orncnnri nx nanune :ono paanuni:n cnocoa:n.
O(nn na napnanron npnananne aa .rn:n rpa(nnnn:n omnx iyiryp-
nix iopnen: oe rpa(nnnn cymecrnonan iai e(nnoe neoe n nepno(
nn(oenponencion omnocrn, pacna( ioropon (arnpyir lVlll ric. (o
n..., noae iai nn(onpancian omnocri, na ocnonannn nnrnncrnuecinx
(annix .ror nepno( (arnpyercn cepe(nnon lll ricnueernn (o n...
1
Oion-
uareinoe paa(eenne npannen n nn(oapnnnen nponaomo noce cepe(n-
1
Cpe(n yuenix, nocnnrnnmnx cnon paori ncce(onanni nn(oenponencinx :n-
]oornn n neo:, xouercn ocoo or:ernri A. ]i:eann, anropa rpex]yninno-
nainon reopnn, coracno ioropon nanreon oron nnncn npoeinnen conny:a.
Ha ero paor na pyccio: naiie (ocrynni: k+c.x.. 2. Ocernncinn naii n
:n]oornn. N., 1976. k+c.x.: 2. Bepxonnie orn nn(oenponennen. N., 1986.
Or:ern: raie ce(yimne rpy(i: Acxc . Bne(enne n cpannnreinoe nayuenne
nn(oenponencinx naiion. N.., 1988. 1cnacnxcf . Conapi nn(oenponencinx
connainix rep:nnon. N. 199b, 1nca-1u:ac.n and lndo-Europeans. Phil., 1970,
1nca-1u:ac.n S:udies, v. 12, Camb. 1972197b, A,1/ in lndo-European an:iqui:y,
Berk. 1974. B oreuecrnennon nayie cpe(n yuenix, aann:aimnxcn peioncrpyinn-
en nn(oenponencion :n]oornn, nanoee nanecrni paori B.B. Hnanona n B.H.
Tonopona. Hcxo(n na :ero(on crpyirypnon nnrnncrnin, anropi or:euair nep-
conan, xapairepnayimnecn omnocrii c]ep (enreinocrn, n nx n:ena, nocxo-
(nmne i e(nni: nn(oenponencin: iopnn: (nanpn:ep: deiuo- (nennoe cnnimee
neo, uel- cnnaannin c :npo: :eprnix, iemo- nanen, s(a)uel- conne n
:n. (p.). Yiae: na pn( napannix paor: 1a.naa 1. 1. Omenn(oenponencian,
npacannncian n anaronncian naiionie cncre:i. N., 196b, 1a.naa 1.1. Hcro-
pnn :eraon na ]penne: Bocroie n cnere nnrnncrnin. ;; Hcropnio-]noo-
rnuecinn ypna AH Ap:. CCP. 1976. N 4, 1a.naa 1.1., Taaaa 1.1. Hcce(o-
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 24 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 2b
ni ll ricnueernn (o n..., ior(a o(na uacri ne:en ocea n Hpane, a
(pyran npo(oaa npo(nnenne n Hn(ni
1
. Hec:orpn na ro, uro oee
nain:n n ornomennn naiia n neioropix omnx nnennn n iyirype n
penrnn nnnnci ne:ena nn(onpancion rpynni, na ocnonannn cpannn-
reino-ncropnuecion peioncrpyinnn :ono ninnnri ore(nnnimne ren-
(ennnn (n ncex nn(oenponencinx :n]oornuecinx rpa(nnnn. Aaii nn(o-
npancinx ne:en npnna(enr i nn(oenponencion ce:ie naiion, uro yia-
ainaer na ncropnueciyi n nnrnncrnueciyi omnocri
2
. 3ro noanoner
nponecrn anana n:eimnxcn napaeen n rpeuecio: n npancio: :arepn-
ae, na ocnone ioroporo peioncrpynponari (n neioropix na nnx omee
nn(oenponencioe nponcxo(enne.
Hrai, na napaeen, ioropie :oryr iri orncneni omn: npo-
ncxo(enne: naiia n iyirypi, a(eci or:ern: re, na ioropie yiaaina-
er n oimnncrno ncce(onareen. 3ro opaa nepxonnoro oecrna, (nen-
noro cnnimero nea, iyir ionn, naneunin :n], npnue: (n neioro-
pix nn(oenponencinx rpa(nnnn peioncrpynpyercn :ornn paanonoocrn
nanenon, opaa rpo:onepna n ero noe(nnia c npornnnnio: (iai npa-
nno, a:ee:), npe(annn o nocnponano(crne nenion eprni nauainoro
rnopennn (Hypymacyira, Pnrne(a, 10.90, O(nn, Crapman 3((a, Peun
nicoioro, 188, 3aparymrpa, lari, Acna, 88.14
1
), aoa ioponi
oecrny na ee yrnerenne na(iia:n n :noroe (pyroe. Ho:n:o opaaon
ocnonnix :n]oornuecinx nepconaen, cymecrnyer orpo:noe unco :enee
cymecrnennix :n]oornuecinx n nnrnncrnuecinx coornercrnnn, ioro-
pie n neioropo: c:ice aarpy(nnir noa:onocri yiaaari na uacri na-
paeen iai na npn:ep neponrnix aan:crnonannn npancinx .e:enron
n rpeueciyi iyirypy, nocioiiy onn :oryr nnnricn ce(o: nn(oenpo-
nencion iyirypnon n nnrnncrnuecion omnocrn.
Hne :i npnne(e: neioropie na rainx napaeen, ioropie :or-
n i nanecrn na :ici o nnnnnn npancinx penrnoano:n]oornuec-
inx npe(cranennn na rpeueciyi iyirypy n neo: n ]noco]ni n uac-
rnocrn, no orncnnimnecn omnocrii nn(oenponencioro nponcxo(e-
nnn. B nepnyi ouepe(i nyno or:ernri conocranenne Conna n ioeca
n :n]ax. Bipaenne ioeco conna ncrpeuae: n Pnrne(e, y (pennnx
ncan(nen, naionen, y 3cxna (Hpo:eren)
2
. B yuennn Anaicn:an(pa
ncrpeuae: yno(oenne c]epi cnern oo(a: ioecnnunoro ioeca. B
npancion rpa(nnnn conne npe(crannercn oreaaimn: :np na ioec-
nnne. Ho(onie npe(cranennn conne nieaaer na ioecnnne n
oreaaer ueripe croponi cnera noyunn mnpoioe npe(cranenne
oi. XV n. (o n... iai n rpa(nnnnx, nocxo(nmnx i nn(oenponencion, rai n
n nepe(neaanarcinx (niiuan ernnerciyi).
A.B. ee(en yiaainaer na noa:onoe rpeio-apnncioe nponcxo-
(ennn :n]oore:i ioecnnna Conna n ionreicre nonn:annn Conna
y lepainra iai eryna noipyr :er ioc:nuecioro cra(nona n cpanne-
nnn c cancip. kas:ha n anauennnx 1) pncranme, 2) :era n 8) connec-
ronnne
8
. Hpn .ro: yiaaannin :n]oornuecinn opaa cunraercn oee
noa(nn: no cpannenni c yno(oenne: conna ioecy
4
.
nannn n oacrn cannncinx (pennocren. N., 1974, 1.+kc.x,.c T. 1., 1a.naa 1.
1. ]pennnn Hepe(nnn Aann n nn(oenponencine :nrpannn ;; Hapo(i Aann n
A]pnin. 1980. N 1. C. 6471, 1a.naa 1.1. Cannncinn, arnncinn n pannea-
iancinn raro. Hn(oenponencine ncroin. N., 1981, 1a.naa 1.1. Hcropnn ca-
nnncinx n aiancinx naanannn :eraon. N., 1988, Taaaa 1.1. K peioncr-
pyinnn nn(oenponencioro pnryaa n pnryaino-no.rnuecinx ]op:y ;; Tpy(i
no anaioni: cncre:a:, n. 4, Tapry, 1969, Taaaa 1.1. O o(no: apxanuno:
nn(oenponencio: .e:enre n (pennepyccion (yxonnon iyirype 'sve:- ;;
Aaiin iyirypi n npoe:i nepeno(n:ocrn. N. 1987.ro iacaercn nn(oenpo-
nencioro naiia, or:ern: paori: n,cca 1. . Hepno(naannn ncropnn nn(oen-
ponencioro npanaiia;; Bonpoci naiioanannn. 19b7. N 2. C. 8-22, n,cca 1.
. Pannenn(oenponencinn naii. N., 1986, 1.+kc.x,.c T. 1., 1a.naa 1. 1.
Hn(oenponencinn naii n nn(oenponenni. Tnncn. 1984, :skanaa 1. A. O
npapo(nne nocnreen nn(oenponencinx (naeiron ;; Becrnni ]pennen ncro-
pnn. 1982, N 8. C. 887. . 1. :skanaa 1. A. O npapo(nne nocnreen nn(oen-
ponencinx (naeiron ;; Becrnni ]pennen ncropnn, 1982. N 4. . ll.
1
1.:xn 1.J., :skanaa 1.A. Hn(nn, Cpe(nnn Aann n Hpan n nepnon noonn-
ne l ricnueernn (o n... ;; Hcropnn (pennero :npa ; Ho( pe(. H.N. ]iniono-
na, B.]. Hepononon, H.C. Cnennnnion. 2-e na(., ncnp. Kn. 1. Pannnn (pennocri ;
Orn. pe(. H.N. ]inionon. N.: l. pe(. nocr. nr. na(areicrna Hayia, 1988. C.
880. C:. raie 1.nfaackxx . . Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen
Aann. N., 1970, 1an:.,-.caxn 1. A., 1.nfaackxx . . Or Cin]nn (o Hn(nn.
]pennne apnn: :n]i n ncropnn. N., 1988.
2
Ho(ponee c rpynnon npancinx naiion, iai ni:epmnx, rai n conpe:ennix
(niiuan anecrnncinn, (pennenepcn(cinn n cpe(nenepcn(cinn) :ono oanaio-
:nricn n .nnnione(nuecio: na(annn: Aaiin :npa: Hpancine naiin. l. Kro-
aana(nie npancine naiin. N., 1997, Aaiin :npa: Hpancine naiin. lll. Bocrou-
nonpancine naiin. N., 1999.
1
O .ro: :ornne c:. .c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapy-
enon anecroornn ;; Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 192.
2
J.xuca .1. Hpann(oenponencine ncroin (pennerpeuecioro .noca ;; Hpoe-
:i anrnunoro ncrounnione(ennn. C. nayu. rp. N.., 1986. C. 96107. C. 102.
8
.cc,ca .1. Aronainan :o(ei ioc:oca y lepainra ;; Hcropnio]no-
co]cinn eero(nni. N., 1987. C. 2946. C. 89.
4
1a.naa 1.1. Koeco ;; Nn]i napo(on :npa. 3nnnione(nn: B 2-x r. ; l.
pe(. C.A. Toiapen. N.: Con. .nnnione(nn, 1991. T. 1. A-K. C. 664, Hnanon B.B.
Conpnie :n]i ;; Nn]i napo(on :npa. 3nnnione(nn: B 2-x r. N.: Con.
.nnnione(nn, 1991. T. 2. K-A. C. 462.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 26 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 27
]pyron pn( napaeen :e(y npancin:n npe(cranennn:n n
nnie :n]on o Hn:e n rpeuecion rpa(nnnen. Loimnncrno na nnx ornc-
nnercn omnocrii nn(oenponencioro nponcxo(ennn. B neioropix na
nanreonon :norouncennix npancinx ne:en ranni: oecrno: cunra-
cn Hn:a (ne(. A:a, yama, (p.nc. Ymir, (cp. npacyncinn lmra (Hypnc-
ran) A.1.) <nn(oenp. 'iemo nanen
1
). Hanreon c A:on no rane
nanecren raie no y((nncin: naopaennn: n na(nncn: na lan(xapi
2
.
Y nn(onpannen cymecrnona :n] o Hn:e nepno: y:epme:, c(eanme:-
cn nape: aarponoro :npa. Paanunie nn(onpancine ne:ena nounran
Hn:y iai ora Conna, ora no(opo(nn. On n:e npio nipaennie uep-
ri iyirypnoro repon, nounracn iai napi aoororo neia
8
. H:n Hn:a,
nepnonauainoe anauenne ioroporo nanen, (nonnni, ronopnr o rec-
nenmen ero cnnan c omenn(oenponencin: :n]o: o parinx-nanenax n
paroynncrne. Coracno .ro:y :n]y, rnnoornuecin ornocnme:ycn i
:n]y o y:npaime: n nocipecaime: ore, Hn:y, npn no:omn ero para
Cnnriipi, nnoro pacnnnn nonoa: ocrpoayon nnon
4
. Ho (pyrn:
nepcnn: :n]a cecrpon-enon Hn:i ia nepnan enmnna Hn:ai (cp.
A:a n ero cecrpa-ena A:n n Pnrne(e)
b
.
Ka]npi Hypncrana (uen naii ornocnrcn i nn(onpancion omnoc-
rn naiion n ioropie (o ne(annero npe:enn nn ornocnreino naon-
ponanno or nca:a) uacrnuno coxpannn .rn npe(cranennn n cnoen :n-
]oornn. Onn cunrair H:py (Hn:y) nape: aarponoro :npa n coxpann-
ir nocno:nnanne o nape neorre:e:on uacrn iyira A:i;Hn:i
iai o aamnmenno: no:emennn, n ioropo: npane(nie nepenn an:y, n
n ioropo:, no-nn(n:o:y, conepmanci oprnacrnuecine npaa(necrna n
norpeainie opn(i
6
. Heno(aeiy or xpa:a H:pi, n ceennn, r(e naxo-
(nrcn nenrp ero iyira, n:eercn nxo( n nnnnn :np ornepcrne n
ae:e n nenocpe(crnennon naocrn or xpa:a. O(naio ecri n (pyrne
ornepcrnn, uepea ioropie :ono nona(ari na ror cner. H:pa nocnr n:n,
ioropoe :oer oanauari, uro on n(oxnonner npopoion
7
.
Ouenn(no, uro :n] o cnycie n no(ae:nin :np uepea ornepcrnn n
ae:e nn nemepi ornocnrcn i po(nun: ciera: :nponon :n]oo-
rnn. Nono npnnecrn anaornunin cier, coxpannnmnncn n rpeuecion
rpa(nnnn. Hancannn (lX. 8940) onncinaer npopnnanme Tpo]onnn iai
nemepy, n ioropon naxo(nrcn mei mnpnnon n (ne cnn]a:i (a(onn),
a nicoron n o(ny. Cnyciaimnncn onrcn na no,. n onyciaer nnepe(
n mei norn n ca: no(nnraercn, crapanci, uro ioenn npomn nnyrpi
men. Tor(a ocrainoe reo roruac e yneiaercn n ce(yer aa ioenn-
:n. Cnycrnnmn:cn noanpamaricn naaa( npnxo(nrcn re: e ca:i: ny-
re:, uepea ry e cinanny, nora:n nnepe(
1
.
Hanoee ycronunni: n npancion :n]oornn nnnercn cier :n]a
o aooro: neie no npe:ena napcrnonannn Hn:i, conpono(aimnncn
cnoeopaani: napnanro: :n]a o norone: c nacrynenne: an:i n 3a
Hn:a noano(nr yenme Bapy
2
n ioropon neuno rein aoorie
(nn nnori (o rpexona(ennn Hn:i. Ho(onin :n] ncrpeuaercn npairn-
uecin n ion :n]oornn. Ouenn(no, uro npe(cranennn o aooro:
neie n pannen rpeuecion nreparypnon (lecno() n ]noco]cion rpa(n-
nnn ecri peayirar coxpanennn nn nepeoc:icennn cocrnennix :n-
]oornuecinx npe(cranennn, a ne npancioro nnnnnn.
Bce .rn npn:epi xopomo nicrpnpyir nanune iai :nrpnpyi-
mnx cieron, rai n cieron nn(oenponencioro nponcxo(ennn, ioro-
pie npn noce(yime: ananae napaeen ce(yer nciiunri, nocioiiy
onn (onyciair napnanri nx orncnennn ea opamennn i rnnoreae npan-
cioro nnnnnn na pannerpeueciyi iyirypy.
Ha cero(nnmnnn (eni rpy(no npe(crannri cymecrnonanne neioro-
poro nonoro oomaimero ncce(onannn o paannrnn npancion penrn-
oanon rpa(nnnn, ioropoe orneuao i nnrepeca: ncex nanpanennn n
mio npanncrnin
8
. Hpnunn .ro:y necioiio. O(na na nnx orpannuen-
nocri reicroni:n ncrounnia:n n rpy(nocri n a(anrannn (annix apxeo-
ornn n (pyrnx c:enix nayi i no(ono:y ncce(onanni. ]pyran npn-
unna, nenocpe(crnenno cnnaannan c nepnon, cymecrnenno paanuai-
mnecn ycranonin n (arnponie rex nn nnix :apinpyimnx npanciyi
iyirypy coirnn (nanpn:ep, (ara nann 3aparymrpi). B cny .roro,
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. ; Ha(. no(roroneno O.N.-
ynaionon. N., 1997. C. 17.
2
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. ; Hep. c ne:. K.]. Unnnnon. N., 1986. C. 191.
8
Ho(pono o :n]oornuecinx neponannnx npannen, cnnaannix c Hn:on, c:.
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. C. 9714b.
4
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 16,
1b7, 181.
b
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 177.
6
1:snkaa 1.1. Torooi21 n nyrn ero ncropnuecion nnrepnperannn ;; Becr-
nni (pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 1. C. 179181. C. 180.
7
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 6b, 6768.
1
1.ac.nxx. Onncanne 3a(i: B 2-x rr. ; Hep. n ncryn. cr. C.H. Kon(parie-
na. T. 1, T. 2. N., 1994.
2
Ynorpeenne crpounon nn aarannon yini onpe(enercn ionreicro:: nn
peui n(er o yenme, crpoennn iai raiono:, nn e o ron ca:on Bape, ioro-
pyi nocrpon Hn:a.
8
B npnnnnne, nicrpannen raioro ncce(onannn :oer cynri rpy( 2.c/nc:
1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. Hec:orpn na ro, uro
innra nanpanena na ncce(onanne penrnoano-iyirypnoro co(epannn aopoac-
rpna:a, ee ionreicr (ocrarouno mnpoi.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 28 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 29
nnn:anne ncce(onareen, iai npanno, nanpaneno no na nayuenne
Anecri (lar n Na(men Anecri), orpannunnanci npn .ro: peion-
crpyinnen ncropnuecinx n connainix yconnn ee noanninonennn, no,
na ocnone .rnx ncce(onannn Anecri, onn niiuaircn n noe:niy,
nocnnmennyi ncropnn ]op:nponannn rpa(nnnn, (arnponin nann 3apa-
rymrpi n cymnocri ero yuennn
1
.
Nnorne ncce(onaren, npnme(mne i nino(y o nocrounix (n uacr-
nocrn, npancinx) nnnnnnx na rpeueciyi :ici, ronopn o (pennenpanc-
ion :n]o-penrnoanon rpa(nnnn, oro(ecrnnir ee c aopoacrpna:o:
2
.
H:enno nonn:anne aopoacrpna:a iai e(nncrnennon npancion penrnn,
oiuno epymencn n pacuer (uro io ocoenno xapairepno (n ncce(o-
nannn XlX n nepnon noonnni XX n.), nnnoci nx cai: :ecro: n (ea-
o nx nino(i erioynann:i:n (n ipnrnin, nocioiiy noa:onie npan-
cine npe(cranennn n yuennnx pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on uacro nporn-
nopeuar omenpnnnron aopoacrpnncion (oirpnne
8
. Hcropnuecin aopoacr-
pna:, neponrnee ncero, pacnpocrpanncn uepea Hpancioe naro n cra
penrnen rpex rannix (nnacrnn n Hepcnn: Axe:enn(on (bb0880 (o n...)
4
,
Hap]nn (2b0 (o n... 226 n...) n Cacann(on (2266b1 n...).
Peaino aopoacrpna: i roiio o(nn: na necioiinx nanpanennn
paannrnn npancion :icn, n, i ue:y cionnercn oimnncrno ncce(ona-
reen, ne ca:i: nonynpni:. Hpen:ymecrno aopoacrpna:a aaiiuaercn
n ro:, uro roiio or .roro nanpanennn npancion rpa(nnnn coxpannnci
oee nn :enee npocrpannie n ornocnreino pannero nponcxo(ennn
reicri. ]n (pyrnx nanpanennn rpeyercn peioncrpyinnn na ocnonannn
apxeoornuecinx (annix n nnrepnperannn cpannnreino noa(nnx rei-
cron. Ha cero(nnmnnn (eni omenpnnnro nonn:ari no( aopoacrpna:o:
penrnoanie neponannn (nyx oocoennix .rnoiyirypnix omnn n
Kro-3ana(no: Hpane n na aana(no: noepeie Hn(nn. To, uro nonn:a-
ercn no( aopoacrpna:o: n nnnercn peniro: (pennen n(eoornn, ca:n-
:n ero a(enra:n n:enyercn +..,.scnx.+ (yin.: (a.na :aa(a-ncna
nepa urnmnx Naa(y), n na npornennn ncropnn necioiio paa :enno
co(epanne, n(eoornueciyi nanpanennocri n connainyi aay
b
. He-
anaunreinan rpynna napcon (naanannix rai no :ecry nx npe(mecrnyi-
mero onrannn Pars) yipiaci or :ycyi:ancioro aanoenannn n Hn(nn
(Lo:en). Coracno rouie apennn P. Uenepa, onn npn(epnnanci npe-
nen penrnn, ciopee ce(yn rpa(nnnn, ue: ye(ennn: (c coxpanenne:
iyira) n roiio n XlX n., no( nnnnne: pnrancinx :nccnonepon, naun-
nair ncnirinari cepieanin nnrepec i cocrnennon penrnn. Hpnro:,
uro napci coxpannn nenonpe(enni: pnrya, ca:a penrnoanan (oirpn-
na (ee opnenrannn na :onorena:, (yana: nn nonrena:) na:ennaci n
aanncn:ocrn or (o:nnnpyimen penrnn (nanpn:ep, xpncrnancrna nn
nn(yna:a), i ioropon onn erio npncnocannanci. Hapci (ocrarouno
cnino opnenrnponani na 3ana( n ne nciiueno, uro conpe:ennin aopo-
acrpna: y(er ni:npari iai iyir, no .rnuecine nennocrn, ioropie nap-
ci airnnno coxpannir n na ioropie onnpaircn, :oryr iri coxpaneni
1
.
ro iacaercn pannnx npancinx ne:en, ro ne nciiueno (a ciopee
ouenn(no), uro n ia(o: ne:enno: opaaonannn n:ecn cnon nanreon c
paanuni:n oecrna:n no rane
2
. Necro nepxonnoro oecrna :or aann-
:ari, nanpn:ep, A:a, Nnrpa nn, iai n n aopoacrpna:e, Naa(a n np. He
ni(epnnaer ipnrnin yrnep(enne B. Ban (ep Bap(ena, ni(epannoe n
rpa(nnnn nepnon noonnni npomoro neia, uro apnn noionnnci o(nn:
n re: e ora:, n uro roiio pe]op:a 3aparymrpi cnino nn(ona:enn-
a .ror nanreon, c(ean Axypa Naa(y nannicmn: na oron
8
.
]ocrarouno ocrpon npe(crannercn noe:nia o cymecrnonannn o-
menpancinx iyiron nn iyironix coopyennn
4
. Oreuecrnenni:n ap-
xeoora:n ni(nnnyra rnnoreaa o ro:, uro y (pennnx npannen (pye
lllll ric. (o n...) cymecrnonao rpn rnna xpa:on, onapyennix n Lai-
rpnn n Naprnane, n onpe(eennon :epe npnnennix i aopoacrpnncin:
cnnrnnma: n coornercrnyimnx rpe: napnanra: iyironix npairni
nounranne ornn n iyironix noannnnn n paanunix ]op:ax. Hapn(y c
.rn: cymecrnonan xpa:i, r(e .rn iyiri npairnionanci o(nonpe:en-
no, niiuan n iyir napn aarponoro :npa A:i
b
. Bi(nnnyra rnnoreaa o
ro:, uro .rn xpa:i npnna(ean nepno:y nn(onpancio:y .rnnuecio:y
1
.c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapyenon anecroornn ;;
Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 189207. C. 191192, C. 20b.
2
Hcce(onanne A. 1c:1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971
nnnoci n neioropo: po(e nroro: .ron rpa(nnnn.
8
1xa. ..A. Haron n :nrpana: ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn, 1998. N 2.
C. 12, C. 141b.
4
3ro (ocrarouno cnopnin ]air, n :i nepne:cn i ero ocy(enni nne. Ho n io:
cyuae, paannrne aopoacrpna:a, rai nn nnaue, cnnaano c penrnen Axe:enn(on.
b
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. N., 1991. C. 1249. C. 12.
1
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. C. 2824.
2
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970,
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. ; Hep. c ne:. K.]. Unnnnon. N., 1986.
8
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. Hep. c
anr. l.E. Kyprnna, no( pe(. A.A. lypmrenna. N., 1991. C. 14b.
4
C:. (nciyccni o aopoacrpnncion npoe:e n cnnan c oripirne: apxeoora:n
xpa:onoro io:neica n Knon Typi:ennn n ypnae Becrnni (pennen ncro-
pnn, 1989, N 1 n ee npo(oenne n Becrnnie (pennen ncropnn, 1989, N 2.
b
C.x.nx,x .1. Hporoaopoacrpnncinn xpa: n Naprnane n npoe:a noanninone-
nnn aopoacrpna:a ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 1. C. 1b2170. C. 166.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 80 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 81
coi, noro:ia:n ioropix nnnircn ia]npi Hypncrana n na ioropin no
ll ric. (o n... naonaci nonan nona npanonaiunix ne:en
1
, (n
ioropix io ne xapairepno ycrpoenne ipynnix iyironix coopyennn.
Hac nnrepecyer n nepnyi ouepe(i .noxa cranonennn rpeuecion
]noco]nn, r.e. npn:epno VlllV nn. (o n... n noa:onie ionrairi c
npancin:n ne:ena:n n rocy(apcrna:n, a rounee, c npancin:n :n]oo-
rnuecin:n, penrnoani:n (noa:ono, npe(]noco]cin:n) npe(crane-
nnn:n, ioropie :orn cymecrnonari n:enno n .ror nepno(. Hpancian
rpa(nnnn n .rn neia niiuaa n cen :noecrno reuennn n nanpane-
nnn, na ioropix :i npnneiae: (n oimen nn :enimen crenenn) re,
ioropie nanoee nanecrni, no or ioropix coxpannoci nanoimee
unco ncrounnion, re: ne :enee, npenanpyimen rpa(nnnen (n nane
ncrounnion) y(e: cunrari aopoacrpna:, nn n ioen :epe ne noaran ero
e(nncrnenno noa:oni: penrnoani: reuenne: n (annin nepno(.
O(no na nenrpainix :ecr n penrnoanix npe(cranennnx npan-
nen iai nnrepecyimero nac nepno(a, rai n noce(yimnx neion aann:a
iyir Nnrpi. Nnrpa or inrni, (oronopa, nounracn n nn(onpanc-
ion penrnn, n:eer coornercrnne n Be(ax. B aopoacrpna:e iyir Nnr-
pi orneprnyr, panno iai n iyiri (pyrnx oecrn. Beponrno, Nnrpa :or
nounraricn iai nepxonnoe oecrno n penrnn pannnx Axe:enn(on (Knp
ll, Ka:na ll)
2
. Hanoimee anauenne npancinn iyir Nnrpi npnopera-
er n .nnncrnueciyi .noxy, ocoenno n nepnie neia namen .pi. Kai
ca:ocronreinan penrnn, :nrpana: noanniaer roiio n nap]nnciyi .no-
xy
8
. Bano or:ernri, uro npancioro Nnrpy ce(yer ornuari or .nnn-
crnuecioro, ioropin n:eer c nepni: cpannnreino :ao omero, ipo:e
n:enn. Ho-nn(n:o:y, no npe:ena nceomero cnniperna:a, n npe(.nnn-
crnueciyi nn .nnncrnueciyi .noxy, Nnrpa i oro(ecrnen c ia-
in:ro na anaronncinx oron
4
. Bnn:anne ncce(onareen io na-
npaneno ne croiio na npancinn iyir Nnrpi, cioiio na poi n :ec-
ro .nnncrnuecioro Nnrpi n .nnncrnuecinx e iyirax
b
. Her o(no-
anaunoro ornera na nonpoc o ]op:ax npancioro iyira Nnrpi n nnrepe-
cyimyi nac .noxy. B Anecre Nnrpe nocnnmeni Acna 10 n Nnxp
nmr, ioropin nnnercn (pennenmen uacrii Anecri, n .roro nnno
ne(ocrarouno (n nononennoro ncce(onannn. B io: cyuae ncce-
(onannn, nocnnmennix :nrpana:y
1
n ero naan:oornomennn: c rpeuec-
ion iyirypon (ocrarouno, n :i, n (anno: cyuae, roiio orpannun:cn
yno:nnanne: o iyire Nnrpi, ne iacanci oime .roro nonpoca. ]aee
noanon: cee niparne pacc:orperi ocnonnie xapairepnie uepri rex
nanpanennn, ioropie nac y(yr nnrepeconari: :aa(ena:a, aopoacrpna-
:a, aypnanna:a n penrnn Axe:enn(on.
1) A..,cx.+. Ha ocnonannn :nornx (annix, n n nepnyi ouepe(i na
ocnonannn pacnpocrpanennn n:en, :ono yrnep(ari, uro pacnpocrpa-
nenne :aa(ena:a ye n:eo :ecro n 3ana(no: Hpane n lXVlll n. (o
n..., aa(oro (o axe:enn(cioro nepno(a n neaanncn:o or anecrnncinx
nnnnnn, iai ca:ocronreinoe nanpanenne
2
. B ornune or aopoacrpna-
:a, n :aa(ena:e in mnpoio pacnpocrpaneni iyir axypon n (.non,
npn:enenne ncnxorponnix nannrion, anaornunix co:e, naroronnnmnxcn
na iyironix pacrennn
8
n ocnonannan na nnx npe(ciaaareinan npairn-
ia. Ha cnnai npe(ciaaareinon npairnin c :aa(ena:o: yiaainaer coo-
menne Noncen Xopencioro (l, 81) o nounrannn n (oxpncrnancion Ap:e-
nnn Apa:aa(a no( ueripi:n n:ena:n, o(no na ioropix Kund Aramazd
n 3.A. lpanroncinn noaraer, uro raioe aan:crnonanne :oro iri c(e-
ano roiio na (oaopoacrpnncinx ]op: neponannn
4
.
1
1:snkaa 1.1. Torooi-21 n nyrn ero ncropnuecion nnrepnperannn ;; Becrnni
(pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 1. C. 179181. C. 180.
2
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.-N., 1998. C. 81.
8
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.-N., 1998. C. 490.
4
:skanaa 1.A. Apxanuecine :n]i Bocroia n 3ana(a. N., 1990. C. 224, 78 npn:.
b
C:. nanpn:ep, 1xa. ..A. Haron n :nrpana: ;; Becrnni (pennen ncro-
pnn, 1998. N 2. C. 817, C+.:xn. 1.1. Hcroin n ]op:nponanne npe(crane-
nnn o nape (e:onon n :annxencion penrnn ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn.
1998. N 1. C. 40b7, 1a,cc A., C:cnc1 1. Zoroas:rianism under Nacedonian and
Poman Pule (Handbuch der Orien:alis:ik. 1. Ab:eilung. Der Nahe und der Ni::lere
Os:en, Band 8. Peligion, 1;2;2;8). ; Wi:h a Con:ribu:ion by Poger Beck ;;
Boyce, N. His:ory o Zoroas:rianism. Vol 8. Leiden, 1991. xx, b96 p., Cunan1 1.
Ni:hra e: l`orphisme ;; Pevue de l`his:oire des religions. 1984. T. 109. N 1.
P. 6872, A:1/:.:c o1uc:c:. 1 ; John P. Hinnels (ed.). Nanches:er, 197b. 1b1214
p., Ac:kc/u.c/ 1. Ni:hras. Hain: Konigs:ein. Wes: Germany, 1984.
1
2.c/nc: 1.C. B paore The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism (N.Y., 1961)
y(en cymecrnennoe nnn:anne Nnrpe n :nrpana:y (c:. Chs. 2, 4,b).
2
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N.: Ha-
yia, 1970. C. 2b9, C:nau 1/. Zoroas:risme e: mazde isme. Les dossiers
d`archeologie. Nai, N 248, 1999. P. 71.
8
Kopeni kund, kund nocxo(nr i naanannn: pacrennn, ncnoiaonanmnxcn n .i-
crarnuecion npairnie. B nepc. kund connan (na paanix cona. Hapn(y c rynon,
rynin ono oanauaer :y(pin, anaimnn, ornanin, xpapin n n io:
cyuae :oer oanauari cocronnne .icrarnuecioro noay(ennn. Ny(pocri, no(-
paay:enaimancn n .rnx conax ananne coiponennoro uepea ra(anne, :arnuec-
ine (encrnnn, cocronnne na:enennoro coanannn |1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncro-
pnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970. C. 288].
4
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 280289. Noncen Xopencinn, ap:nncinn ncropnorpa], nanncanmnn Hcropni
Ap:ennn n nnmnn n V n., no n Vlll n. (rnnoreai o npe:enn ero nann pacxo(nr-
cn). C:. raie Aaxccx Aacnckxx. Hcropnn Ap:ennn. Hep. H.O. 3:nna. N., 1898.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 82 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 88
Cymecrnyer npe(nooenne, uro no( n:ene: Ny(pin Axypa no-
unracn Bapyna, Axypa Naa(a e ne io n:ene: cocrnenni:, a
roiio aa:ennree: caipainoro, aanpemennoro i nponanomenni n:e-
nn
1
. Bapyna (Ouranos), or nea n icrnrei .fa, roiio o(no
nanoe n:n na :nornx n:en npn:nrnnnoro apnncioro nanreona, ioropoe
nnior(a ne nonnnercn n aopoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn. Hpnunna .roro n
ro:, uro neponrno ye no npe:ena ionrairon npannen c Accnpnen (eme
(o npe:enn 3aparymrpi), ero n:n ymo na omero ncnoiaonannn, aa:e-
nennoe n:ene: Axypa Naa(a, Ny(pin locno(nn, neponrno, n:enno ero
no(paay:enaer lepo(or, ior(a ronopnr o nounrannn nepca:n 3enca
2
.
B ocnone (nyx noce(yimnx rpa(nnnn, o ioropix non(er peui
aopoacrpna:e n aypnanna:e no ncen neponrnocrn, enr naneunin
iyir. 3aparymrpa ronopnr o (nyx nanauainix (yxaxnanenax rai,
conno .ro xopomo nanecrno ero cymaren: (Acna 80), ne nycianci n
no(ponie io::enrapnn rai, iai .ro (eaercn, ciae:, (n opaaa Axy-
pa Naa(i. H:enno .ro ocronreicrno, r.e. nonan nnrepnperannn (pen-
nero naneunoro :n]a, noanoner neioropi: ncce(onaren: (eari
nino(i o cne(ennn .roro iyira i aypnanna:y, coracno ioropo:y na-
nenon nopo(n or Bpe:enn (c:. nne). Ce(yer or:ernri, uro naneu-
nie npe(cranennn xapairepni (n nn(oenponencion rpa(nnnn n neo:,
panno iai n (n iix (pyrnx iyirypnix rpa(nnnn
8
.
2) Jaa.cfx.+. 3opoacrpna:o: n cocrnenno: c:ice .roro cona
nnnercn rai naainae:in rarnuecinn aopoacrpna:, nn yuenne, ioropoe
nponone(ona npancinn npopoi 3aparymrpa, n ioropoe aa]nicnponano n
ce:na(narn necnnx, cio:nononannix n nnri oion, naainae:ix lari,
nioi counnennie ca:n: npopoio: n aanncannie ero yuennia:n. O
anropcrne 3aparymrpi raie ronopnr c oimon (oen yconnocrn, no-
cioiiy rarnuecinn aopoacrpna: i nnni: nnnonannonni:, pe]op:a-
ropcin: reuenne: na ]one rpa(nnnonnon napo(non nn(onpancion pe-
nrnn n co:nnreino, uroi raioro po(a neinoe n ryoioe yuenne
io npo(y:ano, coa(ano n pacnpocrpaneno aa nepno( nann o(noro
ueoneia (coracno npe(anni, 3aparymrpa i apei: ueoneio:, ior-
(a noyun oriponenne or Axypa Naa(i).
Hoayn, ca:an airyainan, ocy(ae:an n n ro e npe:n o(na na
neunix re: n npanncrnie .ro ncropnuecioe npe:n n :ecro nann
npopoia 3aparymrpi. Ke: on i, ior(a n, ior(a n npn iainx yconn-
nx coa(a cnoi penrni .rn nonpoci no npen:ymecrny ocraircn
oripiri:n n cymecrnyer roiio pn( oee nn :enee ye(nreinix
rnnorea, noanonimnx nmi oruacrn cocrannri :nenne na .ror cuer.
Hepcn(cinn npopoi 3opoacrp (n:n rpeuecian ]op:a nepcn(cioro
Zara:hus:ra, n:eimnn erix nepi(on), cy(n no nce:y, npnna(e-
a i peuecio:y po(y
1
. Hcropnn ero nann peioncrpynpyercn no (ny:
ncrounnia:. Hepnin .ro reicr ca:nx lar, n ioropix neci:a :noro
ncropnuecinx nepconaen, coirnn n cne(ennn, no ioropi: :ono co-
crannri npe(cranenne o neioropix coirnnx nann npopoia noce roro,
iai nauaoci ero cyenne Axypa Naa(e. ]pyron ncrounni iopnyc
noa(nnx reicron na cpe(nenepcn(cio: naiie, n ioropon n ocnonno: orpa-
ena ye eren(apnan n :n]nuecian ncropnn nann npopoia, n ocnone
ioropon ear (or:arnuecine nooennn nepoyuennn. Cymecrnyer (ne
ionnennnn (nn (ae (na ipynnix arepn, i ioropi: npn:iiair oi-
mnncrno ncce(onareen), orneuaimnx na nonpoc o npe:enn nann 3apa-
rymrpi. Hepnan ornocnr npe:n nann npopoia i cep. ll ric. (o n... (1200
1400 r. (o n...)
2
, (pyran, n nanoee pacnpocrpanennan, i. Vll n. (o n...
1
.c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapyenon anecroornn ;;
Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 189207. C. 194, Pai H.B. Nn]i (penne-
ro n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.-N., 1998. C. 4b4.
2
1u:n .1. Persia and :he Greeks: :he Deence o :he Wes:, C. b46478 B.C. N.Y.,
1962. C. 78.
8
]yancrnuecinn npnnnnn oprannaannn xapairepen (n napo(nix neponannn n
:nponoaapennn noome, n ero ocnone ear aaonie nnapnie onooannnn cnera
n ri:i, rena n xoo(a, nann n c:eprn, uncrori n neuncrori n r.n. Taioro po(a
(yancrnuecinn no(xo( xapairepen (n crpyirypno-ce:nornuecinx reopnn nro-
pon noonnni XX neia, c:.: Ja.af.ca . A. Po(onon crpon n nepnoirnan
:n]oornn. N., 1964, .cax-Cfac 1. Crpyirypnan anrponoornn. N., 1988, 1a.-
naa 1. 1., Taaaa 1. 1. Cannncine naiionie :o(enpyimne ce:nornuecine
cncre:i. ]pennnn nepno(. N., 196b, 1a.naa 1s4. 1c. ]nonunan cn:nonuecian
iaccn]niannn n a]pniancinx n aanarcinx rpa(nnnnx ;; Hapo(i Aann n A]-
pnin: Hcropnn, .iono:nia, iyirypa. 1969. N b. C. 10b11b, 1a.naa 1s4. 1c.
er n neuer. N., 1978, Ac.cfxnckxx 1. A. Ho.rnia :n]a: 2-e na(anne. N., 199b.
ro iacaercn naneunoro iyira, ro aauacryi noarair, uro :n] o (yancrn-
uecion ioc:oronnn nnnercn orpaenne: (yaino-po(onon oprannaannn ome-
crna, n ioropo: ia(in na nanenon nnnercn ocnonaree: o(non na ]parpnn.
Nn] o conepnnuecrne parien-nanenon, cxo(nin c aypnannrcin:, :ono o-
napynri npairnuecin n ion :n]oornn, nanoee nanecrnie npn:epi naa-
n:non npa(i parien na nnenocrounix rpa(nnnn Ocnpnc n C.r n ern-
nercion :n]oornn, Hcan n Haion n ny(ancrcion rpa(nnnn.
1
nreparypa, nocnnmennan 3aparymrpe, omnpna. Ha paor na enponencinx
naiiax yiae:: 1c:z:c/c 1. Zoroas:er and His World, 2 vols. 1947, reprin: New
York, 1978, 1.:1n.n o. Der grosse Zara:hus:ra, Orien:alia Suecana, 196b
1966. V. 141b, Aa/c A. La legende de Zoroas:re selon les :ex:s Pehlevis, P.,
1967, 1uc/c:nc-Cu://cn:n J. L`lran an:ique e: Zoroas:re. His:oire des Peligions,
vol. 2 (Paris, 1970). P. 8-82, Cna/:, C. Zoroas:er`s Time and Homeland: A S:udy on
:he Origins o Nazdeism and rela:ed Problems. Naples, 1980.
2
1axc A. 3opoacrpnnni. Beponannn n oiuan ; Hep. c anr. n npn:. H.N. Cre-
nn-Ka:encioro. 8-e na(anne, nonocrii nepepaorannoe. CH., 1994, 1a,cc A.
On :he an:iqui:y o Zoroas:rian apocalyp:ic ;; Bulle:in o :he School o Orien:al
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 84 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 8b
Coracno 3opoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn, yuenne 3opoacrpa coxpann-
oci n uncrore rpncra er, (o rex nop, noia ne npnme Aeican(p.
]pyran nn]pa napn(y c nepnon n ron e rpa(nnnn 2b8 er
1
. Ho(onan
xponoornn coxpanena n nepcn(cion nreparype, xorn (ara ropaa(o o-
ee noa(nnn, ue: y rpeio-pn:cinx anropon. Lyn(axnmn (a raie oee
crapie ncrounnin, coracno :ycyi:ancin: yueni: AiLnpynn, ioro-
pin ncnoiaona Lyn(axnmn :n1c: ./:., n Nacy(n) (aer (n po(ennn
3aparymrpi n:enno .ry (ary 2b8 er (o Aeican(pa, ioropin npa-
nn 14 er. Tor(a 2b8 + 14 + 828 (o n... ((ara c:eprn Aeican(pa) (aer
na: b9b r. (o n... iai (ary po(ennn nn nauaa :nccnn 3aparymrpi n
n:enno .ra (ara npnanana npe(nournreinon :norn:n conpe:enni:n
anropnrerni:n yueni:n
2
.
B rpeuecinx ncrounniax npe:enn lepo(ora yno:nnyro roiio :n-
(nncioe peuecrno, +.:x, uie orocyenne ye ror(a nano:nnao neio-
ropie acneiri aopoacrpnncioro iyira, no nonpoc o npnna(enocrn :aron
i aopoacrpna:y n .noxy Axe:enn(on oionuareino ne pemen. 3opoacrp, a
n:enno rai rpein naainan 3aparymrpy, ne yno:nnacn y lepo(ora nn no
n:enn, nn nocpe(crno: na:eia na iaiorono ne(annero nanecrnoro pe-
nrnoanoro pe]op:aropa n .ro n:n nnepnie ncrpeuaercn y Harona n
(naore Ainnna( 1
8
, npan(a na nero ce(yer, uro :arnn 3opoacrpa ye
ia xopomo nanecrna n Hepcnn n ee npeno(anan napennua:.
Heioropie rpeuecine anropi, nnrnpye:ie Hnnne: n ]noreno:,
npe(arair (ari aa 6000 er (o Harona (Kcan] n(nncinn n Krecnn)
nn aa b000 er (o Tponncion nonni (]noren a.prcinn). Co npe:enn
aanoenannn Aeican(pa rpeuecine anropi noyunn (ocryn i nocrouni:
ncrounnia: n nonnenne cne(ennn o 3opoacrpe n (ari ero nann, nn(n-
:o, c .rn: cnnaani. Loee roro, no(onie (arnponin recno cnnaani c
aopoacrpnncin: npe(cranenne: o :npono: ro(e n 12 000 conpnix
er, or cornopennn (o ionna :npa n noce(nero cy(a n c eren(apnon
ncropnen npopoia. Bpn( n :ono (onepnri .rn: coomennn: n (ari
or nnx xponoornuecion rounocrn
1
.
Ce(yer npncymaricn i :nenni rex cnennancron, ioropie (arnpy-
ir nani 3opoacrpa n VllVl nn. xorn i noro:y, uro .ro ncropnuecinn
nepno(, ornecenne (ari i 1000 r. (o n... oanauaer yiaaanne na (oncropnuec-
inn nepno(, o ocronreicrnax ioroporo (encrnnreino :i ne anae: nnue-
ro, no (n ioroporo :aoneponrni: iaercn ror ]air, uro ne:ennan nani
nce eme :nrpnpyimnx npannen :ora oecneunri connainie yconnn (n
paannrnn rex npe(cranennn, ioropie co(eparcn n nepoyuennn 3aparymr-
pi
2
. Bce( aa oimnncrno: npanncron, :i noanon: cee npn(epnnaricn
:nennn o panne: (no ipannen :epe, oi. VllVl nn. (o n...) nponcxo(ennn
lar, ne npnnn:an n pacuer nx noa(nen io(n]niannn.
Ocnonnie reanci naoennoro n larax yuennn 3aparymrpi raio-
ni: cymecrnyer e(nnoe nepxonnoe :y(poe oecrno (Ny(pin locno(nn),
rnopen iai (yxonnoro, rai n :arepnainoro c n:/:/a, on oipyen mecrii
cymnocrn:n (ecc:eprni:n cnnri:n), rpn na ioropix ne or(en:i or
ero cocrnennon cymnocrn n, no cyrn, nnnircn ero arpnyra:n (Laroe
Cono, Laran Nici, Hcrnna). B :npe nce no(enr paa(eenni na
Hcrnny n oi, niiuan :opainin (yana: iai noa:onocri nunoro
and Arican S:udies. Univ. o London. V. XLVll, Par: 1, 1984. P. b77b. P. 7b. N.
Lonc nnnercn croponnnnen nanoee pannen (arnponin. ]arnponia Hion (Cna/:,
C. Zoroas:er`s Time and Homeland: A S:udy on :he Origins o Nazdeism and rela:ed
Problems. Naples, 1980) i. ll nau. l ric. (o n... raie (ocrarouno pannnn.
1
1:snkaa 1.1. 3opoacrp n ncropnn Cpe(nen Aann: Hpoe:a :ecra n npe:enn
(Onir ncropnuecion peioncrpyinnn) ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1996. N 8.
C. 722. C. 16.
2
1u:n .1. Persia and :he Greeks: :he Deence o :he Wes:, C. b46-478 B.C. N.Y.,
1962. P. 70.
8
1u:n .1. Persia and :he Greeks: :he Deence o :he Wes:, C. b46-478 B.C. N.Y.,
1962. P. 68, 1..fan. Ainnna( 1. 121e122a: .n:enyircn y nnx napcin:n
nacrannnia:n, .ro uernepo napannix (ocronnenmnx i(en cpe(n nepcon, (oc-
rnrmnx npeionnoro noapacra: nan:y(penmnn, nancnpane(nnenmnn, nanpaccy-
(nreinenmnn n nanxpapenmnn. O(nn na nnx npeno(aer :arni 3opoacrpa, cina
Op:ya(a, cyri ee n nounrannn oron.
1
Ho(pono o (arnponiax npe:enn n :ecra 3opoacrpa c:. 1:snkaa 1.1. 3opo-
acrp n ncropnn Cpe(nen Aann: Hpoe:a :ecra n npe:enn (Onir ncropnuecion
peioncrpyinnn) ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1996. N 8. C. 722.
2
1u:n .1. Persia and :he Greeks: :he Deence o :he Wes:, C. b46478 B.C. N.Y.,
1962. P. 72. Hnrepecno, uro uacro anropi ioeircn n niope (arnponin, aann:an
io:npo:nccnyi noannni n (anno: nonpoce. Hpn:euareino yrnep(enne .A.
eeiona, uro cymecrnonanne omnni, (oirpnna ioropon aanpyercn na nonnrnnx
cnoo(i non, nn(nnn(yainoro penrnoanoro coanannn, nunoro ecc:eprnn, npo-
ncxo(ennn aa n (nxoro:nn (nyx :npon ae:noro n (yxonnoro, nenoa:ono na
nocroie (pennero Hpana, nn npn Axe:enn(ax, n no ipannen :epe, (o lll nn. (o n...
(n nee ne io ncropnuecin onpan(annix yconnn (ae n Bocrouno: Cpe(nae:-
no:opie |.c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapyenon anec-
roornn ;; Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 189207. C. 198194]. On
noaraer, uro neci .ror io:neic nonnrnn c]op:nponan npn nnnnnn rnocrnuec-
inx yuennn. Te: ne :enee, npn .ro: .A. eeion npnanaer, uro .noxy 3aparym-
rpi :ono (arnponari 1000 r. (o n... n .roro rpeyer coornomenne lar n
Pnrne(i, nocioiiy ner nniainx npnanaion reopernuecin :icn:oro aanaa(i-
nannn nepnix, ecn ncxo(nri na uncro nnrnncrnuecinx ipnrepnen. Haoopor,
:op]oornuecinx apxana:on n larax oime, ue: n Pnrne(e |Ta: e, C.
192]. B (pyro: :ecre on npnanaer, uro n Acny 19 no re:e n crpyirype na(o (arnpo-
nari panee Tanrrnpnn Ynannma(i, r.e. panee, n nn(n:o, anaunreino, VlllVll nn.
(o n..., cioi i nn io noa(nn: ee (ome(mee nonomenne |Ta: e, C. 20b].
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 86 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 87
niopa, rai n paa(eenne na yponne ynnnepcy:a (.ro:y coornercrnyir
(na (yxa aron Cnenra Nannii n aon Anrpo Nannii). Ny(pin
locno(nn nnnercn orno: Laroro ]yxa, o nponcxo(ennn aa npopoi
y:aunnaer. Te: ne :enee, ao, neponrnee ncero, ne cycrannnaino, ono
nnnercn ao: roiio nce(crnne nunoro niopa, uro nino(nr na eme
o(ny ionnennni npnananne cnoo(i non ia(oro cyreira, niiuan
n noi cocrnenno 3oro ]yxa. Ha .ro: (eennn ocnonano n ornomenne
(nyx naan:onciiuaimnx penrnoanix (oirpnn, iai npornnocronnne noc-
e(onareen 3aparymrpi n rpa(nnnonnon penrnn. Haionen, nanauaino
aa(annan nei airy rnopennn c npe(nn(enne: ero ioneunoro peayirara,
r.e. nn(nnn(yainin cy( na( ia(i: noce c:eprn no conoiynnocrn ero
(ennnn (rpexuacrnan .rnia ..:xc +ac.x ..:xc c.aa. ..:xc ,c..)
n nceencinn cy( n ionne npe:en nocpe(crno: ornn (cn:no Hcrnni
fa) n :eraa (cn:no Axypa Naa(i)
1
. 3auacryi yuenni 3aparymrpi
niraircn npn(ari ]noco]cinn xapairep (n, noa:ono, .ro oruacrn cnpa-
ne(nno, yunrinan cninyi :opaino-.rnueciyi aay .roro yuennn), no
no npen:ymecrny pe]op:a nocna penrnoanin xapairep (aanper ipona-
nix eprn, aanper na xao:y n npouee).
3a nepno(o: rarnuecioro aopoacrpna:a ce(yer nepno( :o(n]n-
iannn rarnuecioro yuennn: rai naainae:ie Ce:nran, penrnn :a-
ron n :a(oanecrnncian rpa(nnnn
2
. Hx xapairepnon uepron no cpanne-
nni c npe(i(ymn: nepno(o: crao noanpamenne i :norooni, noc-
cranonenne naiuecion penrnn nourn iaccnuecioro roia, xorn o-
ecrna nce eme ne n:eir anrpono:op]noro xapairepa. B nayunon n-
reparype, iai npanno, (n ooanauennn ncex (ocacann(cinx paanonn(-
nocren iyira Axypa Naa(i, aa nciiuenne: penrnn Axe:enn(on,
ncnoiayercn rep:nn +..,.scnx.+.
8) J,a.nx.+. Hapaeino aopoacrpna:y paannnaercn eme o(no
nanpanenne aypnanna:, nepxonnin or ioroporo 3ypnan, Bpe:n
n Cy(ia.
Boanninonenne n cranonenne aypnanna:a o(na na nanoee co-
nix aa(au n onncannn npancion rpa(nnnn. Apxeoornuecine (annie, no(-
rnep(aimne pannee nponcxo(enne aypnanna:a ((o V n. (o n...), neci:a
ney(onernopnreini n nx nnrepnperannn nocnr rnnorernuecinn xapai-
rep. Teicronie ncrounnin, (ome(mne no npen:ymecrny or xpncrnancinx,
ap:nncinx n cnpnncinx anropon, nce (arnponani namen .pon
8
, cnn(erei-
crna e, ioropie (omn or rpeuecinx anropon, ropaa(o oee pannne, no
onn nocnr iocnennin xapairep.
B ocnonno: o aypnanna:e ronopnr iai o nepcn(cio: penrnoano:
yuennn .noxn Cacann(on (lll n. n...). Ocnonnan npoe:a npanncron,
paoraimnx n .ro: nanpanennn ncropnuecioe :ecro n npe:n aypna-
nna:a. Cymecrnyer (ne rouin apennn na .ror cuer. O(nn noarair, uro
aypnanna: ecri no o]nnnainan penrnn Cacann(on (. C/:::1cn:cn),
no, ocnoninanci nenocpe(crnenno na reicrax ce(i ren(ennnn,
ioropan nnior(a ne ia npenanpyimen (J. 1uc/c:nc-Cu://cn:n)
1
. Bro-
pan rouia apennn ra, noce(onaren ioropon yrnep(air, uro aypna-
nna: cymecrnona npn Cacann(ax n ne nciiueno, uro i .ro:y npe:enn
on ye nacunrinaer necioiio neion paannrnn, a cymecrnyimne napa-
en c op]na:o: n rpeuecion ]noco]nen
2
nano(nr na :ici o aypna-
nnrcio: nnnnnn na .rn yuennn (1. 2.c/nc:)
8
.
Onpe(enimne uepri aypnanna:a ce(yimne: omee nponcxo(e-
nne Op:aa(a n Axpn:ana or ora-rep:a]po(nra 3ypnana-Bpe:enn, nenr-
painoe ornomenne 3ypnana i nanena:, panencrno nanenon n cne n
anannn, Axpn:any noanoeno npannri necioiio ricnueernn aro(apn
cnon: paay:y n cne, ney:on:an nacri npe:enn n cy(ii, rmernocri
noniroi ueoneia pemnri cy(iy nocpe(crno: niopa :e(y (opo: n
ao:
4
. Kai nn(no, no ncex cnonx ocnonnix nooennnx aypnanna: (na-
:erpaino npornnonooen aopoacrpna:y.
Hec:orpn na ro, uro ncrounnin ne noanonir ynepenno (arnponari
aypnanna: panee Cacann(cion .noxn, ca: :n] o 3ypnane n po(ennix n:
nanenax co(epnr pn( apxanuecinx :ornnon, ornocnmnxcn i naneuni:
:n]a:. B apxanuecinx :n]ax naneunie npe(cranennn nicrpannaircn
ce(yimn: opaao:: parinnaneni, po(ennie oro:, iai npanno,
iyirypnie repon, naunnair npa(onari c ca:oro po(ennn nn eme n
yrpoe, o(nn cnnainaercn co nce: xopomn: nn noeani:, (pyron co
nce: noxn: nn noxo c(eanni:. B peayirare ion]nira :e(y na-
nena:n o(nn na parien, cn:nonanpyimnn nce (ypnoe, y(anercn na neo
b
.
1
Ho(ponoe naoenne narn(on npopoia c:. 2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh:
o Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. P. 8861.
2
C:. 1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.-N., 1998.
8
Ho(pono o ncrounniax c:. 2.c/nc: 1.C. Zurvan. A Zoroas:rian Dilemma.
Oxord, 19bb. P. 419429.
1
1uc/c:nc-Cu://cn:n J. No:es on zervanism in :he ligh: o Zaener`s Zurvan,
wi:h addi:ional reerences ;; Journal o Near Eas:ern S:udies. 19b6. v. 1b. N 2.
P. 108112. P. 108.
2
1:n:cn 1. la:alism in Persian Epics. Uppsala: Lundequis:ika bokhandeln, 19b2.
8
1uc/c:nc-Cu://cn:n J. No:es on zervanism in :he ligh: o Zaener`s Zurvan,
wi:h addi:ional reerences ;; Journal o Near Eas:ern S:udies. 19b6. v. 1b. N 2.
P. 108112. P. 108.
4
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 18.
b
1.1. 1a.naa. Lnaneunie :n]i ;; Nn]i napo(on :npa. 3nnnione(nn:
B 2-x rr. ; l. pe(. C.A. Toiapen. N., 1991. T. 1. A-K. C. 174.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 88 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 89
Peioncrpynponannin ocnonnon aypnannrcinn :n] nirn(nr ce(yimn:
opaao:. 3ypnan pemaer po(nri cina ora-Tnopna n conepmaer ep-
rnonpnnomennn cy(ie. Cin ne nonnnercn, n 3ypnan yco:nncn n noiae
.rnx eprnonpnnomennn. Or co:nennn n ero upene aapo(ncn n:ecre c
Axypa Naa(on (Op:aa(o:) Axpn:an. 3a:ern:, uro anaornunin :ornn o
eprnonpnnomennn n co:nennnx aacnn(ereicrnonan n nn(nncion :n-
]oornn n :n]e o ore Hpa(anarn, uro eme paa ronopnr o apxanunoc-
rn .rnx npe(cranennn. 3ypnan pemn or(ari nacri nepno:y na po-
(ennix cinonen, no npe(naanauenni Axypa Naa(e. Ho Axpn:an na-
nepeiop Cy(ie paaopna upeno n nime napyy nepni:. 3ypnan c(ep-
a inrny n (apona Axpn:any nacri na( :npo: n reuenne (ennrn
ricnu er, noce uero on (oen crnnyri n neirne n nonapnricn Op-
:aa(, no nepxonni: oecrno: i, ecri n neuno y(er 3ypnan
1
.
Hanoee pannn: cnn(ereicrno:, no(rnep(aimn: (pennocri ayp-
nanna:a, nnnercn ponaonan nacrnna na ypncrana (inan uacri Nn-
(nn) c naopaenne:, iai noarair, 3ypnana, ioropan (arnpyercn Vlll
Vll n. (o n...
2
. Cymecrnonanne oecrna 3ypnana oi. Vl n. (o n... no(rnep-
(aer .a:cian ranuia c nuni: reo]opni: n:ene: 1z:ucukn. Po-
(ennin na ce:enn 3ypnana
8
. Ha ranuie na Hyan Xll n. (o n... ncrpeuaer-
cn n:n Za-ar-wa-an, ioropoe nanoee naio coornercrnyer yiaaanno:y
oecrny, no .ro ne oanauaer roro, uro aypnanna:, iain: :i ero anae: na
cacann(cinx n nexennncinx ncrounnion, cymecrnona n n ro npe:n
4
.
Cpe(n anrnunix cnn(ereicrn n noiay aypnanna:a raioni: nnn-
ercn ]par:enr En(e:a Po(occioro, yuennia Apncroren (oi. 820 r. (o
n...), ioropin ronopnr, uro :arn n nce apnn aonyr nonocrii nnren-
rneinin n e(nnin ynnnepcy: no Necro: (Hpocrpancrno:), no
Bpe:ene:, na ioroporo ni(ennci (opin or n aon (e:on, nn, n
coornercrnnn c (pyrn:n, cner n ri:a (o nnx. Oe naprnn, o(naio, npe(-
noarair, uro raioe (yancrnuecioe ycranonenne nicmnx |cn] nnn-
ercn peayiraro: n na:enenne: nena:enne:on cymnocrn (/,:::). O(na
1
Ho(ponoe naoenne :n]a c:. 2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o
Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. P. 207209, 1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(ne-
neionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 117118.
2
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. N.,
1991. C. 180
8
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 81, C. 248.
4
1:cccn:cn C. Hoch go:: glaube im al:en lran. p. 810, 1u:c. S:and und Augaben
der iranischen Peligionsgeschich:e, ll, Numen, vol. 2, Leiden, 19bb, S. 81 n (p.
paori, 2.c/nc: 1.C. Zurvan. A Zoroas:rian Dilemma. Oxord, 19bb. P. 18. P.
4pan |J.x 1. Hace(ne Hpana. N., 1972. C. 182] npn(epnnaercn :nennn, uro
yiaaannoe n:n npnna(enr xyppnrcion ornne n nocxo(nr i naananni :ecrno-
crn, ee iyir ne cnnaan c 3ypnano:.
|na nicmnx cn] ynpannercn Op:aa(o:, (pyran Axpn:ano:
1
. 3ro,
noayn, nanoee pannee yno:nnanne o npe:enn y npannen n rpeuec-
inx ncrounniax. Cymecrnyir ]par:enri na Apncroren, r(e on yno:n-
naer n:ena (nyx naua aopoacrpnncion (oirpnni Ca+..,. n x+.-
nxs, no ionreicr, no ioropo:y :ono io i onpe(enri aypnannrc-
iyi no aopoacrpnnciyi ionnoranni .rnx n:en, yrpauen
2
.
N. Y.cr n L. Ban (ep Bap(en noarair, uro aypnanna: n Vll n. (o n...
ye n:e ror e nn(, uro n npn Cacann(ax. Hpnue: L. Ban (ep Bap(en
(ae (arnpyer aypnanna: no 4epein(y, r.e. panee bb0 r. (o n..., ncxo(n
na npnanannn roro ]aira, uro yuenne 4epein(a c]op:nponaoci no( nnn-
nne: aypnannrcinx npe(cranennn o npe:enn, nocioiiy naxo(nr n cee
neioropie napaen c noce(nn:n
8
. K nn: npncoe(nnnercn A.B. ee(en
4
,
ncnoiayimnn aypnanna: (n peioncrpyinnn nonnrnn ecioneunoro y Anai-
cn:an(pa (o ue: no(ponee y(er ciaaano n coornercrnyimen rane).
Cciin na Acny, 72 n nexennncioe counnenne Nenor-n Xpar,
nioi ce(yimne (pennen rpa(nnnn
b
, npnneiae:ie (n pannnx (arnpo-
noi aypnanna:a y N. Y.cra n L. Ban (ep Bap(ena, ne npe(crannircn
ye(nreini:n. H Acna, 72.10
6
, ]op:aino ornocnmancn i nepno(y
Na(men Anecri (r.e. neponrno, coa(annan ne ca:n: 3aparymrpon) n,
1
Unr. no: 2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. P.
182, c:. raie 1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpo-
no:nn. N., 1991. C. 171, 1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:.
Oxord, 1971. P. 82.
2
xcfafc.:, lragmen:a varia 1.1.6.4, 1.1.6.b (xa:cn ..fckxx, 1.8): Apototr q
rv p rp oooo xo poputrpou rvo (tou oyou) tv Ayutv
xo uo xot outou rvo opo, oyo0ov oovo xo xoxov oovo, xo t
rv ovoo rvo Zru xo Hpoooq, t r Aq xo Aprovo. Apnc-
rorei n l innre O ]noco]nn cunraer, uro :arn (pennee, ue: ernnrnne, uro
onn npnanair (na nepnonauaa (oporo (e:ona n aoro (e:ona n uro nepnoro
aonyr 3enc n Opo:aa(, a nroporo An( n Apn:an.
8
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. N.,
1991. C. 178179.
4
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;;
Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 1. C. 89b8, Becrnni (pennen ncropnn.
1978. N 2. C. 48b8.
b
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 81.
6
B nen 3ypnan yno:nnaercn n iauecrne J,a.n .k..n. n J,a.n ,.:.a.,.f.
ioneunoro n ecioneunoro npe:enn, nenocpe(crnenno cnnaannoro c Bani n Txna-
men onnernopenne: :nponoro npocrpancrna (Acna 72.10): ): rmanasca
hvstrahe vayaosh upar-kairyehe taradht anyish dmn, atat t vay at t asti spet-
mainyaom, thwshahe hvadhtahe zrvnahe akaranahe zrvnahe darekh-
hvadhtahe|+c:1.: Yasna. Sacred Li:urgy and Ga:has ; Hymns o Zara:hush:ra.
Transl. L. H. Nills ;; Sacred Books o :he Eas:, American Edi:ion, 1898].
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 40 1ckafaac n..a.cnxs x.nckax +xa-c.x:xa.nax f.,xuxx 41
ouenn(no, n:eiman noa(nne ncranin, n nexennncinn Nenor-n Xpar,
co(epamnn ncero (na naccaa c yno:nnanne: 3ypnana n nnno ne orno-
cnmnncn i aypnannrcio:y ipyry counnennn
1
ncrounnin noa(nne n,
ocoenno noce(nnn, no:n:o apxanuecinx npancinx :n]on n (or: aopo-
acrpnncion opro(oicnn, co(epar anaunreinin nacr anrnunix .e-
:enron, a noro:y rpeyir ocoo rmareinon peioncrpyinnn. Tain: o-
paao:, nnone noa:ono, uro aypnanna: oueni pannnn ren(ennnn
paannrnn npancion rpa(nnnn, no ncnio: cyuae, ecri na:ein na noa:o-
nocri ee (arnponin ne noa(nee Vll n. (o n..., no ner eccnopnix ocnona-
nnn npnanari, uro i .ro:y npe:enn aypnanna: ye c]op:nponacn n
re: oee cymecrnona n ro: e nn(e, uro n npn Cacann(ax.
4) 1c.x:xs c+cnx,aa. Eme o(na nepaapemn:an npoe:a npannc-
rnin nonpoc o (encrnnreinon npnnepennocrn Axe:enn(on aopoacr-
pna:y. Bo rane nanreona Axe:enn(on cronr Axypa Naa(a n y nac ecri nce
ocnonannn npnuncnri .ro reuenne i :aa(ena:y. Ho uroi oionuareino
yrnep(ari, uro Axe:enn(i in aopoacrpnnna:n, (annix ne(ocrarouno.
C o(non croponi, o penrnn Axe:enn(on :ono ronopnri iai o
o(no: na nanpanennn (oaopoacrpnncinx ]op: npancion penrnn. Hpn
:nornx conna(ennnx c aopoacrpnncion (oirpnnon, ro, uro :i anae: o
penrnn ]apnn, cymecrnenno ornuaercn or nepoyuennn npopoia
2
. Hane-
crno, uro ipo:e ,.+..,a cymecrnyir (pyrne orn, no onn nnior(a
ne yno:nnaircn no n:ena: n o]nnnainix na(nncnx. Kai :i no:nn:,
3aparymrpa npnanana roiio ca:oro Axypa Naa(y n mecri A:ema Cnenra,
no cyrn npe(craimnx iai arpnyri Ny(poro locno(nna, a ne iai ca:o-
cronreinie oecrna, n nonocrii orpnna (pyrnx oron, npnainan i
opie c (.na:n (iai on nx n:enona). Axypa:aa(a y ]apnn ne npocro
rnopen nea n ae:n, ueoneia n r.n., no n napcrna, ioropoe ca: e n (a
]apni. Conna(aer c aaparymrponcion n (oirpnna npornnocronnnn Hcrn-
ni n n, no, iai iaercn, (n ]apnn naen n nepnyi ouepe(i nonrn-
uecinn ionreicr .roro npornnocronnnn. Xorn na (pyrnx ncrounnion (le-
po(or, Haron) nn(no, uro (oirpnna ce(onannn Hcrnne no ncex ee noa-
:onix nponnennnx nnnercn ocnononoaraimen (n nepcon.
Axypa:aa(a Axe:enn(on nnone anrpono:op]nin ornapi, na pyi
ioroporo ae:nie npannren noyuair npano na npecro n c arocone-
nnn ioroporo npannr. Ca: nanreon crporo nenrpanaonan no no(oni
nepcn(cion (epani: orn n npennx npancinx nanreonon, n nonix,
noiopennix, napo(on no(unnnircn Axypa:aa(e. Kpo:e roro, naopae-
nne Axypa:aa(i na peie]e Lexncryncion na(nncn naxo(nr nnnie
nepeceuennn c naopaenne: n cn:nonion ora Amypa n Accnpnn, a n
cnncie oecrn npe:en accnpnncioro napn Ammypananaa yno:nnaer-
cn n:n Accapa Naaam
1
, uro :oer cnn(ereicrnonari o neioropo: accn-
pnncio-nepcn(cio: penrnoano: cnniperna:e. Hponecc c:emennn aa-
na(nix npannen c :ecrni: naceenne: ciaaacn na cy(ie (pennenep-
cn(cioro naiia n 3ana(no: Hpane n conpono(acn c:emenne: paanu-
nix penrnoanix neponannn n opn(on. Taiona ia rannan uepra .no-
xn neaanncn:o or roro, n iaion :epe ona onpe(ena o]nnnainyi pe-
nrnoanyi nonrniy Axe:enn(on
2
.
C (pyron croponi, croponnnin cymecrnonannn aopoacrpna:a npn
nepnix Axe:enn(ax yrnep(air, uro n:n 3aparymrpi ne yno:nnaercn
nn n axe:enn(cinx na(nncnx, nn y anrnunix ncropnion (ne (aercn rai-
e iainx i ro nn io na:eion na noa:onie penrnoanie pe]op:i)
noro:y, uro on ne i nanecren n 3ana(no: Hpane, no cra nanecren
roiio noce Harona (orpacinan npn .ro: rouiy apennn, coracno
ioropon 3opoacrp .ro eren(a, npo(yir ]anraann rpeuecinx :y(pe-
non). C nx rouin apennn, npnunna no ioropon o]nnnainie napcine
na(nncn ne yno:nnair npopoia raie nonrnuecian ]yninnn no-
cpe(nnia :e(y oro: n c:eprni:n i(i:n npnna(enr napi, a ne
peny
8
. Hpnro: noce(onareinin aopoacrpna: ocraercn penrnen aa:-
inyroro ipyra opaaonannoro peuecrna (:aron). Hanpn:ep, ]apnn :or
iri npnnepenne: aopoacrpna:a, no nnrepnpernpona ero ocnonnie
nooennn ne iai npopoi, a iai napi, r.e. npn:ennreino i nonrnuec-
in: n connaini: nncrnryra:, no orni(i ne penrnoani:. Te: ne :e-
nee, ecri eme o(nn (oiy:enr, n ioropo: n:n 3aparymrpi ne yno:nnaer-
cn, no npn .ro: co:nennn n ro:, uro ero nnca npnnepenen aopoacr-
pnncion nepi, ne ocraercn. 3ro na(nncn Kaprnpa, nepxonnoro pena
Op:aa(a n Cacann(cio: Hpane npn Lanype l (oi. 242272 r. n...) n
Haim-n Pycra: n Haim-n Pa(a, aro(apn ioropo:y aopoacrpna: cra
o]nnnainon penrnen Cacnn(cioro Hpana
4
. B reicre na(nncn, raie
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecrann :enorn xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 18.
2
Ocnonni: ncrounnio: (n peioncrpyinnn .rnx narn(on ia n ocraercn Le-
xncryncian na(nnci ]apnn l (b21b20 rr. (o n...) niceuennan na ciae n :ecr-
nocrn Lexncryn. Honin reicr n nepeno(e N.A. ]an(a:aena c:.: 1.k 1.1. Nn]i
(pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 418427.
1
J.x 1. Hace(ne Hpana. N., 1972. C. 184.
2
J.x 1. Hace(ne Hpana. N., 1972. C. 162.
8
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 4449
4
1cnn:n, 1.1., ed. Ninor lnscrip:ions o Kar:ir (Corpus lnscrip:ionum lranicarum, 8).
London, 1968, 1.ck A. Die sassanidischen S:aa:sinschri:en ;; Ac:a lranica 18.
Tehran and Liea ge, 1978, .,kanxn 1.1. Hciyccrno ]pennero Hpana. N., 1977, .,ka-
nxn 1. 1. Haim-n Pa(a, Hpan (pannecacann(cine peie]i n na(nncn) ;; Kyirypa
Bocroia: ]pennocri n pannee Cpe(neneionie: Copnni craren. ., 1978, 1.k 1.1.
Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 48b488.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 42 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 48
iai n reicre ]apnn, nepeunceni nunie aacyrn Kaprnpa n yno:nnyri
n:ena napen, neioropix oron no:n:o Op:aa(a, n cy(nri o npnuacrnoc-
rn Kaprnpa aopoacrpna:y :ono, ciopee ncxo(n na onpe(eennon peion-
crpyinnn reicra, ue: na npn:ix cnn(ereicrn. 3ro n iaion-ro :epe
apry:enrnpyer ry noannni, uro Axe:enn(i nnone :orn ncnone(onari
aopoacrpna: n ero pannen n ceiynpnaonannon ]op:e, ne yno:nnan n
na(nncnx 3aparymrpy.
Tain: opaao:, (n croponnnion nropon ionnennnn penrnn Axe:e-
nn(on no cnoen cyrn npe(cranner nonrnueciyi cnnipernaanni (oao-
poacrpnncinx rpa(nnnn n aopoacrpnncioro yuennn
1
. Hpn .ro: yuenne :a-
ron (n coornercrnnn c pacciaaa:n lepo(ora, a nnoce(crnnn Crpaona)
naxo(nr n .ror nepno( ropaa(o oimee unco coornercrnnn c aopoacrpnn-
cin: pnryao:, iain: :i ero anae:, n uacrnocrn na cacann(cinx nn
nexennncinx ncrounnion, .ro iacaercn nounrannn ornn, no(i, ornpane-
nnn noxoponnix opn(on n neioropix (pyrnx pnryainix npairni
2
.
Hrai, na: y(aoci oueprnri rannie npoe:i npanncrnin, orne-
uaimne ocnonni:, na nam narn(, noa:oni: reuennn: n npancion
rpa(nnnn, coornercrnyimn: npe:enn noanninonennn n cranonennn rpe-
uecion ]noco]nn. Hocioiiy nce .rn penrnoanie rpa(nnnn n npe(-
cranennn, iai na: iaercn, cocymecrnonan na reppnropnn Naon Aann
n nnrepecyimnn nac nepno( reneanca n nauainoro .rana paannrnn rpe-
uecion ]noco]nn VlllV nn. (o n..., ro n:enno i nn: (aa neioropi:
nciiuenne:, n uacrnocrn, iyir Nnrpi) :i n y(e: no noa:onocrn
opamaricn, nnrepnpernpyn neioropie cymecrnyimne napaen :e-
(y rpeuecion n npancion rpa(nnnn:n.
1
.n,.+.ca A.. Hpan npn nepnix Axe:enn(ax (Vl n. (o n...). N., 1968. C. 2b7.
2
Honpoye: nicrponri ranny, ioropan i npnnenno n cxe:arnuno orpa-
aa naionenne cne(ennn o aopoacrpna:e y rpeion coracno nanoee pannn:
rpeuecin: ncrounnia::
.xx (b22486) yno:nnanne Axypa:aa(i, 1ca,af (484424) ocnonnie
nooennn nepoyuennn :aron, orneuaimn: n uacrn aopoacrpnncin:, nnuero o
3aparymrpe, 1..fan (427847) 3opoacrp iai ]nrypa, ynaae:an nepca:n,
xcfafc.: (884822) yno:nnanne Op:aa(a n Axpn:ana iai rannix npnn-
nnnon nepoyuennn :aron, 1a,c+ (820) ro e, niiuan aypnannrcine ionnora-
nnn, xcfakccn (yuenni Apncroren) xa(en 3apar iai apa:encian ]op:a
n:enn 3opoacrp n nn]aropencion rpa(nnnn, 1.,f. (4b127) paanepnyroe
naoenne aopoacrpnncioro nepoyuennn, aypnannrcine coornercrnnn.
2. IEKOHCTIYKHHA HIAHCKHX OHCAMCKHX
OHTOOIHHECKHX HIECTABEHHH
Conocranenne rpeuecion ]noco]nn n npancion penrnoanon rpa-
(nnnn nenoino nano(nr na :ici o cymecrnonannn ]noco]nn n n
]penne: Hpane, xorn i n cny roro, uro .rn rpa(nnnn cymecrnonan n
o(no npe:n, (ocrarouno naio naan:o(encrnonan (no ncnio: cyuae,
na connaino-nonrnuecio:, ecn ne na (yxonno: yponne) n n nnx :orn
noanninyri n nporeiari oruacrn conocrann:ie (yxonnie nponecci. Ho,
na nam narn(, orner na nonpoc o cymecrnonannn n ]penne: Hpane
]noco]nn nn (ae npe(]noco]nn ne :oer iri (an o(noanauno,
nec:orpn na onrn:na: neioropix ncce(onareen. B (pennenpancion
rpa(nnnn n:eercn pn( npe(cranennn, ioropie :ono io i pacnenn-
nari iai npe(]noco]cine, ecn i onn nonein aa coon cranonenne
]noco]nn, iai .ro nponaomo, nanpn:ep, n Hn(nn, (n npancion rpa(n-
nnn orcrannari raiyi rouiy apennn aarpy(nnreino. B io: cyuae
npoe:a cymecrnonannn ]noco]nn n (pennenpancion rpa(nnnn aa(aer-
cn nocpe(crno: (nyx nonpocon: n:eo n :ecro ]op:nponanne npe(]no-
co]cinx n ]noco]cinx npe(cranennn n .ron rpa(nnnn, n ecn (a, ro
mo n .ro ]op:nponanne ea nropnunoro nnnnnn rpeuecion ]noco]nn
n iyirypi. He aanncn:o or roro, iai :i orneuae: na .ror nonpoc, nyno
n:eri n nn(y, uro ecn n (pennerpeuecion ]noco]nn npen:ymecrnenno
pemaaci onroornuecian n rnoceoornuecian npoe:arnia, ro npanc-
iyi rpa(nnni n oimen :epe xapairepnayer :opainan npoe:arnia,
nanoee recno cnnaannan c penrnoani: co(epanne: n ionreicro:.
Te: ne :enee, nac n nepnyi ouepe(i y(yr nnrepeconari npoe:i onro-
ornuecioro n rnoceoornuecioro oion n oenx rpa(nnnnx.
B oreuecrnennon nreparype uacro ncrpeuaircn yiaaannn na ro, uro
n (pennenpancion rpa(nnnn cymecrnonaa ecn ne ]noco]nn, ro, no ncn-
io: cyuae, npe(]noco]nn. B iauecrne npn:epon :ono yiaaari na rou-
iy apennn C.H. Coioona
1
, ioropin or(eino pacc:arpnnaer aopoacrpnn-
ciyi naryp]noco]ni nn yno:nnyri Loimyi Conerciyi .nnnione-
(ni, n ioropon npn:o ronopnrcn, uro (pennenmnn na:nrnni ]noco]c-
ion :icn Hpana, |.ro] reicri. niiuennie n cocran Anecri
2
. 3a
pyeo: raion e noannnn npn(epnnaircn, noayn, roiio npe(cra-
nnren napcnncinx yuenix ipyron conpe:ennon aopoacrpnncion omnni,
1
/Jaa.cfx.+/ ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr., om.
pe(., npn:eu., cnpan. paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., 1997.
2
J,.+ A.1. Hpancian ]noco]nn ; Hpan. X. Hpocnemenne. 2. Omecrnennie
nayin. 4noco]nn ;; Loiman Conercian 3nnnione(nn. l. pe(. A.N. Hpoxo-
pon. T. 10. 8- na(. N.: Ha(-no Conercian .nnnione(nn, 1972. C. 417418.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 44 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 4b
n uacrnocrn Pro. Kaikhorsov D. lrani
1
. Onpe(eennin nnrepec n .ro: pn(y
npe(cranner xpecro:arnnnin copnni An An:hology o Philosophy in
Persia
2
, n ioropo: napannie (pennenpancine reicri nineceni n rany
3opoacrpnncian ]noco]nn. Xorn anropi innrn cnennaino oronapnna-
ir, uro onn ncnoiaonan cono x.acaxs ne roiio n ero orpannuen-
no: pannonancrnuecio: c:ice, no n iai no(paay:enaime: neioropie
acneiri reoornuecinx (earon, :ncrnuecioro nanpanennn n ]noco]c-
ion rep:enenrnin, n naeran rex reicron, ioropie ne :oryr iri iaccn-
]nnnponani iai ]noco]cine nn no co(epanni, nn no ]op:ary. Kpo:e
roro, n (anno: cyuae (pennenpanciyi ]noco]ni (ono pacc:arpn-
nari ne iai ca:o(ocrarounin ]eno:en, no iai o(no na anenien n ornuec-
ion nenn paannrnn apao-:ycyi:ancion ]noco]cion :icn.
Ni, n cnoi ouepe(i, xorn i n ca:o: ome: nn(e, nonpoye:
no(onrn i ornera: na nocranennie nime nonpoci.
3auacryi o ]noco]cio: co(epannn (pennenpancion rpa(nnnn na-
unnair cy(nri, onnpanci na ce(yimyi oneniy lepo(oro: npancinx pen-
rnoanix npe(cranennn (1ca,af, l, 181): ro (o oiuaen nepcon, ro noa-
(nnrari craryn, xpa:i n arapn ora: y nepcon ne npnnnro. Bcex e, iro
.ro (eaer, onn cunrair rynna:n, noro:y uro, :ne (y:aercn, nonce ne
cunrair oron ueoneiono(oni:n cymecrna:n, iai .ro (eair .nni.
Tai, 3ency onn oiuno npnnocnr eprni na nepmnnax rop, n neci neecnin
cno( naainair 3enco:. Conepmair onn raie eprnonpnnomennn conny,
yne, orni, no(e n nerpa:. Hounrari ocrainix oecrn nayunnci or
accnpnnnen n apaon. Kpo:e roro, nne, onncinan eprnonpnnomennn,
lepo(or (l, 182) yno:nnaer :ara c necnonenne: reoronnn. Ko::enraropi
yrnep(air, uro lepo(or omncn, :ar ne lary, no, noa:ono, .ra necnn
onncinaa nopn(oi noanninonennn nea n ae:n, noa(yxa, no(i n r.n. H:enno
no.ro:y necnn, ncnonne:an :aro:, nnone :ora nano:nnari rpeueciyi
reoronni n (yxe counnennn 3:ne(oia O npnpo(e, a nepcn(cine orn
nano:nnan ne ranncrnenno nponnnimnx cen ueoneioopaanix cymno-
cren, a neo, conne, yny n ueripe .e:enra iai npnpo(nie ]airopi
8
.
3ror ]par:enr npe(cranner nnrepec, nocioiiy aro(apn e:y
:i cnoconi aa]nicnponari nycri ne ]air nanunn ]noco]nn n neio-
roporo yponnn acrparnponannn n ]penne: Hpane, no onpe(eennie cxo(-
nie uepri n ]op:nponannn ]noco]cinx narn(on n n rpeuecion rpa(n-
nnn, n n npancion. Ornpannon rouion (n raioro conocranennn, paay-
:eercn, y(er nnnricn rpeuecian ]noco]nn n ye na ocnonannn .rnx,
xapairepnix (n cranonennn rpeuecion ]noco]nn, uepr :i nonpoy-
e: ni(enri re e npnanain n npancion rpa(nnnn.
B lpennn nepexo( or :n]oornuecioro :nponoaapennn i ]noco-
]nn ]nicnpyercn na yponne c:eni rpex ocoennocren, npe(oennix n
paorax B.H. lopana, n ioropie :i noanon: cee a(eci npnnecrn: 1)
nepexo( or cynpanarypana:a i (e:n]oornaannn (r.e. opnenrannn na
orncnenne npnpo(i na nee ca:on), 2) nepexo( or renerna:a i cycran-
nnaino:y no(xo(y n peanaannn .ron opnenrannn, 8) nepexo( or neprn-
iainon crpyirypi :npa i c]epnuecion
1
.
B neo:, :i :oe: aacnn(ereicrnonari .rn ocoennocrn iai na-
uarin nepnonauainoro nponecca nepexo(a or ocoennocren o(noro :npo-
noaapennn i (pyrn: n (n (pennen npancion rpa(nnnn. Bo-nepnix, orcyr-
crnne anrpono:op]noro onia oecrn n npe(cranenne nx iai orne-
uennix crnxnn, npnpo(nix .e:enron (no ncnio: cyuae, n npnne(enno:
nime naccae na lepo(ora) yiaainaer na nepexo( or c,.n.f,..x.+.,
nn :n]ono.rnuecioro :nponoaapennn, ior(a :nponopn(oi npe(crann-
ercn ionrponpye:i: cymecrna:n, cronmn:n na( npnpo(on, r.e. ora:n
i ,c+xa.a:x..uxx, ior(a cynpanarypainie orn yrpaunnair poi :npo-
oprannayimnx cn n ona nepexo(nr i iaio:y-no ecrecrnenno:y ]eno-
:eny, nanpn:ep, rai, iai .ro aa]nicnponano y 4aeca
2
. Bo-nropix, npn
coxpannime:cn renerna:e, ioropin uerio aa]nicnponan n aypnannrcio:
:n]e n n npe(cranennn o cornopennn Axypa:aa(on mecrepix A:ema Cnenra,
npnanaercn c,xncfaa cycrannnainon ocnoni ncero cymero
8
. Axypa Naa(a
nounraercn n aopoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn iai e(nncrnennoe oecrno, oruac-
rn :ono npnanari ero neanrpono:op]nocri
4
(ioropan ce(yer na naccaa
lepo(ora), npn .ro: na ero cycrannnainin orneuennin xapairep yiaai-
naer ero nonn:anne iai cnera. Haionen, no ornomenni i neprniainon
crpyirype :npa, ioropan n .ror nepno( nce eme xapairepnayer, nanpn:ep,
nannonciyi ioc:oorni, n npancion rpa(nnnn n:eer :ecro c]epnuecian
:o(ei crpoennn ioc:oca, aa]nicnponannan n .ror nepno( roiio n nn(e
ren(ennnn i npnnnnny, iai n n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn, xcaaxx, pannoanau-
nocrn ncex npocrpancrnennix nanpanennn
b
. O .ro: cnn(ereicrnyer ne-
1
Hanpn:ep, c:. 1:.n: 1. 1.:k/a::a+. The Philosophy o :he Ancien: lranian
Tradi:ion ;; Journal o :he K.P.Cama Orien:al lns:. 1986. N 2. P. 2848.
2
^.:: o.1., n:n:.z.+: A. An An:hology o Philosophy in Persia. V. l. New York,
Oxord: Oxord universi:y press, 1999.
8
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106. P. 7184. p. 99100.
1
1a.n 1.1. O connaino-ncropnuecion oyconennocrn reneanca rpeuecion
]noco]nn ;; ly:annrapnie nayin n Cnnpn. 1996. N 1. C. 9b101.
2
Ta: e, C. 96.
8
Ta: e, C. 99.
4
Anrpono:op]noe naopaenne Axypa:aa(i xapairepno no npen:ymecrny (n
penrnn Axe:enn(on, no npn .ro: ero nionorpa]nn nocxo(nr i accnpnncion.
b
1a.n 1.1. O connaino-ncropnuecion oyconennocrn reneanca., C. 100.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 46 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 47
peoc:icenne :n]a o :npono: nnne, r.e. ae:n mapoopaana (ck.n.)
iai eroi, n neo oipyaer ee no(ono ciopyne nnna. Ouenn(no, uro
no(onie npe(cranennn eme ne nnnircn n nonon :epe naryp]noco]-
cin:n, no na:euaercn uerian ren(ennnn, ne(yman i npe(]noco]nn, npo-
nnennan iai opamenne i npnpo(ni: n connaini: nnennn:.
Ha yponne rpeuecion rpa(nnnn :i :oe: npoce(nri nnni aa-
:emennn o(nnx npe(cranennn (pyrn:n, uro ye(nreino npo(e:oncr-
pnponano B.H. lopano:, no nor n npancion rpa(nnnn .ron nnnn aa:e-
mennn :i ne nan(e:, aaro oueni oruernno nn(no, uro n re, n (pyrne
npe(cranennn ynnaircn n coxpannircn na npornennn ncen rpa(n-
nnn c neioropi: npen:ymecrno: o(non nepe( (pyron n paanie nepno-
(i n n ee paanunix nanpanennnx.
Hacioiio neaanncn:i:n oiaainaircn .rn nooennn or ionnennnn
(pennerpeuecion ]noco]nn, nn, nnaue, nacioiio pano n ca:on (penne-
npancion rpa(nnnn c]op:nponanci re nn nnie ioc:oornuecine nn
onroornuecine n(en Tpy(nocri ornera na .ror nonpoc aaiiuaercn eme n
n ro:, uro n:eercn (ocrarouno ecrioe (eenne aopoacrpnncion nepi n
.noxy (o Aeican(pa Naie(oncioro n noce nero. Coracno rpa(nnnn, aa
neeanne no(unnnricn Aeican(p ynnuron reicr Anecri, noracn xpa-
:onie arapnie ornn, yn :nornx nocnreen anecrnncioro anannn :a-
ron (aa uro, icrarn, n noyun npoananne npoinrin Hcian(ap). B io:
cyuae, (ae ecn .nnao( coennn Anecri Aeican(po: ocraercn eren-
(on, c .roro nepno(a naunnaercn airnnnoe pacnpocrpanenne .nncion iyi-
rypi. H xorn reicri noccoa(aircn (no nnmyrcn aanono, no io(n]nnn-
pyircn), panno iai n ncrynaer nonoe noioenne :oe(on, re: ne :enee,
renepi nniro ne aacrpaxonan or nunrinannn n caipainie reicri rpeuec-
inx n(en na:epeno nn n cny nonon iyirypnon peainocrn.
]pennenpancine ioc:oornuecine n onroornuecine ionnennnn ]op-
:nponanci n reuenne (ocrarouno (ororo nepno(a npe:enn, pa:in ioropo-
ro n (anno: cyuae onpe(enircn nnci:ennon, nreparypnon rpa(nnnen.
Hauao ]op:nponannn onroornuecinx npe(cranennn ]nicnpyercn ye
no Anecre, a n:enno Acne, niiuaimen ce:na(nari lar, coa(anne
ioropix npnnncinaercn npopoiy 3aparymrpe
1
, Amra: (rn:na: or(ei-
ni: ora:) n nexennncion nreparype (Lyn(axnmn (Cornopenne ocno-
ni), D[nkart (]ennne nepi), `Ulem-i Islam (Loroconi nca:a), Shkand-
Gumnik Vichr (Paccennanne co:nennn) n pn( (pyrnx nponane(ennn)
2
.
Hponane(ennn nexennncion nreparypi .ro n oimnncrne cno-
e: oroconcine nponane(ennn VllllX nn. n... (cpe(n nnx, paay:eercn,
n:eircn reicri n oee noa(nero nepno(a), n ocnonno: orpaaimne
narn(i aopoacrpnncion opro(oicnn noce apacioro aanoenannn. Hec:orpn
na (onoino noa(nnn nepno( io(n]niannn, neioropie counnennn (nn nx
cymecrnennie uacrn), no :nenni ncce(onareen, nocxo(nr i rpa(nnnn
llllV nn. n. .. Hn n o(no: na .rnx reicron ner cncre:noro naoennn
ioc:oornuecinx nn onroornuecinx n(en n, re: ne :enee, ocnonnie
:o:enri, cocrannimne npe(:er yuennn o cyme:, ]nicnpyircn (ocra-
rouno uerio. B neo:, :i :oe: roiio npnnanreino yiaaari na nepn-
o( ]op:nponannn ron nn nnon ionnennnn, npn .ro: :i y(e: ncer(a (aa
pe(in: nciiuenne:) (ocrarouno ecrio npnnnaani i anananpye:o:y
reicry, a n:enno i nepno(y ero io(n]niannn nn coa(annn n na ocnona-
nnn .rnx reicron (ocrarouno rpy(no ninnnri peainyi (ary noanninone-
nnn coornercrnyimen ionnennnn. Ho.ro:y .rani cranonennn rex nn
nnix ]noco]cinx nooennn nnyrpn penrnoanon rpa(nnnn y(yr, yc-
onno ronopn, coornercrnonari npe:enn coa(annn reicron
1
. Hpe(e ue:
nenocpe(crnenno nepenrn i ananay reicron, neoxo(n:o aa:ernri, uro
npoe:arnia, n:eiman nixo(i na ]noco]cioe noe, (ocrarouno paano-
opaana, no nac, n nepnyi ouepe(i, y(yr nnrepeconari nonpoci onroo-
rnn, :enee ioc:oornn n roiio nonyrno n (ocrarouno ero :i paaepe:
neioropie (pyrne nonpoci. Ni ynn(n:, uro anana iopnyca reicron Ane-
cri n nexennncion nreparypi nponnaer cner na paanoopaane ]no-
co]cinx npoe:, no .rn npoe:i ne npe(crair n uncro: nn(e, onn roi-
io paanun:i na penrnoanoro n :n]oornuecioro ionreicra n omn: :e-
cro: npoe:arnin nnnircn paanoro po(a (yancrnuecine npornnonoc-
ranennn. B io: cyuae nn(no, uro, naunnan ye c (pennnx npe:en,
:nponoaapenuecian paora neaci n nanpanennn nonn:annn coornome-
nnn :e(y ]opo: n 3o: n :arepnaini: n (yxonni: :npa:n, n oee
roro, .ro npe(crannercn ocnonnon ocoennocrii npancion rpa(nnnn.
Hrai, na cocrnennoro yuennn 3aparymrpi, name(mero orpaenne
n larax, ye nn(no, uro nponcxo(nr ecn ne coa(anne npnnnnnnaino
1
Hapannie rani Acni nnrnpyircn na pyccio: naiie, ecn .ro cnennaino
ne oronopeno, no na(anni: accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997.
2
Ha pyccio: naiie (ocrynni ce(yimne na(annn: accf.. Hapannie rn:ni ;
Hep. c anecr. n io::enr. npo]. H.N. Crenn-Ka:encioro. ]ymane: A(n,
1990, accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997, 1.ac,.f: (oporn n
nyrn npane(nix. Hexennncine naan(areinie reicri. ; Bne(enne, rpancipnn-
nnn reicron, nep., io::., roccapnn n yiaaaren O.N. ynaionon. N., 1991,
Jaa.cfxxckxc fckcfa. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa(). Co-
rnopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. ; Ha(. no(roroneno O.N.yna-
ionon. N., 1997.
1
Pacc:arpnnan paannrne ]noco]cinx n(en (nn roro, uro :i c:orn i inan-
]nnnponari iai aauarin ]noco]cion :icn, nn (ae penrnoanon ]noco-
]nn) n ]penne: Hpane, n no(opie ]noco]cinx npoe: :i no :noro: onnpa-
nci na paory: n n1/a/a, o Philosophy in Persia. V. l . Seyyed Hossein Nasr
wi:h Nehdi Aminrazavi. New York, Oxord, 1999. P. 1b.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 48 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 49
nonix narn(on, ro nnrepnperannn crapix ionnennnn n ye na:eueni
nyrn :era]nanuecinx n :opainix aaiiuennn na ee ocnonannn. 3(eci
e orpaeno cyryo (yancrnuecioe nn(enne :npa, xapairepnoe (n
aopoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn, nec:orpn na noce(yimee ycnenne :onore-
ncrnuecion nnrepnperannn .roro yuennn. B larax aaoeni ocnona-
nnn narn(on o cymecrnonannn nemen no nceennon, ioropie paa(eeni
na xopomne n aie, noeanie n npe(nie, (ponci, n ioneuno: cuere, na
]nanuecioe n (yxonnoe a raie pn( (pyrnx npornnonoonocren,
]op:npyimnx (yancrnuecine npe(cranennn.
Hexennncine reicri, n uacrnocrn, Lyn(axnmn (Cornopenne oc-
noni) co(epnr npe(cranennn o ncropnn coa(annn :npa, npnpo(e Op-
:aa(a n Axpn:ana, na:euen nixo( na npoe:y reo(nnen, pacc:arpnnaer-
cn cymecrnonanne (yxonnix oreiron nn cymecrn (rainx iai, nanpn:ep,
+..c.n,a). Beci:a nono npe(craneni npoe:i ioc:oornn, pac-
c:arpnnaercn npnpo(a cnera, cnern. ]ocrarouno no(pono onncan npo-
necc coa(annn n no((epannn cymecrnonannn :npoa(annn (yxonni:n cy-
mecrna:n n yconnnx nropennn aa n :np. Pacc:orpeni nonnrnn ara n
aa, cnocoi n yconnn nx naan:o(encrnnn, yconnn cymecrnonanne cnera
n ri:i. Bano or:ernri npncyrcrnne ionnennnn cona nn peun, (ocra-
rouno pacnpocrpanennon na Lnne: Bocroie n neo:, paaneprinanne
nponecca coa(annn :npa, ooanauenne n niiuenne :arepnainon oac-
rn n ynnnepcy:, ornomennn co ao:, iai na yponne (yxonnoro :npa, rai n
:arepnainoro, anraronna: (opa n aa, noce(yimne noccranonenne
:npa, ocnoo(enne or aa. Bo :nornx reicrax naxo(n: naccan, n:ei-
mne ornomenne i pacc:orpenni nonpocon .cxaroornn n y(ymen nann,
ce(yimen aa reecni: nonomenne:. Hanoee ]noco]cin: cpe(n nex-
ennncinx reicron, iai npanno, npe(crannercn rpairar Shkand-Gumnik
Vichr (Paccennanne co:nennn), co(epamnn paccy(ennn ornocnrei-
no nenoa:onocrn ion cymecrnyimen ecioneunon nemn, npnpo(i ec-
ioneunocrn, pacc:arpnnaimnn ornomennn :e(y cnoconocrii noana-
nnn, cymnocrii, iauecrno: n nena:ennocrii cymnocrn.
Ho:n:o npouero, aopoacrpna: nanecren iai penrnn, n ocnonannn
ioropon enr rponioe npe(nncanne: xopomne :icn, xopomne cona, n
xopomne (ea. 3ra ionnennnn eper nauao n larax, a :opainyi paa-
paoriy .rnx npnnnnnon :i naxo(n:, nanpn:ep, n D:as:n i D[nk. B
ro: e ionreicre pacc:arpnnaercn npnpo(a cnpane(nnocrn n npoe:a
cymecrnonannn aa n :arepnaino: :npe. Ocnonnon oi :opainon npo-
e:arnin n nepnyi ouepe(i n:eer :ecro n rpa(nnnn .n,..aa. Kai nn-
(n:, (ocrarouno oimon nacr ]noco]cion npoe:arnin n npancinx
reicrax cnnaan c :opaini:n npoe:a:n, no n nacronmen paore :i
niny(eni roiio ipario ooanaunri .ro nanpanenne. , A,,acfx
(aer i(n: :opainin coner, nponcnnimnn raine nonpoci iai neoxo(n-
:ocri npn(epnnaricn arnx (ennnn, ioropie nnnircn neoxo(n:i:n
yconne: (n noc:eprnon nann, pacipinaer npnpo(y cnpane(nnocrn,
npan(nnocrn, :npa, n noa:onocrn npe(ornpamennn aa, naeannn a(a.
Taie ocy(aircn nonpoci npe(nournreinoro :opainoro none(ennn,
npe(annn cen penrnn, no((epannn ]nanuecioro n (yxonnoro a(oponin,
ornomennn :e(y ananne: penrnn n ycrpanenne: (e:onon na :npa.
]aee, :i (oni oronopnricn, uro npancian nnci:ennan rpa(nnnn
ne nnnercn o(nopo(non n co(epareino: nane n n nen :ono ni(e-
nri rpn rnna penrnoanix (oirpnn: :aa(enrciyi, aypnannrciyi n (oir-
pnny c:emannoro rnna. Bce rpn (oirpnni npe(craneni n ro: nn nno:
coornomennn (n nnior(a n uncro: nn(e) n o(nnx n rex e reicrax, uro
nnnoci peayiraro: (ocrarouno pannero penrnoanoro cnniperna:a nnyrpn
npancion rpa(nnnn. 3a:euannn o npnna(enocrn ron nn nnon ionnen-
nnn i o(non na (oirpnn :i y(e: (anari no :epe namen peioncrpyinnn
onroornuecinx noaapennn. lonopnri o ia(o: rnne n or(einocrn ne
nxo(nr n namn aa(aun, .ro no(pono c(ea H.S. Nyberg n cnoen paore
1
.
Tenepi :i oee nn :enee no(pono ocranonn:cn na ro:, uro n
caro:, ioncneirnnno: nn(e :i ooanaunn nime, n:en npn .ro: n
nn(y, uro npe(cranennan peioncrpyinnn orpaaer ciopee npancine
reoornuecine nocrpoennn, a nonpoc ornocnreino nx ]noco]cion
nanonennocrn noia ne crannrcn.
Hrai, ocnonnon n ncxo(nin reanc npancion rpa(nnnn (yana:.
Hpancian rpa(nnnn paanuaer (na yponnn peainocrn: :np nemen n npn-
po(i, n (pyron yponeni :np :enrainocren, (yxonnin :np.
Lirne (enrcn na (ne c]epi, n n .ro: npancian rpa(nnnn, ioneu-
no, ne opnrnnaina, no nonpoye: orpaanri cnenn]niy n:enno npanc-
inx narn(on. Ornocnreino .rnx (nyx c]ep irnn onpe(enercn n :ec-
ro ueoneia. eonei aann:aer cpe(nnnoe nooenne :e(y .rn:n (ny-
:n peainocrn:n, nocioiiy, c o(non croponi on oa(aer paay:o:,
:y(pocrii, noen, ioropie ornocnrcn i :enraini: xapairepncrnia:,
no .rn iauecrna npnnneceni n ]nanuecioe reo ueoneia nocpe(crno:
]panamn ((yxa, (ymn) cymnocrn na ne:arepnainoro :npa, n n:enno
ueonei nnnercn nonomenne: e(nncrna reecnoro n (yxonnoro
2
.
1
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdeensll ;; Journal
Asia:ique. Oc:obre-decembre, 1981. P. 198244.
2
4op:nponanne n(en rpancnen(enrnocrn :ono npoce(nri n rpeuecion ]no-
co]nn uepea paannrne npe(cranennn o y:onocrnrae:o: :npe, n(enx n .rn
npe(cranennn nepenocnrcn n cpe(neneionyi penrnoanyi xpncrnanciyi :ici,
no ncen nn(n:ocrn, uepea neonaronnion, oruacrn yxo(n iopnn:n n ny(ana:.
Ca:a n(en n lpennn noanniaer n pa:iax rnoceoornuecion npoe:i noanannn
ncrnni n onroornuecion npoe:i c,xna:a , +na:a:a. H(en rpancnen(enrnoc-
rn ora n Hpane, iaercn, n:eer nnie iopnn n noanniaer n pa:iax ]op:npona-
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X b0 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... b1
Hauarin (eennn na (na yponnn irnn ]nicnpyircn ye n nano-
ee pannnx uacrnx Anecri larax, r(e .ra cnryannn orpaena
ce(yimn: opaao:. 4nanuecinn :np n:enyercn iocrni: (astvat
n:eimnn iocrn), (pyran oacri oacri paay:a (n.n.n/. pa-
ay:). 3aparymrpa opamaercn i Naa(e (Acna 28.2) c npocion (ari
e:y n (ap oa :npa, nnaue ronopn, on xouer noyunri ncrnnnoe ananne
ornocnreino oenx c]ep irnn n aro(apn .ro:y ananni o(epari
noe(y na( ne(pyra:n n ]nanuecio: :npe
1
. Orci(a nn(no, uro nacri
na( oen:n c]epa:n npnna(enr Ny(po:y (Naa(e).
Ho(onoe npornnonocranenne (nyx :npon ncrpeuae: n n (pyrnx
uacrnx Axynananrn lari. Naa(a cnnaa, conpnr paay: c norii
2
(Acna, 81.11), n coa(a kacfn,k x.n: arn:n (ea:n paay:a
8
(Acna, 84.14). To e paa(eenne na (ne oacrn irnn, no oee uerio
nipaennoe, ncrpeuae: n reicre :a(oanecrnncioro nepno(a (Acna,
60.1): Tor, iro yiaaa npn:ie, ne(ymne i nponneranni nyrn, npnna(-
eamne iai i .ron reecnon nann, rai n i y:onocrnrae:on, r(e npe-
inaer Axypa
4
. Ha .roro orpinia ncno, uro ecri (na nyrn i nponnera-
nni, ia(in na ioropix coornercrnyer paani: c]epa: irnn.
Ho :epe paannrnn npancion rpa(nnnn yconnircn npe(crane-
nnn o (nyx c]epax irnn, n ye n Amrax naunnaer ]op:nponaricn
coornercrnyiman rep:nnoornn, ioropan n ycronnme:cn nn(e npe(cran-
ena n nexennncion nreparype. B Op:aa(-nmre napanne c ye cyme-
crnyimn: npe(cranenne: o paay:no: n iocrno: :npe (Kro n .ro:
norcio: :npe (astvaiti) .. nce n:ena naycrno npo:onnr, roro ne o(oe-
ir ao:icnmnx opy(in (1. 1618)
b
) :np paay:a nonn:aercn iai nory-
croponnnn (par-.:1: ,ka. :np no ry cropony iocrnoro)
6
(1. 2b).
Ecn n Op:aa(-nmre :i nn(n: npornnonocranenne .:1+.
par-.:1:, ro n 3a:na(-nmre npn onncannn paanuennn c]ep irnn
ye npocneunnaer ren(ennnn i ycranonenni nnon rep:nnoornn, a n:en-
no paanuenne na yponne n[n [1 (nnrenrneinin ]nan-
uecinn). Tai, n onncannn (ennnn o(noro na Caominnron (cnacnreen)
Acrnar-3p.ra (Bonornnmnn Hcrnny) i xapairepncrnie ]nanuecioro :npa
(oannercn (ononnreinoe onpe(eenne :np nnix cymecrn, n-
nix coa(annn nn coa(annn, oauennix norii (astvaitm gathm)
(3a:na(-nmr, XV, 9894)
1
.
B nexennncion nreparype ye ncnoiayercn ycronunnan rep:nno-
ornn. ]n nepe(aun nonnrnn (yxonnin ncnoiayercn cono n[n,
ioropoe conna(aer no anauenni c anecrnncin: manangha (or .accf. mainyu).
]n nepe(aun nonnrnn :arepnainin, ]nanuecinn ncxo(non craa ne
rep:nnoornn lar, a ra, ioropyi :i nn(en n 3a:na(-nmre [1
(or .accf. gath cymecrno, nnymee, cra(a (rnapn)), r.e. nce ro,
uro ornuaercn or oecrnennoro, (yxonnoro irnn n cnocoa ero cyme-
crnonannn, ioe, uro oa(aer ]nanuecion nanii.
B D[nkar:, b, 81.14
2
unrae::
Tnopen Op:aa( noca .ry penrni ne roiio Hpancio:y nap-
crny, no n nce:y :npy n ia(o:y na :noecrna |ueoneuecinx cymecrn].
B neo: on coa(a :noecrno uncrix nemen, cpe(n ioropix |:ono
onapynri] c:emannie nemn |neuncrie], n n[n ||nenn(n:an oacri]],
uepea npnpo(y :y(poro ueoneia, ioropin :icnr n ronopnr ncrnny, n n
[1 ||:arepnainan oacri]], uepea ncrnnnoe (ennne, on |coa(a ee]
npncyrcrnyimn: n ia(o: n n raio: nn(e, uro (ae ueonei, nanoee
npnnnaannin i (ypni: penrnn: ||agden]] xpannr nnyrpn cen nen-
uanmne npnnnnni .ron penrnn.
Annoe (eenne na :arepnainin n (yxonnin :np npocennaercn
n nexennncinx an(apaax (naan(annnx, nacranennnx), n rainx, iai, na-
npn:ep, 3aneri npe(ion, Hapannie nacranennn nepnix yunreen,
]eenne nemen ae:nix, npnue: crpyirypnpyercn n pera:enrnpyer-
nnn penrnn. Ni xorn: ciaaari, uro npn ncen cxoecrn nocranonin nonpoca n
paa(eennn :npon na :arepnainin n (yxonnin, nn(no, uro ncroin ]op:npona-
nnn npoe:arnin paanie, n, ce(onareino, ronopnri o nnnnnn o(non iaion-ro
rpa(nnnn na (pyryi n (anno: cyuae aarpy(nnreino.
1
Acna, 28.2: mazd ahur pair-jasi voh manangh maiby dvi ahv astvatasc
hyatc manangh. (Opnrnnainie ]par:enri nnrnpyircn no +c:1.: Yasna. Sacred
Li:urgy and Ga:has ; Hymns o Zara:hush:ra. Transl. L. H. Nills ;; Sacred
Books o :he Eas:, American Edi:ion, 1898). B nep. H.C. Lparnncioro: Naa(a.
(an :ne oa :npa n (ap :np nemen, a raie :np (ymn.
2
thw manangh xratshc hyat astvatem.
8
mazd vairm astvait ushtni dt vanghush shyaothan manangh.
4
at hv vanghush vahy n aib-jamyt n erezsh savangh path sshit ahy
anghush astvat mananghasc haithyg stsh g -shat ahur.
b
accf.: Hapannie rn:ni. ]ymane, 1990. C. 1617.
6
H Ueocri n Lecc:eprne (Xaypnarar n A:eprar A.1.) (n npane(nix
narpa(a n norycroponne: :npe rnopenne :oe, nep. H.N. Crenn-Ka:encio-
ro. accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 18.
1
drujem nizhbart // ashahe haca gathby. h vspem ahm astvatem // izhay
vant dithrbya // daresca dathat amerexshyatm // vspm m astvaitm gathm.
B nep. H.N. Crenna-Ka:encioro: H oi. Ha npane(noro :npa Hanei on
nane(er. .Beci :np ynn(nr norcinn raaa:n aro(arn, H c(eaer ecc:epr-
ni: Barn( .ror norcinn :np. accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH.,
1997. C. 14b146.
2
]eniap( nn ]ennnn nepi. Cocranen orocono: A(yp]apnaro: npn
xan]e ai-Na:yne (818888), aanepmen n i. lX n. Arypnaro:. Ueii innrn
nnnercn (oiaaareicrno npenocxo(crna aopoacrpna:a na( (pyrn:n penrnn:n
(xpncrnancrno:, y((na:o:, ocoenno :annxencrno:).
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X b2 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... b8
cn, n ocnonno:, :arepnainan c]epa irnn
1
. H:enno raioe npornnonoc-
ranenne c]ep irnn, o ioropo: :i yno:nnan nime, n[n iai
:enrainon, paay:non c]epi n [1 iai c]epi ]nanuecioro, uyncrnen-
no nocnpnnn:ae:oro npe(crannercn eme o(non (yancrnuecion ion-
nennnen n pa:iax npancion rpa(nnnn.
Banon (n yncnennn co(epannn .rnx nonnrnn nnnercn peion-
crpyinnn P. Uenepa, coracno ioropon paannrne nonnrnn :arepnainoro
n (yxonnoro n cpe(nenepcn(cinn nepno( mo ye no( nnnnne: ]noco-
]nn Apncroren. B cnoe: nepno: anauennn n[n .ro (yxonnan
cropona nann noome, n n couerannn c [1 .rn (na nonnrnn conna(a-
ir c re:, uro npnnnro naainari (yxonni: n :arepnaini: (n
(pyrnx nnenocrounix penrnn. Ho :epe nne(ennn rep:nnoornn Apn-
croren nonnrne n[n nepeonpe(enercn n conna(aer n nepnyi oue-
pe(i c npe(cranenne: o nepnnuno:, neo]op:enno: cocronnnn :are-
pnn, ioropan, iai n n[n, ia ue:-ro nenn(n:i: n neocnaae:i:.
Tain: opaao:, n[n crao oanauari iai (yxonnyi cropony ueoneia,
niiuaimyi paay:, noi n coananne, rai n neo]op:ennyi, nepnnu-
nyi :arepni, n[n craa oanauari (yxonnyi npnunny noanninonennn
]nanuecioro :npa, y(yun npn .ro: nenn(n:on n neocnaae:on, no :are-
pnainon croponon :arepnainix nemen
2
. C rouin apennn (yana:a :aa-
(enrcioro roia, raioe ncnoiaonanne rep:nna ncna onpan(ano, no-
cioiiy cocrnenno rnopnmn: nauao: ((e:nypro:) nnnercn (opo.
Op:aa(, n n:enno on, coa(aer :arepni na n[n, [1 e ]op:npyercn
npn n:emareicrne aoro nauaa.
ro iacaercn (pyron cocrannimen apncroreenon napi ]op:a
:arepnn, ro ona raie (ocrarouno pacnpocrpanena n nexennncion rpa-
(nnnn. P. Zaehner npe(araer ce(yimnn npn:ep, ior(a on yiaainaer
na onncanne n D[nkar: nponecca cranonennn iai nepnon ]op:i n
crannaannn rnopennn iai nropon ]op:i, ror(a iai nce nnymne
rnopennn n:enyircn rperin ]op:a
8
. 3(eci ncnoiaonanne aaonix
nonnrnn apncroreenon ]noco]nn conepmenno nponanoino. ]pyron
npn:ep :ono npnnecrn na Loimoro Lyn(axnmna, n ioropo: onncina-
ircn .rani coa(annn n[n iai neecnoro rnopennn. H.S. Nyberg npe(a-
raer cocrnennyi peioncrpyinni necioiinx cxe: rnopennn n[n, io-
ropie no ero :nenni :ono ni(enri n (anno: reicre
4
. B nepnon cxe:e
n[na .ro rpernn .ran k.: : cnn :
u
[ nn ynnnepcainan ]op:a
(reo). Hanoee nnnon (e:oncrpannen .roro ynnnepcainoro rea cy-
nr 1. k.:, ]op:a ornn, ocnonnoro .e:enra ynnnepcy:a, nponnai-
naimero nce arne rnopennn. Bo nropon cxe:e n[n nonnrne ]op:i
raie npncyrcrnyer, no ye iai .:.: k.:, ]op:i ecioneunoro n ynn-
nepcainoro
1
. B (anno: cyuae nonnrne ]op:a nonn:aercn ye ne rai
nponanoino iai n npe(i(yme: n n iaion-ro :epe oee naio ro:y,
uro n:e n nn(y no( nn: Apncrorei. H n ro: n (pyro: cyuae reicri,
co(epamne yiaaannie nonnrnn, (ocrarouno noa(nne, n onnpaircn na
paannryi reoornueciyi cncre:y, a iai iaercn, ycronnmnecn n aana(-
non rpa(nnnn ]noco]cine nonnrnn ncnoiayircn ciopee n iauecrne
anropnrernoro no(rnep(ennn naarae:on rouin apennn, ue: n iauecrne
aai, na ioropyi onnpaircn .rn reoornuecine nooennn.
Hrai, :np cymecrnyer, n :npe cymecrnyer neuro. Kain: e opa-
ao: nonn:aercn ca:a cnryannn cymecrnonannn
B Anecre nepexo( irnn n neirne, iai n ca:a cnryannn cymecrno-
nannn, uerio ne aa]nicnponani. Acna, 80 nonecrnyer (n :n]ono.rnuec-
ion ]op:e, no co anaunreinon (oen acrpainnn) o ro:, iai (na (yxa-
nanena (Axypa-Naa(a n Anrxpo-Nanii, ]opo n 3o)
2
coa(air nani
(gam) n conyrcrnyimnn en ncrnnnin paay: n oionuanne nann (apmem
anghush) c nanxy(mn: ao: (80.4). ]n iocrnoro :npa xapairepni ren-
nocri, o:an, oeann n npoune nopo(ennn 3a. Nnp Axypa Naa(i
.ro aro, orarcrno n a(oponie, a ero y:onocrnrae:an uacri ((ea Naa-
(i, ioropie (ocrynni paay:enni :icnmero (80.1)
8
ecri ncrnna (Apra)
n arne :icn (voh manangh). Hpn .ro: nc-x.n: nnnercn xapairepn-
crnion roiio iocrnoro :npa, ne pacnpocrpannnci na :np paay:a.
Hcxo(nie nanpanennn (n (ainenmero paannrnn (yancrnuec-
inx noaapennn aa(ani n o(no: naccae na Acni, 80, ioropan yconno
n:enyercn ]oirpnna (yana:a n nxo(nr n cocran Axynananrn lari,
coa(anne ioropon npnnncinaercn 3aparymrpe. ]na ]yxa |Cnenra-Na-
nii n Anxpa-Nanii], (na nanena n nauae nponoaracnn or cen
1
1.ac,.f: ,aa:x n nyrn npane(nix. Hexennncine naan(areinie reicri. N.:
Hayia, 1991. C. 68, 69, 8b.
2
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. London, 1961. P. 200.
8
lbid. P. 202.
4
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdeens ll ;;
Journal Asia:ique. Oc:obre-decembre, 1981. P. 194.
1
Coornercrnyimne naccan na Loimoro Lyn(axnmna c:. ^,uc: 1.o.
Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdeens ;; Journal Asia:ique. Avril-
juin, 1929.
2
Cymecrnyer onpe(eennan ioppennnn .rnx n:en c omenn(oenponencion pn-
ryainon eicnion, uro (ono yiaainari na omne uepri n (penne: nn(oenpo-
nencio: pnryae. Cp. anecr.duz. manah, (p.-nn(. dur. manas, aoe noy(enne
(yxa, rpeu. uorvq, aona:epennin n anecr. hu. manah, (opoe noy(e-
nne (yxa, nn(. vasumanas-, ipnro-:niencioe e-u-mene, rpeu. rurvq, aro-
:icnmnn, cp. can. Dobromyslr |1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx
ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. C. 212].
8
Acna, 80.1, nep. K.A.Kocconnu.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X b4 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... bb
uncroe n neuncroe :icen, peuen n nocrynion. Laro:y(pie anair paa-
nnny :e(y nponoaracnren:n, ne anair ee ao:y(pie. B nepnin paa
ior(a onn nomn coa(anari n nani, n orcyrcrnne nann, n nce, ue:
cronr naionen :np r(e (ypnoe, ra: nn(en i n neuncrin, ]yx e
Laron ncer(a npeina nepaayuen co cnnrocrii. Ha .rnx ]yxon 3on
napa cee neuncroe (eo, uncrory e napa ]yx Henopounin, onra-
imnn n nenoioen:o: nee: noce(onan uncrore urnmne Axypy (ea-
:n Hpan(i, nepyn Naa(e
1
.
Ha co(epannn .roro naccaa ce(yer, uro ipnrepnn (eennn na
cnonx n uynx ocymecrnnercn ne no npnnnnny rpa(ancion nn .r-
nnuecion npnna(enocrn, a no npnnnnny aicnoornuecion npnna(-
enocrn i (opy nn ay. Tain: opaao:, (yana: ioropin aacnn-
(ereicrnonan n (anno: naccae .rnuecinn. Hpornnonocranne:ie
.rnuecine iareropnn (opo n ao arpnyrnpyircn (ny: cy-
crannnn: cnery n ri:e coornercrnenno.
Hecioiio nni: opaao:, ro ecri iai ocoananne neocrnocrn n (n-
reinocrn cymecrnonannn :npa n na:enunnocrn or(einix nemen n ne:,
cnryannn cymecrnonannn nonn:aercn n nexennncion nreparype.
B Hapannix nacranennnx nepnix yunreen
2
nocraneni non-
poci, orneri na ioropie onpe(enir :ecro ueoneia n :npe n noanon-
ir pacipiri npnpo(y nemen (2). Kro n ec:i. oriy(a n npnme n iy(a
n nepnyci. Kaion :on ae:non (or. Hpnme n n na (yxonnoro :npa
nn i n :npe ae:no:. Hepnonpnunna o(na nn (ne n (p. Ha nep-
nin nonpoc ueonei orneuaer: A npnme na (yxonnoro :npa, a ne i n
:arepnaino: (ae:no:) :npe. A coa(an, a ne cymecrnyi or neia
(i)
8
. ]aee, onaannocrn ueoneia paarpannunnaircn no ornome-
nni i (ny: c]epa: irnn. Hcnonenne (ora no ornomenni i :npy
(yxonno:y n ro:, uroi (y:ari, uro Op:aa( cymecrnyer, a Axpn:an n
neirnn (8), a cyryo ae:nie onaannocrn aaiiuaircn n ro:, uroi
ennricn, aacenari ae:i, yxannari aa cioro: n npouee (b8, 10).
Ha .roro reicra ncno ce(yer, uro Op:aa( cymecrnyer n nnnercn
nepnonauao: n nepnonpnunnon irnn, ero ocnonanne: (bunitag), on
neuno i, neuno npey(er n on |npeinaer] n ecc:eprno: na(iue-
crne, ecioneunocrn n uncrore (Hapannie nacranennn nepnix yunre-
en, 8). Hcxo(nie noannnn nepnornopennn n Shkand-Gumnik Vichr,
1.1b. npe(craneni ce(yimn: opaao::
Bo n:n Op:aa(a, rocno(nna, nenuanmero n :y(poro, nce-npann-
mero, nceanaimero n nce:orymero, (2) iro ecri (yx cpe(n (yxon, (8) n
na ero cymecrnonannn, or(einoro n e(nncrne, io rnopenne npane(-
nix. (4) On cornopn raie, nocpe(crno: cocrnennon nenpenaon(en-
non cni, ce:i nicouanmnx apxanreon, ncex anreon (yxonnoro n :np-
cioro cymecrnonannn, (b) n ce:i :npcinx xapairepncrni, ioropie ecri
ueonei, nnornie, oroni, :era, ae:n, no(a n pacrennn
1
.
Ho raioe nonn:anne Hepnocymero xapairepno roiio (n opro-
(oicainon aopoacrpnncion reoornn. B (encrnnreinocrn na nporne-
nnn ncero nepno(a o]op:ennn npancinx noaapennn aauacryi npenanpo-
naa (yancrnuecian ren(ennnn, ncxo(nie nooennn ioropon orpaeni
n larax, r(e yrnep(aircn (ne nepnonpnunni ]yx aron n ]yx
aon. ]yancrnuecine nnrennnn coxpannircn n io: nanpanennn npan-
cion :icn, n n nonon :epe npe(craneni n aypnannrcion (oirpnne.
Honn:anne nponeccon cranonennn, noanninonennn, cocrnenno irnn n
nepexo(a n neirne n ia(on ceire (kc:/.n) nnyrpn npancion rpa(n-
nnn nonn:aercn ne o(noanauno, no npn .ro: poi re:noro, aoro nauaa
coxpannercn n:enno ero npncyrcrnne n :npe (ao rouoi i coa(anni
]nanuecioro :npa, na:enennn: n ne: n nepexo(y n neirne.
Hnrepecni: n noiaaareini: (n nonn:annn .roro nonpoca nnnercn
reicr `Ulem-i lslam
2
(Xlll n.), ioropin npnnnro ornocnri i aypnannrcin:,
na ioroporo noanon: cee nponnrnponari (ocrarouno oimon ]par:enr:
(1) O npe(nncannn Penrnn, cnycrn 600 (er) noce Haa(arap(a:
Heioropie :ycyi:ancine oroconi npe(onn necioiio nonpocon,
n neiro, iro i cne(ym n penrnn, (a orneri, co nnn:anne: ornecnci
i nx paarncnenni. B cnnan c .rn: onn cocrannn innry. 3ra innra
naainaercn `Ulem-i lslam r.e. paarncnenne o ycrponcrne :npa n o
(yme ueoneia or nauaa nnori (o neunocrn.
(6) Nnp i nn on i cornopen Henoa:ono yrnep(ari, uro
:np i ncer(a no npnunne roro, uro :norne nonie nemn nonnnircn
npe:n or npe:enn, raie onn npnxo(nr n yna(oi, paapymaircn n .ro:
:npe, n rai onn noanniair n paapymaircn cnona n cnona, n noro:y nce,
uro nnnercn npe(:ero: noanninonennn n paapymennn, (ono iri oec-
neueno npnunnon, n nce cymee (ono iri oecneueno npnunnon, ioro-
pan ne :oer ne iri npnnncana Lory. Tor(a .rn: ycranoneno, uro :np
ne cymecrnona, no on i cornopen. Hrai, ro, uro cymecrnyer, ne :oer
cymecrnonari ea rnopna. (7) Hanecrno, uro n nexennncion penrnn, io- 1
Acna, 80.8b, nep. K.A. Kocconnu.
2
1.ac,.f: ,aa:x n nyrn npane(nix. Hexennncine naan(areinie reicri. N.,
1991. C. 70.
8
Az n[n mad ham n[ [1 bd ham :rdag ham n[ bdag. (Bce opnrnnainie
reicri an(apaon nnrnpyircn no na(anni: 1.ac,.f: ,aa:x n nyrn npane(nix.
Hexennncine naan(areinie reicri. N., 1991.).
1
o/k.nc-un.n: 1:z.: (Doub:-dispelling exposi:ion). English Transla:ion by E.W.
Wes:. Sacred Books o Eas:. Pahlavi :ex:s, (par: 8), 188b. C:. raie anrnncinn
nepeno(: 2.c/nc: 1. C. Teachings o :he Nagi, 19b6. P. 8687.
2
`Ulem-: 1:/.n ;; Dhabhar B. N., 1c:::.n 1:+.,.1:, Bombay, 1982. P. 487 .
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X b6 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... b7
ropyi ncnone(yir aopoacrpnnni, ronopnrcn, uro :np coa(an. Tor(a, ecn
:i ciaaan, uro :np cornopen, :i :oe: ocy(ari, iro cornopn :np,
ior(a on i cornopen, iai on i cornopen n noue:y on i cornopen.
(8) B penrnn yrnep(aercn: ipo:e npe:enn, nce (pyrne nemn in
cornopeni n npe:n nnnercn nx rnopno:. Bpe:n earpannuno, ero nepx-
nnn npe(e ne onapynri, ero ocnonanne ne onapynri, ono ncer(a
cymecrnonao n ncer(a y(er. Ono, na(eennoe :y(pocrii, ne ciaer,
oriy(a ono npnmo.
He io nnioro, iro i Bpe:n no nce: ero nenunn :or naanari
Tnopno:: Houe:y Horo:y uro ono eme ne coa(ao rnopennn. (9) Tor(a
ono (r.e. 1c+s) nponaneo oroni n no(y, n ior(a onn nepe:emanci,
Op:aa( npnme n cymecrnonanne. Bpe:n iai non Tnopna n iai Yunrei
no ornomenni i rnopennn: coa(ano n: (r.e. Op:aa(o:) .Op:aa( coa(a
Bpe:n ]ororo Tepnennn |2:.+.n.-c.:c/a-k/.c/.1.], ioropoe ncuncn-
oci n 12000 er.
Hec:orpn na na:enunnocri n reiyuecri or(einix nemen n
nnennn :npa, neocrnocri cymecrnonannn cornopennoro :npa coxpann-
ercn aro(apn ero npnunne. T.e. nepnonpnunnon ]nanuecioro :npa nn-
nercn Op:aa(. Hpn .ro: nn(no, uro n aypnannrcion nepcnn noannino-
nennn nno(nrcn nepnan nepnonpnunna Bpe:n, poi ioroporo cno-
(nrcn i coa(anni ne:arepnainix .e:enron no(i n ornn, (ainenmnn
.ran c:emenne .rnx .e:enron nirn(nr iai nnone :exanncrn-
uecinn nponecc, n peayirare ioroporo n noanniaer npnunna noannino-
nennn :arepnainoro :npa. Hepnoe, uro coa(ano no noe Op:aa(a
ioneunoe npe:n, ioropoe nnnercn ocnonnon xapairepncrnion ]nanuec-
ioro :npa. ]aee peui n(er o rperien no nopn(iy npnunne, ao: nauae,
aro(apn ioropo:y y(er n(rn cranonenne ]nanuecioro :npa.
4nanuecinn :np nonn:aercn raie iai oacri c:emennn (nyx nep-
nonaua, n n raio: cyuae oman cxe:a cymecrnonannn :npa aa.nxknaac-
nxc cf.naa.cnxc afxc ca,succ ncafxc, raie nnnercn (nyco-
crannon. Hpn .ro: nepnie rpn anena nnnircn cnoncrnenni:n n :arepn-
aino:y, n ne:arepnaino:y :npy, (na noce(nnx npnna(ear nciiun-
reino :arepnaino:y :npy, nocioiiy on neor(en: or aoro nauaa.
ro iacaercn npe(cranennn o crpyirype :npa, ro onn raie ne
o(noanauni n npancion rpa(nnnn n paannnaircn ce(yimn: opaao:.
Ye n larax Anecri :np nonn:aercn iai cncre:no oprannaonannin
n oa(aimnn uerion crpyirypon. Nono ciaaari, uro :arepnainan
cropona irnn nnnercn n neioropo: c:ice npoeinnen n(eainon.
He roiio nce irne n neo: (enrcn na (ne oacrn, no n ia(an na
.rnx oacren n cnoi ouepe(i uerio crpyirypnponana. Crpyirypa (yxonno-
ro :npa rpexuacrna (Acni 28 |Noenne o Cone]), n ee ocnone enr
oecrnennin paay: Axypa Naa(i, (pyron yponeni Apra Baxnmra (Han-
yuman ncrnna nn ]yx ornn) n Boxy Nana (Laran NiciPaay: nn ]yx
ciora, ioropin :ono nonn:ari iai neioe nnrerpnpyimee nauao omnni
ciorono(on). Hpn .ro: paay:nin, (yxonnin :np oa(aer onpe(eennon
neocrnocrii, nocioiiy n Apra, n Boxy Nana nonn:aircn ciopee iai
iauecrna Axypa Naa(i, nn ero .:anannn. B iauecrne ]yxa ornn n ]yxa
ciora onn ninonnir ]yninni :e(naropon, nocpe(nnion :e(y Axypa
Naa(on n ueoneio: (rounee, npopoio: nn peno:).
4nanuecinn (iocrnin) :np raie oa(aer crpyirypon, ioropyi
cocrannir ecrecrnennie crnxnn :era, ae:n, no(a n pacrennn.
3rn: crnxnn: coornercrnyir axypi (arne cni :npoa(annn). Axypa
Naa(e :enrainoro yponnn na ]nanuecio: yponne coornercrnyer Xmarpa
Bapin (nacri apnncinx k.axca). Tpn (pyrne ocnoni .ro Cnenra Ap-
:anrn (Cnnroe Larouecrne, Hpe(annocri), (aiman cny n ipenocri re-
a: (Acna, 80.7) raie, iai Apra cipenner ioc:oc n ynpanner ero
npannini: ]yninnonnponanne:, Xapnarar n A:.prar, npnnnocnr a(opo-
nie n nano:nnair o ecc:eprnn (Acna, 44. 118), noiaaaree: .rnx
iauecrn nnnercn ryunin, cnoionnin cior. Tain: opaao:, ncn .ra crpyi-
rypa coornercrnyer crpyirype :npa paay:a n npnanana oecneunri ]yninn-
onnponanne ]nanuecioro :npa anaornuno ycrponcrny :npa n(eainoro.
B nexennncio: counnennn Lanacr-na-manacr (]oanoennoe
ne(oanoennoe)
1
no(onie npe(cranennn, roiio c oee paanepnyri:
uenenne: .e:enron, naoeni ce(yimn: opaao::
Ka(in na nac (a:axpacnan(on A.1.) (a :arepnaino:y :npy
or cen npe(crannren (iop:nnny), uroi uepea ero reo na ae:e
ocymecrnnri ry (enreinocri, ioropyi on ocymecrnner n :npe (yxon-
no:. B .ro: :oe: :arepnaino: :npe n, Op:aa(, (orneuai) aa npane(-
nix, Bax:an aa cior, Ap(naxnmr aa oroni, Laxpenap aa :era-
i, Cnan(ap:a( aa ae:i n npane(nix enmnn, Xop(a( aa no(i,
A:op(a( aa pacrennn (c. 82(42r)).
Ha Acni Na(men Anecri n Amron nicrpannaercn necioiio
nnan crpyirypa ]nanuecioro :npa aa cuer npnnnecennn n nee (ononn-
reino (nyx ]op: irnn Hpocrpancrna n Bpe:enn.
B Acne, 72.10 nocxnanercn Bani s..f
2
ar:oc]epi, noa(yxa.
C o(non croponi ero orpannunnaer naar Pa:an Xnamrpa oecrno
yron n nacrnm, nn, n (anno: cyuae, cocrnenno ae:non nonepxnoc-
rn, c (pyron Txnama, neecnin cno(
8
, ioropin :icnrcn :eranuec-
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 812818.
2
]ocronnin nounrannn, n:enonanne nn(onpancinx oron.
8
Rmanasca hvstrahe vayaosh upar-kairyehe taradht anyish dmn, atat t vay at
t asti spet-mainyaom, thwshahe hvadhtahe zrvnahe akaranahe zrvnahe darekh-
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X b8 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... b9
in: (Amr, 18). B:ecre nce rpn naara xapairepnayir ]nanuecioe npo-
crpancrno :npa, npnna(eamee 3ypnany (apraxna(ara (yin. (ornn-
ca:operynpyimnncn, ca:oynpannimnncn, npnpo(nin), ioneuno:y
orpeaiy npe:enn ]nanuecioro :npa, ioropin npnna(enr 3ypnany aia-
pana, earpannuno:y npe:enn (yxonnoro :npa. Tain: opaao:, cocran-
nimn:n .e:enra:n ]nanuecioro :npa nnnircn noa(yx (Bani) n ae:n
(Pa:an), ioropie or(enircn or no(i n ornn, iai cocrannimnx (yxon-
noro :npa, :erao:. Anaornunan cxe:a nocnponano(nrcn n ioc:oo-
rnn. Bani: :o:enro: nnnercn n ro, uro oacri, npnna(eaman
Bani n Txname, nonn:aercn eme n iai oacri c:emennn (opa n aa.
Ne(y nn:n |Op:aa(o: n Axpn:ano:. A.1.] ia nycrora,
(ro) ecri ro, uro naainair noa(yx, n ioropo: renepi c:emanci (pyr
c (pyro: (na (yxonnix (nauaa), orpannuennoe n earpannunoe, ro ecri
nepxnee, ro, uro naainair ecioneunin cner, n ea(na ecioneu-
nan ri:a (Lyn(axnmn, c. 18(10r))
1
.
Cycrannnn (opa ecioneuna n nanpanennn nnepx n orpannuena
ra:, r(e ona c:eaercn c npo:eyrouni: npocrpancrno:, noa(yxo:,
cycrannnn aa raie orpannuena .rn: e npocrpancrno:, no ecioneu-
na no nanpanenni nnna. H:enno .ro nooenne nianao nanoimee
unco noapaennn co croponi nca:cinx reooron, ioropie nocpe(crno:
aaiona ro(ecrna n npornnopeunn Apncroren (oiaainan acyp(nocri
(yana:a, ncxo(n n:enno na .roro reanca
2
.
3ra crpyirypa noannia aro(apn rnopenni Op:aa(a. Ho na ypon-
ne ]nanuecioro :npa n ion na rpa(nnnn, nocxo(nmnx i npancion, co-
xpannercn (yana:. Hnaue ronopn, n rnopennn ]nanuecioro :npa npnnn-
:air yuacrne oa nauaa, ocnona (ncero) or .rnx (nonx, Op:aa(a n
Axpn:ana (Nenor-n Xpar, c. 4b)
8
. B Lyn(axnmne nopn(oi ne:arepn-
ainix n :arepnainix rnopennn onncinaercn iai npornnocronnne na-
aa rnopennn (c. 21(11v)) (nyx (yxonnix (naua) (c. 18(10r)), npn .ro:
Op:aa( nonn:aercn iai coa(arei n rnopen. Axpn:any raie npnna(e-
nr uepe(a rnopennn, no on na(enercn .nnrero: paapymnrei (on ne
rnopen') n nepnyi ouepe(i noro:y, uro nce rnopennn aa(y:ani Op:aa(o:,
a rnopennn Axpn:ana .ro noniria nx nocnponanecrn, (no nce), uro
i on |Op:aa(] nn aa(y:a, Axpn:an pennocrno n crpacrno y(er n:emn-
naricn (o ionna (c. 18(10r)). Hopn(oi nonpe(ennn ncex crpyirypnix
.e:enron nirn(nr n Lyn(axnmne ce(yimn: opaao: (c. 28(12v)
c. 29(1bv)). ]yxonni: opaaa: coa(annn npornnonocrannircn (.ni n
(e:oni, na yponne ]nanuecioro :npa noanniaer noui iai npornnonoo-
nocri noy(ni, a aare: nponcxo(nr noce(onareinoe nonpe(enne oc-
nonnix rnopennn :arepnainoro :npa: nea (r.e. :eraa), pacrennn, nep-
noiia, nepnoueoneia, no(i, ornn, n, naionen, ae:n. A( (naxo(nrcn) n
nenrpe ae:n, ra:, r(e 3on (yx npocnepn ae:i n cnancn n nee. Tai
uro no ncex (eax ae:nix craa nnnon (nonnan (npnpo(a): c:emenne co-
nepnnuecrna n corpy(nnuecrna, nicoioro n nnaioro (c. 29(1bv)). Ho-
cioiiy niparicn oparno ao:y (yxy nenoa:ono (neo ycrpoeno iai
ipenocri), on oiaainaercn aanepr n ]nanuecio: :npe n:ecre c nepni:n
e:y (.na:n, r.e. aoe n re:noe nauao oiaainaercn npncymn: roiio
]nanuecio:y :npy n ero on(aer rnei n:ecre c .rn: :npo:. B an(ap-
aax oman cxe:a .roro nponecca npe(cranena ce(yimn: opaao::
|A] (pyron (o(nn) nyri |nyri] aon :icn, aoro cona, aix
(ennnn, re:nori n npe(ea, ncero npe(noro, c:eprn, aa n nnoro 3o-
ro (yxa, ioropin cymecrnona |n ror(a], ior(a |eme] ne i n rnopennnx
|.roro :npa], ioropin y(er cymecrnonari |n ror(a], ior(a on ne y(er
|oee naxo(nricn] n rnopennnx Op:aa(a, |no ioropin] n ionne ionnon
y(er ynnuroen (Hapannie nacranennn nepnix yunreen,11)
1
.
3(eci :i nixo(n: na ]op:nponanne nonnrnn neirne (n[:1/) n
npornnonec irni (/.:1/). Ha Acni, 80 ce(yer, uro (na nanauai-
nix (yxa npornnonooni (pyr (pyry n :icnx, conax n (eax n ninn-
nercn nx ornomenne i nann n ne-nann, raioe nonn:anne n reicrax
pannero nepno(a nnnercn nanoee nain: i uerio:y npornnonocran-
enni irnn n neirnn, xorn ouenn(no, uro .ro npornnonocranenne
ninnnercn na yponne c:icon, a ne na yponne rep:nnoornn. B Lyn(a-
xnmne Axpn:any napn(y c Op:aa(o: npnnncinaercn npnnnnn cyme-
crnonannn, n yrnep(aercn, uro Axpn:an cymecrnyer (c. 18(10r)), no
e:y oriaaano n neuno: cymecrnonannn Axpn:an i, ecri, no ne
y(er (c. 17(9v, cri. 7). B oee noa(nnx reicrax, n uacrnocrn, n rpa(n-
nnn an(apaon, ye npncyrcrnyer ycronunnan rep:nnoornn, coornercrny-
iman nonnrnn: irnn neirnn, ipo:e roro, ]nicnpyercn nanpane-
hvadhtahe.T. Op:aa(-nmr, 1.88 n nepeno(e H.N. Crenn-Ka:encioro: .H Pa-
:ana (oponacrnmnoro, H Bany npenoa:oraimero, Bicmero cpe(i rnopennn Toi
cnoei uacrii, ro or Cnnroro (yxa, rnep(n ca:o(epannon, Bpe:enn earpannuno-
ro, Bpe:enn (oroneunoro. accf.: Hapannie rn:ni. ]ymane, 1990. C. 81.
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 26b.
2
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdeens ll ;;
Journal Asia:ique. Oc:obre-decembre, 1981. P. 226.
8
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 110.
1
1.ac,.f: (oporn n nyrn npane(nix. Hexennncine naan(areinie reicri. N.,
1991. C. 70.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 60 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 61
nne (ainenmero paannrnn nonnrnn. 3o Axpn:an n (.ni, ero conpo-
no(aimne, ne cymecrnyir, orn (arne rnopennn) cymecrnyir
1
.
Tain: opaao:, 3ypnan nicrynaer no ornomenni i cymecrnyimn:
nema: iai Hepnocymee (nepnonpnunna, npnnnnn), ioropoe niiuaer n
cen irne n neirne. Hpn .ro: ecn n iaccnuecio: aana(no: nonn:a-
nnn neirne nicrynaer iai nnuro, ro a(eci, nanpornn, neirne nepco-
nananponano n cycrannnaino. Paannrne rpa(nnnn n(er n nanpane-
nnn (ainenmero paannrnn (yancrnuecinx npe(cranennn n no:n:o
cran(aprnoro naopa npornnonoonocren (cner-ri:a, (opo-ao) (oan-
nercn eme npornnonocranenne irne neirne.
Banon xapairepncrnion crpyirypi irnn nnnircn iareropnn
nena:ennocrn n na:enne:ocrn :npa, neno(nnnocrn n (nnennn. Hpe(-
cranennn raioro po(a orcyrcrnyir n pannnx reicrax, n uacrnocrn, n
larax, no xapairepni (n nexennncion rpa(nnnn n, n neo:, ne nixo-
(nr aa pa:in (yancrnuecinx npe(cranennn. A[n xapairepnayercn
iai oacri nena:ennoro, ioropoe nonn:aercn iai ecc:eprnoe, necra-
peimee n nenpe(n:oe n neno(nnnoe. Ton e xapairepncrnion oa(a-
ir (yxonnie opaai coa(annn, npeinaimne n (yxonno: :npe. Corno-
pennie Op:aa(o: (n npornnocronnnn ao:y nauay, onn ne(y:ai-
mne, neno(nnnie n c neocnaae:i:n rea:n (Lyn(axnmn, c. 18(10
r)). Hanpornn, ]nanuecinn :np, [1, cornopennin iai n(eaino pon-
nin n neno(nnnin, c neno(nnni:n cnerna:n, naunnaer na:ennri-
cn c roro :o:enra, iai aoe nauao nponniaer n nero. O ro:, uro
na:enennn noanniair nocpe(crno: nopun rnopennn Op:aa(a Axpn:a-
no:, :i yno:nnan nime. ]nnenne n :np npnnnocnrcn raie c npo-
nninonenne: n :np aoro nauaa: Heecnan c]epa npamaaci, conne
n yna nepe:emanci, a :np co(poracn or pena :aaan(epancinx ((.non)
n (nx) nrni co anea(a:n (Lyn(axnmn, c. 28(1br)). Hpe(cranennn o
(nnennn n neno(nnnocrn naxo(nr orpaenne n ioc:oornn. Ecn ne-
no(nnnie anea(i .ro rnopennn Op:aa(a, ro naneri (no(nnnie
anea(i) n io:eri coa(annn Axpn:ana (Nenor-n xpar (c. 2b)). Tor
e npnnnnn aaoen n nonn:anne c:eni (nn n noun, npe:en ro(a. B
:npe, nanauaino cornopenno: Op:aa(o:, ncer(a in no(eni n ero.
Coornercrnenno, an:a n noui nopo(ennn Axpn:ana. Tain: opa-
ao:, nropenne aoro nauaa n n(eaino ycrpoennin :np nnocnr n
nero xaoc, n ce(yimn: .rano: paannrnn :npa nnnercn .ran ynopn(o-
uennn xaoca na ocnonannn 3aiona, Apri. Honnrne Apri nnnercn ii-
ueni: n npancion rpa(nnnn eme co npe:en nn(onpancion penrnn n
n:eer npn:ie rnnoornuecine napaen c (pennenn(nncin: nonnrn-
e: 1xf.. 4airnuecin Apra oa(aer onroornuecin: craryco:, no ca:
rep:nn niiuaer ne roiio naryp]noco]cioe (ioc:oornuecioe) co-
(epanne, no raie connainoe n .rnuecioe.
3naun:i: (n pacipirnn co(epannn npe(cranennn o irnn, oco-
enno n nexennncion nreparypnon rpa(nnnn, nnnercn nonnrne npe-
:enn. Xapairepnon ocoennocrii npe(cranennn o npe:enn n npancinx
penrnoano-]noco]cinx noaapennnx :ono cunrari oriaa or nninuec-
ioro nonn:annn npe:enn, n npnnnrne npe(cranennn o neoparn:ocrn
npe:enn or npomoro i nacronme:y, uepea nacronmee n y(ymee. Kpo-
:e roro, ecn n opro(oicainon (oirpnne npe:n coneuno Op:aa(y, ro
coracno aypnannrcion rpa(nnnn, npe:n nicrynaer nepni: nauao: no
ornomenni i rnopny :npa Op:aa(y. 3a nciiuenne: .ron ocoennoc-
rn, npe(cranennn o npe:enn n npancion rpa(nnnn n neo: conna(air.
B neo: npancian rpa(nnnn co(epnr rpn rnna npe(cranennn o
npe:enn. Bo-nepnix, nninuecioe npe:n, ioropoe coxpannercn n pe-
uecion npairnie, n ornpanennn pnryaon, n iaen(apnon cncre:e, n
neioropix apxanuecinx :n]oornuecinx npe(cranennnx. B coornercrnnn
co crpyirypon irnn ni(enircn eme (na rnna npe:enn. 3ro neunoe,
ecioneunoe npe:n n(eainoro (:enrainoro) :npa, nn 3ypnan aiapana
n neoparn:oe ioneunoe npe:n, n ioropo: paannnaercn ]nanuecinn :np,
a rpannna .roro npe:enn conna(aer c ionno: ]nanuecioro :npa.
Coracno Lyn(axnmny, Op:aa( aa(y:a cornopnri npe:n conep-
nnuecrna, ioropoe conna(aer c nepno(o: C:emennn, (nmn:cn (ennri
ricnu er (c. 20(11r)). ]ennrnricnueernnn nepno(, r.e. cocrnenno npe-
:n cymecrnonannn ]nanuecioro :npa, (enrcn na rpn .rana no rpn ricn-
un er ia(in. B nepnin .ran nce y(er nponcxo(nri no noe Op:aa(a, n
ce(yimnn nepno( nponaon(er c:emenne non Op:aa(a n Axpn:ana, n,
naionen, rpernn nepno( nepno( rnen 3oro (yxa (c. 21(11v)). B
Nenor-n xpar Op:aa( rnopnr c aroconennn earpannunoro npe:enn,
noro:y uro earpannunoe npe:n necrapeimee, ecc:eprnoe, eaoea-
nennoe, neuyncrnnreinoe, nerennoe, neynann:oe, nancer(a n naneuno, n
nniro ne :oer cxnarnri ero (n) ocanri ero nacri (c. 24). Ho aanep-
mennn 9000 er Axpn:an y(er ynnuroen, a ero rnopennn n coa(annn
y(yr paanri raie npn yuacrnn earpannunoro npe:enn.
B yno:nnanme:cn ye aypnannrcio: counnennn `Ulem-i lslam
raie npe(craneno (na rnna npe:enn npe:n ]nanuecioro :npa n
npe:n :era]nanuecioe:
3nanre, uro rnopen o(nn e(nncrnennin. Ero penrnn o(na. Tno-
pen, raie iai n ero penrnn, nnior(a ne no(neprnercn nopue. Hyri
1
/.:1/ ,.zcn uc n[:1/ c[n (Hacranenne Byaypr:nxpa, 4), /:cn.n .c
n[:1/ (Hapannie nacranennn nepnix yunreen, 8). |1.ac,.f: (oporn n nyrn
npane(nix. Hexennncine naan(areinie reicri. N., 1991].
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 62 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 68
roiio o(nn, oioinix nyren :noecrno
1
. Tnopen roiio o(nn, a
nonpomaimnx ernon. Ka(an ceira naainaer ero paanuni: cnoco-
o:. Hepnan, o nen n ye ronopn ex(nni. Hoce(onaren 3apromra
nounrair Aa(ana (Lora) iai Benioro E(nnoro n cymecrnyer eme ne-
cioiio rex, iro naainaer ero paanuni:n n:ena:n. Hcrnnon Tnopna n
no(nnnocrii Penrnn (n innyci), uro ecn Lor, n nce A:axpacnan(i,
n nce ex(nni coepyrcn n:ecre, onn ne c:oryr npnnnecrn n cymecrno-
nanne (ae :aon uacrn ea (no:omn) Zamna (r.e. Bpe:enn), noro:y
uro ona |penrnn A.1.] :oer npnnrn n cymecrnonanne nocpe(crno:
npe:enn. A yno:nnai (cono) Ruzgr (r.e. Bpe:n) no ron npnunne, uro
ecri :noro i(en, ioropie ne anair, uro Ruzgr ecri Zamn (r.e. Bpe-
:n). Penrnn :oer iri niyuena uepea npe:n, ropronari :ono nayunricn
uepea npe:n, cnocoa: :ono nayunri uepea npe:n, n aooro, n ca( :o-
no npnopecrn uepea npe:n. ]epeno pacrer uepea npe:n, n npnnocnr ypo-
an ]pyiron uepea npe:n. Pe:eca: :ono niyunricn uepea npe:n, n
cymecrnonanne ncex nemen onpan(ano npe:ene:, n neian ciaaari, uro
Afridagr (r.e. rnopen) cymecrnyer, a Ruzgr (r.e. Bpe:n) ner. Ecn
ueonei ronopnr, uro Puzgar ecri noui n (eni, ror(a (ono anari, uro n
reuenne nenioro orpeaia npe:enn, ior(a (nn n noun ne cymecrnonao,
cymecrnona Zamn (r.e. Learpannunoe Bpe:n).
Hrai, :i npnmn i nino(y, uro n npancion rpa(nnnn ni(enercn
crpyirypnocri irnn, n na yponne .ron crpyirypi :ono ninnnri
]op:i irnn npocrpancrno, nycrora, (nnenne, neno(nnnocri,
npe:n, :arepnn.
Hpancian onroornn onpe(enercn (yancrnuecin n cnoen ocno-
ne. B larax ncxo(ni: nyniro: nnnercn npornnonocranenne (nyx
cycrannnn (opa, ioropoe xapairepnayercn nanii n paay:o:, n
aa, xapairepnayimerocn ne-nanii, rennocrii, npnue: cycrannnn
aa npnna(enr roiio ]nanuecio:y :npy n ne pacnpocrpannercn na
:enrainin. Hpn:epno c .roro e nepno(a, n larax n :a(oanecrnnc-
inx reicrax, y(aercn aa]nicnponari (yana: ]nanuecioro (= iocrno-
ro) n :enrainoro (paay:noro, (yxonnoro), xorn rep:nnoornuecin
aaipenenne .rnx nonnrnn iai n[n n [1 ocymecrnnercn (ocrarou-
no noa(no, no ne noa(nee lX n. n. .. Tain: opaao:, :i :oe: cnecrn
ciaaannoe i (ny: (yancrnuecin: ionnennnn:. O(ny ionnennni :i
:oe: oxapairepnaonari iai onroornuecinn (yana:, uro oanauaer
npnananne (nyx, necno(n:ix (pyr i (pyry, cycrannnn: (yxonnon, :ic-
nmen cycrannnn, nn cnera n ]nanuecion, rennon, nmennon paay-
:a, cycrannnn ri:i (uepnin oroni n nonon, npancion nepcnn
Lyn(axnmna
1
). B (anno: cyuae ionnennnn npancioro (yana:a npnn-
nnnnaino ornuaercn or aana(noenponencion, r(e nropon cocranni-
men napi nnnercn npornennan cycrannnn :arepnn. Hanpornn,
:arepnn n ornune n or :annxencioro, neonaronnuecioro n rnocrn-
uecioro (yana:a n ro: unce, ne nnnercn nopo(enne: aa, a nanpo-
rnn, raie iai nce cornopennoe, ona cornopena na cocrnennon cymnoc-
rn Op:aa(a cnera, rennocri n nee npnnnocnr ao. B nonon :epe
.ror (yana: xapairepen (n nepnon na rpex ioc:oornuecinx cra(nn
nn .p .pi rnopennn. Ha nropon cra(nn c:emennn (yana:
xapairepnayercn uepea (ne (pyrnx cycrannnn (opo n ao. Kai npa-
nno, raion (yana:, raie npnon:in i :annxencion, rnocrnuecion
n, oruacrn, neonaronnuecion ionnennnn:, nonn:aercn iai .rnuecinn,
nonn:aimnn (opo n ao iai iareropnn :opainoro, (onoe n ne(o-
noe (n or(einoro ueoneia nn conny:a n neo:.
B npancion rpa(nnnn ueonei, onraimnn n rai naainae:on oac-
rn c:emennn (opa n aa (niiuaime: g[:g n npornnornopenne), n ioro-
pon .rn cycrannnn panno npncyrcrnyir, nnnercn cnoero po(a ocii nepe-
ceuennn (n nnx, no .rn cycrannnn cymecrnyir oreirnnno, neaanncn:o
or ueoneia, n ueonei roiio (eaer (oponoinin niop n noiay ron
nn nnon cycrannnn, pyiono(crnynci ee nop:a:n na npornennn nann
((opie :icn, (opie cona, (opie (ea vs. aie :icn, aie cona,
aie (ea), uro onnri nepeno(nr nac n oacri .rnuecinx iareropnn.
Ha yponne menog n npornnornopennn Axpn:ana .rn iareropnn npn-
operair onroornuecinn craryc, crpyirypnpyn ioc:oc (o yponnn ecio-
neunoro cnera n earpannunon ri:i coornercrnenno. 3ro, no-nepnix, ypo-
neni ri:i .roro :npa, ioropin opaayer ocnony (n airyainoro aa,
nropon ero acneir cocrnennan npnpo(a aa, nponnennan n ]nanuecio:
:npe. Ha yponne m[ng n: coornercrnyir cner .roro :npa n ynnnepcai-
nie ]op:i npan(i, naonnn, ]op:i ornn, n (pyro: napnanre ]op:a
ecioneunoro n ynnnepcainoro n axynap ioc:nuecian coan(areinan
]op:ya (conocrann:an c ne(nncin: a.4 n .a:aca+ lepainra)
2
.
Paanuae:ie nnyrpn npancion :aa(enrcian n aypnannrcian onro-
ornn ne n:eir npnnnnnnainix paanunn, aa nciiuenne: nonn:a-
nnn nepnonauaa (nepnoocnoni bunitag). Naa(enrcian cxe:a peion-
crpynpyercn ce(yimn: opaao:. Hpn coxpannime:cn (yana:e irnn
n cycrannnn, (opo (nn Op:aa() noyuaer craryc nepnonauaa, or-
(einoro n e(nncrne, rnopnmero na cnoen cocrnennon cymnocrn, neu-
1
av pat ashahe vspe anyashm apatm |Cymecrnyer roiio o(nn nyri
ror, uro nyri ncrnni, nce (pyrne nyrn onie. Acna 72.11].
1
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdens ll ;; Journal
Asia:ique. Oc:obre-dcembre, 1981. P. 198244. P. 212.
2
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdens ll ;; Journal
Asia:ique. Oc:obre-dcembre, 1981. P. 198244. P. 194, 208.
111C1X A1JC-11.111CJ1X T1111X 64 1ckancf,kuxs x.nckx ,axc..+ckx anfa.a:x4cckx... 6b
noro, ecioneunoro, neno(nnnoro. Op:aa( aa:imner rnopenne n :en-
raino: :npe, rouoi e (n nonomennn rnopennn n :npe ]nanuecio:,
r.e. coa(annn ]nanuecioro :npa, (aer cycrannnainoe ao, n ono e
nnocnr n nero na:enennn rennocri, ioneunocri, (nnenne n npou.
Hecioiio nni: npe(crannercn nepnonauao n aypnannrcion on-
roornuecion cxe:e. 3(eci nepnonauao .ro 3ypnan, ecioneunoe npe:n,
ne n:eimee ocnonannn n npe(ea, n, ipo:e roro, uro ono oa(aer :y(-
pocrii, nnuero ionipernoro ciaaari o ne: neian. 3ypnan nicrynaer
iai coa(arei (nyx ne:arepnainix nepno.e:enron, na ioropix opa-
ayercn Op:aa( iai npnunna noanninonennn (yxonnoro n :arepnainoro
:npa, Axpn:an nnnercn npnunnon cranonennn n na:enennn :arepn-
ainoro :npa. Crpyirypi :enrainoro :npa (n[n) n ]nanuecioro :npa
([1), c aaiiuennon n nero crpyirypon npornnornopennn Axpn:ana
conocrann:i no pacnooenni cnonx no(crpyiryp n npocrpancrne, no
paanuni no ornomenni io npe:enn. Lirne, iai n Hepnonpnunna,
io, ecri n y(er, ono earpannuno no npe:enn. Heirne io,
ecri, no ne y(er, npeinaer n ioneuno: npe:enn n opeueno na rnei.
Tain: opaao:, nonn:anne neirnn cymecrnenno ornuaercn or roro,
iai ono nonn:aercn n aana(noenponencion rpa(nnnn iai Hnuro. B
npancion rpa(nnnn neirne niiueno n o(ny crpyirypy c irne:, n
nnnercn o(nn: na (nyx cycrannnainix naua. Ce(yn nepcnn Lyn-
(axnmna, :i :oe: yrnep(ari, uro n nepnonauaino: cocronnnn, (o
cornopennn ]nanuecioro :npa, Lirne n Heirne (iai ]opo n 3o,
Cner n Ti:a) pannonenin n nx paa(ener nycrora, or ioropon nnepx n
(o ecioneunocrn npocrnpaercn oacri (opa, a nnna (o ecioneunoc-
rn aa. Hoce cornopennn ]nanuecioro :npa n aaiiuennn aoro
nauaa nnyrpi nero, crpyirypa neirnn na:ennercn ce(yimn: opa-
ao: ono ocraercn orpannuenni: nnepxy noa(ymni: npocrpancrno:
(iai n irne), no ero pacnpocrpanenne nnyrpn c]epnuecioro npocrpan-
crna ]nanuecioro :npa npe(crannercn nepeopnenrnponanni: ne nnna,
a nryi, no nnyrpi ca:oro cen, (o ecioneunocrn.
B pa:iax aana(noenponencion rpa(nnnn, naunnan c yuennn panner-
peuecinx ]noco]on n noae Harona, npornnonocrannircn (na oia:
uyncrnenno nocnpnnn:ae:in :np, :arepnn, ao npornnonoaraircn y:o-
nocrnrae:o:y :npy, coananni n (opy (ary). B npancio: (yana:e ypo-
neni (opo ao ne conna(aer c yponne: ne:arepnainoe :arepn-
ainoe nn omymae:in :np y:onocrnrae:in :np, (opo n ao iai
cycrannnainie (a ne .rnuecine) nauaa npornnocronr nanauaino na
yponne ncna iai na nneuyncrnenno: yponne. 3ror (yana: :i :orn i
cnenn]nnnponari iai ropnaonrainin, n n .ro: c:ice ne conpnrae:in
na (anno: .rane c yponne: ueoneuecioro cymecrnonannn (rnopenne ue-
oneia n ero cymecrnonanne nponcxo(nr na yponne [1). ]pyran ]op:a
(yana:a npornnonocranenne ca:nx yponnen n[n n [1 n neprn-
iaino: ornomennn iai :arepnainoro n y:onocrnrae:oro, no ea nx
aicnoornuecin nonpnon narpyennocrn. Narepnn n .ro: cyuae nonn-
:aercn iai nanyumnn n conepmennin acneir ]yxa (n[n), :arepnai-
noe cymecrnonanne, (ae ncnopuennoe ao:, iai o(nn na cnocoon
peanaannn (yxonnoro cocronnnn n nanyumee cpe(crno opii c nmen-
ni:n :arepnn ai:n cna:n.
Ha: y(aoci noiaaari, uro n npancion rpa(nnnn :ono or:ernri
nanune (nyx (yancrnuecinx ionnennnn anfa.a:x4ccka:a (yana:a,
conna(aimero c fx4cckx+, n kac+a.a:x4ccka:a (yana:a, n cny uero
npancinn (yana: onpe(enercn iai ,aaxnax, uro npnnnnnnaino orn-
uaer ero or aana(non rpa(nnnn (no ncnio: cyuae, n ero yrnep(nnmnxcn,
a ne cranonnmnxcn ]op:ax).
4airnuecin, :i :oe: npnanari, uro neioropie nonnrnn, nanpn-
:ep, raine iai n[n n [1 nn (na paanunix cycrannnainix nauaa
rai, iai onn npe(craneni, n uacrnocrn, n Acne, nnone :orn noanni-
nyri n na cocrnenno npancion noune. Ho (ainenmee nx yconenne n
crpyirypnponanne n noa(neanrnunin nepno( ne :oro ne n(rn no( nnn-
nne: ]noco]nn, na uro ynepenno yiaainair n neioropie nnnie ce(i
npncyrcrnnn (pennerpeuecinx opaanon n npancion rpa(nnnn.
ro iacaercn cymecrnonannn cocrnenno npancion ]noco]nn, ro
:i nn(en, uro ocnonnon nacr rex narn(on, ioropie :i :orn i
inan]nnnponari iai ]noco]cine yrnep(aercn noa(no n nexe-
nnncion nreparype n pa:iax reoornn n nocnr no(unnennin en xapai-
rep. Te nponnennn ]noco]cion :icn, ioropie :i ynn(en n larax,
cymecrnonan n aauarouno: cocronnnn, no n ]noco]ni iai neocrnyi
nn(nnn(yancrciyi rpa(nnni ne ninnci, n cny uero rpy(no npe(no-
arari, uro rpeueciyi ]noco]ni nnnnnnponan oee crapie npancine
noaapennn ]noco]cioro xapairepa, iai .ro nnor(a (eair. B nexennnc-
inx reicrax, ra:, r(e npnneiaercn rpeuecian ]noco]nn, ona raie nc-
noiayercn roiio n iauecrne nncrpy:enra. Hanoee ryoine n paanep-
nyrie onroornuecine npe(cranennn n npancion nnci:ennon rpa(nnnn
ninnnircn n ornocnreino noa(nnx reicrax (XllXlV nn. n...). Hpnue:,
ne n rex reicrax, ioropie opnenrnponani na omnny nn ee peuecinn
io:nonenr, n nnx no-npene:y npeoa(aimn: nnnercn pacc:orpe-
nne nonpocon :y(pocrn n anannn. Onroornuecian npoe:arnia npncyr-
crnyer n nepnyi ouepe(i n rex reicrax, ioropie nocnr noe:nuecinn n
:nccnonepcinn xapairep n nanpaneni no npen:ymecrny na paapeme-
nne cnopon n ion]niron, iai c npe(crannren:n nnix penrnoanix
yuennn, rai n yuennn nnyrpn npancion rpa(nnnn.
1c4cck.s f.,xuxs a k,cf. x kax.nf. x x.nckxc... 67
IABA II. HIAHCKHE HAIAEH B IIEHECKOH
HIE4HOCO4HH
1. IIEHECKAA TIAHHHA O KYIETAX H KOIHIAHTAX
H HIAHCKHE HAIAEH
Hpancine ne:ena cran npnnn:ari airnnnyi poi n :aoaannc-
ion ncropnn :nnn:y: c X n (o n..., n ouenn(no, uro naan:o(encrnne
cpe(nae:no:opcinx n :aoaanncinx iyiryp n:eo :ecro eme (o noanni-
nonennn ]noco]nn. Bonpoc o npnunnax noanninonennn ]noco]nn ocra-
ercn noia oripiri:. H:eimnecn rnnoreai, orncnnimne .ro nnenne,
co(epareini, nnrepecni n ocrpoy:ni, no :noro: (ononnir (pyr (py-
ra, no ne ncuepninaimn. Acno ro, uro cranonenne ]noco]nn ne nnner-
cn paaoni: coirne:, cranonenne npe(nocioi i noanninonenni ]no-
co]nn npo(oaoci, :oer iri, (ae necioiio croernn, ocoananae-
:oe iai rpa(nnnn :y(penon, npe(e ue: crao noa:oni: yiaaari nep-
noro ]noco]a n onpe(enri uro .ro raioe ca:a ]noco]nn.
Coracno Apncrorei, in re, iro paccy(a o oecrnenno:
(0rooyo) n re, iro paccy(a o npnpo(e, npneran i (oiaaareicrna:
(uoxo )
1
. Bce pannerpeuecine ]noco]i no npen:ymecrny aacyn-
nair n:enonaricn ]nania:n, no cymecrnonaa n (pyran rpa(nnnn,
ioropan, nnone noa:ono, raie cirpaa ne:aonanyi poi n cra-
nonennn ]noco]nn re, iro paccy(a o oecrnenno:. H:enno
.ro nanpanenne n (anno: cyuae :i n y(e: nonn:ari no( npe(]no-
co]nen, niiuan ci(a, no:n:o npouero, cocrannreen pannnx reoro-
nnn, :o(n]niannn napo(nix neponannn n op]na:, n ioropix n ro: nn
nno: nn(e :ono onapynri opaani n(en, cxo(nix c npancin:n.
Tor(a nenaeno ncraer nonpoc, a :oro n ]op:nponanne neioropix
n(en cia(inaricn no( a.xsnxc+ npancion rpa(nnnn ye n .ror nepn-
o(, n iaioni :exanna:i .roro nnnnnn. Ho ncen nn(n:ocrn, ornernri
na .ror nonpoc o(noanauno ne npe(crannercn noa:oni:, n n nepnyi
ouepe(i na-aa ne(ocrarounon ]airoornuecion nn]op:nponannocrn o
.ro: nepno(e. Kpo:e roro, ior(a peui n(er o penrnoanix npe(cranenn-
nx, rpy(no ciaaari, ue: oyconeni re nn nnie narn(i, nni:n co-
na:n, aa onpe(eenni:n neponannn:n :oer cronri :noroneionan nn(o-
enponencian rpa(nnnn, ioropan coxpannaci n oyconna cxo(crno .rnx
narn(on. H ecn n npe(i(ymen rane :i :orn oee nn :enee onpe(e-
enno yiaaari na re noaapennn, iopnn ioropix nenocpe(crnenno yxo(nr
n nn(oenponenciyi rpa(nnni, ro a(eci :i pacc:orpn: re narn(i, io-
ropie nenoa:ono c ynepennocrii i raioni: npnuncnri.
Hanpn:ep, ce(yimne napaen :e(y nnrepecyimn:n nac rpa-
(nnnn:n, c o(non croponi, n:eir anaunreinin nacr omero nn(oenpo-
nencioro nponcxo(ennn, c (pyron n:eir :noecrno nepeceuennn nnyr-
pn rpeuecion n npancion rpa(nnnn, o(naio ecri n peaon coornocnri nx
nanune n lpennn c npancin: nnnnne: .ror nonpoc noia oripir.
B larax yno:nnaircn neine cynren iyiron, uy(ix 3apa-
rymrpe, peni nnonepuecinx penrnn, naanannie k.ax (npannren)
n k...na (cocrnenno peni). Heuecrnnie iannn n iapanani,
ornecmnecn i npopoiy npa(eno n ro(i ero cinrannn n oriaaanmne
e:y n ipone (Acna, b1), no-nn(n:o:y, in ne uy(i n rex pnryaon,
or ioropix ornpama 3aparymrpa, n nepnyi ouepe(i, ynorpeenne ncn-
xorponnix nemecrn (.a+a). Y (pennnx apnncinx ne:en n pannnx nn-
(onpannen ianne:, no-nn(n:o:y, n:enonacn ne:ennon no(i, ioro-
pin i o(nonpe:enno n ranni: peno: npn ornpanennn iyiron n
pnryaon
1
. 3rn:oornuecin cono iapanan nocxo(nr i raroy npnun-
rari, op:orari
2
, cono e iann (anecr. uynri) ne nacroiio ncno,
rai iai n:eer paanie anauennn n npancion n nn(nncion rpa(nnnnx. B
Hn(nn, n neponrno, n nn(onpanciyi .noxy, rep:nn iann oanaua crn-
xornopen-npopnnarei, npopnnanmnn, iai npanno, no( noa(encrnne:
co:i (npancion .a+a), no oanauan pena-iy(ecnnia, cne(ymero n
:arnn, nn nno, nocnnmennoe n ranncrna, a raie :y(pena n no.ra
noome
8
. Ouenn(no, ecri onpe(eennan cnnai :e(y Hn:on (A:on) n
Xao:on (Co:on). B iyire A:i (a raie n Hn:i) nanoe :ecro aann:a-
o pnryainoe ynorpeenne ncnxorponnoro nannria xao:i (co:i), npn-
1
xcfafc.:, Nera]nania, 1000a.18, 1071b.27.
1
Kanne: e i n Bnmracna, npe(ocrannnmnn 3aparymrpe yenme, on e n
nepnin noce(onarei nonon penrnn, ocnonarei noyeren(apnon (nnacrnn
Kenann(on.
2
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 481
8
J.x 1. Hace(ne Hpana. N., 1972. C. 62
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 68 1c4cck.s f.,xuxs a k,cf. x kax.nf. x x.nckxc... 69
nnrne ioroporo niainao ronnanpyimnn n pacipenomaimnn .]]eir n
aanepmaoci cocronnne: onenenennn npe:ennon c:eprii
1
. C (py-
ron croponi, n Hn:a n Xao:a npe(crannir coon n ron nn nnon :epe
oecrna no(onocnmnx cn npnpo(i, y:npaimero n nocipecaimero
ora
2
. Hoce(nne apxeoornuecine (annie no(rnep(air cnnai :e(y
Hn:on iai nape: :eprnix n Xao:on, nanpn:ep, o raion npairnie cnn(e-
reicrnyer onncanne B.H. Capnann(n xpa:a na reppnropnn Naprnani,
ioropin couera n cee xpa: ornn, xpa: iyironix noannnnn n :ecro
aaxoponennn, anaornunie xpa:i nan(eni na reppnropnn Lairpnn
8
.
Onpe(eennie coornercrnnn onncanni: nime pnryaa: :i naxo-
(n: n pannen rpeuecion penrnn, n ioropon in neci:a pacnpocrpaneni
cnoero po(a :arnuecine coomecrna, uin (encrnnn in nanpaneni na
ionrpoi (nn naan:o(encrnne) na( npnpo(ni:n cna:n n ora:n, coxpa-
nnnci cnn(ereicrna (n uacrnocrn, Crpaona) o raioro po(a omecrnax,
nanecrnix iai iyperi, reixnni, n(encine (airnn, iopnanri, carnpi n
npou. Kyperi nnnnci nenpe:enni:n yuacrnnia:n pn(a anrnunix :nc-
repnainix iyiron n uacro oro(ecrnnnci c ianpa:n (nn iannpa:n)
n iopnanra:n. Cpaay oronopn:cn, uro onn :oryr nonn:aricn no iai
xronnuecine (e:oni, oecrna, no iai coornercrnyimne ne:ena (ne
nciiueno, uro neioropie na nnx npancion rpynni, n n .ro: nane
(n nac onn npe(crannir ropaa(o oimnn nnrepec). Anrnunan nrepa-
rypnan rpa(nnnn npairnuecin ne (eaa n .ro: paanunn
4
.
Kyir Kyperon pacnpocrpanncn n lpennn ne panee Vll n. (o n...
H iyperi (ianpi), n iopnanri n:en :aoaanncioe nponcxo(enne
n cocrannn oipyenne Benion :arepn Pen-Knei, ninonnn ion-
ipernie peuecine ]yninnn (cp. npanci. k...na peni). Crpa-
on
1
yno:nnaer o ro:, uro iopnanri nponcxo(nr na Lairpnani nn na
Koxn(i, r.e. na :ecr pacceennn aana(nix n nocrounix npannen, a nx
.icrarnunocri n naixnunocri nnone conocrann:i c oprnacrnuecin:n
iyira:n npannen, nocnnmenni:n Xao:e n Hn:e. Coracno (pyro:y
cnn(ereicrny Crpaona, no o(nn: ciaaannn:, iopnanri, ianpi,
(airnn n(encine n reixnni oro(ecrnnircn c iypera:n, n (pyrnx
.rn ne:ena naopaaircn po(crnenni:n c neioropi:n neanaunrei-
ni:n ornunn:n :e(y coon. lonopn ipario, nx ncex cunrair ue:
ro npo(e i(en, oron(oxnonennix n nopaennix naixnuecin: eay-
:ne:, ioropie n opaae cynreen oecrna npn conepmennn cnn-
mennix opn(on ycrpamair i(en noennon nncion...
2
. Ecn yuecri,
uro :aoaanncian Pen-Knea oro(ecrnnaci c ]e:erpon
8
n raie
cnyciaaci n no(ae:nin :np n noanpamaaci orry(a (:ornn y:npai-
mero n nocipecaimero ora), ro n raio: cyuae iopnanron ce(yer
cunrari pena:n oecrna, cnnaannoro c no(ae:ni: :npo:.
Crporo ronopn, no ncen rpa(nnnn o ianpax npocennaercn e(nn-
crno nn(oenponencinx npe(cranennn o xronnuecinx oecrnax. Kan-
pi (a rounee oro(ecrnnnmnecn c nn:n (airnn n(encine), coracno
Crpaony
4
, n:eir ornomenne i cipiri: n ae:e coiponnma:, ioropie
n pannnn neonr nnone :orn acconnnponaricn c :eranuecion :e(ii
nn eeao:, a ianpi, iai no:omnnin (nn cinonin) le]ecra
b
, (o-
ni nonn:aricn iai n:eimne ornomenne i :erayprnn, ropno:y nn
iyaneuno:y (ey. Hpn:an napaei cymecrnyer n nn(nncion :n]oo-
rnn. Lor orarcrna Kyepa (n:eimnn ypo(nnoe reo, uro cpannn:o c
rpeuecin: Kepepo:) nnnercn crpae: cipirix n ae:e coiponnm n
ycronunno acconnnpyercn c ae:en, ae:ni:n ne(pa:n n ropa:n. H ian-
pi, n le]ecr oecrna nerpeuecioro nponcxo(ennn, iai npanno, n
cnnan c nx iyira:n yno:nnaercn Naan Aann nn o. Ca:o]painn. B
.ron cnnan :oryr noiaaaricn nnrepecni:n neioropie ce:nrcine napa-
en. Ce:nrcinn iopeni ku: nn u: ncrpeuaercn n conax, orpaaimnx
ionnennni cina nn nociinoro oron (cuc:, orci(a lapn.i, n-
encinn nocannni ora). K .ro:y e iopni nocxo(nr .nnrer k.u::
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 104
2
Nn] o Hn:e ornocnrcn i uncy rai naainae:ix po(nunx, :nrpnpyimnx
cieron n :n]oornnx napo(on :npa, nocioiiy nocxo(nr i naneuno:y :n]y,
recno cnnaanno:y c npe(cranenne: o y:npaime: n nocipecaime: ore. B
npancion rpa(nnnn :n] o paroynncrne Hn:i Cnnriipon coxpannercn roiio
n iauecrne ciera eren(apnon ncropnn, npairnuecin yrpaunnan cnnai c yia-
aanni:n :n]a:n |1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.
N., 1998. C. 181]. Orroocin .rnx npe(cranennn nce eme coxpannnci: corac-
no npancin: npe(cranennn:, Hn:a ne noapo(aercn, no coxpannircn npe(cran-
ennn o ero cnnan c no(opo(ne:, on nnnercn nape: aarponoro :npa, n on
i, ipo:e roro, no(aree: ae:nix ar n reecnoro ecc:eprnn. Cymecrnyer n
napnanr naneunoro :n]a, n ioropo: naneni paanonoie, nanpn:ep Hn:a n
Hn:ai. Ho(onie cieri y(yr pacc:orpeni na:n nne.
8
C.x.nx,x .1. Hporoaopoacrpnncinn xpa: n Naprnane n npoe:a noanninone-
nnn aopoacrpna:a ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 1. C. 1b2170. C. 166.
4
.acca .J. Anrnunan :n]oornn n ee ncropnuecio: paannrnn ;; Nn]oo-
rnn rpeion n pn:nn ; Cocr. A.A. Taxo-lo(n, orn. pe(. H.H. Naxaniiona. N.,
1996. C. 276.
1
Cf.an, X, 8, 19.
2
Cf.an, X, 8, 7.
8
Xorn n cierno: nane ee ce(yer ciopee oro(ecrnnri c Hepce]onon.
4
Cf.an, X, 8, 22.
b
Cf.an, X.8.21.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 70 1c4cck.s f.,xuxs a k,cf. x kax.nf. x x.nckxc... 71
(oimon), ioropin, neponrno, nepnonauaino onpe(en ora, o(noro
na naaon, ioropin ncer(a npe(cranncn rnranrcin: (no(ono cua::n
innrn Lirnn), n cono kabbr (cninin, :oryunn)
1
.
Beci:a nnrepecni: npe(crannercn n eme o(no coomenne Crpa-
ona
2
o ro:, uro lepo(or yno:nnaer o cymecrnonannn xpa:on ianpon...
n Ne:]nce, Ka:nc, o(naio, no ero cona:, paapymn nx
8
, n .ro ne-
c:orpn na nci penrnoanyi repnn:ocri Axe:enn(on
4
. Or:ern:, uro n
3]ece npn xpa:e Apre:n(i c (pennenmnx npe:en cymecrnonaa pe-
uecian ioernn iyperon (anaornunan :nercion ioernn :oinon npn
xpa:e Anoona ]ei]nnnn), n:enman pemaimee anauenne n nonpoce
npe(ocranennn rpa(ancinx npan
b
. Ouenn(no, uro a(eci, iai n n npan-
cion rpa(nnnn, iyperi coxpannir cnon peuecinn craryc n n:eir neco-
:oe connainoe anauenne, a (annee cymecrnonanne .ron ioernn cnn(e-
reicrnyer n noiay noa:onocrn pannnx ionrairon c npancion cpe(on.
Hponcxo(enne rpeuecioro cona iopnanr Crpaon orncnner
ce(yimn: opaao:: Kopnanri rai naanani or coryp:o, |rpncy roo-
noi,] n bainein, |n(rn,] noro:y uro n rannax onn nicrynan, rpncn
roonoi
6
. Cymecrnyer eme o(nn napnanr nponcxo(ennn .roro cona,
no ye nocxo(nmnn i npancion cpe(e (uro, icrarn, :oer iri cnnaano
n yiaaanne: na airpnncioe nponcxo(enne iopnanron). Coxpannaci
na(nnci napn ]apnn na rope i cenepy or Hepcenonca, r.n. 1.::u:, ^.j:/-
:-1u:1.n . /1n.' n necioiio anaornunix en ionnn c pn(o: neanaun-
reinix (oanennn (nanp. 1.::u:, ou:. 1 /1:c', 2b), nce na (penne-
nepcn(cio: naiie
1
. B .rnx na(nncnx nepeunceni crpani, ioropi:n
ynpanner ]apnn, cpe(n nnx yno:nnyri cin]cine ne:ena cain Xa-
y:anapra n cain c ocrponepxn:n mania:n: (2b26) Sak haumavarg:
Sak tigraxaud. Ho ncen nn(n:ocrn, .ro nipaenne cranonnrcn cran-
(aprni: (n Axe:enn(on, ry e ]op:yy :i ncrpeuae: n anrn(.non-
cion na(nncn Kcepica (486480 rr.) (Xerxes, Persepolis H. (XPh) T/c
1.:+. 1n:c::1:an. T::/:nu./, an :1anc 1.u/c1:, 2 ca:c:), n ioropon raie
yno:nnyri ocrpomanounie cain
2
. B rpeuecio: naiie nicoian npn:an
mania n:enyercn xuppooo. lepo(or e, ior(a n onncannn nepcn(cio-
ro noncia yno:nnaer o caiax c ocrponepxn:n mania:n, ncnoiayer (py-
ron napnanr. On ronopnr: Cain e (cin]cioe ne:n) nocnn na roonax
nicoine ocrponepxne ripani, nornie, rai uro cronn npn:o
8
, n na-
ainaer nx 2xu0o Op0oxopupovto. 3(eci noa:ono (na orncne-
nnn. no lepo(or ncnoiayer n cnoe: onncannn npocryi rpeueciyi iaiiy
co craponepcn(cioro (Sak tigraxaud = 2xu 0o Op0oxopupo vto), no
noa:ono (onymenne, uro no npe:ena lepo(ora eme ironan neioropie
npe(cranennn, noanonnmne oro(ecrnnri ocrpomanounix caion c :a-
oaanncin:n iopnanra:n. Boome, na(o ciaaari, uro no npe:ena lepo-
(ora cin]cinn .e:enr i neci:a nonynpen n lpennn n npncyrcrnona
ne roiio n Honnn, no n n A]nnax npnananno: nenrpe nonrnuecion n
iyirypnon nann apxanuecioro nepno(a, na uro ncno yiaainair apxe-
oornuecine cnn(ereicrna. Cin]cinn crpeoi na yia o(nn na pac-
npocrpanennix :ornnon na naaax npe:enn noa(nen apxanin n pannen iac-
cnin (b70 r. (o n...), nnno aan:crnonannin na nonnncion rpa(nnnn. Ha
noa(nenmnx or noce(nen rpern Vl n. (o n... naaax uacro oropaen
o(nn n ror e rnn crpeia na yia n xapairepno: cin]cio: oauennn
4
.
Hpn:euareino n ro, uro :norouncennie anrnunie cnn(ereicrna
b
cnnainair iyperon, ianpon n iopnanron c noennon ]yninnen, n: e
npnnncinaercn naoperenne noennix rannen nn rannen c opyne:. Crpa-
on coomaer o iyperax
6
, uro nce onn nnmyr n noopyennn, no( anyin
n my: in:naon, rn:nanon n opynn, a raie no( anyin ]enri n noc-
1
1cnc:uu: C. Kabbr in Biblical Hebrew: Evidence or S:yle-swi:ching and
Addresse swi:ching in :he Hebrew Bible ;; Journal o :he American Orien:al
Socie:y. V. 112. N 4. Oc.-dec. 1992. P. 64b6b8.
2
Cf.an, X, 8, 21.
8
cp. 1ca,af, lll, 8788.
4
3ro coomenne cnona noanpamaer nac i (nciyccnn o penrnn Axe:enn(on.
Noe: n :i cunrari Ka:nca noce(onaree: 3aparymrpi, ynn(en n paapyme-
nnn xpa:a ianpon anrn(.nonciyi (enreinocri Bcno:nn:, ]apnn, nanpo-
rnn, noccranannna paapymennie Lap(nen xpa:i (Lap(nn n cnoi ouepe(i n
.ro: ionreicre :or npe(crannricn iai oprannaarop npoaaparymrponcioro nepe-
nopora) n, naionen, anrn(.noncian na(nnci Kcepica, n ioropon on npnainaer ne
nounrari (.non n na ro: :ecre, r(e nounran (.non, conepmn noionenne Axypa-
:aa(e n Apre. B (encrnnreinocrn, (n ncex .rnx coirnn conepmenno ne onaa-
reen penrnoanin no(reicr, a aauacryi :oryr n:eri :ecro nciiunreino non-
rnuecine peaoni (n paapymennn nn noccranonennn xpa:on.
b
1a,aax4 1.1. Apxanuecinn Nner (npoe:a connaino-nonrnuecion ncro-
pnn) ;; Hpoe:i nonrnuecion ncropnn anrnunoro omecrna. Nenyaoncinn
copnni. ., 198b. C. 918. C. 14.
6
Cf.an, X, 8, 21. Unr. no: .acca .J. Anrnunan :n]oornn n ee ncropnuec-
io: paannrnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N., 1996. C. 292.
1
1cn1 1.C. Old Persian. New Heaven, 19b8.
2
Pyccinn reicr c:.: 1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana.
CH.N., 1998. C. 428, 1cn1 1.C. Old Persian. 19b8.
8
1ca,af, Vll, 64.
4
Ja.aa .. Cin]i n A]nnax ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1998. 1 (224).
C. 18b1b2.
b
c:.: .acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 681909. C. 808811.
6
Cf.an, X 8, 7
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 72 1c4cck.s f.,xuxs a k,cf. x kax.nf. x x.nckxc... 78
innannn. H:eercn npn:oe coornercrnne .ro:y coomenni n pnryaax
conpe:ennix noro:ion (pennnx nn(onpancinx ne:en Hypncrana
1
. Ka]n-
pi-iarn nounran oecrno nonni, ioropoe n:enonan 1xu nn 1xaxu.
Bo npe:n rannen, ioropie ycrpannanci n ero uecri, neian io nrpari
nn na o(no: :yaiiaino: nncrpy:enre, paapemaoci nmi cnncreri n
nri n apaan
2
. Bo npe:n noennix noxo(on nouecrn lnmy oiaainan
enmnni, onn nepeo(enanci n :yciyi npaa(nnunyi o(e(y, a no
npe:n rannen noiaonanci nx ronopa:n n innaa:n
8
. Ka]npcinx o-
ron y:nocrnnnnan roiio nenne:, ranna:n, nnpa:n, niiuan n ep-
rnonpnnomenne, no iain:no (pyrn: cnocoo: nnior(a
4
. Y ia]n-
pon (nine ranni ncnonnnci nepe( ornpanenne: nonnon n onacnin
noxo(. Hpn .ro: :yunni n enmnni nicrynan (pyr npornn (pyra. B
aaiiuenne racnn ornn, n npaa(nni aaianunnacn oprnen
b
. Cymecrnyer
onncanne pnryainoro ranna, ncnonnnmerocn no npe:n :nornx npaa(nn-
ion, nocpe(crno: ioroporo opamanci io nce: ocnonni: oecrna:.
Pnrya conepmacn n (o:e copannn. B nenrpe oimoro no:emennn
nia oroni, no o(ny cropony cn(en :yaiianri rpyaun n apaan-
mnin. Hx oipyan :yunni. B pyiax rannyimnx cnepian opn(o-
nie ronopi
6
. Kai nn(n:, n n nn(onpancion rpa(nnnn, npe(cranennon
ia]npa:n Hypncrana, n n anrnunon rpa(nnnn, onncinaimen cnnmenno-
(encrnnn iyperon, conna(air ocnonnie cocrannimne ornpanennn pnry-
aa: .ro ranen c opyne:, conpono(ae:in (yxoni:n :yaiiaini:n
nncrpy:enra:n (nn cnncro:) n apaana:n. Kcrarn ciaaari, rpa(nnnn
aiio:nannponari .nnuecin: necnn: (n, nn(n:o, pnryaini: (encrna:)
n:enno (yxoni:n :yaiiaini:n nncrpy:enra:n nocxo(nr i (pennenme-
:y, npann(oenponencio:y oiuai. 3ror oiuan i coxpanen nrania-
:n, n ro: unce pn:nna:n, rpein e nepemn n .nnuecio: rnopuecrne
na crpynnie nncrpy:enri
7
, coxpannn ncnoiaonanne (yxonix roiio n
pnryainix npairniax. Ocoo nyno or:ernri, uro ranen, n nepnyi oue-
pe(i nocnnmennin ory nonni, conepmaercn n n uecri (pyrnx oron, uro
conocrann:o c ncnonenne: iypera:n n iopnanra:n noennoro ranna n
uecri Narepn oron nn Pen-Knei, a raie 3enca. Bano no(uepinyri
1
Oueni no(pono opn(i n pnryai nypncrannen onncani n innre 1cff+. 1.
Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986, na ioropon :i n ocnoninae: cnon nai(ennn.
2
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 9294.
8
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 94.
4
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 187.
b
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 181.
6
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 182.
7
J.xuca .1. Hpann(oenponencine ncroin (pennerpeuecioro .noca ;; Hpoe:i
anrnunoro ncrounnione(ennn. C. nayu. rp. N.., 1986. C. 96107. C. 10b106.
n nanune oprnacrnuecioro .e:enra n npone(ype pnryaa n oenx rpa(n-
nnnx. Kpo:e roro, nni anrnunix :n]oornuecinx pacciaaon o iyperax
rai nn nnaue cnnaan c nocnnranne: 3enca. Opaa 3enca, rpo:onepna,
cneprnynmero nropoe noioenne oron, a:eeopna, coornocn: n ]yninno-
naino: ornomennn c ne(nuecin: Hn(pon. C Hn(pon e conocrann: n
lnm (lnnnm) ia]npon Hypncrana
1
.
Heioropie cxo(nie .e:enri :ono onapynri npn conocrane-
nnn opaaon ]nonnca n A:i (raie n Hn:i): no-nepnix, arpnyri crpa-
(aimero n y:npaimero ora, no-nropix, ]nonnc n oro(ecrnennn c
An(o: raie npe(crannercn na(iion aarponoro :npa, naionen, cnnai
o(noro n (pyroro c o(yp:annnaimn: nannrio: n pn( uepr, npncymnx n:
iai iyirypni: repon: (coa(anne npe(:eron iyirypi, oyuenne pe:ec-
a:, oxore, nciyccrny, coa(anne connainix npe(nncannn n nop:, pnry-
aon, npaa(nnion, yuacrne n :npoycrponcrne n npou.). Ouenn(no, uro
.rn napaen :oryr iri iai neaanncn:i:n ciera:n, ncrpeuaimn-
:ncn no :nornx :n]oornnx napo(on :npa, rai n napaen:n n cny
omnocrn nn(oenponencioro nponcxo(ennn. B cnnan c .rn: xoreoci
i oparnri nnn:anne na ce(yimnn ]par:enr lepainra 3]eccioro
(b0 Nch, Kn:enr. 1:a1:. 84 p. 26,6): Ecn i onn |r.e. :norne] npene-
peran (ne ncnonnn) ornpannri nponeccnn ]nonncy n neri rn:ni
cpa:ni: uacrn:, onn nocrynan i nanoee nenournreino (neuecrn-
no), no An( n ]nonnc ecri o(no n ro e, n ne n:eer anauennn, iai onn
eay:crnyir n nencroncrnyir, npaa(nyn naixnuecine opn(i n uecri
noce(nero
2
. C o(non croponi, n .ro: ]par:enre npoc:arpnnaercn rn-
nnunoe (n lepainra oro(ecrnenne npornnonoonocren, n (anno:
cyuae :n]oornanponannix nann n c:eprn, n on ceryer na ro, uro
(ae n penrnoanix opn(ax i(n uecrnyir roiio ]nonnca, a ne n:e-
cre c An(o:, n .ro npe(crannercn e:y oee npannini:, nocioiiy,
no-nn(n:o:y, npe(e iyir ornpanncn n:enno rai. Ho c (pyron cropo-
ni, no ]par:enre nnno co(epnrcn ra e n(en ro(ecrna An(a n ]nonn-
ca, ioropyi :i npe(crannn nime, anananpyn opaa Hn:i n Xao:i n
npancion rpa(nnnn. ro iacaercn ca:oro lepainra, rounee nonpoca,
ce(ona n on rpa(nnnonnon rpeuecion penrnn, paa:imnn o .ro:
ro(ecrne, nn (epa nepe( raaa:n npancinn opaaen, ro on ocraercn
oripiri:, ne nciiueno, uro npancine oprnacrnuecine npaa(necrna
n uecri Hn:i n Xao:i nce eme in mnpoio pacnpocrpaneni no npe:e-
na lepainra na :aoaanncinx reppnropnnx.
1
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. N., 1986. C. 92.
2
4par:enri lepainra, ecn .ro cnennaino ne oronapnnaercn, npnno(nrcn
no na(anni: A.:ca+:c/ A. Heracli:us. Greek :ex: wi:h a shor: commen:ary.
Venezuela, 1967.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 74 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 7b
Hrai, ne nperen(yn na nonory ncce(onannn nonpoca o npancinx
penax-iapananax n rpeuecinx iopnanrax, na ocnonannn conocranennn
neioropix conna(ennn n ornpanennn iyira n coomennn anrnunix an-
ropon (n uacrnocrn Crpaona) o ncroiax iyira rpeuecinx iopnanron na
reppnropnn pacceennn nocrounix npancinx ne:en (Lairpnn, Koxn(a),
:i noarae:, uro neian n nonon :epe nciiunri neponrnocri npancinx
nnnnnn na ]op:nponanne rpeuecioro iyira. 3ro nnnnne raie :oro
iri onocpe(onanni: uepea nepnnunoe nnnnne na :aoaanncinn iyir.
C (pyron croponi, conpe:ennie .rnorpa]nuecine (annie, onncinaimne
iyir ia]npon-iarn Hypncrana, naii ioropix ornocnrcn i nn(onpancion
rpynne naiion, npe(ocrannir :arepna, ioropin cnn(ereicrnyer o co-
xpanennn n npancio: n rpeuecio: iyirax neioropix .e:enron, nocxo-
(nmnx i ome:y nn(oenponencio:y pnryay.
2. HIAHCKHE HAIAEH B OI4H3ME, IIEHECKHX
TEOIOHHAX. 3HHMEHH, TEOIOHHA HEIOHHMA H
IEAHHKA~, IAHCOHHECKAA TEOIOHHA~
Ce(yimne cieri, ioropie :i no(ponee pacc:orpn:, coornocn:i
c :n]o: o :npono: nnne, cranonenne: nonnrnn npe:enn n naneuni:
:n]o:, nepnee uacrni: ero cyuae: npe(cranenne: o an(pornnax.
Nn] o :npono: nnne cymecrnyer no :nornx :n]oornnx: ern-
nercion, inrancion, ouenn(no, uro on irona n y nn(oenponencinx
napo(on :n] o :npono: nnne n ne(nncion ioc:oronnn, :noecrno
nonepnn, cnnaannix c nnno: n cannncion :n]oornn
1
, ncrpeuaercn on
n neioropix ce:nrcinx :n]ax, n raie n npancion rpa(nnnn (ioropyi
:i pacc:orpn: nne). Kai npanno, :nponoe nnno npe(crannercn n
:n]ax nein: nauao:, na ioroporo noanniaer no :npoa(anne, no
(e:nypr. Pacnpocrpanen :ornn (nyx noonnnoi nnna, na ioropix ]op-
:npyercn nepx n nna (ae:n n neo), no eroi conocrannercn c
conne:, uacro nnno onncinaercn iai aooroe, n e:y npncymn conp-
nie arpnyri. Hnor(a opaa :nponoro nnna n :n]e re: nn nni: opa-
ao: cnnaan c ioniperni: npe:enno: npo:eyrio: (ro(, ]aai ro(onoro
nnia). Hne :i nocrapae:cn nanrn yiaaannie :ornni n rpeuecion n
npancion rpa(nnnen, nonnri, n o(no: n pyce paannnaircn .rn rpa(n-
nnn c yuero: orroocion :n]a o :npono: nnne, n, ipo:e roro, aa(ari
neioropoe npe(cranenne o nanpanennn paannrnn ionnennnn npe:enn.
Hnrepnpernponari nanune ce(on :n]a o :npono: nnne, iai n
rpeuecion, rai n n npancion rpa(nnnnx, a y re: oee nx conocrannri
n cnuari na npe(:er aan:crnonannn, npe(crannercn (ocrarouno co-
ni: nnn(y ipannen ]par:enrapnocrn cnn(ereicrn n c ron n c (pyron
croponi. Eme o(no na aarpy(nennn, cnnaannix c nnrepnperannen nime-
yiaaannix npe(cranennn, aaiiuaercn n ro:, uro n rpeuecion rpa(n-
nnn :n] o :npono: nnne (ome roiio n unce op]nuecinx npe(crane-
nnn. Ha(o aa:ernri, uro n neo: opamenne i op]nuecion rpa(nnnn ne
oeruaer aa(aun conocranennn rpeuecinx, iai ]noco]cinx, rai n npe(-
]noco]cinx, nocrpoennn c npancion :n]o-penrnoanon rpa(nnnen n
cny roro, uro ca:a cncre:a op]nuecinx narn(on peioncrpynpyercn no
]par:enra: op]nuecinx rn:non n op]nuecinx reoronnn, ioropie ]op-
:nponanci n reuenne (ocrarouno (ororo nepno(a c b00 r. (o 100 r.
(o n... Hocioiiy nanoiman uacrora nnrnponannn .rnx reicron npn-
na(enr neonaronnia:, ro neian nciiuari n nx cocrnennon iop-
peirypi npe(cranennn n coornercrnnn c neonaronnuecion cncre:on,
uro no(paay:enaer ecn ne nciaenne op]nuecinx narn(on nenio:,
ro, no ncnio: cyuae, nnyi paccranoniy ainenron n nnx. B neo: e
oman cxe:a op]nuecinx npe(cranennn peioncrpyinnn no((aercn, uro
ycnemno npo(e:oncrpnpona N.L. Wes:
1
. Bo ncnio: cyuae, orneuan na
nonpoc, nacioiio crapi ionnennnn, npe(cranennie n iopnyce op]n-
uecinx reicron, :ono ynepeno yrnep(ari, uro :norne na nnx nocxo-
(nr i iaccnuecio:y nepno(y. ]aee :i npe(crann: omyi cxe:y op]n-
uecinx npe(cranennn, noce uero ye oee no(pono ocranonn:cn na
ionipernix nocranennix aa(auax.
Conpanne n coa(anne Op]nuecinx crnxon, a, ipo:e roro, conpa-
nne n roionanne napeuennn Nycen npnnncinaercn Ono:aipnry, nn-
me:y n A]nnax n Vl n. (o n...
2
. Coracno lepo(ory (Vll, 6), Ono:aipnr
i narnan Hncncrparn(o: lnnnapxo: na A]nn (oi. b27 r. (o n...) aa
no((eiy opaiya Nycen. Cnycrn nourn copoi er (ncrounnin ne yno:n-
nair o ro:, r(e on npone .rn ro(i), npn:npnnmnci c uena:n (o:a
Hncncrparn(on, Ono:aipnr ornpanncn n:ecre c nn:n i napi Kcepicy
unrari cnon npopnnannn. 3ro ronopnr o ro:, uro Ono:aipnry y(aoci
noanaio:nricn c npancion iyirypon xorn i n npeionno: noapacre,
no ne nciiuaer roro, uro on :or c(eari .ro panee, cpaay noce narna-
nnn. Nor n .ror ]air iain:-ro opaao: nonnnri na co(epanne npo-
nane(ennn Ono:aipnra, na: ne nanecrno, no on, no ncnio: cyuae, no(-
1
Jccnckxx 1.. 4noornuecine paaiciannn n oacrn cannncinx (pennoc-
ren (Peniri naiuecrna n nocrounocannncio: iyire Hnioan Nnpninncio-
ro). N., 1982.
1
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988.
2
1ca,af, Vll, 6, J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. acri 1. Or .nnuec-
inx reoioc:oronnn (o noanninonennn aro:ncrnin ; Ha(. no(roronn A.B. ee-
(ena, pe(. H.]. Poancinn. N., 1989. C. 9899.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 76 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 77
rnep(aer npairniy nyremecrnnn rpeion na Bocroi, n ro: unce io
(nopy Axe:enn(on, a raie n nnrepec nepcon i rpeuecion iyirype.
Op]nuecioe yuenne o nponcxo(ennn :npa peioncrpynpyercn no
paani: ncrounnia:. B neo:, npe(crannercn ce(yiman iaprnna
1
.
Hecrapeimee npe:n po(aer .]np (noa(yx) n ea(onnyi annimyi
ea(ny (xaoc) ea (na n rpannn, oiyrannie nepnoirni: :paio: n Ho-
uii. B .]npe nn na nero xponoc-npe:n cornopn cnnimee nnno, na ioro-
poro nixo(nr op]nuecinn or-(e:nypr 4anec (Cnnimnn), on e Nernc
(Ny(pocri), on e 3pnienanoc (Cna), Hpororon, 3por, 3enc n r.(. 4a-
nec nopo(aer cnoi npornnonoonocri Houi (xorn Houi cymecrno-
naa (o nero, noome op]nuecian rpa(nnnn npe(noaraer rpn Houn iai
rpn paanix opaaa), n cnnan c ue: on :oer nonn:aricn iai (eni, or
4aneca n Hiiri po(aercn len n Ypan nn ae:n n neo. Or Ypana n
len nponaomn rpn ornnn cy(ii, rpn nniona n rpn reiaronxenpa.
4anec nepnin napi oron, (aee c:ena napen n(er coracno Teoro-
nnn lecno(a: Ypan Xponoc 3enc
2
. 3enc nporarinaer 4aneca n re:
ca:i: nnpaer n cen nce :npoa(anne n ncex oron. Hpn .ro: on aa(aercn
nonpoco:: Kai :ne c(eari, uroi nce nemn in e(nni n paa(eini.
Tnranon, pacrepaanmnx cina 3enca ]nonnca, 3enc ncnenen :onnen, a
na npaxa coa(a rpernn, ninemnnn, po( i(en, n ioropix aan rnrannuec-
ian npnpo(a coe(nnena c oecrnenni: (nonncnncin: nauao:.
Heoxo(n:o or:ernri ce(yimne xapairepnie uepri op]nuecioro
yuennn. Bo-nepnix, op]nuecine orn nepconn]nnnponannie orne-
uennie nonnrnn. Ocnonnie nonnrnn, uepea ioropie onncinaercn nepno-
nauainoe cocronnne :npa (e:n]oornanponani n narypananponani:
xponoc, .]np, xaoc, nnno ne onnernopeni. Bo-nropix, n iauecrne
ocoon iareropnn ni(eeno npe:n. 3are:, n op]na:e nonnnercn n(en
npeinaimen cycrannnn 3enca. Bor iai ciaaano o 3ence n o(no: na
op]nuecinx rn:non:
...C Jcacc nc :,x+ax aaackx...
C a+au:k, u.: n.u, faacx :a.aaa n. cacf asax.xc:
A.fc: a:xns .c+.s x :a aa.ncccnnac k,4x.
Aac x a4cc acc, 4fa a, nca+ uxakx+ aa.,ax:.ac:.
C ckxfa,ccu 1anx,, nx.ac:.fc.:, +a:,4xx ,,uak,
1ccaa,xfc.:, n.4..a acc+, x acc+, ..acucn:c
1c, cafsc.fc.:, fa acc n.c.,.cu:, .cfxu:, a4xu.cu:,
Jcac accfaasuxx...
8
Yno(onn :np n nepaanepnynme:cn cocronnnn nnny, op]na: yno-
(oner neocno( ciopyne, a .]np ionne nnna. Haionen, ueonei
oiaainaercn peayiraro: ioc:nuecioro nponecca, a ne noouni: npo-
(yiro:, iai y lo:epa n lecno(a.
B ro:, uro :i ciaaan o op]na:e :ono onapynri neioropie
napaen c npancion :n]oornuecion rpa(nnnen, :i ne crane: nx
no(pono anananponari, npocro yiae: na noa:onie conna(ennn.
Nono or:ernri cxo(crno c aypnannrcin: :n]o:, coracno ioropo:y
or-npe:n, anaornunin Xponocy, nopo(aer cinonen cner n :pai.
O(nn na cinonen, Op:aa(, n cnoi ouepe(i oro(ecrnnercn c Leana-
uaini: Cnero:. ro iacaercn oro(ecrnennn :npa c ioc:nuecin:
nnno:, ro .rn npe(cranennn or:ern Hyrapx, naaran cnoero po(a yce-
uennin napnanr npancion reoronnn (O Han(e n Ocnpnce, 47): lopo-
:a(a, nponaome(mnn or uncrenmero cnera, n Apn:annn, nponaome(mnn
or ri:i, ne(yr (pyr c (pyro: nonny. H lopo:a(a coa(a mecri oron.
Apn:annn e cornopn pannoe n: unco conepnnion. Cornopnn aare:
eme (na(nari ueripe ora, on |lopo:a(a] no:ecrn nx n nnno. Pannie n:
no uncy orn, nponaome(mne or Apn:annn, nponnin n nnno, nce(crnne
uero (opo c:emaoci co ao:
1
.
Coracno npancin: npe(cranennn:, ueonei coa(an Axypa:aa(on,
uroi yuacrnonari n ioc:nuecion nrne c cna:n aa napanne c neecni-
:n cna:n. Hepnenmnn (or ueoneia cocronr n ro:, uroi c(eari reo
n:ecrnnme: A:ema-Cnenra Cnnrix Lecc:eprnix. eoneuecian nani
(ona onpe(enricn Larn: Ha:epenne: i Hpane(nocrn, Larocrn n
Lecc:eprni, n orneprari (e:onon aa: Aecroiocrn, Aunocrn, n. i(n
(oni crpe:nricn crari orpaenne: me(poro coan(areinoro (yxa Axy-
pa:aa(i n orneprari nenpane(nie nyrn. eonei npe(crannercn ioneu-
ni: n nani: npo(yiro: rnopennn, ea ioroporo nenoa:ona peanaa-
nnn aa:ica cymecrnonannn :npa, naneennoro na noe(y na( ao:.
Op]nuecian anrponoornn raie npe(cranner nnrepec c rouin ape-
nnn n:eimnxcn n nen npancinx napaeen. ]yma cymecrnyer (o ncee-
nnn n reo n neioe: aenno: :ecre n n cuacrnno: cocronnnn. ]ymn
na(air, ncennci n rea, ioropie nnnircn (n nnx re:nnna:n nn rpo-
nnna:n. ]yma crpe:nrcn nipnaricn na .roro :npa n nepnyricn n aen-
nin :np. Ho c(eari .ro neerio, noro:y uro c:epri rea ne oanauaer
ocnoo(ennn, (yma ryr e ncenercn n (pyroe reo. Toiio oionuareino
ouncrnnmnci or aoro, rpexonnoro, rnrannuecioro .e:enra, (yma noyuaer
noa:onocri ocnoo(nricn or crpa(annn. 3(eci ncno nipaeni npe(cran-
1
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. C. 707b.
2
1ccxa,. Honoe copanne reicron ; Bcrynnreinan crarin B.H. Apxo, Ko:-
:enr. O.H. Uienio n B.H. Apxo. N., 2001. C. 20b1.
8
nfx4nac :x+na ; Cocranenne n oman pe(ainnn A.A. Taxo-lo(n. N., 1989. C. 19b.
1
1.,f.. O Han(e n Ocnpnce ; Hyrapx. Nopann. Plu:archi Chaeronensis.
Scrip:a Noralia. Hep. no( pe(. .A. 4penepr, N.. lacnapona ;; Becrnni
(pennen ncropnn. 1977. N 8. C. 229268, 1977. N 4. C. 280249.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 78 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 79
ennn o noc:eprno: noa(annnn aa nocrynin, n(en ounmennn or rpexa.
Hpane(nix (nocnnmennix) (er aarponoe aencrno n naiaaanne
nenocnnmennix. lonopn o op]nuecio: yuennn, uacro ronopnr o napae-
nx c y((na:o:, ne(nuecion n pax:anncrcion ]noco]nen. Nono nn-
(eri n .ro: yuennn n ce(i npancinx npe(cranennn o .a.ux. Corac-
no :a(oanecrnncion ionnennnn 4panamn nn (yma ueoneia cymecrny-
er nanauaino, (o ero nonnennn na cner, coe(nnnercn c reo: n :o:enr
po(ennn n noce c:eprn oreraer or rpyna n noanpamaercn n (yxon-
nin :np, r(e en cy(eno npeinari (o nonon noe(i na( ao:, ioropan
oana:enyer ionen :nponon ncropnn n cy(nin (eni (4panap(nn-nmr
1
).
Ha nam narn(, naonne rainx erio conocrann:ix (pyr c (pyro: ]ai-
ron, iai paa n nano(nr na :ici o npancinx nnnnnnx nn aan:crnonann-
nx n rpeueciyi iyirypy, re: oee uro ner ncuepninaimnx cnn(ereicrn
nn aa nn npornn, a (n roro, uroi cocrannri cyreirnnnoe :nenne,
aannn ry nn nnyi cropony, :arepnaa (ocrarouno. ]n roro uroi (ari
oee nn :enee oreirnnnyi oneniy .rnx ]airon, nonpoye: oee no(-
pono pacc:orperi n conocrannri op]nueciyi rpa(nnni c npancion.
Ho :nenni rex, iro noaraer, uro op]na: eper nauao n ernnerc-
ion :n]oornn, ce(yer cunrari, uro n ce(i npe(cranennn o :npono:
nnne n ne: raie n:eir ernnercioe nponcxo(enne. B ernnercion rpa(n-
nnn, re: ne :enee, orcyrcrnyer nonan aannci .roro :n]a. Ho cona:
N.3. Narie, nanecrnon cnennancrin n oacrn ernnroornn, cpe(n co-
xpannnmnxcn penrnoanix reicron ncrpeuaircn yno:nnannn ro o nnne na
ae:n n narn |P.Harris lV, 101b], ioropoe nnnoci na nepno: no(nnn-
me:cn na nepnonauainoro xaoca xo:e, ro o nnne nenioro lororyna,
cnecenno: na ae:i (Knnra :eprnix, r. 4, 6)
2
, na ioroporo nonnnoci
conne. Ouenn(no, uro .rn eren(i nocxo(nr i (pennenmn: npe:ena:
8
. B
lpenni :n] o :npono: nnne :or nponninyri n Kpnro-:nienciyi .noxy, n
ror(a pe:nnncnennnn ernnercion :n]oornn nnone :orn i npncyr-
crnonari n nponane(ennnx lo:epa n lecno(a. Ho n reoronnnx lo:epa n
lecno(a ce(i :n]a o :npono: nnne na: onapynri ne y(aoci
4
. Bnpo-
ue:, noa:ono, a(eci cnona ciaainaercn ne(ocrarounocri namnx ncrou-
nnion, iai c rpeuecion, rai n c ernnercion croponi. Her n cioiio-
nny(i nnnix ce(on :n]a o :npono: nnne n n (pennenmnx na coxpa-
nnnmnxcn op]nuecinx reicrax (oi. lVL nn. (o n...), aa nciiuenne:
reicra Apncro]ana Hrnni (V n. (o n...), r(e nnepnie yno:nnaercn
nnno, cnecennoe Houii cpe(n Xaoca, na ioroporo nnoce(crnnn y(er
paannnaricn ynopn(ouennin :np
1
. B ocraino: pannne reoioc:oronn-
uecine reicri no cnoe:y co(epanni :ao ornuaircn or naoennn
reoioc:oronnn lo:epo: n lecno(o:.
Ha pannnx reicron nanoee ionirni ]par:enri Teoronnn 3nn-
:enn(a (Vl n. (o n...). 4nrypa 3nn:enn(a Knoccioro ia ipanne nony-
npna n anrnuno: :npe, ]airnuecin nnnnci cnoero po(a cn:noo: o
0roo yo, rex, iro no nipaenni Anyen (ornecmero i .ron iareropnn
n 3nn:enn(a), c nanmnn: ionircrno: ncce(yer nponn(enne n :npe
n cnmio: ropnuo cannr oron (8 A7 DK)
2
. Te cnn(ereicrna, ioropie
coxpannnci o nann 3nn:enn(a, xapairepnayir ero iai nponn(na n npe(-
ciaaaren, ocymecrnnnmero paanunie ounmennn, n neioropi: opaao:
cnnaannoro c nnenocrouni:n :arnuecin:n n pnryaini:n iyira:n.
3(eci :i noanon: cee neoimoe orcrynenne or ocnonnoro rei-
cra n ioporio pacc:orpn: neioropie acneiri rpa(nnnn npe(ciaaarei-
nix npairni n apxanueciyi .noxy n .noxy pannen rpeuecion ]noco-
]nn, nocioiiy :e(y pannn:n rpeuecin:n ]noco]a:n n npe(ciaaare-
n:n n:eercn onpe(eennan cnnai neioropie ]noco]i con:eman
.rn (na po(a aannrnn. Ecn oparnricn i ron iyirypnon cnryannn, na
]one ioropon noannia n paannnaaci ]noco]nn, :ono ni(enri
pn( ocoennocren, na ocnone ioropix ni(nnnyri ce(yimnn reanc:
]noco]cioe ananne paannnaoci iai npo(oenne neioroporo cai-
painoro anannn, ioropoe nnnoci nexoni: ananne: crpancrnyi-
mnx npe(ciaaareeneiapen, o(noro na pe:ecennix ore(nnennn roro
npe:enn. B rpairare rnnnoiparoncion mioi O (pennen :e(nnnne
8
ciaaano, uro ror, iro ne anaer, uro raioe ueonei, ue: on nnnercn, iai
1
accf.: Hapannie rn:ni ; Hep. c anecr. n io::enr. npo]. H.N. Crenn-
Ka:encioro, npe(nc. npo]. B.A. nnmnna. ]ymane, 1990.
2
A.f:c A.. Hapannie rpy(i no :n]oornn n n(eoornn (pennero Ernnra. N.,
1996. C. 1bb.
8
Ernnercian Knnra :eprnix cocrannaci, naunnan c nepno(a Honoro napcrna,
oi. XVl n. (o n...
4
Ha ocnonannn reicron Hna(i n O(nccen :ono npnnrn i nino(y, uro
crpoenne ynnnepcy:a :icnoci n nn(e (nyx noyc]ep, Ypana n Taprapa, coe(n-
nennix :e(y coon Oieano:. 3ro :oer n iaion-ro :epe nonn:aricn iai orro-
ocoi npe(cranennn o :npono: nnne, no npn:ix (oiaaareicrn .ro:y ner.
1
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N., 1996.
C. 709. Boapaennn ornocnreino npnna(enocrn .roro reicra i op]nuecin:
c:.: .cc,ca .1. ]e:nypr y 4aeca (K peioncrpyinnn ioc:oronnn 4aeca Nn-
ercioro) ;; Teicr: Ce:anrnia n crpyirypa. N., 1988. C. b166. C. 6b-66. 3(eci
e o noa:ono: ernnercio: nponcxo(ennn npe(cranennn o :npono: nnne.
2
4par:enri (ocoiparnion (ipo:e rex, ioropie cnennaino oronapnnaircn)
nnrnpyircn no na(anni: J.:+cnfa .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa. acri 1.
Or .nnuecinx reoioc:oronnn (o noanninonennn aro:ncrnin ; Ha(. no(roro-
nn A.B. ee(ena, pe(. H.]. Poancinn. N., 1989.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. b6b.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 80 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 81
on nnepnie noanni n na uero opaaonacn, ne :oer anari :e(nnnncioe
nciyccrno n npannino eunri i(en. Bn(no, uro n .ro: cyuae nnone
]noco]cian nocranonia nonpocon orneuaer necioiio nni:, oee ion-
iperni: n npairnuecin:, aa(aua:, ue: :i npnniin ncrpeuari n co-
crnenno ]noco]cio: na:epennn. lo:ep n O(nccee (17.888b) yno:n-
naer rex, ioro npnramair n (o:, ecn noanniaer n nnx ny(a, neponrnee
ncero .ro crpancrnyimne no ropo(a: pe:ecennnin ((e:nyprn), n cpe(n
nnx ra(areen, nennon, npauen, ne y(nnner, noayn, roiio yno-
:nnanne nornnia (nciycnnia ao(uero), nocioiiy ero npo(yir (n:ecre
c na(enn:n iyanenon n ropmeunnion), noayn, oime orneuaer nan:e-
nonanni pe:eca, ue: y nimenaanannix rpynn pe:ecennnion.
H, re: ne :enee, poi npe(ciaaareen iai pe:ecennon rpynni n
anaun:ocri pnryaon ounmennn, n:n conepmae:ix, nocrenenno noapac-
raer npn nepexo(e or Te:nix neion i lo:eponcio:y :npy, xorn or .roro
nepno(a nourn ne coxpannoci (annix o npairnie rpeuecinx npe(ciaaa-
reen nn rex, iro onpanner ouncrnreinie pnryai, iai, nanpn:ep,
3nn:enn(. To, uro o nnx nanecrno, naxo(nr onpe(eennie coornercrnnn
n :aoaanncion rpa(nnnn. Hciiunreinyi anaun:ocri n .ro: ionrei-
cre npnoperair my:epo-aiia(cine npe(ciaaareinie reicri
1
n ounc-
rnreinie npairnin npancinx :aron. Ce(yer oparnri raie nnn:anne
na aopoacrpnnciyi norpeainyi opn(nocri, ioropan (nn neioropin
ee anaor) ia pacnpocrpanena ye npn Axe:enn(ax y :aron
2
. Kpo:e
roro, aopoacrpnnna:n in rmareino paapaorani opn(i (n ounme-
nnn ncex ce:n :arepnainix coa(annn :eraa, ornn, ae:n, no(i,
ciora, pacrennn n ueoneia, 3aparymrpe npnnncinaoci npone(enne
opn(a ounmennn ncero ynnnepcy:a. Coxpanncn nnci:ennin ncrounni
n cocrane Anecri, nocxo(nmnn i nap]nncio:y nepno(y n no npen:y-
mecrny nocnnmennin aaiony uncrori (ioropin, icrarn, nnncn o(nn:
na ocnonnix cpe(crn opii co ao:) Bn(en(ar (c:. nanp. Bn(en-
(ar, 8, 18, 19)
8
. He nciiueno, uro n:enno anaio:crno c nonce(nenni-
:n ouncrnreini:n npairnia:n npancinx (:n(nncinx) :aron, c re: oco-
i: ornomenne: i .rn: opn(a: n nx crporocri noanono rpeia: npn-
nnri cono :ar (n ooanauennn ncen oacrn npe(ciaaareinix n
ouncrnreinix npairni.
Bnyrpennnn oprannaannn npo]eccnonainix ore(nnennn npauen n
npe(ciaaareen n:ea crpyirypy, :ao ornuaimyicn or raionon (pyrnx
pe:ecennix rpynn. Pe:eco n ananne, ioropi: oa(an i(n, nxo-
(nnmne n pe:ecennyi rpynny, pacnpe(enoci :e(y nce:n uena:n
rpynni n ne :oro ninocnricn aa ee npe(ei, paaramaricn. Bnyrpn pe-
:ecennon rpynni ia(in n:eer cnonx yunreen n ocranner cnonx noc-
e(onareen. 3auacryi .rn pe:ecennie rpynni oprannaonani n coorner-
crnnn c ce:ennon :o(eii. B lpennn nciyccrno npe(ciaaannn io na-
ce(crnenni: n ce:inx Nea:no(n(on n Ha:n(on, euennn Acienna-
(on na Koc
1
, uro raie coornercrnyer n :econora:cion npairnie, a :oer
iri n yxo(nr n nee iopnn:n, coxpannoci napeuenne :econora:cinx
penon: Ny(pin ueonei nayunr .ro:y cnoero cina, on aacrannr ero
npnnecrn inrny
2
. Tor e nopn(oi nepe(aun anannn ocymecrnnercn n
nepnix ]noco]cinx oprannaannnx, nanoee npinn npn:ep op]nio-
nn]aropencian rpa(nnnn. Taian cxe:a coxpannercn n na npornennn nce-
ro nepno(a cymecrnonannn pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn.
Hponn(ni, ornpannnmne ouncrnreinie npairnin, n:en npn:oe
ornomenne i npauenanni, iai npanno, con:eman nn ne paa(enn .rn
cnennainocrn, ncnenn o(nonpe:enno n reo, n oeann (yxa. B ne-
peunn (pennnx uy(ornopnen, ioropie naxo(n: y Kn:enra Aeican(pnn-
cioro, Hop]npnn, A:nnxa, Naicn:a Tnpcioro n (p., e(nnoracno nii-
uair 3nn:enn(a n 3:ne(oia. Kpo:e nnx n nepeunnx ]nrypnpyir 4epe-
in(, Hn]arop n (ae 3opoacrp
8
. Hpn:euareino ro, uro (n cocrannre-
en .rnx nepeunen ne nano, n(er n peui o ncropnuecinx nnax nn
eren(apnix, ]noco]i onn nn npopoin-uy(ornopni. B naneonncann-
nx neioropix pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on n npe(crannreen npe(]no-
co]cion rpa(nnnn ncrpeuaircn cxo(nie .e:enri, ocoenno aa:erno
.ro n nponane(ennnx neonaronnion: oecrnennoe nponcxo(enne re-
pon, nyremecrnne na Bocroi, operenne nicmen :y(pocrn (uepea nocnn-
menne n :ncrepnn n np.), oecrnennoe oriponenne repoi, (ap npopoue-
crna, neoiunie ocronreicrna c:eprn
4
. Hpn:euareino, uro noa(nnn
anrnunan rpa(nnnn npe(ocranner anaunreinie cnn(ereicrna o nann
1
1u:kc:1 1. l:ineran: Diviners and Nagicians: A Neglec:ed Elemen: in Cul:ural
Con:ac:s ;; The Greek Penaissance o :he Eigh: Cen:ury B.C.: Tradi:ion and
lnnova:ion. Proceedings o :he 2
nd
ln:erna:ional Symposium a: :he Swedish lns:i:u:e
in A:hens, 1b June, 1981. S:ockholm, 1988. P. 11b119.
2
1ca,af, l. 140. 3(eci e (l.188140) o no((epannn nepca:n opn(onon
uncrori. O norpeainix opn(ax aopoacrpnnnen n ouncrnreinix npairniax,
nx conpono(anmnx, c:. raie: Acxf.4xsn A.1. Horpeainie opn(i aopoa-
crpnnnen. N., CH., 2001.
8
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr., om. pe(., npn:eu., cnpan.
paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., 1997. C. 9612b.
1
1u:kc:1 1. l:ineran: Diviners and Nagicians: A Neglec:ed Elemen: in Cul:ural
Con:ac:s ;; The Greek Penaissance. C. 118.
2
1u:kc:1 1. l:ineran: Diviners and Nagicians: A Neglec:ed Elemen: in Cul:ural
Con:ac:s ;; The Greek Penaissance. C. 118.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 94.
4
2c.faa. 1.1. Anrnunan rpa(nnnn o nepcn(cinx :arax 3opoacrpe, Ocrane n
lncracne. CH., 199b.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 82 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 88
n (enreinocrn nepcn(cinx :aron 3opoacrpa, Ocrana n lncracna, npn ro:
uy(ecnie ocronreicrna nx nann ciopee coornercrnyir rpeuecin: cran-
(apra: npe(cranennn o uy(ornopnax, ue: co(epar peainie ]airi na
nann. Bn(n:o, ecn nna, o ioropix n(er peui, nce e peaino cyme-
crnonan, a ne nnnircn eren(apni:n, nx opaa nacroiio npnncn n
lpennn n oprannuno nome n anrnunyi rpa(nnni, nn ne iaaacn ue:-ro
uy(i: n nenonnrni:, uro i nnone accn:nnponan n nen.
Hpn opamennn i rpeuecion npe(]noco]cion n pannen ]noco]-
cion rpa(nnnn onapynnaercn onpe(eennan omnocri n cnn(erei-
crnax o nann, (enreinocrn n yuennnx rpeion .roro nepno(a. Hanecrni
uy(ecnie ocronreicrna nocnnmennn n noce(yimen nann 3nn:e-
nn(a (]noren a.prcinn, l, 10911b), ioropin npairniona ounmenne
or ion nopun, iai reecnon, rai n (ymennon
1
. Hn]aropenni, no:n:o
:are:arnuecinx, acrpono:nuecinx n (p. nayunix naiciannn aann:a-
nci :e(nnnnon, neioropie ueni nn]aropencioro coiaa npnna(ea-
n i npo]eccnn npauen, a Kporon i nenrpo: ana:ennron n ro npe:n
:e(nnnncion mioi
2
. Hnrepecni c rouin apennn pacciaaon o uy(ornop-
nax (pennocrn ocronreicrna nann lepainra. Tpy(no (eari iaine-
no nino(i na ocnonannn norpa]nuecinx cne(ennn o lepainre, no-
cioiiy onn nnnircn, neponrnee ncero, noa(nen ioncrpyinnen, ocno-
nannon na rpa(nnnonnix npe(cranennnx o :y(pene, none(enne n opaa
nann ioroporo (oen coornocnricn c ero yuenne:, n ne nciiueno,
uro aaon (n coa(annn neinn o nann lepainra nocynn ]par-
:enri ero yuennn
8
. O(naio n yuennn lepainra ecri necioiio ]par:en-
ron, ioropie noanonir npnuncnri ero i rpa(nnnn npe(ciaaareen n
ouncrnreinix npairni. Ho ncen nn(n:ocrn, lepainr n:e cnon npe(-
cranennn o oeannx n cnocoax nx euennn, or uero n y:ep, iai rono-
pnr ero norpa]i. lepainr ronopnr o npauax, uro onn peyr, ryr,
ncnio :yuair ao oinix, (a eme rpeyir nari, xorn npnunnnir ro
e (opo, uro n oeann (46 Nch). Y nero cocrnennoe nerarnnnoe
ornomenne i ouncrnreini: npairnia: crpancrnyimnx penonnpe(-
ciaaareen, ioropie n ro npe:n mnpoio npairnionan ounmennn iponii
npnnecennix n eprny nnornix .ro ecc:icenno c rouin apennn
lepainra: iponii ounmaircn iponii ocinepnennie, iai ecn i iro, n
rpnai non(n, rpnaii i or:inacn (86 Nch)
4
. Kpo:e roro, n niciaaina-
nnn lepainra oimnncrno onpaercn iai ciori (9b Nch) :ono
yc:orperi n iaio:-ro c:ice aciernuecioe ornomenne i nnme. Tor e
:ornn :i ncrpeuae:, nanpn:ep, n onncannn nann 3nn:enn(a, ioropin
noyun or Hn:] neiyi e(y n xpann ee n ionire iia, n ipo:e nee
nnior(a ne nn(en, uroi on e (]noren a.prcinn,1, 114), nn Aa-
pnca, ioropin nnuero ne e (lepo(or, 4.86) nn nniro nnior(a ne
nn(e, uroi on uro-no e nn nn
1
. B (nyx noce(nnx cyuanx oriaa
or nnmn nnni: opaao: cnnaan c oecrnenni: nponcxo(enne: nn
oecrnennon npnpo(on uy(ornopna. Kai iaercn, :ono n o(nn pn( c
nn:n nocrannri n lepainra, re: oee uro xopomo nanecren npo]ern-
uecinn ron ero niciaainannn n ero nciiunreinoe ornomenne i co-
crnennon nepcone no cpannenni c corpa(ana:n. Ho(pono :i pacc:or-
pn: .ror nonpoc n coornercrnyimen rane.
Hoayn, noce(nn: n uepe(e npe(ciaaareen-]noco]on i 3:-
ne(oi. Hanecrno, uro on nnca rpare(nn, i npauo:, ncnen oi-
nyi, npnanannyi npaua:n eana(enon (]noren a.prcinn, Vlll, 69),
npopnnaree:, io(ona (no ipannen :epe, ca: .ro yrnep(a (B 111
DK)), n, paay:eercn, n:e cocrnennie ]noco]cine noaapennn.
Ouenn(no, uro c 3:ne(oio: npe(ciaaareinie n ouncrnreinie
npairnin ne npeipamair cnoero cymecrnonannn, onn in mnpoio pac-
npocrpaneni eme no npe:ena Harona, no ]noco]nn i ro:y npe:enn
ni(enercn na .ron rpa(nnnn n operaer ca:ocronreinoe cymecrnona-
nne, cranonnrcn yaiocnennananponanni: ananne:, cyamn: pannona-
ncrnuecio:y noananni :npa n npnoperenni :y(pocrn, n:enno n .ror
nepno( nponcxo(nr oionuareinoe paa(eenne nayunoro anannn n roro,
ioropoe na: ciopee xoreoci i oxapairepnaonari iai oiiyirnoe.
Tenepi nepne:cn i no(pono:y pacc:orpenni narn(on 3nn:enn-
(a. Ni ciaaan, uro on npnna(ea i uepe(e nponn(nen n ocymecrnn
paanoro po(a ounmennn. Cunraercn, uro on counnn no.:y (rn:n) Po-
(oconne iyperon n iopnanron, a ipnrnne naainan ero Kypero: n
npnnocnn e:y eprni iai ory (]noren a.prcinn, 1.114), raie Hy-
rapx yno:nnaer, uro conpe:ennnin naainan 3nn:enn(a noni: Kype-
ro: (Hyrapx, Coon, 12, 8 A 2 DK). 3nn:enn(y npnnncinaercn coa(a-
nne o(non na nepcnn ana:ennroro n :are:arnie napa(oica ena na
ocnonannn ero yrnep(ennn Kpnrnne ncer(a eni n Opaiyax (8 B
1 DK). B cnoe: ana:ennro: cne (nnon n nnri(ecnr ce:i er (]noren
a.prcinn, 1.109) on ncrpeuacn c ora:n, n ro: unce c Hcrnnon
(Aq0ro) n Hpan(on (^xq) (8 B 1 DK, Naicn: Tnpcinn, 10), r.e.
(ny:n na rpex ornni Hap:enn(a, npnne(mnx ero na nyri noanannn Hcrn-
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. 8.7, C. 76.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 16, 1u:kc:1 1. Lore and
Science in Ancien: Py:hagoreanism. Cambridge, 1972. C. 298-294.
8
1cccx,x J.A., 1an,.c.k. 1.1. lepainr n ]pennnn Bocroi (ipnrnuecine aa:er-
in) ;; Hayunie (oia(i nicmen mioi. 4noco]cine nayin. 1981. N b. N.,
1981. C. 94100. C. 98.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 240.
1
Aapnc 10
b
Ab (X+a.x. O nn]aropencion nann, 140). J.:+cnfa pannnx
rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 97.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 84 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 8b
ni
1
. Kcrarn ciaaari, :ornn nyreneponrnee ncero noipira rarynponion)
uacro pacnennnaercn iai yiaaanne na ero npnuacrnocri ma:anna:y
2
n,
re: ca:i:, :aoaanncin: iyira:. Ho:n:o npouero, 3nn:enn( yno:nna-
ercn iai o(nn na ce:n :y(penon.
To, uro na: nanecrno o reoioc:oronnn 3nn:enn(a, yia(inaercn
yinaino n (na cnn(ereicrna. ]a:acinn coomaer ce(yimee: 3nn-
:enn( npnnn (na nauaa: A.p n Houi. Or nnx po(ncn Taprap,
(y:ai rperie nauao, iai neioe c:emannoe na (nyx |nepnix] n nponao-
me(mee or nx cnnnnn, or nnx (na Tnrana. or conoiynennn ioro-
pix :e(y coon po(noci nnno. na ioroporo, n cnoi ouepe(i, noanni-
o nonoe noioenne (8 B b DK). ]pyroe cnn(ereicrno n iaion-ro :epe
(ynpyer nepnoe, no cyrn nnnnci ce(yimn: aneno: n reoioc:oronn-
uecion noce(onareinocrn, nauao: ce(yimero noioennn: A 3nn-
:enn( n ne c nn: naopaann ]nociypon :yunnon n enmnnon, na-
anan ero Beio: (ov) iai e(nnnny, a ee Hpnpo(on (uo) iai (no-
nny, nocioiiy na e(nnnni n (nonni nponaomo ncnioe nnopo(nmee n
(ymernopnmee nauao (Hoann n(nncinn, 8 B 26 DK). To, uro na :n-
]oornuecio: yponne nipaeno iai e(nncrno ]nociypon iai (nyx noo-
nnnoi :nponoro nnna
8
, a(eci, ecn orpocnri noa(nne nn]aropencine
ionnorannn, aa(aercn nni: c:iconi: coornomenne: uo iai
nopo(aimero nauaa n ov iai no((epnnaimero nn coxpannimero
n nopo(enno: nanennyi cny, uro no(uepinnaer nx e(nncrno. Ho n
raio: cyuae y nac noanniaer aarpy(nenne c re:, iai n (anno: cyuae
nonn:ari ov, nepene(ennin oceni: n ee(eni: iai Bei, nocioi-
iy na ionreicra nn(no, uro peui ciopee n(er o nanennon cne, ue: o
neie iai npo(onreinocrn nann. Boome npe(cranennn o anc
iai neie nn npocro (nreino: npe:enno: npo:eyrie c]op:npyircn
roiio n iaccnuecinn nepno( n ye y Harona :i ncrpeuae: eme o(no
anauenne neunocrn
1
. B .noxy e apxanin an ycronunno coxpanner
anauenne, naioe nn acconnarnnno cnnaannoe co cono: (yma (uq ).
H:eercn necioiio nn(on (ymn, uacri na nnx nponnner cen ]nanuec-
in, a n:enno prvo ((ixanne(yma) n 0uo (iponi(yma), n rperin,
cocrnenno uq nn ov. Cymecrnyer pn( ro:eponcinx naccaen,
ioropie (air nonn:anne cona an ne iai nanennoro cpoia, no cio-
pee iai iaionro reecnon n(iocrn, c ioropon, ecn ona noin(aer
reo ueoneia, repnercn n nani, raioe npe(cranenne o neion nani
n(iocrn nocrenenno npe(noaraer nepexo( i anauenni nani, co-
(epamancn n n(iocrn
2
. Hoanon: nponnrnponari cee nacca na
innrn P. Onnanca (npe(onnmero rpaironiy cona ov iai reecnon
n(iocrn), cnennaino nocnnmennin .ro:y nonpocy: Hepnonauainoe
anauenne n(iocri (n an no(rnep(aercn re: ocronreicrno:, uro
an ne noin(aer reo npn o:opoie n ne yxo(nr n An(. On nireiaer co
ceaa:n. 3nauenne cnnnnon :oar cunraoci noa(nenmn: n nponano(-
ni:, o(naio rpy(no nonepnri, uroi .ro anauenne nn anauenne n(-
iocri noome :oro nponaonrn na npe(noaranmerocn nepnnunoro ana-
uennn nepno( cymecrnonannn. Kai :i nn(en, no(onoe anauenne ne
no(rnep(aercn nanoee pannn:n (anni:n. C (pyron croponi, nerpy(-
no npe(crannri iain: opaao: cono, ooanauaimee nanennyi n(-
iocri, nocrenenno crao ooanauari co(epamyicn n .ron n(iocrn
nani, a re: ca:i: n nani, orpannuennyi no npe:enn, nanennin
cpoi
8
. Te: ca:i:, y nac ne(ocrarouno iai cnn(ereicrn, rai n ocnona-
nnn (n roro, uroi cunrari, uro n 3nn:enn( :or npn(anari cony an
anauenne neunocrn nn neia, a noa(nnn ionreicr, n ioropo: .ro cono
ncrpeuaercn, rainx ocnonannn ne (oanner.
4par:enri no.:i 3nn:enn(a co(epar neioropie c:iconie ne-
peceuennn co anaunreino oee noa(nn:n op]nuecin:n reicra:n
Teoronnen Heponn:a n leannia n Panco(nuecion Teoronnen, n
ioropix, no:n:o naneunoro :n]a n npe(cranennn o :npono: nnne,
ye cymecrnenno paannra re:a npe:enn.
Kro cipinaercn aa n:ena:n Heponn: n leanni nenanecrno, iai
nenanecrno n anropcrno, n (ara coa(annn Panco(nuecion reoronnn, co-
ornocn:on c rai naainae:i:n Cnnmenni:n ciaaannn:n (1:c:a: 1aa:).
A.4. ocen npe(araer (ocrarouno pannii (arnponiy coa(annn .rnx rei-
1
Yiaaanne na ro, uro 3nn:enn( cunra ora:n Harocri ( Ypp) n Leccri(crno
(Avoro) n noa(nnr n: arapn n A]nnax (1.x+cnf .ckc.n,xxckxx, 8 A7
DK) n:ecre c npornnonocranenne: nx Hcrnne n Hpan(e :i :orn i conocra-
nnri c npancion (yancrnuecion cncre:on, ecn i .ro ne nirn(eo cnmio:
rooconno n nciyccrnenno nnn(y orcyrcrnnn oee pannnx n (ocronepnix cnn-
(ereicrn, ue: n:eimnecn.
2
3ron ionnennnn n uacrnocrn npn(epnnaercn 3.P. ]o((c (a,,c .1. lpein n
nppannonainoe. Hep., io::. n yiaaarei C.B. Haxo:ona. CH., 2000). C ero
rouin apennn, ionnennnn ornomennn :e(y reo: n (ymon, niiuaimnn :ornn
(ororo cna, nyremecrnnn no cne, (oroe orcyrcrnne n r.n., ioropie paannnan,
nanpn:ep, Op]en (ornunin or op]na:a), 3nn:enn(, 3:ne(oi, nnnircn neio-
ropon ]op:on rpeuecioro ma:anna:a, ioropin nponni ci(a na 4painn.
8
A.4.ocen rai n io::enrnpyer .ror ]par:enr: ]nociypi ryr nnuro nnoe, iai
(ne noonnni Nnponoro nnna, 3on n 4icnc (cp. Orph. rg. 9b: H cannie
nponane(ennn Hpnpo(i, n nena:epn:an neunocri...) (.acca .J. Teoronnn n
ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N., 1996. C. 87b).
1
1..fan.Tn:en, 87d.
2
Cnx.nc 1. Ha ioennx oron. Hcroin enponencion :icn o (yme, paay:e, ree,
npe:enn, :npe n cy(ie. N., 1999. C. 206211.
8
Cnx.nc 1. Ha ioennx oron. N., 1999. C. 211.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 86 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 87
cron, oro(ecrnnn npn .ro: leannia c ororpa]o: V n. (o n..., a
1:c:a: 1aa:, na ero narn(, nocxo(nr i (onoino ryoion crapnne, no
ncnio: cyuae, ne noae ue: VlV nn. (o n...
1
. Apry:enrannn .ron noan-
nnn, c namen rouin apennn, necioiio nenoce(onareina, n uacrnocrn,
yiaaanne na ro, uro ]air nnrnponannn reicra ecuncennoe unco paa
neonaronnia:n cnn:aercn co(epanne: n ne: ce(on (pennen no.ann,
nn ro, uro lepo(or anaer o op]nuecinx 1:c:a: 1aa:, nocioiiy yno:n-
naer neioe Casucnnac ck...nxc. B (anno: cyuae, na: oee ocnonarei-
non n coraconannon c ncropnuecin:n ]aira:n npe(crannercn noannnn,
i ioropon cionnercn N.L. Wes: n ror n (pyron reicr noanni ne panee
noa(ne-.nnncrnuecioro nepno(a, oi. 200100 rr. (o n...
2
Hpe(cranennn o nnne ncrpeuaircn no :enimen :epe n (nyx yia-
aannix reoronnnx n cnnaani c re:n ocnonni:n ciera:n, ioropie :i
or:ernn n no.:e 3nn:enn(a. Hanpn:ep, n Teoronnn Heponn:a n
leannia, npairnuecin no ncex ]par:enrax, naaraercn ce(yiman
cxe:a: Xponoc nn Xaoc nopo(aer Anno, na ioroporo po(aercn (n-
a(a :ycioro n encioro, naainae:an nnaue neinn (nonnon nn(,
nn an(pornn
8
. B Panco(nuecion reoronnn na Anna po(aercn neioe
oecrno 4aner (Bn(n:in nn Cnnimnn), o ioropo: no npn:o coo-
maercn, uro on :yunna n enmnna n:ecre (4bm, n), no .ro ce(y-
er na iainx-no iocnennix aa:euannn, nanpn:ep, o ero uerneporaaoc-
rn n uerneponiocrn (4b, g n (p.). B (anno: cyuae n opaae 4anera :i
naxo(n: npe(cranennn o aooro: coneuno: nnne, n o (nyx noonnniax
nnna, npe(cranennix n (anno: cyuae opaao: an(pornna.
B npancion rpa(nnnn, n reicrax cnn(ereicrna, coornocn:ie c :n-
]o: o :npono: nnne, (ocrarouno pe(in n ciyni, no, re: ne :enee,
nnone :oryr iri coorneceni c (pennerpeuecin:n ionnennnn:n. Han-
oee pannn: cnn(ereicrno: (ecn roiio :i npnanae:, uro reicri
neioropix Amron nnnircn xponoornuecin oee pannn:n, ue: nex-
ennncine reicri) nnnercn Amr 18 (4panap(nn-nmr), r(e Axypa
Naa(a cpannnnaercn c nrnnen, cn(nmen na nnnax, a neo onncinaercn
iai ciopyna nnna. Hponnrnpye: ]par:enr:
X /,.+..,./ a,,cxa.k, a J..f,uf.,
fa nca, kafaac n.ac,,
Cxskucc x .xcf.kucc,
1afaac f, .c+.k
Ca acc cfaan ak,.cf,
1a,ana fxuc sxua,...
... /nca/ c +cf...x4cckx+ fc.a+ .ck..cnna+
... 1afaac A..,. nacxf k.k a,c,,...
1
.
B (anno: cyuae :i nai(ae: conocranenne ioc:oca-:nponoro
nnna ne c conne:-aooro: .ror opaa npnna(enr n npancion rpa-
(nnnn Nnrpe, Axypa:aa(e, noayn, roiio npn Axe:enn(ax npnnnci-
naaci neioropan conpnan cn:nonia, no n ra, neponrnee ncero, nocxo-
(nr, no ncnio: cyuae, .ro nn(no na nionorpa]nn, i accnpnncion rpa(n-
nnn. 3(eci ooouia nnna .ro ooouia nea, cner e (iai n earpannu-
nin cner Op:aa(a), ioropin ona nayuaer, conocrann: ciopee c cnnnn-
e: pacnanennoro :eraa.
Bce ocrainie cnn(ereicrna npnna(ear ye nexennncin: co-
unnennn: lX n. (o n..., n onn co(epar ncnie yiaaannn na ro, uro ae:n
c]epnuecion ]op:i, neo noipyr nee pannoy(aeno no ncex rouiax. B
Nenor-n Xpar nepcnn :n]a o paannrnn nceennon na :nponoro nnna
raiona: Heo, ae:n, no(a n nce ocrainoe, uro naxo(nrcn nnyrpn ona-
a, nano:nnaer nrnuie nnno. Heo n na(enn rnopna Op:aa(a ycrpoeno
nano(one nnna, n ae:n naxo(nrcn nocepe(nne nea no(ono ro:y, iai
eroi nocepe(nne nnna
2
. Ce(yimne cnn(ereicrna naxo(n: n rei-
crax .roro e nepno(a, npnna(eamnx parin: Nanymunxpy n 3a(cn-
pa:y, onn oa oroconi, nepxonnie peni paanunix oacren Hpana,
oa, cy(n no nce:y, onnpanci na anecrnncine ncrounnin, na ioropix n
ocnoninan cnoe yuenne n io::enrapnn. Hpn .ro: nx :nponoaapenuec-
ine noannnn cymecrnenno pacxo(nnci: 3a(cnpa: rnrore i aypnanna:y,
ero par, Nanymunxp, i npe(crannree: opro(oicainon aopoacr-
pnncion cncre:i, ioropyi onnca n cnoe: ranno: rpy(e D:as:n i
D[nk (Penrnoanie nop:i)
8
. Ta: e (D:as:n i D[nk, 90) ncrpe-
1
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 720. Hpn naoennn co(epannn .rnx reoioc:oronnn :i y(e: noiao-
naricn nyniannen ocena, nocioiiy .ro (ocrarouno nonoe n io::enrnpo-
nannoe na(anne na pyccio: naiie ]par:enron yiaaannix reoioc:oronn.
2
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 69, 264 (co cciion na
oc/.u/ 1., 19b8).
8
Teicr reoioc:oronnn nnrnpyercn no: .acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;;
Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N., 1996. C:. raie cxe:arnuecioe naoenne
panco(nuecinx reicron: 1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 70-7b.
Hpn naoennn co(epannn .rnx reoioc:oronnn :i y(e: noiaonaricn nyn-
iannen ocena, nocioiiy .ro (ocrarouno nonoe n io::enrnponannoe na(anne
na pyccio: naiie ]par:enron yiaaannix reoioc:oronn.
1
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr., om. pe(., npn:eu., cnpan.
paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., 1997. C. 828.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 110.
8
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. N.Y., 1961. P. 194, 1axc
A. 3opoacrpnnni: neponannn n oiuan. CH., 1994. C. 182188.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 88 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 89
uae: npe(cranenne o ro:, uro neo c]epnuecioe, mnpoioe n nicoioe,
n ero nnyrpennnn uacri, n npe(eax ioropon pacnooena nama ae:n,
o(nnaiono npocrnpaercn na pannoe paccronnne, no(ono nnny. 3ra e
]op:a ]op:a nnna, ,.-c[: ncnoiayercn raie 3arcnpa:o: n
Vizidagiha-i Za:spram (Hapannoe 3a(cnpa:o:), 84.20: ycranonn ae:i
n cepe(nne nea raion, uro nniaian uacri ero ne ia ne (pyron,
no(ono eriy nnna n ornomennn ero nenrpa
1
. Ta e n(en ncrpeuaer-
cn n Bundahin, roiio ye ea opamennn i opaay nnna: neo a(eci
raie c]epnuecioe, ero mnpnna pannnercn ero (nne, ornomenne (nni
i ero nicore n nicori i rynne raie conepmenno panni (Ch. l, 48)
2
.
Bn(no, uro npe(cranennn o ioc:oce iai n:eime: ]op:y nnna n
noome coornocn:i: c nnno:, nonnnircn n npancinx reicrax (ocra-
rouno noa(no. C o(non croponi, nn(n:o, ciaainaercn ne(ocraroi ncrou-
nnion apxanuecioro n (pennero nepno(a npancion ncropnn. C (pyron
croponi, ce(yer oparnri nnn:anne na ror ]air, uro anropon n nepnyi
ouepe(i nnrepecyer npanninocri ynnnepcy:a, ero c]epnunocri iai pan-
no:epnocri n pannoy(aennocri nnemnnx rouei nea-ioc:oca (pyr or
(pyra, a opaa nnna nnnercn ciopee ncno:orareinon nicrpannen,
noanonimen narn(no npe(crannri ro, o ue: n(er peui. Taian ionnen-
nnn nenoino noanpamaer nac i re: n(en:, ioropie nononan panner-
peuecinx ]noco]on. Hanpn:ep, Hap:enn(, 3:ne(oi onncinan ynn-
nepcy: n:enno iai c]epnuecinn, conepmennin, ne onnpanci npn .ro:
na :n]oornuecine nocrpoennn, a apry:enrnpyn n (oiaainan cnon noo-
ennn. B neo:, no-nn(n:o:y, ne conce: nepno onennnari re ]noco]-
cine ioncrpyinnn pannerpeuecinx ]noco]on, r(e ynnnepcy: :icnrcn
mapoopaano, iai nocxo(nmne i :n]y o ioc:nuecio: nnne. Cymecrnyer
neci:a ionirnin npn:ep, nicrpnpyimnn narn(i 3:ne(oia na
.ror cuer. 3ro cnn(ereicrno, xorn n ne niiuennoe l. ]nico: n unco
]par:enron, (n nac npe(cranner onpe(eennin nnrepec, Ancnxs x-
.acaaa (Croen), ll, 81, 4: Ho 3:ne(oiy, na:epenne nea n mnpnny
oime, ue: nicora or 3e:n (o nea, r.e. nnnn aennra, n .ro: na:e-
pennn neo oime paa(aoci nmnpi, rai iai ioc:oc noxo na eamee
nnno (Bollack, 810, A b0 DK). Lapoopaani: n yuennn 3:ne(oia
nnnercn roiio n(eainoe, eciauecrnennoe cocronnne ynnnepcy:a
(C]anpoc) n .noxy ranencrna inn, n ]op:e nnna :icnrcn ioc:oc,
ioropin opaayercn, ior(a Bpa(a naunnaer o(epnnari nepx n ni(e-
nircn iauecrna. Te: ca:i:, nn(no, uro n op]nuecion rpa(nnnn :npo-
noe nnno .ro aaonan ioncrpyinnn, a(eci e, panno iai n n nexennn-
cinx reicrax, :n]y orno(nrcn ncno:orareinan n no(unnennan poi n
pannonancrnuecio: oc:icennn (encrnnreinocrn. Bn(no re: ca:i:,
uro nce, uro :i ncrpeuae: n rpeuecio: :n]e o :npono: nnne, nnone
coornercrnyer iai nn(oenponencin: :ornna: (annoro :n]a, rai n :orn-
na: :n]oornn napo(on :npa n neci:a rpy(no ronopnri o iaio:-no
aan:crnonannn, n ro: unce n ernnercio:, xorn .ron rpa(nnnn :i ioc-
nynci ncioiai n ciopee (n nicrparnnnocrn.
ro iacaercn npe(cranennn o nanenax nn an(pornnax n npanc-
ion rpa(nnnn, ro onn rnnoornuecin, no-nn(n:o:y, roe :oryr iri
cnnaani c :n]o: o :npono: nnne iai naneni(ne noonnnin nnna (i
coaenni, (annix na .ror cuer y nac ner), n, ipo:e roro, .rn :ornni
n:eir oee (erainie napaen c npnne(enni:n nime rpeuecin:n
reoronnuecin:n reicra:n. ]n cocrnenno npancion cpe(i or:euaercn
nounranne napnix oecrn c recni: ore(nnenne: :ycioro n enc-
ioro naua, a or n ornnn naainaircn n:ene: or o(noro iopnn (nanpn-
:ep, Kyn(n n Kyn(a n (p.). Cymecrnonan npancine iyiri an(pornnnix
oecrn, n neioropix na nnx Axypa:aa(a iain:-ro opaao: :or iri
coornecen c Kyn(a
1
. B npancion nnci:ennon rpa(nnnn coxpannnci or-
roocin naneunix :n]on, n ioropix naneni paanonoie n cocran-
nir nepnyi ueoneueciyi napy, iai, nanpn:ep, Hn:a n Hn:ai. ]pyran
napa, onncannan n Lyn(axnmne n (pyrnx reicrax, npapo(nren ue-
oneuecrna raie nn(nrcn e(nni: an(pornnni: cymecrno:: Namna
n Namnane... nipocn |na ae:n] rain: opaao:, uro nx pyin ocrana-
nci na neuax (pyr y (pyra, n o(nn coe(nnncn c (pyrn:, n onn cran
o(nn: reo: n c o(non nnemnocrii. Tann nx cpocnci... n ne io
ncno, iro na nnx :yunna, a iro enmnna
2
. B (anno: cyuae npan-
cian rpa(nnnn npe(araer oee paanoopaanin :arepna, ue: rpeuec-
ian rpa(nnnn, no y nac ne (ono ocranaricn co:nennn, uro .ror :are-
pna rnnoornuecin nocxo(nr i nn(oenponencin: :n]a: n nciari n .rnx
npe(cranennnx ce(i nnnnnn o(non rpa(nnnn na (pyryi ne iaercn
na: npannini:.
ro iacaercn npe(cranennn o npe:enn, ro n noa(nnx op]nuecinx
reicrax onn aann:air iiuenoe nooenne. B Teoronnn lneponn:a n
leannia n Panco(nuecion reoronnn, a raie n neioropix necioi-
io panee coa(annix op]nuecinx reicrax nocronnno nonropnercn :ici,
ioropyi :ono nipaanri n ce(yimnx conax: cymecrnyer e(nnoe na-
1
Wes: E.W. Sacred Books o Eas:. Pahlavi :ex:s, (par: 8), 188b.
2
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdens ;; Journal
Asia:ique. Avril-juin, 1929. P. 198810. P. 228.
1
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N., 1998. C. 81.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc fckcfa. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 284.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 90 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 91
uao Bcero, ioropoe Op]en nocnenaer iai Xponoc (nocioiiy on
:epno :n]nuecioro nponcxo(ennn oron) (44h, o:n/. Phis.)
1
.
H:enno Xponoc oro(ecrnnercn y op]nion co npe:ene:. Corac-
no apxanuecin: npe(cranennn: rpeion, ae:i ononcina neinn nep-
nnunin noroi n nn(e a:en Oiean (.rn:oornuecin cono nocxo(nr i
ce:nrcio:y naiiy n oanauaer ononcinaimnn), nnor(a .ror noroi na-
ainan Xponoco:, on nenccniae: n nopo(aer cen ca:oro
2
. B pannnx
reoronnuecinx nponane(ennnx ]nrypnpyer Kponoc, no rpy(no ciaaari,
ior(a Kponoc i oro(ecrnen c Xponoco:, no ncnio: cyuae, i no-
a(ne-.nnncrnuecio:y nepno(y .ro ye nponaomo n namo orpaenne
n op]nuecinx reicrax, a noa:ono n io c(eano n ca:on op]nuecion
rpa(nnnn. Xponoc iai npe:n .ro npe:n reoronnn, a yume ciaaari,
npe:n nceennon: n .ro: npe:enn :np noanniaer, c:ennircn noioennn
oron, i(en n r.n., n n .ro: c:ice :i :orn i onncari ero iai ecio-
neunoe npe:n, neunocri. Hapaeino paannnaercn eme o(na ionnennnn
npe:enn y ia(on noannimen nemn n :npe (a neponrno, n y ca:oro
:npa, ynnnepcy:a) ecri crporo orne(ennin en nanennin cpoi an
(:i no:nn:, uro 3nn:enn(, nec:orpn na niiuenne neioropix acneiron
ero yuennn n op]nuecinn nni, ne ynorpen cona Aanac). B iaccn-
uecinn nepno(, neponrno, n ]noco]nn Harona, nponcxo(nr nnnepcnn
nonnrnn an naunnaer nonn:aricn iai neunocri, a anac cranonnrcn
na:enenne: or unca i uncy n npe(eax neunocrn (iai, nanpn:ep,
na:enenne (nn n noun, npe:en ro(a n r.n.), npe:ene: :npa cranonennn
n noanninonennn
8
. Ho(onie narn(i noannin, paay:eercn, ne cpaay,
nyrn ]op:nponannn .rnx narn(on npocennaircn n pannen rpeuecion
]noco]nn, ocoenno n yuennnx lepainra n 3:ne(oia.
3(eci :i cnona noanpamae:cn i nonpocy o ro:, :ono n nonn:ari
an 3nn:enn(a iai ac+s nime :i or:ernn, uro npe(nournreinee
nn(eri n ne: nanennyi cny, nanennin cpoi. Ecn e :i c:oe:
npnanari, uro ye n ionnennnn 3nn:enn(a an .ro npe:n, npnue:, n (yxe
Harona, neunoe npe:n, ror(a n ero niciaainanne o (nyx nauaax o v
n u o iai nnopo(nme: n (ymernopnme: erio nnrepnpernpo-
nari iai rponioe coornomenne neunoro npe:enn, npe:enn cornopen-
nix nemen n npocrpancrna. Ecn peui n(er o npnpo(e, onncanne noce-
(nen ncer(a npe(noaraer npocrpancrnennie xapairepncrnin, neuro
aann:aer :ecro n npnpo(e nn ca:a npnpo(a ecri :ecro (n nemen, npn
.ro: n aanncn:ocrn or roro nn nnoro ]noco]a en e y(er npnnncano
no neunoe cymecrnonanne, no ona y(er pacc:arpnnaricn iai :np
cranonennn n ynnuroennn, a npnpo(a npe:enn .roro :npa, paay:eercn,
ioneuna. H:enno no .rn: napa:erpa: :ono coornecrn narn(i 3nn:e-
nn(a n raion rpaironie c npancion rpa(nnnen. B npe(i(ymen rane :i
or:euan, uro npancian rpa(nnnn npnanaer (nonioe nonn:anne npe:enn:
]nanuecioe npocrpancrno :npa npnna(enr 3ypnany (apraxna(ara (zrvan
darekhhvadhta, ,ka. (ornn-ca:operynpyimnncn, ca:oynpannimnn-
cn, npnpo(nin), r.e. ioneuno:y orpeaiy npe:enn, ioropin niiuen n
3ypnan aiapana (zrvn akarana) earpannunoe npe:n. Kor(a ncropnuecin
noannin raine npe(cranennn, ciaaari rpy(no. Bnepnie .rn narn(i :i
ncrpeuae: n Acne, 72.10, n ca:oe pannee, ior(a :i :oe: (arnponari
ee coa(anne (ne io(n]nianni'), .ro lll n. (o n... B coxpannnmnxcn cnn(e-
reicrnax rpeuecine anropi (En(e:, Hyrapx) coomair o cymecrnona-
nnn npe(cranennn o npe:enn, no ne paanuair (na yiaaannix acneira.
Ecn noa:ono npnananne nanunn n yuennn 3nn:enn(a narn(a o neu-
no: n nepconaino: npe:enn, ro ror(a ouenn(no, uro npe(cranennn o
ioneuno: n ecioneuno: npe:enn aacnn(ereicrnonani n lpennn n Vl
V nn., ro ecri cymecrnenno panime, ue: n npancion rpa(nnnn.
B:ecre c re:, nano or:ernri, uro n npancion rpa(nnnn cymecrny-
er npe(cranenne o ioneuno: npe:enno: npo:eyrie, ioropin orrpann-
unnaercn n npe(eax ecioneunoro nnennoro npe:enn, on n:eer nauao n
.ro: earpannuno: npe:enn, n .ro nauao conna(aer c rouion rnopennn n
nauao: ]nanuecioro :npa, ionen .roro npe:ennoro orpeaia nnnercn
ionno: rnapnoro :npa, ionno: :nponon ncropnn. Te: ca:i:, n ornune
or npe(cranennn o :n]oornuecio: npe:enn, r(e rouia ionna ncropnn
ncer(a conna(aer c nauainon rouion n coornocnrcn c nonoro(nn: pnrya-
o:, npancine npe(cranennn o npe:enn n:eir uerioe .cxaroornuecioe
co(epanne, n cny uero ne coornocn:i c xapairepni: (n :n]ono.rn-
uecioro :nponoaapennn nninuecin: nonn:anne: npe:enn
1
. Hrai, npanc-
iyi rpa(nnni xapairepnayer .cxaroornuecioe npe(cranenne o npe:enn
iai o nnenno: (ne nninuecio:) ecioneuno: npe:enn, nnyrpn ioroporo
orrpannuen ioneunin npe:ennon npo:eyroi, c ncreuenne: ioroporo ]n-
anuecinn :np no(neprnercn rnen. ro iacaercn conocranennn npe(]n-
oco]cinx ionnennnn npe:enn c npancion rpa(nnnen, ro, na nam narn(,
1
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 728.
2
Cnx.nc 1. Ha ioennx oron. N., 1999. C. 24b2b1.
8
1..fan.Tn:en, 87d88a.
1
ro iacaercn lar 3aparymrpi (iai ca:ix pannnx nnci:ennix cnn(ereicrn
o npancion rpa(nnnn), ro n nnx :i naxo(n: nmi re n(en, ioropi: roiio
npe(cronr paannricn n .cxaroornuecii ionnennni (nanpn:ep, nepexo( uepea
:ocr nnnar noce c:eprn, op(ann pacnanenni: :erao:). B pannen rpe-
uecion :n]oornuecion rpa(nnnn neioropyi .cxaroornueciyi narpyennocri
necer n cee npe(cranenne o c:ene ueripex neion y lecno(a, no nninunocri n
nonropne:ocri coirnn nmaer .cxaroorni c:ica.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 92 1.nckxc ....c.x a ax.+c, :c4cckx fca:anxs... 98
1
cc+.n X. Ernner: reoornn n arouecrne pannen nnnnnaannn. N., 1999.
C. 118128.
nn nonci aan:crnonannn, nn ca:o npone(enne conocranennn ne y(er
ioppeirni:. To, uro :i anae: or En(e:a, yiaainaer na (ocrarouno mnpo-
ioe pacnpocrpanenne y nepcon npe(cranennn o faacc nn anacc, no
.rn npe(cranennn cran nanecrni rpeia: n lll n (o n... Kain:n n:enno
in npe(cranennn o npe:enn y npannen, ecn :i orpocn: noa(nnn,
nexennncinn reoornuecinn ionreicr, na: ne nanecrno. Ni nn(en, na-
cioiio ca:n rpein airnnno paannnan npe(cranennn o npe:enn n na-
cioiio nno onn nnrepeconanci .rn:n n(en:n n npancion rpa(nnnn, no
.ro cnpane(nno roiio (n nepno(a noa(nen iaccnin n noce(yimnx
neion. Nono or:ernri napaen :e(y .rn:n (ny:n rpa(nnnn:n, ne
aainan npn .ro:, uro yiaaannie napaen y(yr (ocrarouno yconni,
nocioiiy re npe(cranennn o npe:enn, ioropie conocrann:i, noanniair
ropaa(o noa(nee nnrepecyimen nac .noxn. Ni ncxo(n: na roro, uro nonn-
rne neunocrn iai ecioneunoro nenninuecioro npe:enn ne :oer iri
c]op:ynponano n npe(eax apxanuecinx :n]oornn iai paaomennoro
copannn :n]oornuecinx pacciaaon, onepnpyimnx :n]nuecin: npe:e-
ne:, n nonnnercn roiio n nepno( ]op:nponannn :onorencrnuecinx, a
n:ecre c nn:n n .cxaroornuecinx npe(cranennn, ioropie niiuair
nonnrne ioneunoro nnennoro nenninuecioro npe:enn.
Hpnne(e: roiio o(nn npn:ep (n roro, uroi noiaaari, noue:y
co:nnreino cunrari, uro or:euennie nime npe(cranennn o npe:enn
:orn c]op:nponaricn n apxanuecion iyirype. Apxanuecine iyirypi,
n iai nanoee ipacnopeunnin npn:ep ernnercian, ne anair nepco-
nn]nnnponannoro npe:enn, (n nnx nonnrne npe:enn ncuepninaercn
ro(oni: nnio: n oecrno: pacrnreinocrn, ioropoe ero penpeaenrn-
pyer. Ernnercian ioc:oornuecian :ici ia cocpe(orouena na ipy-
ronpamennn Conna, uro orpaanoci n na nocnpnnrnn npe:enn. Honnrne
npocrpancrno iai nepnnunan iareropnn ioc:nuecioro ynnnepcy:a n
nen orcyrcrnyer, a npe:n onpe(enercn uepea (noncrnennie nonnrnn
ncc n ,cf. Hexex .ro npe:n, ioropoe n(er, ono oro(ecrnner-
cn c na:enunnocrii (npe:n iai noroi (nen, :ecnnen, npe:en ro(a, er),
(annan n(en ]op:npyercn na ocnonannn npe(cranennn o yrpenne:
conne. ]er npe:n, ioropoe npeinaer, cn:nonanpyn aanepmen-
nocri, neuepnee conne, n ne: ner nniaioro na:enennn n nniaioro (nn-
ennn
1
. Hrai, (n ernnercion iyirypi xapairepno nipaenne ioc:n-
uecion neocrnocrn roiio uepea nonnrne npe:enn, ioropoe cia(ina-
ercn na (nyx cocrannimnx na:enunnocrn n aanepmennocrn, nnni:
opaao: .rn npe(cranennn coornocnrcn c nninuecin: (nnenne: Co-
nna, npe(cranenne o cnnan npe:enn n npocrpancrna orcyrcrnyer. H .ro
roiio o(nn npn:ep.
Conce: nnan cnryannn cia(inaercn n iaccnuecinn nepno(. Hpo-
e:a npe:enn ne roiio crannrcn n airnnno pemaercn, no i .ro:y
npe:enn, iai :i noiaaan, (ae ycnenair c:ennricn napa(nr:i npe(-
cranennn o npe:enn. Ni :oe: cy(nri o ro:, uro nonynpnocri 3nn-
:enn(a ne ia yrpauena nnori (o lll n. (o n..., a (oicorpa]i, yno:n-
nanmne o ero yuennn, crpe:nnci, :oer iri ne croiio i nnnrno:y n
naio:y i reicry opnrnnaa naoenni, cioiio i no(rnep(enni
cocrnennix n(en rouion apennn anropnrernoro anropa. B cny .roro
npe(nournreinee cunrari, uro ionnennnn npe:enn y 3nn:enn(a nnone
coornercrnonaa apxanuecion, an, ce(yn name:y npe(nooenni, cio-
pee (oen nonn:aricn iai nanennan cna. Tain: opaao:, yuenne
3nn:enn(a npe(cranner nnrepec ne croiio noro:y, uro ono cronr n
pn(y op]nuecinx reicron, a noro:y, uro .ro o(no na roro neoimoro
ionuecrna cnn(ereicrn, rpannuamnx c cocrnenno ]noco]nen, (n
ioropon na panne: ee orpeaie nanoee airyaini:n na paapaarinae-
:ix ionnennnn y(yr n:enno uo n ov. Tai, :i :oe: ciaaari, uro
3nn:enn( npnna(enr i re: ]ncnoora:, ioropie, nec:orpn na reo-
ornuecinn naii n omyi nanpanennocri nx yuennn, nauan paapaoriy
]nanuecion, naryp]noco]cion npoe:arnin. H n:enno pannnn rpe-
uecian ]noco]nn n:eer :accy npe(crannreen reoornuecioro nanpan-
ennn, .rn n(en ne roiio ne ycrynair :ecro ]nanuecin:, no n ne repn-
ir airyainocrn n reuenne ncero nepno(a pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn
1
.
]encrnnreino, npe(cranennn, npe(mecrnyimne yuennn: pannnx
rpeuecinx ]noco]on coornocnnci c :nponoaapenuecin: yponne: :n]o-
no.rnuecion rpa(nnnn. Ho n n nepno( pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn :im-
enne eme no :noro: ce(onao apxanuecin: opaana:, a naii ]noco-
]nn iai cpe(crno nipaennn acrpairnix nonnrnn roiio naunnaer cnoe
]op:nponanne, niciaainannn no :noro: npo(oair ocranaricn na ypon-
ne :n]ono.rnuecinx, n naiie coxpannercn nepaa(eennocri pannonaino-
ornuecioro n opaano-.:onnonainoro naua
2
, n cnnan c ue: pannnn rpe-
uecian ]noco]nn ocranaaci n oueni recnon cnnan c :n]oornen. B:ec-
re c re:, pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on c nx npe(mecrnennnia:n ore(n-
nner connainin ionreicr. Apncroiparnuecian opnenrannn, inman rpa-
(nnnonnon, onnpaaci na anropnrer :n]ono.rnuecion rpa(nnnn. B yco-
nnnx na:enennn :nponoaapenuecion cnryannn n apncroiparnuecian opn-
enrannn, n ca:a :n]ono.rnuecian rpa(nnnn ne :orn ocraricn neaarpo-
nyri:n nponecca:n ononennn, uro nponnnoci iai (e:n]oornaannn
1
J.cc: 1. The Theology o :he Early Greek Philosophers. The Giord Lec:ures.
Oxord, 1986.
2
:skanaa 1.A. Hcropnn Nn(nn or (pennenmnx npe:en (o ionna lV n. (o n...
N.., 19b6. C. 8b.
1.nckxc ....c.x a :c4cckax c,x.acaxx 94
rpa(nnnonnix npe(cranennn n po(enne ]noco]nn
1
. Peayiraro: .ro-
ro nponecca :ono cunrari cranonenne iaccnuecion anrnunon ]noco-
]nn. Ho cona: B. Lypiepra, nnyrpn conpe:ennix penrnoanix reuennn
n rpa(nnnonnix omecrn cymecrnyir n nonnnircn rai naainae:ie (nn-
ennn nn, oee conpe:enno, airepnarnnnie rpynni, nipaaimne
iaiyino ]op:y nporecra nn orionenne or npnnnrix nop:, a op-
]na:, n nn]aropena: iai paa n nnnircn crapenmn:n na no(onix (nn-
ennn nn (ae ceir, yxo(nmnx iopnn:n n apxanueciyi .noxy n nnnn-
mnxcn airepnarnnon (n (o:nnnpyimen ]op:i rpa(ancion nann roro
npe:enn rpeuecioro nonca c apncroiparnuecin: npanenne:
2
. Tain:
opaao:, ecn ]noco]nn iai nocnrei nonoro :nponoaapennn, ia or-
nero: na nonyi e cncre:y nennocren cranonnmencn (e:oiparnn
8
, ro
noa:ono npe(]noco]cian (a n (anno: cyuae, op]nuecian) :ici no(-
roronna nouny (n cranonennn n paannrnn ]noco]nn n:enno aro(a-
pn nipaenni .roro cnoeopaanoro nporecra. He nciiueno, uro n op-
]na: (a nce( aa nn: n nn]aropena:, niiunnmnn n cen pn( op]nuecinx
n(en) n iauecrne nipaennn ioc:ononrnuecinx nacrpoennn, nnncn,
re: ca:i:, n ornero: na noncnyi iceno]oni, uro noanono e:y opa-
rnricn, nanpn:ep, i npancion :icn, nnyrpn ioropon paannnaimnncn
aopoacrpna: or:enn ipnrepnn (eennn na cnonx n uynx no npnnnn-
ny rpa(ancion nn .rnnuecion npnna(enocrn n nne nonin no
npnnnnny aicnoornuecion npnna(enocrn i (opy nn ay. Ta-
in: opaao:, npe(nociin (n npnnnrnn rpeuecin:n ]noco]a:n npanc-
inx opaanon c]op:nponanci ye na npe(]noco]cio: .rane. 3rn npe(-
nociin nocnn ne roiio connainin n nonrnuecinn, no n :nponoa-
apenuecinn xapairep. ]pyroe (eo, uro yiaaari na nnnie aan:crnonannn
na o(non rpa(nnnn n (pyryi :i ne :oe:, panno iai n npoce(nri :exa-
nna:i rpancnnnn rex nn nnix noaapennn na .ro: .rane n cny orei-
rnnnix npnunn, :i :oe: roiio npe(noarari, uro onn nce-rain n:en
:ecro. Te: ne :enee, ]op:nponanne pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn, iai n
reoornn n pa:iax npancion rpa(nnnn (aopoacrpnncion nn aypnannrc-
ion) mo npairnuecin n o(no: nanpanennn. H n ro:, n n (pyro: cyuae
npocennaercn paapaoria na ee nauainon cra(nn onroornuecion n
ioc:oornuecion npoe:arnin, ioropan n (ainenme: aan:er nenrpai-
noe :ecro n .rnx rpa(nnnnx.
1
1a.n 1.1. lenernuecian cnnai ]noco]nn n (e:oiparnn n ]pennen lpennn ;;
ly:annrapnie nayin n Cnnpn. 1998. N 1. C. 212b. C. 22.
2
1u:kc:1 1. Cra: Versus Sec:: The Problem o Orphics and Py:hagoreans ;; Jewish
and Chris:ian sel-deini:ion. Vol.8. Sel-deini:ion in :he Greco-Poman world. ; Ed.
B.l. Neyer and E.P. Sanders. London, 1982. P. 122, 188189 (no:es). P. 12.
8
1a.n 1.1. lenernuecian cnnai ]noco]nn n (e:oiparnn n ]pennen lpennn. C. 22.
IABA III. HOHHHCKAA 4HOCO4HA H HAIAEH
C HIAHCKOH TIAHHHEH. MHETCKAA BKOA
1. AHTHHHAA TIAHHHA O KOHTAKTAX IAHHHX IIEHECKHX
4HOCO4OB C HIAHCKHM MHIOM.
Nnennn :nornx ncce(onareen, ioropie paorair n oacrn cpan-
nennn noaapennn pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on c npe(cranennn:n (pen-
nnx npannen, crponrcn na nooennn Ex Orien:e Lux onn ncxo(nr
na roro, uro nocrounie nnnnnn, a n nx unce n npancine, na rpeueciyi
]noco]ni n:en :ecro, a cnoi aa(auy nn(nr n oriciannn ]airon,
no(rnep(aimnx .rn nnnnnn. Hanpn:ep, N. Wes: (ocrarouno ecrio
]op:ynpyer cnoi noannni: nepno( airnnnix npancinx nnnnnn npnxo-
(nrcn na npo:eyroi npe:enn oioo bb0 r. 480 r. (o n...
1
Kai :i ye
aa:euan, :ao onnparicn roiio na ro nooenne, coracno ioropo:y
io (ocrarouno iyirypno-ncropnuecinx ionrairon (n no((epannn
n(ennoro o:ena :e(y rpa(nnnn:n, nyni (ocronepno aacnn(erei-
crnonannie ]airi. B name: cyuae, ior(a ner ye(nreinix, (ocronep-
nix n, ne n noce(nii ouepe(i, nonix reicron, orpaaimnx cranon-
enne rpa(nnnn, rpy(no cy(nri o noa:onocrn nnnnnn .rnx rpa(nnnn
(pyr na (pyra. Loee roro, aannrepeconannocri cymecrnyer n:enno n
xponoornn cranonennn noaapennn n ycranonennn ionipernix ]ai-
ron, ioropie noanonn i ynepeno yrnep(ari, uro ra nn nnan n(en
noannia n:enno n lpennn, nn n:enno n Hpane, n ornecrn ror nn
nnon nacr npe(cranennn i ioniperno:y ncropnuecio:y nepno(y. Ta-
ion npe(crannercn n(eainan cnryannn, n (encrnnreinocrn, nonropn:cn,
]airoornuecinn :arepna, ioropin n:eercn y nac na pyiax, noanoner
na: npnnnri roiio neioropie (onymennn o nepno(e n :ecre noannino-
nennn conocrann:ix n(en. Kpo:e roro, xorn n ronopnrcn o npancio:
1
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 208.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 96 nfx4n.s f.,xuxs a kanf.kf. .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa... 97
nnnnnn, re: ne :enee, n:eircn neci:a c:yrnie narn(i na ro, uro e
coon npe(cranna n nnrepecyimnn nepno( npancian rpa(nnnn, oro-
(ecrnne:an, iai npanno, c aopoacrpna:o:, nn, uro inaer uame, (ae
c ioniperni: ]par:enro: reicra nne ero ion]eccnonainon npnnnain.
Bime :i npe(onn peioncrpyinni npancinx onroornuecinx n ioc:o-
ornuecinx npe(cranennn no npen:ymecrny rain:n, iain:n onn nn(nrcn
na reicron, coa(an re: ca:i: n neioropo: po(e peai:e .rnx npe(cran-
ennn, c]op:nponanmnxcn i nexennncio:y nepno(y, n n :enimen crene-
nn npe(crannn orniy paannrnn .rnx narn(on. Te: ne :enee, iai na:
iaercn, :i aa]nicnponan, nycri (ocrarouno yconno, ncropnueciyi
(nna:niy, noce(onareinocri paannrnn n(en n pa:iax npancion rpa(n-
nnn, n n noce(yimen paore y(e: onnparicn n:enno na nee.
Hrai, n cny ncero ciaaannoro, :i nn(n: cnoi aa(auy ne n ro:,
uroi ]nicnponari ]airi nnnnnn o(non rpa(nnnn na (pyryi c no-
annnn a(panoro cienrnnna:a .ro nonpocry nenoa:ono c(eari, no
ncnio: cyuae, na ocnonannn rex ncrounnion, ioropi:n :i oa(ae: na
cero(nnmnnn (eni. B:ecre c re:, lpennn ne cymecrnonaa n yconnnx
ncropnuecioro naiyy:a n ne ia naonponana or iyirypnix ionrai-
ron c coce(n:n, no nyno n npn .ro: yrnep(ari, uro ia(an ioniper-
nan n(en nanra n ron nn nnon ne-rpeuecion rpa(nnnn Ni npoananan-
ponan :norne napaen n rnnoornuecioe cxo(crno pn(a ionnennnn n
rpeuecion npe(]noco]nn n npancion rpa(nnnn n npe(i(ymen rane, n
noiaaan, uro nx nanune ne no(rnep(aer nnnnnn, ro e ca:oe :ono
npo(eari n (n rpeuecion ]noco]nn
1
. Ho.ro:y, nac y(yr nnrepeco-
nari n nepnyi ouepe(i ne ca:n napaen, a nyrn n :exanna:i nepe(a-
un n ]op:nponannn ionnennnn nnyrpn ia(on or(eino nanron rpa(n-
nnn, no n acneire conocranennn ee c (pyron rpa(nnnen. C o(non cropo-
ni, .ro noanonr npe(crannri iaprnny paannrnn n(en n nnenocrou-
no: pernone oee ore:no, ninnnri cxo(nie npoe:i n paanix rpa-
(nnnnx. C (pyron croponi nanoee nono ninnnri opnrnnainie uepri
ca:on ionnennnn, ]op:nponanne ionnennnn, nx .rani n npe:ennie npo-
:eyrin n n ron, n n (pyron rpa(nnnn, aaocrpnri name nnn:anne, npe-
(e ncero, na cranonennn n(en rpeuecion ]noco]nn. Hcropnn ]noco-
]nn (ona orpaari ncropnueciyi conoiynnocri npoe: n nx peme-
nnn, nocranennix n onpe(eennyi .noxy, no .ro noa:ono roiio n
ro: cyuae, ecn ncce(onarei oa(aer onpe(eennon (nycri n ycon-
no nanron) nonoron nn]op:annn. Tai, n n(eae :i (oni oee nn
:enee o(noanauno yiaaari, iro n:enno n ior(a ni(nnny ro nn nnoe
nooenne, c]op:ynpona npoe:y, n na iainx noa:onix napnanrax
ee pemennn ocranonncn. Hamn ncrounnin raioni, uro npn nx npourennn
:i niny(eni npnerari i peioncrpyinnn reicron, a ona, iai npanno,
npe(noaraer neioropin io::enraropcinn nponano n ornomennn opnrn-
naa, no aa(aua ocraercn npenen :aicn:aino npnnanricn i opnrn-
naino:y aa:icy ncce(ye:oro ]noco]a. Orcyrcrnne ayrenrnunix rei-
cron niny(aer ncce(onareen cy(nri o ]noco]nn nepnoro nepno(a no
cnn(ereicrna: noa(nnx io::enraropon, n :i aauacryi .icrpanonpye:
nx nino(i n coopaennn nenocpe(crnenno na ]noco]ni (ocoiparnion.
Ni noarae:, uro cpannenne c nnemnen rpa(nnnen, n (anno: cyuae, c
npancion, noanonr nnaue narnnyri na cranonenne n(en, n :oer iri,
ninnnri re xapairepnie uepri pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn, ioropie ne
in ouenn(ni:n npn anrono:no: no(xo(e i ee nayuenni.
B ncropnn pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn :i :oe: ni(enri (na
ocnonnix nanpanennn, xponoornuecin noce(onareinix: oee pan-
nee nonnncioe n noannimee npairnuecin o(nonpe:enno c nepni:, no
npocymecrnonanmee ropaa(o (oime, nranncioe. B nreparype npanc-
ine nnnnnn npnnncinair npen:ymecrnenno nonnncin: ]noco]a: n
cny nenocpe(crnennix reppnropnainix ionrairon c ]pennn: Hpano:.
Hcce(onaren oricinnair nnnnnn Hpana, iai npanno, n ]noco]nn
Anaicn:an(pa n lepainra, n:enno o .rnx ]noco]ax y(e: ronopnri
n :i, no c noannnn onenin apry:enrannn namnx npe(mecrnennnion, n n
coornercrnnn c noce(onareinocrii naoennn noce(nn:n npancinx
narn(on. ro iacaercn nranncion ]noco]nn, ro ee n(en conocrann-
ir c npancin:n noaapennn:n ipanne pe(io, nn(n:o n cny reorpa]nuec-
ion or(aennocrn. Te: ne :enee, :ono npoce(nri neioropyi n(en-
nyi npee:crnennocri :e(y Hranen n Honnen, ocymecrnennyi, no
ncen nn(n:ocrn, Hn]aropo: n Kceno]ano:. Hocioiiy nac nnrepecyer
cranonenne n ]op:nponanne onroornuecinx ionnennnn, cnocoi nx
rpancnnnn, n uacrnocrn n nrannciyi :ici, ro raie nano pacc:or-
peri yuennn Hap:enn(a n 3:ne(oia.
Bn(nrcn rpn ocnonnix n nanoee omnx napa:erpa, nn ionnen-
nnn, ioropie noanonir conocrannri pannerpeueciyi ]noco]ni n npan-
ciyi rpa(nnni. Bce rpn ionnennnn (ocrarouno uerio npe(craneni n
coxpannircn na npornennn ncero paannrnn npancion penrnoanon :icn
1
Ynorpenn nonnrne napaen :e(y rpa(nnnn:n, :i ne npe(noarae:,
uro npe(cranenne o nnnnnnx ye niiueno n c:ic .roro nonnrnn, nanpo-
rnn, napaen .ro nnone nenrpainoe nipaenne no ornomenni i no-
nciy aan:crnonannn na o(non rpa(nnnn n (pyryi. Hanpn:ep, A.K. Coro:onon,
ronopn o necioiinx nnnapnanrnix :o(enx nocnpnnrnn rpeia:n nocrounoro
nace(nn iaiinponanne, accn:nnnnn, n:nrannn, onocpe(onannoe nnnnne
n napaen n:enno ....c.x ornocnr i :o(en ncen(oaan:crnonannn, cnn-
aannon c omnocrii iyirypnix nponeccon |Ca:a+anaa .1. Bocrounie ncroin
pannerpeuecion iyirypi no ncce(onannn: Bairepa Lypiepra ;; Becrnni
(pennen ncropnn. 1989. N 4. C. 1461bb. C. 1bb].
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 98 nfx4n.s f.,xuxs a kanf.kf. .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa... 99
n nnnircn ocnononoaraimn:n n yuennnx nimenaanannix ]noco]on,
nec:orpn na ro, uro nx co(epareinan uacri :oer cymecrnenno napi-
nponaricn or ]noco]a i ]noco]y, n .rn: n(en: :oryr (anaricn paa-
nunie onenin n roionannn.
Hepnan ionnennnn n npancion rpa(nnnn npe(cranena paccy(e-
nnn:n o oecrne, nicme: npnnnnne, arpnyri ioroporo ananne n :y(-
pocri, n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn e:y coornercrnyer acrpairnin npnnnnn
nauaa, ynpanennn, no((epannn cymecrnonannn, na .ron ionnennnn
ce(yir n iauecrne nnone ca:ocronreinix uacren nonpoci o noana-
nnn, anannn n :y(pocrn. Bo nropix, (yancrnuecian ionnennnn nn
ionnennnn npornnonoonocren. B npancion rpa(nnnn (yancrnuecian
ionnennnn coornomennn cnera n ri:i, (opa n aa nnnercn aaonon, na
nee ce(yer eme o(na iiuenan napa npornnonoonocren ncrnna n
oi, n ye na .rn ionnennnn naia(inaercn npe(cranenne o npornno-
noonocrnx iai nepno.e:enrax n .noxy aanepmennn (or:arnin. B rpe-
uecion rpa(nnnn, nanpornn, nepnnunon npe(crannercn ionnennnn npo-
rnnonoonocren (Hn]arop, lepainr, Apncrorei), ioropan, nacioi-
io noa:ono cy(nri, rai n ne ninaci n (yancrnuecine narn(i n
uncro: nn(e. ]yana: cnera n ri:i ((opa n aa) na yponne ren(ennnn
npoc:arpnnaercn n nranncion ]noco]nn (Hap:enn(, 3:ne(oi), n iac-
cnueciyi .noxy ]op:npyercn (yana: y:onocrnrae:oro n uyncrnenno noc-
npnnn:ae:oro, (ocrarouno yconno cnnaannin c nimeooanauennon ]op-
:on (yana:a. Haionen, rperin ionnennnn .ro ionnennnn ncrnni,
cnpane(nnocrn, aaiona. B npancion rpa(nnnn ona coornocnrcn c conn-
aini:, ioc:oornuecin: n .rnuecin: ipyro: npoe: n nonpocon. B
rpeuecion ]noco]nn i nn: (oannercn rnoceoornuecinn ipyr npoe:,
n neo: cno(n:in i nonpocy o ncrnnno: noanannn, n ro npe:n iai n
npancion penrnn n:enno .ra npoe:a pemaercn nanoee npocro, uepea
oriponenne n .kcxc. H:enno n pa:iax ooanauennix rpex ionnennnn
]op:ynpyircn ocnonnie oin onroornuecinx, rnoceoornuecinx n ai-
cnoornuecinx npoe: pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn, orneri na .rn npo-
e:i orneuair aa napnarnnnocri co(epannn .rnx ionnennnn n ro: nn
nno: ]noco]cio: yuennn na cra(nn pemennn npoe:.
H(ennin o:en :e(y npancion n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn:n neco:nen-
no cymecrnona. C b00 r. (o n..., na ioropin npnxo(nrcn .k+ lepainra,
noccranne: n Nnere, noneimn: aa coon crnxnnnie noccrannn :ao-
aanncinx rpeuecinx noncon npornn Hepcn(cioro aanoenannn, naunnaercn
.noxa nenocpe(crnennix, npn:ix ionrairon rpeuecion n npancion rpa(n-
nnn. Anrnunan nreparypa ]nicnponaa ca:ie paanoopaanie cne(ennn o
napnapcio: :npe crpanax Bocroia, Cin]nn n np. ne roiio o
axe:enn(cio: nepno(e, no n o (oaxe:enn(cion .noxe. Ouenn(en nnrepec
rpeion i cnon: noni: n cnini: coce(n: Hepcn(cion (epane, uro, n
uacrnocrn, no(rnep(aercn nonynpnocrii Hcropnn lepo(ora, ioropin
nyremecrnona na Bocroi oi. 4bb44b rr. (o n..., a n 44b r. n A]nnax aa
npourenne uacren cnoero rpy(a noyun npe:ni. Ho:n:o ornocnreino
noa(nero rpy(a lepo(ora, n V n. (o n... cymecrnonan counnennn, aarparn-
naimne cieri iai rpeuecion, rai n :aoaanncion (n ro: unce ernner-
cion n nepcn(cion) ncropnn, nanecrnie na: no coxpannnmn:cn ]par:en-
ra: Hepcnia ]nonncnn Nnercioro, counnennn Xapona n leannia,
neioropie cne(ennn, neponrnee ncero, co(epanci n rpy(ax leiaren, 4e-
pein(a n (p.
1
Hcropnn 4epein(a, cy(n no coxpannnmn:cn ]par:enra:,
co(epan cne(ennn ne roiio eren(apnoro npomoro neioropix oac-
ren lpennn nepno(a Vl n. (o n..., no raie n onncanne coirnn aanarcion
ncropnn .roro nepno(a
2
. Bce .ro :oer cynri (oiaaareicrno: anaun-
reinoro ionuecrna cne(ennn o nocrouno:, n uacrnocrn, npancio: :npe
n rpeuecion cpe(e ron .noxn
8
. Ho ]noco]nn i .ro:y npe:enn cymecrny-
er ye nourn 100 er. ro e nanecrno o .ro: nepno(e rpeio-npancinx
ionrairon Po(nnon ]noco]nn cnpane(nno cunraercn Nner :ao-
aanncinn rpeuecinn nonc, a nepni: ]noco]o: 4aec Nnercinn,
crapmnn conpe:ennni n(nncioro napn Kpeaa (b60b46 rr. (o n...).
Ecn oparnricn i ]noco]nn 4aeca, ro neioropie ero nooennn
naxo(nr onpe(eennie napaen c npancin:n npe(cranennn:n, a n:enno
c npe(cranenne: o :y(pon n paay:non oecrnennon cne, nanpn:ep
(11 A 28 DK): y: (vo o) ioc:oca .ro or, nce o(ymeneno n n:ecre c re:
nono oecrn
4
. B pyccio: na(annn ]par:enron (ocoiparnion npnno(nr-
cn rouia apennn Hoanna 4nonona (io::enrapnn na rpairar O (yme
Apncroren), ioropin y(nnen re:, uro Apncrorei naeraer ronopnri o
neioropix n(enx 4aeca, xorn onn coxpaneni n conpe:ennon e:y rpa(n-
nnn, nanpn:ep raine: Hponn(enne nponniaer nnori (o ipannnx npe(e-
on |ioc:oca] n nnuro or nero ne ycioiaaer, (ae :aenmee (11 A22
1
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N., 1998. C. 191, 24b, 1u:, J. 1. The Ancien: Greek His:orians.
New York, 19b8. C. 2186.
2
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N., 1998. C. 2b02b8.
8
Cp. coirnnnyi anaun:ocri aanoenannn Knpo: n(nn (n xponoornuecinx
pacueron nonnnnen, nanp. y Kceno]ana (B 22 DK): Cioiio ree io |er],
ior(a narpnny :n(nen |J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989.
C. 172].
4
Ha (ainenmero reicra nn(no, nacioiio noa(nne, ye ycronnmnecn n (pennerpe-
uecion ]noco]nn, ionnennnn aa(encrnonani (n naoennn rouin apennn 4ae-
ca: Ooq vou v tou xo oou to v 0ro v, to r o v r uov o o xo oo vv q pr
o1g ks1+ os ko1 o1o :uu o:u1s1w ouu u uu ou +o1+ 0s1 o+ k1+g:1kg + ou :uu .
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 100 nfx4n.s f.,xuxs a kanf.kf. .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa... 101
DK)
1
. Eme oee neneponrnan n(en, npnnncannan 4aecy noa(nenmen
rpa(nnnen, ncrpeuaercn y Anonnn, ioropin yrnep(aer, uro 4aec uepea
reo:erpnuecioe nciyccrno (ora(acn o e(nno: Tnopne ncex nemen (11
A28 DK)
2
. Cxo(nie npe(cranennn ncrpeuae: y Anaicn:an(pa n lepain-
ra. K coaenni, nino(i, ocnonannie roiio na raioro po(a cnn(erei-
crnax, ne :oryr iri nonocrii (oiaaye:i, a no(nnnix ]par:enron
4aeca ne coxpannoci. B io: cyuae nn(no, uro anrnunan rpa(nnnn n
nonpoce o e(nnon n paay:non ioc:nuecion cne crpe:nrcn npnnncari .rn
n(en ye nepno:y npe(crannrei ]noco]nn, a .ro ronopnr o ro:, na-
cioiio .ra npoe:a anaun:a n ncropnn anrnunon ]noco]nn noome n
nacioiio ona aann:aa y:i noa(nen anrnunocrn.
lpeuecine ropo(a Naon Aann no(unnnnci n(nn n ior(a Knp ll
(bb9b80 rr. (o n...) naua aanoenanne n(nn, 4aec conerona nre-
n: Nnera noinnyri ropo(, ce(yn npn:epy nreen 4oien n Teoca,
naeanmnx re: ca:i: pacrna
8
, no (pyron nepcnn 4aec npennrcrno-
na aaiiuenni noennoro coiaa :e(y Kpeao: n Nnero:, uro cnac-
o ropo( noce noe(i Knpa
4
. Ecn .rn cnn(ereicrna ncropnuecin
oocnonanni, ro, ouenn(no, 4aec n:e (ocrarounie cne(ennn o npan-
nax nepcax n :n(nnnax, uroi c(eari nino( o noa:onocrnx n :omn
aapo(aimencn Hepcn(cion (epani.
He oee ue: o 4aece, nanecrno o ero yuennie Anaicn:an(pe (oi.
611b46 rr. (o n...). On nepni: (epany naueprnri oniy:eny na iap-
re, nepnin oc:encn nanricn aa reorpa]ni (12 A6 DK) n npe(no(n-
reicrnona anoninen na Nnera n Anoonni (12 A8 DK). N. Y.cr
noaraer, uro nepni: (ny: cnn(ereicrna: ne (ono (onepnri iai nc-
ropnuecin rouni:
b
. ]ae ecn .ro rai, n iapry cocrann ne ca: Anai-
cn:an(p, re: ne :enee, iapri oniy:eni ye cymecrnonan n Bannone
.roro nepno(a n cnn(ereicrna yiaainair na ro, uro n nepno( nann
Anaicn:an(pa :ora cymecrnonari raian e rpeuecian iapra, n ca:
Anaicn:an(p n io: cyuae :or iri anaio: c reorpa]nuecion n non-
rnuecion cnryannen noipyr Nnera ne nonacimie
6
.
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 114.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 11411b.
8
1ca,af, l, 164170.
4
xa:cn ..fckxx, l, 2b.
b
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. C. 78.
6
Coracno lepo(ory, Apncrarop, rnpan Nnera, npni n Cnapry c :e(non
(ocion, na ioropon ia nipeaana iapra ncen ae:n. Ha .ron iapre Apncrarop
noiaaina orarie aooro: n :eraa:n :aoaanncine reppnropnn n n ro: unc-
e Cyci, ioropie npe(ara aanoenari cnaprnara: (1ca,af, V, 49).
Panee, n nauae Vl n. (o n..., airnnnyi aanoenareinyi nonrniy
ne(er (pyroe npancioe rocy(apcrno Nn(nn. Loimoe anauenne (n
Nnera n:ea nonna Nn(nn n n(nn n b90b8b rr. (o n... (Kcrarn
ciaaari, coneunoe aar:enne, cyunnmeecn n .ro npe:n n noonnmee
ionen .ron nonne, coracno eren(e, io npe(ciaaano 4aeco:.) Hc-
xo( nonni :e(y yno:nnyri:n napcrna:n i nanpn:yi cnnaan c neaa-
nncn:ocrii nonca, r.i. (ecnrnerne: panime (nena(narnernnn nonna
Nnera c n(nncin: napcrno: oionunaci aaiiuenne: :npa.
He :enee anaun:i: n cnere nonpoca o ionrairax c npancin: :n-
po: npe(crannercn yno:nnyri n o rpeuecinx ioonnnx na uepno:opc-
io: noepeie, r(e rpein nenocpe(crnenno croinynci c nocrouno-npan-
cin:n ne:ena:n cin]o-cap:arcion rpynni. B uacrnocrn, :nerni oc-
nonan Oinni no npe:n :n(nncioro na(iuecrna, r.e. n npe(eax
687bb9 rr. (o n... Ecn yuecri ror ]air, uro :e(y :erpononn:n n
ioonnn:n coxpannnci oee nn :enee recnie ornomennn, .ro raie
:oer cnn(ereicrnonari n noiay noa:onoro npnnnecennn n npe(cran-
ennn :nercinx ]noco]on neioropix nocrouno-npancinx .e:enron.
Hano:nn: raie, uro Anaxapcnc, cin] no nponcxo(enni, (pyr Coo-
na, (oroe npe:n n n A]nnax, n xorn repne nac:emin or rpeion
ornocnreino cnoero napnapcioro nponcxo(ennn, re: ne :enee, nome
n ncropni iai o(nn na ce:n :y(penon, napanne c 4aeco:
1
.
Hrai, nepnie ]noco]cine yuennn cia(inanci n nepno( airnn-
nix nnemnnx ionrairon n n neci:a necraninon nonrnuecion ocra-
nonie aanoenareinix nonn, ioropie nen npancine rocy(apcrna Nn-
(nn n Hepcnn. Pemenne nonpocon neaanncn:ocrn n eaonacnocrn rpeuec-
inx :aoaanncinx ropo(on (ono io npnnecrn i nenocpe(crnenni:
1
O Anaxapcnce c:. xa:cn ..fckxx, l, 8. B cepe(nne npomoro neia cpe(n
ncce(onareen ia neci:a nonynpnon n(en cnnainari pn( narn(on n cnn(e-
reicrn o pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn n npe(]noco]nn c ma:anna:o:, uro, no
ncen nn(n:ocrn, io cnnaano c mnpoin: nnrepeco: i cranmn: nonynpni:n n
ro npe:n ncce(onannn: no cnnpcio:y ma:anna:y. Bime :i ye npnno(nn
rouiy apennn ]o((ca na .ror cuer. N.Wes: noaraer, uro nauao iyirypni:
ionraira: noonn ma:anncrcine npairnin n pnrya na crpan Cin]nn n 4pa-
inn (nocrouno-npancine rpynni ne:en), nonnnnmnecn n Honnn n VllVl nn. (o
n... Onn niiuan n cen nocnnrnreinin :ornn pacuenennn n noccranonennn,
orry(a e eper nauao n :n] o Op]ee. Pacnpocrpanenne ma:anncrcinx n(en,
nioi, naunnaer 4aec n ero yuennn :ono nanrn orroocin npe(cranennn o
nyremecrnnn (ymn, :arnuecio: noere, naxo(ennn n (nyx :ecrax o(nonpe:enno.
Hoce 4aeca aanepmnn .rn n(en iai rpein (Apncren, lep:orn:, Hn]arop), rai
n cenepnne, nocemanmne lpenni (Aapnc). Taie co cciion na J.l. Kinds:rand,
N.Wes: cunraer n Anaxapcnca ma:anncrcion ]nrypon |1c:1 A.1. Early Greek
Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. C. 2b9, 2b9, cn. 1].
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 102 nfx4n.s f.,xuxs a kanf.kf. .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa... 108
ionraira: c npanna:n n, neponrnee ncero, i pemenni nonrnuecinx
aa(au :orn iri npnuacrni pannne rpeuecine ]noco]i, nocioiiy
onn, iai coomaer 3nan (Hecrpan ncropnn, 8, 17), raie aann:anci
rocy(apcrnennon (enreinocrii, a ne roiio nn n rnmn, ornuanci
o(nn:n nnreeiryaini:n (ocronncrna:n (11 A 4 DK)
1
.
Te: ne :enee, cymecrnyir n onpe(eennie noapaennn, iacaimnecn
nenocpe(crnennix ionrairon ]noco]on c npancion cpe(on. ]a, (encrnn-
reino, :norne na naanannix ]noco]on in po(o: na :aoaanncinx no-
ncon, .noxa, n ioropyi n: ninao nri n rnopnri, ia .noxon airnnnix
:erocy(apcrnennix n :e.rnnuecinx ionrairon, no ne nyno npn .ro:
aainari o nanecrnon .nncion iceno]onn n nnyrpnnoncnon nonrn-
ie, iacaimencn uyaion. Xorn anrnunan rpa(nnnn n coomaer na: o nyre-
mecrnnnx ]noco]on i :ara:, .rn coomennn ornocnreino noa(nne (iai,
nanpn:ep, cnn(ereicrno roro e Hnnnn) n ornocnrcn n nepnyi ouepe(i i
Hn]aropy, 3:ne(oiy n Harony. Boa:ono, :i ne cnmio: omne:cn,
ecn npe(noon:, uro n 3:ne(oi, n Haron, ecn n in na Bocroie, ro
ornpannnci n nyri ciopee no crona: n pa(n cani Hn]aropa, ue: pa(n
:y(pocrn :aron. ro iacaercn lepainra, npn:ix cnn(ereicrn o ero cnn-
anx c npancion iyirypon ner (nec:orpn na nonynpnocri ero innrn n
orpo:noe ionuecrno ]par:enron, e:y nocnnmennix), a nnci:a i nepcn(c-
io:y napi ]apni, ne nnnimnecn ayrenrnuni:n, roiio iocnennie
cnn(ereicrna n noiay namero npe(nooennn. H, naionen, yuenne Anai-
cn:an(pa: na roro :nnn:ainoro ionuecrna ]par:enron ero yuennn, (o-
me(mnx (o nac, nmi o(nn reanc c nicoion crenenii (ocronepnocrn :o-
no coornecrn c npancion ioc:oornen reanc o pacnooennn neecnix
cnern. Ho n:enno .ror reanc (nacioiio noanonir cy(nri namn ncrounn-
in) ne noyun (ainenmero paannrnn n ncropnn rpeuecion ]noco]nn, ero
ne npnnn nniro na noa:onix noce(onareen Anaicn:an(pa.
B:ecre c re:, ra e anrnunan rpa(nnnn npe(ocranner orarenmnn
:arepna, ioropin nicrpnpyer ornomennn yunreicrna n yuennuecrna,
cnnainaimne nimenaanannix ]noco]on. 3(eci nnno npocennaircn
(ne nnnn, oe yxo(nmne iopnn:n n nonnnciyi ]noco]ni. Bo-nepnix,
naaone: ee yconno, nnnn Anaicn:an(pa. Yuennia:n Anaicn:an(pa,
iai o .ro: coomair anrnunie cnn(ereicrna, in Kceno]an n Hap:e-
nn(
2
, n cnoi ouepe(i, yuennia:n Kceno]ana in lepainr
8
n ror e
Hap:enn(
4
, naionen, 3:ne(oi cunracn yuennio: n Kceno]ana
b
, n Hap-
:enn(a
1
. Bropan nnnn nn]aropencian. O Kceno]ane nanecrno, uro
on noe:nanpona c 4aeco: n Hn]aropo:
2
n, ce(onareino, i xopo-
mo anaio: c yuenne: noce(nero n, ne nciiueno, uro npnanana neio-
ropie uacrn nn]aropencioro yuennn. ]aee ]noren a.prcinn cooma-
er
8
, uro Kceno]an i npo(an n pacrno n niiynen nn]aropenna:n
Hap:enncio: n Opecra(o:, uro raie :oer cnn(ereicrnonari n noiay
ero (ocrarouno nainx ornomennn c nn]aropenna:n. 3(eci y:ecrno
nano:nnri coomenne A:nnxa (O nn]aropencion nann, 228289)
4
o ro:, uro nn]aropenni ne oriaainaircn or nopyunreicrna n (pyec-
inx ycyr (pyrn: nn]aropenna:, (ae ecn onn nnior(a npe(e ne ncrpe-
uanci, noyunn nmi cnn(ereicrno nn yconnin anai o nocnnmennn
n rannoe yuenne. lepainr cunracn yuennio: nn]aropenna lnnnaca
b
.
Eme o(nn: iocnenni: cnn(ereicrno: n noiay cxo(crna yuennn lepai-
nra n nn]aropennen :ono cunrari cona Kn:enra Aeican(pnncioro
o cxo(crne innrn lepainra c Loroconne: 4epein(a Cnpoccioro
6
.
Xorn, iai nn(no na reicra, Kn:enr conocrann ne cxo(crno n(en, a
crni aara(ounie peuennn ]noco]on, re: ne :enee, ne nyno
aainari o ro:, uro yuennio: 4epein(a cunracn Hn]arop, n ro npe:n
iai 4epein( yunreen, no ncnio: cyuae, cpe(n rpeion, ne n:e, on
ca: cen niyun, npnopern rannie innrn ]nnninnnen
7
. Apncrorei
e npn:o conocranner neioropie nooennn n yuennn 4epein(a c
npe(cranennn:n :aron. Bi(enn na unca (pennnx rex, iro nc acc naa-
raer n ]op:e :n]a, Apncrorei ornocnr i nn: 4epein(a n neioropix
(pyrnx, ioropie cunrair nepnoe nopo(nnmee nanyumn:, n rouno rai
e :arn n neioropie na noa(nenmnx :y(penon, nanpn:ep 3:ne(oi n
Anaicarop
8
. 3ro nooenne nnrepecno eme n re:, uro ono ne roiio
no(rnep(aer, uro :np, coracno npancin: npe(cranennn:, i corno-
pen arn: Axypon Naa(on n .ro io nanecrno rpeia:, no n re:, uro
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 10b.
2
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 21.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (18.1a). C. 1b1.
4
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 21.
b
xa:cn ..fckxx, Vlll, b6.
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (81. A2). C. 88b.
2
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 18.
8
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 20.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. C. 496497.
b
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (18. 1a). C. 1b1.
6
1.x+cnf .ckc.n,xxckxx. Crpo:ari, V, b0, 2: H :i nan(e: eme ri:i n
ri:i aara(ounix peuennn ]noco]on n no.ron, nocioiiy (ae neie innrn
nipaair c:ic, noennin n nnx counnnree:, n npniponenno: nn(e, iai,
nanpn:ep, innra lepainra O npnpo(e, aa uro on n noyun npoannme Te:-
nin. Cxo(no c .ron innron n Loroconne 4epein(a Cnpoccioro. |J.:+cnfa
pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 179].
7
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (7.2). C. 8b.
8
xcfafc.:, Nera]nania, 4. 1091b, 812.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 104 nfx4n.s f.,xuxs a kanf.kf. .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa... 10b
ye Apncrorei ne pacc:arpnna yuenne :aron iai uncro oroconcioe,
n (ae n iaion-ro :epe naxo(n ocnonannn oro(ecrnnri ero c naryp-
]noco]cin:n noaapennn:n (ocoiparnion, no ncnio: cyuae, n ro:, uro
iacaoci npe(cranennn o are n e(nno:.
O Hap:enn(e ]noren a.prcinn coomaer, uro on i yuennio:
nn]aropenna A:nnnn n n:enno A:nnne:, a ne Kceno]ano: opamen i
coaepnareinon nann
1
. On e, ccianci na Tn:en, coomaer, uro 3:-
ne(oi cyma Hn]aropa, n e:y, iai n Harony, aanpernn nocemari
einnn, naonunn n narnare
2
. Kpo:e roro, A:nnx n counnennn O
nn]aropencion nann n iauecrne nn]aropennen yno:nnaer 3:ne(oia
n Hap:enn(a 3encioro. Kai cnpane(nno aa:euaer .A. A:y(i, iara-
or A:nnxa, nocxo(nmnn i Apncroiceny, cocranen orni(i ne na (oi-
rpnnainon ocnone. B iaraore npe(craneni i(n, cnnaannie noce-
(onareini: yunreicrno: n yuennuecrno:, uro no(paay:enaer nocnpn-
nrne n paannrne n(en, ni(nnnyrix pannn:n nn]aropenna:n, panno iai
n ce(onanne ro:y opaay nann, i ioropo:y noy(a Hn]arop
8
. B
npn:euannnx io nropon innre Anann ]noco]on ]norena a.prcioro
N.. lacnapon yiaainaer, uro Hn]arop i yuennio: Anaicn:an(pa
4
.
3ra rouia apennn raie nnrepecna, nocioiiy cymecrnyer coomenne
Anoo(opa ornocnreino noapacra Anaicn:an(pa, na ioroporo ce(yer,
uro on po(ncn oioo 612;610 r. (o n..., r.e. necioiio panime Hn]aro-
pa, uie po(enne npnxo(nrcn na b72;1 rr. (o n...
b
. 3ro oanauaer, uro
panno iai ionnennnn 4epein(a, rai n Anaicn:an(pa :orn oiaaari nn-
nnne na ]op:nponanne n(en Hn]aropa. Hrai, na roro, uro :i ciaaan
oueni xopomo nn(no, nacioiio (ne npe(cranennie na:n nnnn yuenn-
uecrna c:emnnaircn n nepeceiaircn, ior(a peui aaxo(nr o nn]aropen-
nax. Hec:orpn na ro, uro n ocnonno: nn]aropena: noyun mnpoioe
pacnpocrpanenne n:enno n Hrann, na ocnonannn cnn(ereicrn nn(no,
uro nce (nn nourn nce nnrepecyimne nac nonnncine ]noco]i) rai
nn nnaue in cnnaani c nn]aropencin: coiao:. He nciiueno, uro
raioe nneuarenne cia(inaercn n cny cnn(ereicrn, ne onaareino
ncropnunix, npnna(eamnx no npen:ymecrny noa(nn: (oicorpa]a:,
ioropie ca:n cnino rnroren i nn]aropena:y.
ro iacaercn ca:oro Hn]aropa, ro cymecrnyer neioropoe unco
anrnunix cnn(ereicrn o ro:, uro Hn]arop i anaio: c penrnoani:
yuenne: npannen, nnoce(crnnn a(anrnponan ero iai cnoe cocrnennoe
(lepainr 3]eccinn, B 129 DK, Hnnonr (14.11)). .A. A:y(i n cnonx
paorax
1
orpnnaer noa:onocri nyremecrnnn Hn]aropa na Bocroi n nic-
iaainaer ne(onepne anrnunon rpa(nnnn, no(rnep(aimen nocemenne Hn-
]aropo: Bannona n Ernnra. Kai npanno, anropi, npn(epnnaimnecn
.ron rouin apennn, ncxo(nr na roro, uro nyremecrnnn na Bocroi npnnnci-
naircn :norn: ]noco]a:, naunnan c Hn]aropa, n nonpocry cran o-
mn: :ecro:. Ha .ro ecri nnone oocnonannie noapaennn. Cymecrnyer
na(nnci na An-Xany: n A]ranncrane, ioropan no(rnep(aer, uro Keapx
na Co (encrnnreino noina n .ro: :ecre, na cero(nnmnnn (eni ome-
npnananno, uro Anoonnn Tnancinn, ecn :i npnanae: ero nunocri
peaino cymecrnonanmen, a ne eren(apnon, (opacn (o Taicni
2
.
Hrai, coracno anrnunon ncropnio-]noco]cion rpa(nnnn, pannnn
rpeuecian ]noco]nn paannnaaci noce(onareino, n ncex ee npe(cra-
nnreen :ono cnnaari :e(y coon coracno nnnn yunreiyuenni,
nnone orpaan (yx apxanuecinx pe:ecennix ioernn. Kpo:e roro, n
(oicorpa]nn (ocrarouno uerio nipaeno :nenne, uro pannne rpeuecine
]noco]i rai nn nnaue in cnnaani c nnenocrouni:n n, n ro:
unce, c npancion, rpa(nnnn:n, a nocrounie yunren oprannuno niiue-
ni n ry e nenouiy nepe(aun anannn. ]noren a.prcinn na:euaer (ne
nnnn paannrnn ]noco]nn, no o(non na nnx, ]noco]nn nnepnie no-
nnnaci y napnapon, y nepcon in nx :arn, y nannonnn n accnpnnn
xa(en, y nn(nnnen rn:noco]ncri, y ieiron n raon rai naaina-
e:ie (pyn(i n ce:no]en, no (pyron, ]noco]nn eper nauao or .n-
non, nocioiiy Nycen n nn .nni
8
. Te: ca:i: ]noren a.prcinn
1
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 2128.
2
xa:cn ..fckxx, Vlll, b4.
8
2+,,: ..X. Bce ecri unco K nnrepnperannn ocnonnon (oirpnni nn]arope-
na:a ;; Na:hesis. Ha ncropnn anrnunon nayin n ]noco]nn ; Orn. pe(. H.].
Poancinn. N., 1991. C. bb74. C. b8.
4
xa:cn ..fckxx. O nann, yuennnx n napeuennnx ana:ennrix ]noco]on ;
Pe(. n anrop ncryn. crarin A.4. ocen, Hep. c (pennerpeu. N.. lacnapona. N.,
1998. C. 468.
b
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 77.
1
2+,,: ..X. Hn]arop n pannen rpa(nnnn ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 198b. N
2. C. 121142, 2+,,: ..X. Hn]arop n ero mioa (oi. b80 oi. 480 rr. (o n...) ; AH
CCCP. ., 1990.
2
1xa. ..A. Haron n :nrpana: ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn, 1998. N 2. C.
817. C. 12, co cciion na L.Pober:, J.Narshall. ]ononnreinie noapaennn
ornocnreino .ron rouin apennn c:. n: Xx.cnka 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn n
Lnnnn Bocroi. N., 1990. C. 190191.
8
xa:cn ..fckxx, l.1, l. 8. Ha(o ciaaari, uro anrnunie rpein ne npono(nn
paanunn :e(y :ara:n n xa(en:n, aauacryi cono xa(en ooanauao nn
ioro ueoneia c Bocroia, nn nciymennoro n acrpono:nn |1xa. ..A. Ha-
ron n :nrpana: ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn, 1998. N 2. C. 817. C. 8]. Cono
xa(en rpeuecioe, nponcxo(nr or aiia(cioro (apa:encioro) .rnonn:a kaldu,
n n nannoncion rpa(nnnn nnior(a, nacioiio noanonir cy(nri innonncnie
ncrounnin, ne ooanauao ocoyi iacry nn iareropni penon n npopnnareen
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 106 nfx4n.s f.,xuxs a kanf.kf. .nnx :c4cckx x.acaaa... 107
onpe(ener yuenne :aron iai ]noco]cioe, n, ce(onareino, :orymee
n:eri yuennion, n ro: unce n na unca .nnon.
Hpnne(e: neioropie cnn(ereicrna anrnunix anropon o nocrounix
iopnnx nn]aroponon :y(pocrn, onn (ocrarouno ipacnopeunni: Be(i n
3:ne(oi, n ca: Hn]arop, n ]e:oipnr xori n omanci c :ara:n n naro-
nopnn :noro cnepxrecrecrnennoro, a nce e nnior(a ne npnneianci i
cy(y aa :arni
1
, ]ono(nnno nanecrno: Hn]arop, 3:ne(oi, ]e:oipnr n
Haron nycianci n nananne, uroi nayunri ee |=:arni], nepennan
ciopee narnannn, neen nyremecrnnn. Ee onn nponone(onan no noanpa-
mennn, ee (epan n ceipere
2
, Kor(a Ka:nc aaxnarn Ernner, ro Hn]a-
rop, yunnmnncn ra: y penon, oiaaacn n unce nennix n, yrnannin n
Bannon, i nocnnmen n :ncrepnn napnapon
8
, na(o (y:ari uro :ncre-
pnn ne roiio nannoncine, no n npancine. Haaran, r(e n ue:y yuncn
Hn]arop, Hop]npnn ronopnr, uro nauaa. :are:arnuecinx nayi on yc-
non or ernnrnn, xa(een n ]nnninnnen,. a nce:y, uro ornocnrcn i iyi-
ry oron n npoun: nanenni: npanna:, nayuncn y :aron n y nnx aan:-
crnona. Hepnie, noayn, anaio:i :norn:.
4
, y Hnnonra unrae: o
ro:, uro Hn]arop nocern xa(en 3apary
b
, a ror naon e:y yuenne,
coracno ioropo:y ecri (ne nanauainie npnunni nemen: oren n :ari,
oren cner, :ari ri:a, uacrn cnera ropnuee, cyxoe, erioe, icr-
poe, uacrn ri:i xoo(noe, nanoe, rneoe, :e(ennoe, na nnx, na
encioro n :ycioro nauaa, cocronr neci ioc:oc
1
. 3opoacrp cunracn
yunree: :ara Ocrana, ioropin i mnpoio nanecren n 3a(e iai nep-
nin ueonei, npnnecmnn ci(a yuenne :aron, n iai nocnnrarei ]e:oipn-
ra n Hporaropa
2
. Ce(yer raie oparnri nnn:anne na nepennciy nepcn(-
cioro napn ]apnn n lepainra
8
, xorn ee ncropnunocri co:nnreina, ona,
re: ne :enee, ronopnr n noiay noa:onocrn coornecennn repainroncio-
ro yuennn c npancion rpa(nnnen npe(crannren:n noa(neanrnunon :ic-
n. Cymecrnyir neioropie cnn(ereicrna o onpe(eennix cnnanx c npan-
cion rpa(nnnen Harona n Apncroren, no nocioiiy cnon yuennn onn
coa(anan n oee noa(nne, ue: nnrepecyimne nac, npe:ena, n (annon
paore :i ne y(e: na nnx ocranannnaricn.
]n noa(nen anrnunocrn ionrairi c reppnropnn:n Cpe(nae:no:o-
pin n Lnnero Bocroia nn(nrcn iai nonce(nennin, oi(ennin, mnpoio
pacnpocrpanennin onir n .ro xopomo nn(no na ncrounnion (Anyen, Hy-
rapx n Hnnnn n :norne (pyrne), n raie erio noa(neanrnunie anropi
nepenocnr anaio:yi n: cnryanni na apxanueciyi lpenni. Ho n (encrnn-
reinocrn, n .rnx cnn(ereicrnax o nyremecrnnnx ]noco]on no or(aen-
ni: panona: oniy:eni npn( n npnxo(nrcn co:nenaricn, ecn ncno:nnri
xorn i o onncannnx :npa pannerpeuecin:n ncropnia:n, o (ainnx no-
ennix noxo(ax nn cnennaino oprannaye:ix noea(iax i opaiya:.
Ecn :i oparn:cn renepi i re: cnn(ereicrna: o nn]aropencio:
yuennn, ioropie coxpanno (n nac npe:n, n nnx :i onapyn: n(en,
neci:a cxone c npancin:n npe(cranennn:n. Bo-nepnix, Hn]arop noa-
ra, uro :y(pocri nnnercn xapairepni: iauecrno: oecrna, n on cun-
ra, uro nniro ne :y(p, ipo:e ora
4
, a ror, iro crpe:nrcn i npany n
opaay nann :y(poro cymecrna :oer iri no(oaime naanan io-
:y(po: (]noco]o:)
b
. Bo-nropix, Hn]arop npnanana, uro cymecrnyir
(ne npnunni nemen cner n ri:a n nepno.e:enri iai uacrn cnera n
|.n,.+.ca. A.A. Kor(a xa(en cran npopnnaren:n ;; Becrnni (pennen
ncropnn. 1998. N 1. C. b6b7, J.x 1. Hace(ne Hpana. N., 2002. C. 88].
Hpn:euareino, uro, ncueanyn na innonncnix ncrounnion n Vl n. (o n..., rep-
:nn npo(oa nri n counnennnx anrnunix anropon (ocoenno n pn:ciyi
.noxy, ycronunno ooanauan acrpoora n io(yna), a n eicnione nreen Knoro
]nypeuin npnnn anauenne naanannn nreen Bannonnn noome |.n,.+.ca.
A.A. Kor(a xa(en cran npopnnaren:n C. b8]. Hepni: xa(een naana pe-
na:n lepo(or (1ca,af, l, 181188), xorn ouenn(no, uro ecn ion pen Lea
i xa(ee:, ro .ro ne anaunr, uro ion xa(en pen. O(nn: cono:, ecri
ocnonanne cunrari, uro penyrannen penon, :y(penon n npe(ciaaareen xa-
(en onaani n:enno rpeia: |.n,.+.ca. A.A. Kor(a xa(en cran npopnnare-
n:n C. 60].
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (81. A14 |4nocrpar. Anani Ano-
onnn Tnancioro, l, 2]). C. 887.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (81. A14 |Hnnnn. Ecrecrnennan
ncropnn, XXX, 1, 9]). C. 887.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.8 |Hop]npnn. Teoory:eni apn]-
:ernin, c. b2 De lalco]). C. 142.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.9 |Hop]npnn. Anani Hn]aropa,
6]). C. 148.
b
B (anno: cyuae Zopo to :ono nonn:ari no iai o(ny na ]op: n:enn 3apa-
rymrpi, no iai nciaennyi nepe(auy ero n:enn n rpeuecio: naiie. Kpo:e
roro, aa .rn: n:ene: :or cronri ne onaareino ca: 3aparymrpa, a, cy(n no
npancio:y iopni, .ro :or iri ion (pyron nepc nn :n(nen, cne(ymnn n :y(-
pocrn :aron.
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.11 |Hnnonr. Onponepenne ncex
epecen, l, 2, 12]). C. 144.
2
Ho(pono o :arax n lpennn c:.: Bidez J., Cumon Fr. Les mages hellniss. Zoroastre,
Ostanes et Hystaspe daprs la tradition greque. New York, 197b. |Paris, 1978, c. 1988. 2 v.].
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. C. 181.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.21 a. |lepain( Honrnncinn]).
C. 147148.
b
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.21 a. |]no(op Cnnnnncinn, X,
10, 1]). C. 148.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 108 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 109
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.11 |Hnnonr. Onponepenne ncex
epecen, l, 2, 12]). C. 144.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (b8. C4 |A:nnx. O nn]aropencion
nann, 82]). C. 488.
8
xa:cn ..fckxx, Vlll, 84, J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (b8. C4
|A:nnx. O nn]aropencion nann, 82]). C. 488.
4
xcfafc.:. Hnio:axona .rnia, E 8. 1182 b 21.
b
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (14.21. |Nnennn ]noco]on, ll, 1, 1,
1..fan, loprnn, b07 e 6]). C. 147.
6
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on, (b8. D8 |O nn]aropencion nann,
174]). C. 498.
ri:i
1
. B .ro: nooennn erio niunrinaercn ioc:oornuecinn (yana:
nnone n (yxe npancion rpa(nnnn. 3naunreinoe :ecro n nn]aropencio:
yuennn aann:ao nonnrne cnpane(nnocrn, ono ncrpeuaercn n aiyc:ax
(ro ca:oe cnpane(nnoe Aeprnonpnnomennn
2
, Coi na(o cra-
nnri na cro n nano:nnanne o cnpane(nnocrn
8
n n neioropix cnn(erei-
crnax, nanpn:ep, Apncrorei coomaer, uro nn]aropenni onpe(enn
cnpane(nnocri n acoirno: c:ice iai noa(annne, pannoe |ymepy,
npnunnenno:y] (pyro:y
4
. Kcrarn, ra e ionnennnn xapairepnayer n
yuenne Anaicn:an(pa. Bano ro, uro cnpane(nnocri, iai noara Hn]a-
rop, nnnercn o(non na cocrannimnx npncymero ioc:ocy nopn(ia
b
, a no
cnn(ereicrny A:nnxa nanoee (encrnennon (n ycranonennn cnpa-
ne(nnocrn |Hn]arop] cunra nacri oron n iai (annie ei cnime
ycranannna on rocy(apcrno, aaioni, cnpane(nnocri n npano
6
. Ni ne
y(e: no(pono ocranannnaricn na yuennn Hn]aropa, nocioiiy ayren-
rnunix ]par:enron ero yuennn ne coxpannoci. Bano or:ernri ce(yi-
mee. Te cnn(ereicrna (oicorpa]on, ioropie :i yiaainan nime, nono-
crii coornercrnyir re: ocnonni: napa:erpa:, no ioropi: :i npe(ara-
n conocrannri rpeueciyi n npanciyi rpa(nnnn :y(poe cymecrno,
(yana: n cnpane(nnocri. C o(non croponi, ecn :i npnanae:, uro n
.rnx cnn(ereicrna ecri (on ncrnnnoro yuennn Hn]aropa, ror(a :ono
yrnep(ari, uro .rn npoe:i noannin n Honnncion ]noco]nn ye n
Vl n. (o n... n paannnanci noce(yimn:n noioennn:n ]noco]on, ecn
e .rn napeuennn, c (pyron croponi, npnnncani Hn]aropy n cny rpa(n-
nnn (ro ecri yiaaanne na nx (pennocri n anropnrernocri cnocono no(-
rnep(nri nx nanocri n airyainocri), :i nn(n:, uro .rn npoe:i npo-
(oair ecnoionri :icnreen noa(nen anrnunocrn, n :oe: peioncr-
pynponari oparnin (i apxanie) nyri na:enennn .rnx narn(on.
Coracno npnne(enni: nime cnn(ereicrna:, pannerpeuecine ]n-
oco]i n pannon crenenn :orn iri yuennia:n iai Hn]aropa, rai n
Anaicn:an(pa, no onpe(eennie cxo(nie n(en n .rnx yuennnx, noa-
:ono, nonnnnci n peayirare neaanncn:oro opamennn i iaio:y-ro
ome:y ncrounniy. Heoxo(n:o aa:ernri, uro na (nyx eamnx n ocno-
nannn pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn rpa(nnnn o(non, n(ymen or Anai-
cn:an(pa, n nn]aropencion nropan n (ainenme: oiaaaaci anaun-
reino nonynpnee n noyuna oee mnpoioe pacnpocrpanenne cpe(n
npnnepennen ]noco]nn. Tain: opaao:, ouenn(no, uro airnnnie ion-
rairi rpeion c npancion cpe(on cymecrnonan co npe:en apxanin, n
ecn ecri raian neoxo(n:ocri, ro .ro no(rnep(aer rnnoreay o ro:,
uro npancine npe(cranennn :orn nonrn n pannerpeueciyi ]noco]ni
n ro: nn nno: nn(e n:enno n .ror nepno(. Kpo:e roro, :ono npoce-
(nri ncroin ]op:nponannn pannerpeuecinx ]noco]cinx ionnennnn n
nnone ye(nreino noiaaari, uro iai nonnncian, rai n nranncian ]n-
oco]nn n (encrnnreinocrn n:eer e(nnyi ionnenryainyi aay n n-
nennyi noce(onareinocri cnoero paannrnn, uro noanoner ronopnri o
nen iai o neion e(nnon rpa(nnnn c e(nncrno: npoe:arnin, uro cyme-
crnenno ynpomaer peioncrpyinni ocnonnix ee nooennn, ioropie
nnone (ocronepno :oryr iri nine(eni n peayirare opamennn i cno-
coa: pemennn npoe:, npe(oenni: noce(yimen rpa(nnnen.
2. HEIBIH 3TAH 4OIMHIOBAHHA OHTOOIHHECKHX H
KOCMOOIHHECKHX BO33IEHHH IAHHEIIEHECKOH
4HOCO4HH. MHETCKAA 4HOCO4HA
Pacc:arpnnan yuenne Anaicn:an(pa n ero coornomennn c npancion
rpa(nnnen, :i n ocnonno: y(e: npn(epnnaricn ionnenryainon cxe-
:i, ioropyi npe(onn nime, n nac y(yr nnrepeconari n nepnyi oue-
pe(i ero npe(cranennn o nauae, npornnonoonocrnx n cnpane(nnoc-
rn. Ocy(enne nonpoca o aan:crnonannn Anaicn:an(po: neioropix opn-
enrainix npe(cranennn n niiuennn nx n cocrnennyi cncre:y :ono
nanrn n paanunix paorax aa noce(nne rpn(nari er iai ncropnion
]noco]nn, rai n npanncron
1
. Hourn nce (eran ero |Anaicn:an(pa
1
Hpnne(e: cciin na neioropie na nnx: .cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn-
:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 1. C. 89b8,
Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. 48b8, .c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nne-
nne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipernuecine iyiri. N., 1991. C. 1249,
.c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapyenon anecroornn ;;
Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 189207, .c.ckaa ... Anecra n conpe-
:ennon nayie. N., 1992, 1a.nckxx 1.. Paannrne ecrecrnoanannn n .noxy an-
rnunocrn. Pannnn rpeuecian nayia o npnpo(e. N., 1979, 1u:kc:1 1. lranisches
bei Anaximandros ;; Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie. 1968. V. 106. S. 7184,
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 110 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 111
A.1.] cncre:i oiaaanci n ro: nn nno: ornomennn aan:crnonanni:n y
napo(on Lnnero Bocroia, iai yrnep(aer H.]. Poancinn
1
. B .ro:
yrnep(ennn ecri (on ncrnni, nocioiiy paa(eenne nonnncinx rpeion
n Bocroia ne conce: ioppeirno n ciopee nciyccrnenno, n reorpa]nuec-
io:, n, neponrnee ncero, n iyirypno: ornomennn nonnnni i Vl n. (o n...
in oee nain nocrouno:y :npy, ue: .nncio:y n(py (panni:
opaao: ornuacn or ionrnnenrainon lpennn n rpeuecinn 3ana(
2
). Ho
ecn n npnanari nnemnne nnnnnn na cranonenne yuennn Anaicn:an(-
pa, ro rpeuecinn io:nonenr n ne: (ae oee cnen. Ni nonirae:cn
noiaaari .ro na npn:epe o(noro na ocnonnix nooennn n ioc:oornn n
onroornn Anaicn:an(pa, (n ioroporo npe(noaraercn nn (ae npn-
anaercn npancioe nponcxo(enne. 3ro nopn(oi pacnooennn neecnix
cnern, conepmenno ne xapairepnin (n rpeuecion ioc:oornn. B:ecre
c re:, .ro e nooenne pacc:arpnnaercn iai o(no na nanoee pannnx
rpeuecinx cnn(ereicrn o npancinx noaapennnx na ycrponcrno ioc:o-
ca
8
. Hepnan ncuepninaiman paora ornocnreino nopn(ia pacnooe-
nnn neecnix cnern ia c(eana B. Lypiepro:
4
. Anrop yrnep(aer,
uro n:enno (n Anaicn:an(pa na ocnonannn .rnx ca:ix npe(cranennn
nonie ionrairi c Bocroio: npn:o (oiaaye:i
b
.
Hrai, coracno cnn(ereicrny, Anaicn:an(p noara, uro nime
ncex pacnooeno Conne, aa nn: yna, no( nn:n neno(nnnie
anea(i n naneri, n:ecre c nn: raioro :nennn npn(epnnanci Ner-
po(op na Xnoca n Kparer (12 A18 DK)
6
, no (pyro:y cnn(ereicrny nime
ncero naxo(nrcn Conne, nne ncero ipyrn neno(nnnix anea( (12
A18 DK), or:ern:, uro n .ro: cyuae nnuero ne ronopnrcn o nanerax
no(nnnix anea(ax. H:enno raioe ce(onanne cnern, naunnan or
nanmero i 3e:e, r.e. noce(onareinocri n nopn(ie Jc+.sJac.-
,a.,n.Ca.nuc, pacc:arpnnaercn iai npn:oe npancioe nnnnne na
yuenne Anaicn:an(pa. Ornocnreino .roro nopn(ia N. Wes: aa:euaer,
uro raian cxe:a ne :oer iri orncnena c noannnn nayunoro noncia
nn a(panon ornin, nocioiiy nnno npornnopeunr nai(ae:on iaprn-
ne, no nnone coornercrnyer npancion penrnoanon ionnennnn ycne-
nnn cnnnnn cnern no :epe npnnennn or 3e:n i LoecrnyConny
n, aare:, i Leanauaino:y Cnery
1
. Hpan(a, na nam narn(, .ro aa:eua-
nne ciopee cnpane(nno (n conpe:ennoro nai(aren, ioropin noc-
nnrinaercn n ron napa(nr:e, ioropon nanecren (encrnnreinin nopn(oi
ce(onannn neecnix re, (n nai(aren Vl n. (o n... .ro ne io
croi ouenn(ni: (ae c noannnn nayunoro noncia
2
.
B. Lypiepr i nino(y o ro:, uro .ra noce(onareinocri (ocrarouno
(pennnn n n:eer npancioe nponcxo(enne, nec:orpn na ]nicanni n no-
a(nnx, nexennncinx reicrax, npnxo(nr na ocnonannn ninnennn ma:a-
nncrcioro ]ona .ron ionnennnn: noce c:eprn (yma npane(nnia no(nn:a-
ercn or 3e:n i rpony Axypa Naa(i oacrn Leanauainoro Cnera, a
.ac.,a .,n. Ca.nuc nnnircn cronnia:n na ee nyrn
8
. Hocioiiy
.ra ionnennnn nnnercn ycronunnon n anaunreino: ionuecrne npanc-
inx reicron (ne roiio nexennncinx) n n:eer uerine napaen n ne(n-
uecion rpa(nnnn, B. Lypiepr noaraer ee nn(oapnncin: nace(ne:,
oee crapi:, ue: pe]op:a 3aparymrpi
4
. Te: ne :enee, rpy(no cee
npe(crannri, uro n ioc:oornn Anaicn:an(pa npe(cranena n:enno nn(o-
enponencian ionnennnn, nocioiiy Anaicn:an(p i, noayn, o(nn: na
ne:nornx rpeion, ioropie ee npnananan
b
. Taie ona ne :ora iri Bann-
1
1a.nckxx 1.. Necro Anaicn:ena n cranonennn rpeuecioro nayunoro :im-
ennn ;; Balcanica. nnrnncrnuecine ncce(onannn. N., 1979. C. 180.
2
J.xuca .1. 4noco]cian no.:a rpeuecioro 3ana(a ;; ]pennnn Bocroi n
anrnunan nnnnnaannn. ., 1982. C. 48.
8
.c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapyenon anecroornn ;;
Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 197.
4
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106.
b
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106. S. 102.
6
Avoovpoo xo Mqtpopoo o Xo xo Kpotq ovtot rv ovtv tov
qov trto0o, rt outov r tqv orqvqv, uo r outou to oovq tv ootpv
xo tou ovqto. Pyccinn reicr Anaicn:an(pa nnrnpyercn no: J.:+cnfa
pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989.
1
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971, C. 90.
2
Hpe(cranennn o neoiuno:, na nepnin narn(, pacnooennn neecnix re
naxo(nr nnone pannonainoe orncnenne ue: oime cnernmnncn oreir,
re: (aime ero nn(no, ror(a nnone npne:e: n ce(yimnn cneiynrnnnin
xo( no:ecrnri Conne, ioropoe no nenunne ne :enime 3e:n n ecri unc-
renmnn oroni (xa:cn ..fckxx, 11, 12 ) iai :ono (aime or 3e:n, anea-
(i, naoopor, iai :ono ne.
8
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106. S. 106, 111.
4
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106. S. 110111.
b
Ho:n:o Anaicn:an(pa, iai io yno:nnyro, .ron ionnennnn npn(epnnanci
Nerpo(op na Xnoca n Kparer, no .ro :ao uro (oanner i nonn:anni yuennn
ca:oro Anaicn:an(pa n ero :ecra n anrnunon ]noco]cion rpa(nnnn. Oa .rn
]noco]a ye ne n:eir ornomennn i pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn n nnone
neponrno, npnmn i no(oni: nino(a: ca:ocronreino. Nerpo(op na Xnoca
yuncn y ]e:oipnra, ioropin n cnoi ouepe(i nioi i yuennio: iainx-ro
:aron n xa(een, ioropix napi Kcepic ocrann nacrannnia:n y ero orna, . y
nnx-ro on eme n (ercrne nepenn nayiy o orax n anea(ax (xa:cn ..fckxx,
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 112 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 118
oncion, nocioiiy npoeir ioc:oca Anaicn:an(pa n:eer npocrpancrnen-
no-reo:erpnuecinn nopn(oi na:epn:ix nenunn, n ro npe:n iai (n nann-
onnn, iai aa:euaer ca: e Lypiepr, no-npene:y ae:non n neecnin
(oecrnennin) :npi :icnnci iai (ne naan:no npornnonoonie noc-
iocrn
1
, uro io raie xapairepnon uepron ioc:oornn ro:eponcinx rpe-
ion (Aranr no((epnna na ipanne: aana(e cno( nea, na ioropo: in
pacnpe(eeni n aaipeneni cnerna)
2
. Hrai, nino(, no cona: Lypiepra,
:ono c(eari roiio o(nn, a n:enno, uro iapiac (n cnoen ioc:nuecion
:o(en Anaicn:an(p aan:crnona na npancion :n]oornn
8
. Oueni npa-
nninoe, na nam narn(, yiaaanne na aan:crnonanne Anaicn:an(po: roiio
nnenocrounon cxe:i iai iapiaca (n cnoero yuennn, a ne ioc:oorn-
uecion ionnennnn nenio:, re: ne :enee, raie oiaainaercn neci:a
marin:, ecn :i no(on(e: i yuenni Anaicn:an(pa rpa(nnnonno, iai i
npnna(eame:y naryp]noco]cio:y nanpanenni (pennerpeuecion
]noco]nn, n pa:iax ioroporo npe(araircn pannonancrnuecine reope-
rnuecine nocrpoennn, a .:nnpnuecinn :arepna, nocranne:in oipya-
imn: :npo:, cynr ne croiio ncrounnio: (n ]op:nponannn .rnx
ionnennnn, cioiio (n nx no(rnep(ennn.
Hyno nano:nnri, uro :i anae: o npancion ioc:oornn ne na
Anecri, a no oimen uacrn na nexennncinx ncrounnion. ro iacaer-
cn apxanuecion ioc:oornuecion :o(en npannen, ioropan peioncrpyn-
pyercn na neioropix naccaen Anecri (Rm yat (Yat 1b), Yasna,
72, Vendida:, b, 8, 9), ro ona npe(cranner coon npocryi rpna(y,
.e:enra:n ioropon nnnircn neecnin cno( (::1), on e, neponrno
nounracn iai or npe:enn, ar:oc]epa (+.:) (nn noa(yx), nonn:ae:an
iai coa(aiman n paapymaiman cna, n, naionen, ae:n (zm). B nexe-
nnncinn nepno( .ra cncre:a ia niiuena n oee conyi ioc:oo-
rnueciyi conoiynnocri .e:enron
4
. Kai npn .ro: pacnoaranci cnern-
a no ornomenni i neecno:y cno(y n ae:e, cy(nri rpy(no.
Anaicn:an(p noara, uro cnerna naxo(nrcn n kac+acc na neioropo:
paccronnnn (pyr or (pyra, uro io noni: n uncro cneiynrnnni: nocrpo-
enne:, on raie yiaaa na ro, uro paccronnnn :e(y cnerna:n ne o(nna-
ioni. Coracno npancion rpa(nnnn, paccronnnn :e(y neecni:n rea:n
(nx opnra:n, ronopn conpe:enni: naiio:)
1
panni. Ni npnne(e: npn:ep
na :noecrna cymecrnyimnx. Coracno nepcnn Lyn(axnmna :n]nuec-
ian ropa Aypa
2
poca na npornennn noci:ncor er: (necrn er (ona
poca) (o cronnin anea(, (necrn (o cronnin yni, (ecrn (o cronnin
conna, (necrn (o (cronnin) ecioneunoro cnera (c. 40(21r) c. 41(21v))
8
.
Coracno rpa(nnnn, Anaicn:an(p nepni: cra yunri o ro:, uro
cymecrnyir ioc:oci, onn ecioneuni no uncy n ynnuron:i. Koc:o-
ci nocronnno noanniair n ynnuroaircn (noae .ron rouin apennn
npn(epnnanci aro:ncri). Acoirnan npnunna noanninonennn n ynnu-
roennn Bceennon ecioneunoe, na ioroporo, no ero cona:, ni(e-
nnci neocno(i n noome nce ecioneunie ioc:oci (12 A10 DK)
4
.
Hauao cymnx |nemen] neian npnpo(a ecioneunoro, na ioropon
po(aircn neocno(i n ioc:oc n nnx (12 A11DK).
Pannie paccronnnn Anaicn:an(p npnanana roiio :e(y ioc:o-
ca:n |:npa:n]: ioc:oci ecioneuni |no uncy], . naxo(nrcn na pan-
no: paccronnnn o(nn or (pyroro (A17 DK). ro iacaercn oupovo , io-
ropie, no ncen nn(n:ocrn, coornercrnyir ipyra: nn c]epa:, npe(cran-
nimn: coon ioecoopaanie cnannmnecn crycrin a.pa, nonie ornn,
n onpe(eenno: :ecre ni(ixaimne na ycrien na:n (A18 DK), ro o
paccronnnnx :e(y nn:n no ]par:enrax ne yno:nnaercn, no .rn paccro-
nnnn no(unnnircn onpe(eennon nponopnnn. 3ro ce(yer na paa:epon
ipyra Conna, ioropin n (na(nari ce:i ((na(nari noce:i) paa oime
lX, 84-8b). Te: ne :enee, reicra Nerpo(opa ne coxpannoci, a ]par:enri ero
innrn O npnpo(e ne cnmio: noiaaareini (n pacc:orpennn .roro nonpoca,
re: oee (n conocranennn .roro ero yuennn co narn(a:n Anaicn:an(pa:
Mqtpopo oovto tou oovr ootrpo uo tou qou poooro0o
(70 A9 DK).
1
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106. S. 104.
2
Hcuepninaimee (oiaaareicrno c]epnunocrn Hea (a Apncrorei (C ncc,
B. 4), ra: e on ipnrniyer n :n] o Aranre (C ncc. 284 a 19).
8
1u:kc:1 1. lranisches bei Anaximandros `` Pheinisches Nuseum ur Philologie.
1968. V. 106. S. 111112.
4
Ho(pono o peioncrpyinnn .rnx noaapennn c:. ^,uc: 1.o. . Questions de
cosmogonie et de cosmologie mazdens II // Journal Asiatique. Octobre-dcembre, 1981.
1
B npancinx ncrounniax peui n(er o paccronnnnx or ae:n (o cronnin anea(, or
cronnin anea( (o cronnin yni, or cronnin yni (o cronnin conna, or
cronnin conna (o cronnin ecioneunoro cnera.
2
4apcn, cpe(nenepc. Xapypa, anecr. Xapa Lepeaanrn Bicoian lopa |Por],
cp. 3ipyc. Nnponie ropi.
8
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 276277. (c:.
raie C:c.1c: 1unc./::/n, 9, oc/cc1:an a: 2.c::.n, 7.8). Hnor(a paccronnne
:e(y cnerna:n na:epnercn n ..c.n:.. B noa(nnx ncrounniax .ro 6788,b :
(80 rpeuecinx cra(nn), nn ricnua maron oen:n nora:n (1unc./::/n, 29).
Cf.an (Xl. 10.b) nnmer, uro nepcn(cinn napacanr o(nn onpe(enir n 60, a
(pyrne n 80 nn 40 cra(nn. Hec:orpn na paanie nenunni na:epennn pac-
cronnnn, onn ncer(a ocraircn panni:n.
4
.yrvo rvov to o rpov o vo tq v o oov o t ov r rv tq tou ovto yrvr or
tr xo 0opo, r ou q qo tou tr oupovou ooxrxpo0o xo xo0oou touo
oovto orpou ovto xooou.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 114 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 11b
3e:n (ee (na:erpa), n ipyra yni, paa:ep ioroporo n noce:na(nari
((ennrna(nari) paa oime 3e:n (A11, A21, A22 DK)
1
. O(nn: na nep-
nix orncnenne .rn: nn]pa: (a l. ]nic, nne(n eme o(ny nn]py
(ennri ((ecnri, coornercrnenno) (n yiaaannn nenunni ipyra anea(
n nocnonnn re: ca:i: pn(. 3rn unca nocxo(nr i rpeuecion rpa(nnnn,
r(e unco (ennri :oro ooanauari (oroe npe:n ((ennri er nn (e-
nnri (nen (ocrarouno ycronunnan noannnn y lecno(a n lo:epa). Ho-
.ro:y 9.TB.27 :oryr nonn:aricn iai noniria narn(no nipaanri oueni
oimne paccronnnn or ae:n (o oupovo.
]oicorpa]i e(nno(ymno npnnncinair yuenne o paccronnnnx rpe-
ia:, ne yno:nnan n (anno: cyuae :aron n xa(een. Coracno En(e:y,
yuenne o paa:epax n paccronnnnx nepni: naope Anaicn:an(p, a ye
nce( aa nn: npanninin nopn(oi pacnooennn naner ycranonnn
nn]aropenni (A19 DK, Cn:nninn), npnananan, re: ca:i:, npanni-
nocri nponopnnn paccronnnn. Hponopnnonainocri paccronnnn :e(y
nanerni:n c]epa:n npe(noaraercn n nn]aropencion lap:onnn c]ep
2
,
o .ro: e coomair Apncrorei n Nera]nanie, A b. 98b b 28 n
Aeican(p A]po(ncnncinn n io::enrapnn i .ro:y :ecry (c 88, 10), n
na ioroporo :i noyuae: eme o(no orncnenne (ennrie. On coomaer,
uro nn]aropenni onpe(enn cnpane(nnocri iai nepnoe ina(parnoe
unco. 3rn: unco: o(nn cunran ueripe, rai iai .ro nepnin ina(par,
n npn .ro: (enrcn na |(ne] pannie uacrn, n nnnercn panni: (nocioi-
iy ueripe = (na(i (na), a (pyrne (ennri, rai iai .ro nepnin ina(-
par neuernoro unca rpex, y:noennoro na ca:oro cen
8
. ]aee on
coomaer, uro ncn Bceennan cocranena coracno neioropo:y rap:o-
nnuecio:y ornomenni., rai iai ona cocronr na unce n coracno unc-
ono:y n rap:onnuecio:y ornomenni. paccronnnn (nnymnxcn noipyr
nenrpa re nponopnnonaini, uro o(nn na nnx (nnyrcn icrpen, (py-
rne :e(ennen. Licrpen ncero, no nx :nenni, (nnyrcn rea c
nanoimen opnron, :e(ennee ncero c nan:enimen, a re, uro :e-
(y nn:n nponopnnonaino nenunne opnri
4
.
Ho-nn(n:o:y, :ono nanrn noannnn, coracno ioropi: nn(no, uro
reopnn Anaicn:an(pa o nopn(ie cnern nocna cyryo pannonancrn-
uecinn xapairep n cyna orncnenni nn(n:ix ]eno:enon. Bime :i
pacc:orpen neioropie npn:epi ioc:oornuecinx npnnnnnon nn]aro-
pennen, n iai iaercn, anaornuni: npnnnnna: no(unnnercn n iaprnna
:npa Anaicn:an(pa. Conne n:eer nanoimyi ciopocri npamennn, n,
ce(onareino, :aicn:ainyi opnry, coornercrnenno yna n neno(-
nnnie anea(i pacnooeni i 3e:e n nopn(ie yinannn ciopocrn
cnoero npamennn n nenunni opnr. Eme o(no nnone pannonainoe
orncnenne n:enno raio:y nopn(iy cnern :i :oe: ninecrn na reo-
pnn nnxpn, ioropyi no(pono pacc:arpnnaer Apncrorei. On ronopnr
rai: Ho.ro:y ecn cenuac 3e:n noionrcn nacnicrnenno, ro n nnxpe-
noe (nnenne, aro(apn ioropo:y ee uacrn copanci n nenrp, raie
io nacnicrnenni:. H:enno ero nce cunrair npnunnon, ocnoninanci
na |nai(ennn nnxpen], nponcxo(nmnx n n(iocrnx n n noa(yxe: n nnx
oee ipynnie n oee rneie rea ncer(a ycrpe:nircn i nenrpy
nnxpn. Ho :nenni ncex rex, iro cunraer :np noannimn:, n: n orncnn-
ercn, noue:y 3e:n copaaci n nenrp, a npnunny roro, uro ona ocraercn
na :ecre, n: npnxo(nrcn nciari (xcfafc.:, O nee, 29ba 9). Hne,
npo(oan cnoi :ici, Apncrorei or:euaer, uro noncio: orncne-
nnn neno(nnnocrn 3e:n aann:acn n Anaicn:an(p, npe(onnmnn
n iauecrne orncnennn n(ei pannonecnn (xcfafc.:, O nee, 29bb
10). Te: ca:i:, ce(yn apry:enrannn Apncroren, :i :orn i cora-
cnricn c re:, uro Anaicn:an(p n Anaicn:en ycranonnn n ocnonannn
cnoen ioc:oronnn reopni nnxpn, cyri ioropon naaraercn n nx yuenn-
nx nocpe(crno: rep:nnon crymenne n paapeenne noa(yxa. Kpo:e
roro, n npe(cranennn Anaicn:ena o e(nno: nponecce naan:onpenpa-
mennn ncex nemen (pyr n (pyra nocpe(crno: crymennn n paapeennn
noa(yxa (A 8 DK. lep:nn: Crymanci n cnaunnanci, on |noa(yx] crano-
nnrcn no(on n ae:en, paapeanci n paccennanci .]npo: n orne:, a
nepnynmnci i cnoen npnpo(e |cnona] noa(yxo:) npoc:arpnnaercn
cxo(crno c yuenne: Anaicn:an(pa o ipyronopore nemen coracno :epe
cnoero cymecrnonannn. Kpnrniyn n(ei pannonecnn, Apncrorei yno:n-
naer o ro:, uro :ecro na nepn]epnn (n ornn ecrecrnenno, n oroni
npn orcyrcrnnn npennrcrnnn craner (nnraricn i nepn]epnn, iai .ro
(oiaainaer nai(enne (xcfafc.:, O nee, 29bb 2b, 296a 10).
Kpo:e roro, Apncrorei npe(araer ce(yimee npocrpancrnennoe pac-
nooenne .e:enron: no(a oipyaer ae:i, noa(yx no(y, oroni
noa(yx, n oroni, re: ca:i:, oiaainaercn nanoee nnemne pacnooen-
ni: .e:enro: (xcfafc.:, O nee. 287a 80). H xorn ecri nce ocnona-
1
Ouenn(no, uro paccronnnn :e(y cnerna:n n raio: cyuae ne :oryr iri
panni, nocioiiy P

=27;2 P

=18;2 coornercrnenno.
2
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. N.,
1991. C. 72.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 468.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 468469. Heiyi anao-
rni niuncennn pa(nainix paccronnnn :e(y nanera:n :ono yc:orperi n
nannoncinx reicrax XllXl nn. (o n... B o(no: na nnx nponopnnonainin pn(
nirn(nr iai (19: 17: 14: 11: 9: 7: 4), no Ban-(ep-Bap(en or:euaer, uro .rn unca
ne nnnircn peayiraro: na:epennn, a nnnircn uncron cneiynnnen, a ca:
reicr ne oee, ue: :are:arnuecian aa(aua (1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aima-
ncn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. N., 1991. C. 72)
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 116 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 117
nnn co:nenaricn n ro:, uro Anaicn:an(p ncxo(n n orncnennn :npa na
ionnennnn ueripex .e:enron
1
, re: ne :enee, ornomenne ae:n-nenrp
n oroni-nepn]epnn iaercn nnone (ocronepni: (n ero yuennn
2
.
B rpeuecion iyirype n apxnreirype mnpoio ncnoiaonaaci npo-
nopnnn, n :i ncrpeuae: n ca:on rpeuecion iyirype re n(en, ioropie
naxo(n: n n ocnonannn npocrpancrnennix na:epennn Anaicn:an(pa.
Hanecrno, uro ye apxnreirypa ]pennero Ernnra no(unnnaci ecrin:
npanna: n aaiona:, no n:enno n op(epnon cncre:e rpeuecion apxnrei-
rypi n pannnn nepno( ia nipaorana crporan cncre:a, ocnonannan na
npo(y:anno: nponopnnonaino: coornomennn uacren a(annn
8
. ]pennen-
mnn na rpeuecinx op(epon (opnuecinn noyuaer oionuareinoe
o]op:enne n ia:ennix xpa:ax i. Vll n. Vl n. (o n... (ro ecri, io
npe:enn nann Anaicn:an(pa). Ecn nepnri Bnrpynni, ]aca( (opnuec-
ioro xpa:a (oen (enricn na 27 uacren, npnue: aa :o(yi npnnn:aer-
cn noonnna (na:erpa ioonni
4
. B :o(en ioc:oca Anaicn:an(pa :o-
no yc:orperi rexno:op]nin, n npornnonec anrpono:op]no:y, xapairep,
a n coornercrnnn c .rn: npn:ennri i nen n npnnnnni apxnreirypnoro
coopyennn. A n:enno, (na:erp ae:n cynr :o(ye: npn nocrponie
ioc:oca, (na:erp ioc:oca panen (na(narn ce:n :o(yn:, naionen, ae:-
n cxoa c apaano: ia:ennon ioonni (Bb DK)
b
.
Hec:orpn na neioropie cxo(ennn c nannoncion n npancion rpa-
(nnnen, ioc:oornn Anaicn:an(pa, ciopee ncero, n:eer rpeuecioe npo-
ncxo(enne. Kai noiaaan npnne(ennie nime npn:epi, npe(cranennn
o nponopnnn in nacroiio yiopeneni n rpeuecion iyirype n n ca:on
rpeuecion rpa(nnnn in c]op:nponani npairnuecin nce npe(nociin
(n coa(annn Anaicn:an(po: cnoen :o(en :npa, uro ronopnri o nc-
iiunreino nocrouno: nponcxo(ennn .rnx n(en n nx ocoananno: ynor-
peennn iai nannoncioro nn npancioro opaana (ocrarouno cono.
Kor(a :i ronopnn o ocnonnix napa:erpax, no ioropi: npe(nou-
rnreinee conocrannri rpeueciyi n npanciyi iyirypy, n iauecrne
o(noro na nnx :i yno:nnan o nicme: npnnnnne nn nauae, ioropoe
nnnercn npnunnon nemen n coirnn n :npe, n ioropoe (no ncnio: cy-
uae, n npancion rpa(nnnn) n:enyercn oro:. ro iacaercn yuennn Anai-
cn:an(pa, ro n:enno ero npe(cranennn o nauae nnnircn nanoee
rpy(ni:n (n nnrepnperannn. Cn:nninn coomaer, uro na noarai-
mnx o(no (nnymeecn n ecioneunoe |nauao] Anaicn:an(p, cin Hpai-
cna(a, :neren, npee:nni n yuenni 4aeca, nauao: n .e:enro: cy-
mnx |nemen] noara ecioneunoe (to orpov), nepni: nne(n .ro n:n
nauaa. 3rn: |nauao:] on cunraer ne no(y n ne iaion-nny(i (pyron na
rai naainae:ix .e:enron, no neiyi nnyi ecioneunyi npnpo(y, na
ioropon po(aircn neocno(i |:npi] n naxo(nmnecn n nnx ioc:oci
(Cx+.xkxx. Ko::. i 4nanie, 24, 18). Ha .roro ce(yer, uro nauao
o(nonpe:enno (ono nnnricn n ue:-ro nni: no ornomenni i cymn:
nema: (iai nopo(aimee nx nauao opq
1
) n n ro e npe:n nx
.e:enro: (iai, nanpn:ep, no(a 4aeca, nn oroni lepainra).
C rouin apennn Apncroren, ro, uro ecioneunoe npnnn:aercn n
iauecrne nauaa ]nania:n, nnone ornuno. Y nero ner nauaa, no
ono ca:o, no ncen nn(n:ocrn, ecri nauao |ncero] (pyroro, nce ore:er
n nce: ynpanner, iai ronopnr re, ioropie ne npnanair, ipo:e ecio-
neunoro, (pyrnx npnunn, nanpn:ep paay:a nn inn. H ono oecrnen-
no, no ecc:eprno n nepaapymn:o, iai ronopnr Anaicn:an(p n oi-
mnncrno ]ncnooron (xcfafc.:, 4nania, 208b. 11). Kpo:e roro, na
Apncroren nanecrno, uro ca: Anaicn:an(p nonn:a nauao iai :are-
pnainoe, ro ecri npnnn:a to orpov aa cycrannni n niciaainacn o
nen iai o :arepnn, ue: iai neuro oecrnennoe. C rouin apennn Apncro-
ren, ecioneunoe ne cycrannnn, a arpnyr, nocioiiy ono ecri n-
mennocri. ]aee, ecn to o rpov npe(crannercn neorpannuenni: nc-
rounnio: ncex iauecrnennix na:enennn n :npe, :oer n on ca: nonn-
:aricn iai iauecrno n cny roro, uro npnna(enr pn(y cymnx nemen
Tain: opaao:, nipnconinaercn (nonian rpaironia nauaa. Bo-
nepnix, .ro cocrnenno nauao n nnemnnn npnunna noanninonennn n
ynnuroennn n re: ca:i:, onpe(eennin perynpyimnn :exanna: .ro-
ro nponecca, nocioiiy on nce: ynpanner, n c (pyron croponi, y(y-
1
C:. 1./n C/. 1. Anaximander and :he Origins o Greek Cosmology. New York,
1960. P. 160168.
2
3e:n noionrcn nocepe(nne |ioc:oca], aann:an nenrpainoe :ecronooenne
n cny mapoopaanocrn, a raie uro yna cnner oni: cnero: n ocnemaercn
Conne:, a Conne |no nenunne] ne :enime 3e:n n ecri uncrenmnn oroni
(xa:cn ..fckxx, ll, 12).
8
Cx,aaa. 1.. lpeuecioe nciyccrno ;; Anrnunan lpennn. Hpoe:i paann-
rnn nonca. T. 2. N., 1988. C. 2808b7. C. 816.
4
.cc,ca .1. leo:erpnuecinn crni n ioc:oornn Anaicn:an(pa ;; Kyirypa
n nciyccrno anrnunoro :npa. Narepnai nayunon ion]epennnn. 1979. N., 1980.
C. 104118. C. 109.
b
.cc,ca .1. leo:erpnuecinn crni n ioc:oornn Anaicn:an(pa ;; Kyirypa
n nciyccrno anrnunoro :npa. Narepnai nayunon ion]epennnn. 1979. N., 1980.
C. 104118. C. 109.
1
Bce, iro roiio aacynnaimn: nnn:annn opaao: aann:acn narypainon
]noco]nen, roionan o ecioneuno: n nce noarair ero nein: onroornuec-
in: nauao: (opq) (xcfafc.:, 4nania, l 4, 202b 86).
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 118 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 119
un ncrounnio: ncero cymero, on e, re: ca:i:, nnnercn n rpannnen
cymero, ore:imn:, n n:enno n raion rpaironie nauao y(er nmeno
iauecrn. Bo-nropix, .ro .e:enr cymero n ror(a on npnna(enr pn(y
cymecrnyimnx nemen, n nocpe(crno:, nanpn:ep, :exanna:a paapee-
nnn nn crymennn, rpanc]op:npyercn no nce nemn, nnnercn nn :are-
pnen nn naopo: norennnainix iauecrn.
Hnrepnperannn ionnennnn nauaa Anaicn:an(pa yconnercn eme
n re:, uro (o nac (ome roiio e(nncrnennin ]par:enr ero yuennn,
ioropin :i noanon: cee a(eci npnnecrn: A na iainx |naua] nema:
po(enie, n re e ca:ie n rnei conepmaercn no poionon aa(oenno-
crn, no onn ninaunnair (pyr (pyry npanoaaionnoe noa:emenne ne-
npan(i |= ymepa] n naanauennin cpoi npe:enn
1
.
4par:enr Anaicn:an(pa o nopo(aime: ncrounnie (to o rpov)
(ome n naoennn Teo]pacra, npnue: reicr ca:oro Teo]pacra ne coxpa-
nncn. On uacrnuno nepe(an Cn:nnine:, ioropin :or, n cnoi ouepe(i,
noiaonaricn no ni(epia:n na Teo]pacra, no io::enrapne: Aei-
can(pa A]po(ncnncioro na Jx.xk, Apncroren, ipo:e roro, nenanecrno,
i n (ocrynen noce(nn: (non: nonin reicr counnennn Teo]pacra.
Beci:a noiaaareino nicrpnpyer .ry cnryanni cpannnreinan ran-
na n na(annn Knpia-Pennena
2
, orpaaiman napnanri naoennn :nennn
Teo]pacra o nponano(nmen cycrannnn Cn:nnine:, Hnnonro: n Hcen-
(o-Hyrapxo:: nce rpn nepcnn cymecrnenno pacxo(nrcn. Loimnncrno io:-
:enraropon rpeuecion ]noco]nn npnna(ear i oee noa(nen .noxe,
ue: ra, n ioropyi n Anaicn:an(p n nx cnn(ereicrna o (ocoiparniax
(aeio ne ncer(a oreirnnni. Onn, iai npanno, naoeni uepea npn-
a:y conpe:ennix (oicorpa]a: pemennn, ni(nnrae:ix n conepmenno
nnix yconnnx. A npn raio: onocpe(onanno: napnanre nnrnponannn, ia-
ion :i nai(an nime, nn(n:o, nenoa:ono naeari neioropix ncia-
ennn. Hcce(onaren ocoanair .ry npoe:y, no nonirin ee oonrn
nopo(air nonie n nonie nnrepnperannn. B uacrnocrn, oimnncrno:
yuenix ornepraercn ayrenrnunocri rep:nna o pq, n npe(noaraercn, uro
Teo]pacr ero ncnoiaona iai rexnnuecioe cpe(crno (n oropaennn
nonnrnn to o rpov. Ni, n cnoi ouepe(i, ne y(e: n(anaricn n ]noorn-
uecine cnopi, nocioiiy nac nnrepecyer iapiac yuennn, nn oman, aa-
(annan ianna npoe:arnin, a ona (ocrarouno erio niunrinaercn iai na
io::enraropcion nreparypi, rai n na opnrnnainoro ]par:enra, n (an-
no: cyuae .ro npe(cranennn o nauae, rnen :npon n nemen, n(en
necnpane(nnocrn n cnpane(nnoro noa(annnn n nauarin ]op:ynponin
npoe:i npornnonoonocren.
Ha ocnonannn .roro :i npe(arae: ce(yimyi, yconnyi n cxe-
:arnunyi, peioncrpyinni yuennn Anaicn:an(pa (12 B 1DK): npornno-
noonocrn (ioppeirnee ronopnri o ...x4na c,ux acu.) n cny
cnoen npnpo(i ion]niryir :e(y coon, uro npnno(nr i nairiy ron
nn nnon nemn (o(non na cocrannimnx noa:onon napi npornnono-
onocren), uro nnnercn necnpane(nnocrii (oxo) no ornome-
nni i (pyron cocrannimen
1
. ]n npe(ornpamennn rnen nn ee or(a-
ennn na neioropoe npe:n cynr to orpov iai cycrpar nemen n
opq iai nx nauao. To ecri, cymecrnyer neinn perynpyimnn .e:enr,
ioropin ocymecrnner :exanna: noa:emennn ymepa, nnnnci o(nonpe-
:enno n cycrparo: (nni: no ornomenni i cymn: nema:) n .e:enro:
.rnx cymnx nemen, n cny uero ro(ecrnennin n:, n on oiaainaercn,
re: ca:i:, ncrounnio:, na ioroporo nocnonnircn yrpari.
Ha(o ciaaari, uro perynpyimen n ynpannimen ]yninnen, ocy-
mecrnnn ionrpoi na( cnryannen n noa:emenne ymepa cyme:y, oa-
(aer ne roiio nauao Anaicn:an(pa: re e uepri :i :oe: onapy-
nri n (pyrnx pannerpeuecinx ]noco]cinx yuennnx. Heioropan nx rpanc-
]op:annn n ornomennn i nonn:anni nauaa Anaicn:an(pa yiaainaer
na ro, uro npoe:a nauaa iai apxonra n ]noco]nn noannia n:ec-
re c noce(nen n paannnaaci no :epe paannrnn n ca:on rpeuecion rpa-
(nnnn. Kai i no(no(n uepry no( .rn:n noaapennn:n, Apncrorei, pac-
cy(an o npnpo(e ecioneunoro, ronopnr: Be(i nce cymecrnyimee nn
|ecri] nauao, nn |ncxo(nr] na nauaa, y ecioneunoro e ne cymecrny-
er nauaa, rai iai ono io i ero ionno:. ]aee, |ecioneunoe], y(y-
un nein: nauao:, ne noanniaer n ne ynnuroaercn, ne(i ro, uro noann-
iaer, neoxo(n:o noyuaer ioneunoe aanepmenne, n ncnioe ynnuroe-
nne npnno(nr i ionny. Ho.ro:y, iai :i ciaaan, y nero ner nauaa, no
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989.
xoto to prv ovo yop outo xqv xo tov oqo tq oxoo xoto
tqv tou povou tov. A ncrounni npnxo(nmnx n irne cymnx nemen ecri
ror, n ioropin, raie, n paapymenne nponcxo(nr n coornercrnnn c neoxo(n:o-
crii, no onn narnr naiaaanne n noa:ea(ne (pyr (pyry aa nx necnpane(nnocri
n coornercrnnn c ycranonenne: Bpe:enn (n na(. 1::k C.o., 1.+cn J.1., oc/a::c/c
A. The Presocra:ic Philosophers. A cri:ical his:ory wi:h a selec:ion o :ex:s. 2-nd
ed. Cambridge, 1988. P. 106108).
2
1::k C.o., 1.+cn J.1., oc/a::c/c A. The Presocra:ic Philosophers. Cambridge,
1988. P. 106108.
1
B iauecrne arpeccopa :oer nicrynari, nanpn:ep, oroni, a ero ecionrpoi-
nin nepenec npnno(nr i :npono:y noapy, anaornuni: opaao: (encrnyer
no(a, n ian (pyran cocranniman nap npornnonoonocren. Te:a iaracrpo],
noapon n nano(nennn ia (ocrarouno nonynpna n (pennerpeuecion ]noco-
]nn, cp. lepainr o :npono: noape, Haron o iaracrpo]ax n Tn:ee n Kpn-
rnn n :n. (p. C:. raie Haron o npnpo(e cnpane(nnocrn (locy(apcrno,
8b8e 8b9c).
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 120 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 121
ono ca:o, no ncen nn(n:ocrn, ecri nauao |ncero] (pyroro, nce ore:er
n nce: ynpanner.. Te: ca:i:, n a(eci cnona n ocnonannn ear
ne .:nnpnuecine (annie, a pannonancrnuecian, ornuecian ioncr-
pyinnn, cxe:a paannrnn :npa ne :oer iri (pyron :np noanni,
n on, ce(onareino, (oen nornnyri. Cpe(crno ionrpon na( .rn:n
nponecca:n :oer iri roiio o(no, ro, uro ca:o ne no(nepeno raioro
po(a na:enennn:, eanauainoe n ecioneunoe nauao ncero. Nono
npe(onri necioiio peioncrpynponannix napnanron ocymecrnennn
ionrpon, ocymecrnne:oro ., ornocnmnxcn i ro:y nn nno:y pan-
nerpeuecio:y ]noco]y nn mioe
1
.
1. opq oecneunnaer nauao :npy n iauecrne rouin orcuera, ra-
panrnpyn n aa(anan, re: ca:i:, neioropin oee nn :enee npornen-
nin orpeaoi npe:enn cymecrnonannn. ]nreinocri .roro cymecrnona-
nnn onpe(enercn cnoconocrii nemen no(unnnricn ycranonenni:
npanna: nn aaiona:.
2. o pq ynpanner nce: cymn: n ore:er ero, re: ca:i: x.anc
ionrponpyn cocronnne nopo(ennix n rnnymnx nemen n :npe, rai, uro-
i coxpannoci nx neioropoe pannonecnoe coornomenne n noa:eman ne-
cnpane(nnocri, nicrynan n iauecrne apxonra nn cy(in. O(nn na noa:o-
nix napnanron nnrepnperannn o pq iai cy(in 1c+s
2
. B pa:iax oee
noa(nen ionnennnn, npe(oennon Hap:enn(o:, neunocri cymecrnonannn
oecneunnaer oriaa or :noecrnennocrn n npnananne e(nncrna cymero.
acrnin cyuan .roro nooennn, ior(a o pq nnnercn cocrnenno npann-
o: nn aaiono: (n aaiono: na:enennn n ro: unce .a:ac)
8
.
8. opq nnnercn cycrparo: ncex nemen nn ue:-ro n::anenrni:
:npy, re: ca:i: x.n,fx npn(aer nanennyi cny (.on) nema: (no(a,
oroni), no perynpyer nponecci.
B neo: n ncropnn pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn :i :oe: ni(e-
nri (na nanoee omnx rnna pemennn npoe:i yrpari cymecrnona-
nnn, coornercrnyimnx (ny: nanpanennn: pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn.
Honnncian ]noco]nn, opnenrnponannan na (nna:na: n onncannn coor-
nercrnyimnx cnryannn, npe(araer n iauecrne pemennn rnioe ynpane-
nne na ocnonannn :oninix, na:enne:ix, ioppeirnpye:ix aaionon.
Noo npornnonocranen rpa(nnnonni: (oecrnenni:) aaiona: n y(on-
ernopn rpeonannn: rpa(an, ioropie opamanci i :y(pena: c
npocion nanncari (n nnx aaioni c yuero: cnryannn (nanecrni aaioni
]paionra, Coona, Hporaropa, cp. 3aioni Harona, lepainr oriaaa-
cn or no(onoro npe(oennn). Taion cnoco nocnr nacnicrnennin
xapairep n ocymecrnnercn nanne, nacnicrnenno crannanpyn cnrya-
nni
1
. Hnaue ronopn, nce cymee no(unneno npannme:y nauay, ioropoe n
neioropo: c:ice ycranannnaer rpannni (ore:er cymee), aaioni,
no(unnnn ioropi:, noyuaer noa:onocri ynpannri (xuprpvov) cnrya-
nnen. Hranncian ]noco]nn, nanpanennan na crarnunocri, npe(ara-
er perynponari cnryanni nanyrpn uepea neioropie naaone: nx ecre-
crnenni:n ]airopi, aaoennie n ca:nx npornnonoonocrnx. 4n-
oco]nn opnenrnponana na nonci .rnx ]airopon, n peayirare ]op:yn-
pyircn ionnennnn cepe(nni iai rouin nnyrpennero pannonecnn, nnyr-
pennen rap:onnn (opovo) npornnonoonocren. B (anno: cyuae ion-
nennnn nne-nooennoro Hauaa yrpaunnaer cnoe anauenne n paannnaer-
cn npe(cranenne o nauae iai n::anenrno: pn(y cymero, npe(noaran
ye ne nnemnne, a nnyrpennne piuarn ynpanennn cnryannen, nemn n
ecri nauaa (3:ne(oi, re e n(en c noannnn :noecrnennocrn naua
(aee paannnan Anaicarop, ]e:oipnr).
Bn(no, uro npn pemennn npoe:i ncnoiayercn neci naop npo-
e:arnin nauao, npornnonoonocrn, cnpane(nnocri, ye no-
oennin n ocnony n yuennn Anaicn:an(pa.
Hrai, noanpamanci i name:y nonpocy, nano:nn:, uro to o rpov
ecri nauao, ynpannimee nce:n nema:n n nce: ynnnepcy:o: n neo:.
Ha nnrnponannoro nime ]par:enra Apncroren (xcfafc.:, 4nania, 208b.
41b) nn(no, uro on (eaer nino( o oecrnennocrn nauaa Anaicn:an(-
pa na ocnonannn ecc:eprnn n nepaapymn:ocrn .iroro nauaa (o 0o votov
yo p xo o v r0pov), a, ipo:e roro, raine ero arpnyri iai nepo(en-
1
3(eci na:n aa ocnony nanra peioncrpynponanan cxe:a noa:onix :ero(on
ionrpon, ocymecrnne:oro nauao:, iaion ona npoc:arpnnaercn n yuennnx pan-
nnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on |1::k C.o., 1.+cn J.1., oc/a::c/c A. The Presocra:ic
Philosophers. P. 116].
2
Beponrno, raiona ia oruacrn n noannnn Anaicn:an(pa: no onn |nemn
A.1.] narnr naiaaanne n noa:ea(ne (pyr (pyry aa nx necnpane(nnocri n coor-
nercrnnn c ycranonenne: Bpe:enn (12 B 1 DK). W. Jeger noaraer, uro ion-
nennnn npe:enn iai cy(in :oer iri nan(ena y anropon roro npe:enn, n n
iauecrne npn:epa cciaercn na Coona |Jcc: 1. The Theology o :he Early
Greek Philosophers. Oxord, 19b2. P. 8b].
8
Bonpoc o coornomennn ionnennnn npe:enn-.ona, oroca n opq, n uacrnocrn, n
yuennn lepainra, y(er pacc:orpen n coornercrnyimen rane.
1
Cp. Apncrorei, O nee, B 18. 29ba, raie Haron, locy(apcrno, 8b9c:
.npnunna ryr n cnoeiopicrnn, i ioropo:y, iai ary, crpe:nrcn ian npnpo-
(a, n roiio c no:omii aaiona, nacnicrnenno ee aacrannir coi(ari na(e-
amyi :epy.
2
Hnnonr coomaer, uro npnpo(a ecioneunoro neuna n necrapeima, nnrnpyn
npn .ro: ror e nacca na Teo]pacra, uro n Cn:nninn c Hcen(o-Hyrapxo:.
Hpn .ro: ]op:ya, ioropyi on npn:enner, xapairepnayn ecioneunoe, ornuna
or npe(oennon Apncroree:, no coornercrnyer ro:eponcion ]op:ye, npno-
n:on i ora: iai ecc:eprni: n necrapeimn: |1::k C.o., 1.+cn J.1.,
oc/a::c/c A. The Presocra:ic Philosophers. Cambridge, 1988. P. 117].
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 122 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 128
nin, nceore:imnn n nce nanpannimnn (nn nce: npannmnn)
(rpr rv xuprpvo v) oiuno ornocnrcn i paapn(y oecrnennix
2
. Tor-
(a, ce(yn Apncrorei, :ono npnanari, uro to o rpov (oen nonn-
:aricn iai oecrno, n .ra rouia apennn oiaercn naion ecn ne i
:onorena:y, ro, no ncnio: cyuae, y(er nepeiniaricn c yuennn:n Kce-
no]ana (coracno ioropo:y ecri roiio o(nn or, ioropin nce (nner
cnoi y:a) n lepainra (coracno ioropo:y, :y(pocri cocronr n ro:,
uroi anari Paay:, nocpe(crno: ioroporo nce nemn ynpannircn uepea
nce
1
), n n ro:, n n (pyro: cyuae ncno, uro neuro e(nnoe :oer
ynpannri nema:n :npa n ero npnpo(a paay:na.
B raion rpaironie ecioneunon npnpo(i Anaicn:an(pa iai oe-
crna :i ncrpeuae: o(no aarpy(nenne coracno cnn(ereicrna:, ona
nmena paay:noro nauaa. Kn:enr Aeican(pnncinn coomaer, uro nne
nonnrne ecioneunoro Anaicn:an(p, no npncoe(nnnn i ecioneunoc-
rn y: Anaicarop Kaao:encinn n Apxean A]nncinn (A 1b DK). Co-
racno Cn:nnini, nec:orpn na cxo(crno ionnennnn Anaicn:an(pa n
Anaicaropa, roiio Anaicarop ycranonn Y: npnunnon (nnennn n
noanninonennn (A 9a DK), Anrycrnn, naaran ionnennni Anaicn:an(-
pa o nauaax, noanninonennn n ynnuroennn nemen, raie or:euaer,
uro on ne y(en nniaion pon oecrnenno:y y:y (12 A 17 DK)
2
.
]aee, ecri cnn(ereicrna o ro:, uro ora:n Anaicn:an(p cunra ec-
ioneunie neocno(i (:npi)
8
, uro no :nenni Anaicn:an(pa, orn po-
(eni: onn noanniair n nornair uepea (orne npo:eyrin npe:enn n
npn .ro: cyri ecuncennie :npi. Hpn ro: Unnepon, ocrannnmnn .ro
cnn(ereicrno, ne(oy:enaer, iai e or, ioropin ne :oer :icnricn
nnaue, ue: neunin, (oen nornnyri
4
. Cxo(ni: opaao: Unnepon coo-
maer o rouie apennn Anaicn:ena: .noa(yx or, uro on po(aercn,
nena:epn: n ecioneuen n ncer(a n (nnennn. Hpn .ro: nanpanenne
ipnrnin ro e ca:oe, nce, uro po(eno, (ono nornnyri (18 A10
DK). He:noro ncnocrn ornocnreino ionnennnn Anaicn:ena nnocnr
Hnnonr: nauao ecioneunin noa(yx, na ioroporo po(aercn ro,
uro ecri, uro io n uro y(er, a raie orn n oecrnennie cyme-
crna. (18 A 7DK). Ho ncen nn(n:ocrn, n Anaicn:an(p, n ero yuenni
paanuan :e(y acrpairni: npnnnnno: nauaa nemen n ca:n:n ne-
ma:n uyncrnenno nocnpnnn:ae:oro :npa, i ioropi: ouenn(no, ornocn-
nci n rpa(nnnonnie oecrna. Hauao oa(ao pn(o: oecrnennix
xapairepncrni (o ioropix peui ma nime), no npnnnnnnaino n iaue-
crnenno ornuaoci or roro, uro npe(crann coon oipyaimnn :np.
Tain: opaao:, :i :oe: npe(onri ce(yimee peai:e cnn(ereicrn
(oicorpa]on o orax n npe(cranennn Anaicn:an(pa: oecrnennan npn-
po(a no neunan, no nmena .roro arpnyra, n n io: cyuae ona
nmena paay:a. Te cnn(ereicrna, ioropi:n :i pacnoarae:, neci:a
noa(nne, or(eennie or npe:enn nann Anaicn:an(pa nourn na ricnue-
erne n neponrno, n noncie paay:noro nauaa nn oee roro, ora, in
aannrepeconani ca:n (oicorpa]i. ]pyrn:n cona:n, ca: Anaicn:an(p
ne orno(n iiuenon pon ora: n cnoen ionnennnn, n re cymecrnennie
npnanain n ero yuennn, ioropie n .noxy noa(nen anrnunocrn io npnnn-
ro inan]nnnponari iai oecrnennie, n:enno rai n in nocnpnnnri
io::enraropa:n. 3(eci c:ymaer roiio ro, uro noce(yimne ]noco]i,
n n nepnyi ouepe(i, nenocpe(crnennie noce(onaren Anaicn:an(pa Kce-
no]an n lepainr ronopnn o oecrnenno: iai paay:no: nauae. Ho n
io: cyuae, n nx ionnennnn (oni na:n pacc:arpnnaricn iai cnoero
po(a cynparencrnuecine no ornomenni i rpa(nnnonni: noaapennn:, no(-
nepranmn:cn ecn ne ecrion ipnrnie, iai y Kceno]ana, ro, no ncnio:
cyuae, ioncrpyirnnno:y nepec:orpy.
Beponrno, Anaicn:an(p (encrnnreino noce(onareino npn(ep-
nnacn ne anrpono:op]non rexnnnncrion iaprnni :npa, n ioropon
ecn n no(paay:enacn neinn paay:nin (e:nypr, ro ero (encrnnn in
npe(eino cxe:arnanponani, ro ecri nnno npoc:arpnnaercn crpe:enne
Anaicn:an(pa onncari ]yninnonnponanne ynnnepcy:a ne c no:omii
rex arpnyron, ioropie ornocn:i i ueoneiy, a n nepnyi ouepe(i rex,
ioropie ne n:eir npn:oro nn onocpe(onannoro ornomennn i noce(ne-
:y (nycri (ae no anaornn, uepea anrpono:op]naanni, uro xapai-
repno (n rpa(nnnonnix oron rpeuecion napo(non penrnn).
Hrai, npoe:a nauaa, iai :i nn(n:, oiaainaercn neci:a airy-
ainon (n ncero nepno(a pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn n i .ro:y nonpocy
:i eme nepne:cn n noce(yimnx ranax. Te: ne :enee, n nnno: nn(e
.ra npoe:a nnepnie nocranena n :nercion mioe, (n ioropon, iai
:i yno:nnan, ne ornepraircn npn:ie reorpa]nuecine n nonrnuecine,
a n:ecre c re: n iyirypnie ionrairi c npancin: :npo:. B cny .roro
nnrepecno io i npoce(nri n npoanananponari :o:enri conna(e-
1
lepainr ncnoiayer paanie cona (n nipaennn nonnrnn ynpannri, n
(anno: cyuae xuprpvqo, n ro: cyuae, ior(a yrnep(aer, uro Nonnn npa-
nnr nce:n nema:n oqx.
2
Kpo:e roro, nonnrnn iri nceore:imn: n ynpannri raie ne onaa-
reino no(paay:enair iai cocrnennon naan:ocnnan, rai paay:noro arenra, n
uacrnocrn, ynpanenne iopae: (yin. xuprpvo v) :oer ocymecrnnricn n uncro
:exannuecin, ea airnnnoro n:emareicrna iop:uero |1::k C.o., 1.+cn J.1.,
oc/a::c/c A. The Presocra:ic Philosophers. C. 116]. B neo: .ro yrnep(enne
nnone coornercrnyer rexnnnncrion iaprnne :npa Anaicn:an(pa.
8
Nnennn ]noco]on, l, 7, 12, A 17 DK, J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco-
]on. N., 1989. C. 128.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 128 (A 17 DK).
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 124 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 12b
nnn omen ionnenryainon cxe:i yuennn Anaicn:an(pa n npancion
rpa(nnnn. To orpov, pacc:arpnnae:in n iauecrne nauaa, .ro o(no-
npe:enno n fa, x. 4c:a n fa, a 4c+, ro ecri cycrannnainoe nauao,
:ecro n npe:n
1
, necnpane(nnocri npncyma ca:n: nema:, ne nauay.
Tain: opaao:, oman cxe:a raiona: neioe orneuennoe nauao iai npn-
po(a ecioneunoro nopo(aer npornnonoonocrn n ycranannnaer cpo-
in nx npanennn coracno ycranonenni Bpe:enn nn uepea (orne
npo:eyrin npe:enn, rai e n npancion rpa(nnnn Zrvn akarana (ecio-
neunoe npe:n) nopo(aer (opo n ao (cner n ri:y) n ycranannnaer
rpn .noxn coracno ioneuno:y npe:enn npanennn ia(oro na naua
(niiuan .noxy c:emennn). C yuero: .roro noanniaer nonpoc, a :ono
n pacc:arpnnari to orpov n iauecrne ecioneunoro npe:enn
A.B. ee(en npe(ara cnoi peioncrpyinni (cnopnyi, no, eayc-
onno, nnrepecnyi) nonnrnn to orpov iai neunoro n necrapeimero
ecioneunoro Bpe:enn, conocrann:oro c npancin: 3ypnano:
2
. Anrop
yrnep(aer, uro to orpov n:eer nepnnarernuecioe nponcxo(enne, a
pn( (pennnx ]par:enron noanoner peioncrpynponari ero nanauainin
c:ic. Hcxo(n na yno:nnyroro nime cnn(ereicrna Hnnonra Anai-
cn:an(p... ornnn nepnonauao: nemen neiyi cycrannni ecioneu-
nocrn... no ero :nenni, ona neuna, necrapeiman n ore:er nce ioc:oci.
On naainaer ee npe:ene:, ean ciaaari .rn:, uro po(enne, irne n
rnei onpe(eeni... (Hnnonr, Onponepenne ncex epecen, l, 6, 12,
A11 DK)
8
, anrop peioncrpynpyer opnrnna Anaicn:an(pa iai ac4nac
x nccf.ckucc cckanc4nac 1c+s. ]ainenman peioncrpyinnn
4
noano-
ner A.B. ee(eny npnnrn i nino(y o ro:, uro Xpo vo Anaicn:an(pa
.ro, neponrno, cnnipernuecioe npe(cranenne o ecioneuno: Bpe:enn
Hee (:npono: ore:e, n:ecrnnme), ore:ime: nce ioc:oci n
npocrpancrne n npe:enn. Kpo:e roro, n iauecrne (ononnreinoro apry-
:enra (n cnonx nino(on A.B. ee(en npe(araer reanc, coracno ioro-
po:y npe(cranenne o to orpov iai o nceicyaino: oecrne npe:e-
nn, nopo(aime: :np ea naprnepa na cocrnennoro ce:enn (nnna),
npairnuecin conna(aer no npe:enn c nonnnimn:ncn n VllV n. (o n...
n lpennn (4epein(, Teoronnn lneponn:a) n na Bocroie n Hn(nn
(Kaa n Nanrpn-Ynannma(e, 6.1416), Hpane (Zrvan, naunnan c En-
(e:a) n Cn(one (ouo = lm) anaornuni:n npe(cranennn:n
1
. B
(encrnnreinocrn, n iauecrne conna(aimero no npe:enn c yuenne:
Anaicn:an(pa nepno(o:, anrop npe(araer cpannnreino oimon orpe-
aoi npe:enn, no(pono ero conocranenne y(er npoio::enrnponano nne.
Hrai, n omnx ueprax xapairepncrnin to orpov no oimen ua-
crn conocrann:i c xapairepncrnia:n earpannunoro npe:enn (Zrvn
akarana), iai onn npe(craneni, nanpn:ep, n Nenor-n Xpar (c. 2824):
Tnopen Op:aa( coa(a rnopennn, coa(annn, a:axpacnan(on n ]yx paay-
:a. c aroconennn earpannunoro npe:enn (nni:n cona:n, npe:n,
nycri onocpe(onanno, no npnnn:aer yuacrne n rnopennn A.1.), no
aanepmennn 9000 er .earpannunoe npe:n, . cy(ia n npe(onpe(e-
enne paaoiir nce rnopennn n coa(annn Axpn:ana, Learpannunoe
npe:n necrapeimee, ecc:eprnoe, eaoeanennoe, neuyncrnnrei-
noe, nerennoe, neynann:oe, nancer(a n naneuno, n nniro ne :oer
cxnarnri ero (n) ocanri ero nacri
2
.
Nono na:ernri eme pn( coornercrnnn :e(y (ny:n rpa(nnnn-
:n. Hrpr rv :oer iri ynorpeeno iai n npocrpancrnenno:, rai
n no npe:enno: nonn:annn, n n .ro: c:ice to orpov ecri npo-
crpancrnennoe n:ecrnnme, oipyaimee nce nemn. Hnaue ronopn, iai
neuro, neorpannuennoe no npe:enn n oxnarinaimee nce earpannunie
no npe:enn nemn, ono ecri npocrpancrnennoe irne, ioropoe ore:-
er nce nemn iai ero cocrannimne
8
. Ouenn(no, uro npn raion nnrep-
nperannn to orpov nnone conocrann: c 3ypnano: iai Necro: (Hpo-
crpancrno:)Bpe:ene:, iai o .ro: ronopnrcn n Acne, 72.10. H ye
En(e: no ]par:enre, nocnnmenno: :ara:, nonecrnyer o cymecrne, io-
ropoe neioropie naainair :ecro:, neioropie npe:ene: n ioropoe
ore(nnner n cee nce nocnpnnn:ae:ie coananne: nemn
4
. ]oann:
eme, uro to orpov nopo(aer nce nemn (no:n:o npouero .ro nonn-
rne no(paay:enaer ecioneunie :npi-ioc:oci, a to orpov orpaaer
1
Ni nn(en, uro Apncrorei paano(nr .rn nonnrnn, ipnrniyn rouiy apennn
Anaicn:an(pa. Tpy(no ciaaari, nacioiio uerio paa(en nx ca: Anaicn:an(p,
ecn noome .ro (ea.
2
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 1, .cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p,
a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2.
8
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. 4b.
4
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. 4849.
1
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. b2, 1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord,
1988. P. 108104.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc fckcfa. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa().
Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. N., 1997. C. 90.
8
:n:: 1. Wha: is Anaximander`s c::an ;; Journal o :he his:ory o philosophy.
Berkeley. 1981. Vol. 19. N 8. P. 294.
4
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. N.,
1991. C. 171.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 126 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 127
roiio ecioneunoe unco nx noce(yimnx uepe(onannn), uro conoc-
rann:o c npancion rpa(nnnen, coracno ioropon iai 3ypnan, rai n
Op:aa( n paanix nanpanennnx paannrnn rpa(nnnn cornopnn n
ecioneunie nemn, n ioneunie (Lyn(axnmn, c. 18 (10 r)).
Koc:oornn Anaicn:an(pa nirn(nr ce(yimn: opaao:. Bce n
:npe n:eer :epy cnoero cymecrnonannn. Bce nemn, noannian na ecio-
neunoro nauaa, ncrynair n ipyronopor, po(aircn ecioneunie |no
uncy] ioc:oci n cnona ynnuroaircn n ro, na uero noannin (A 14
DK)
1
. Kpyronopor nemen nponcxo(nr no onpe(eenno:y aaiony, xapaire-
pnayime:ycn neoxo(n:ocrii, po(enne, irne n rnei |:npon-ne-
ocno(on] npe(onpe(eeni (A 11 DK)
2
. Bce .ro coornocnrcn c oacrii
connaino-npancrnennix nonnrnn, conna(aimnx c nonnrne: npan(i:
nemn noyuair noa:ea(ne aa nenpan(y, ecn napymair :epy cnoero cyme-
crnonannn. Tor(a to o rpov nicrynaer iai ecnpe(einoe, ioropoe oipy-
aer ncninn npe(e, no (encrnyn no cnpane(nnocrn, no nipaan
:epy cnpane(nnocrn. Cnpane(nnocri, oiaainanci coornocn:on c to
o rpov, ye n npe(cranennnx Anaicn:an(pa noyuaer onroornuecinn
craryc, uro raie nnone conocrann:o c npancin:n noaapennn:n na .:1.
iai nceencinn n connainin aaion cnpane(nnocrn n ncrnni.
Hpoe:a peioncrpyinnn ecnpe(einoro iai Bpe:enn, xorn n npe(-
crannercn noa:onon (c cymecrnenni:n oronopia:n), no neuer aa
coon pn( (ononnreinix npoe:. B ocnonannn nexennncion opro-
(oicainon (ne cnercion) nreparypi (oi. lX n.) ear, no ncen nn(n:o-
crn, (na ncxo(nix nanpanennn. O(no na nnx ]op:nponaoci na aae
]noco]nn Apncroren (n nepnyi ouepe(i ananrnuecinx paor n ncro-
pnio-]noco]cinx naccaen), a(anrnponannon (n opro(oicainoro na-
npanennn aopoacrpna:a peuecrno:. ]pyroe nanpanenne ipnrnuec-
ioe, opnenrnponannoe npornn (axpnron, iai io npnnnro n:enonari
npancinx :arepnancron aypnannrcioro roia, cne(ennn o ioropix co-
xpannnci n D[nkar:
8
. B oonx cyuanx :ono ninnnri neioropie
(eran, conocrann:ie co ce(yimn:n .e:enra:n yuennn Anaicn:an(-
pa. B D[nkar: (ano nonn:anne nepnnunon :arepnn iai nenn(n:on n
neomyrn:on, ona nmena uacren, n nen orcyrcrnyer iaian-no ]op:a n
ona naanana n[n, nni:n cona:n ro, uro ornocnrcn i (yxonnon
cropone ueoneuecioro cymecrnonannn, nocrnn:oe y:o:. Ona naanana
raie :.:, ioeco
4
. Hpnpo(a (nn :arepnn) n (yx ore(nneni n ioc:o-
ce-ioece, neecnon c]epe, nnnimencn nonomenne: ioneunoro 3yp-
nana. B D[nkar: e naxo(n: npe(cranenne o (noncrnennocrn n[n,
r.e. cymecrnyer ncna iai nenn(n:in n neocnaae:in npnnnnn cnera n
n[niai npnnnnn ri:i, oa onn nonnnnci na e(nnoro, ne cocrannoro
n[n, ioropin n(enrn]nnnpyercn c ras, Koeco:, ioropoe n cnoi
ouepe(i ro(ecrnenno c nepnnunon :arepnen nn ecioneuni: Hpocrpan-
crno:Bpe:ene: (cp. neecnie ioeca-oo(a Anaicn:an(pa)
1
.
Nardanarrokh-i Ohrmazddad n cnoe: rpairare Shkand-Gumnik Vichr
(Paarncnenne, paccennaimee co:nenne) ce(yimn: opaao: ronopnr o
npe(cranennnx (axpnron: Onn nepnr, uro Lecioneunoe Bpe:n ecri nep-
nin Hpnnnnn .roro :npa n ncex paanunix na:enennn n (nepe)-rpynnnpo-
noi, ioropo:y ero .e:enri n oprani no(unneni iai n nx naan:non npo-
rnnonoonocrn, ioropan cymecrnyer :e(y nn:n, rai n n nx cnnnnn
o(noro c (pyrn:
2
. Hpn no(ono: no(xo(e napaei ouenn(na n n nen
yananae:o ne croiio yuenne Apncroren (:nenne, na ioropoe :i yiaai-
nan nime), cioiio, n nepnyi ouepe(i, Anaicn:an(pa. B cyuae raioro
oro(ecrnennn npancinx npe(cranennn o nepnnunon :arepnn n ecio-
neuno: npocrpancrne c neecnon c]eponKoeco: n npe(cranennn
Anaicn:an(pa o neecnix reax iai oo(inx ioec c nipinaimn:cn
na:ene: onn ne :oryr iri conocraneni nanpn:yi, no neioropin
napaena: .rnx (nyx npe(cranennn nce-rain npoc:arpnnaercn.
P.C. Zaehner io::enrnpyer noaapennn (axpnron na nepnnunyi :a-
repni ce(yimn: opaao:. 3.n(nri nn(en n Lecioneuno: Bpe:enn
o(nn ocnonnon n nena:enne:in npnnnnn, na ioroporo nce nponaomo, n
ue: onn coracni c aypnannra:n-:arepnancra:n. Hx (oirpnna nourn
onpe(eenno nocxo(nr i ron nayunon paore, ioropyi npo(ean npn
Lanype l (242272 rr. n...), neponrno, niiunn n Anecry reicri nnaan-
rnncioro n nn(nncioro nponcxo(ennn. Ho :nenni P.C. Zaehner`a, n(en
Bpe:enn iai ncrounnia ncex nemen n:eer ciopee nn(nncioe nponcxo-
(enne, ue: .nncioe, npn .ro: on, iai n A.B. ee(en, cciaercn na
Nanrpn-Ynannma(y (oi. b00 r. (o n...), n ioropon Bpe:n n(enrn]nnn-
pyercn c Hannicmn: npnnnnno:, n:eimn: (ne ]op:i neunoe re-
nepi, npe:n ea ]op:i n npe:n n ero oiuno: nonn:annn, ]op:a
npe:enn. Ha nam narn(, ionnennnn Anaicn:an(pa, (ae ea rpairon-
in to orpov iai Bpe:enn, ne i (axpnrcion n, ipo:e roro, neponr-
no oee pannnn, ue: nepcnn yiaaannon Ynannma(i.
Bce cnn(ereicrna o (axpnrax (nn aypnannrax), iai npanno, orno-
cnrcn i panne:y cpe(neneionii. Te: ne :enee, pn( naccaen na Anecri, 1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 119.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 118.
8
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. London, 1961. P. 196 n
(aee.
4
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. London, 1961.
1
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. London, 1961.
2
A.:c.n:.::ak/: C/:n.zcc.c. The Shkandgumanig Vizar (Doub:despelling
exposi:ion). Transla:ion o E.W. Wes:. Sacred Books o :he Eas:. Ch. 6, 1.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 128 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 129
1
C:. nanp. 1.,f.. O Han(e n Ocnpnce ; Hyrapx. Nopann. Plu:archi
chaeronensis. Scrip:a Noralia. ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1977. N 8. C. 229
268, Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1977. N 4. C. 28b.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 128.
raine, iai, nanpn:ep, neo(noiparno yno:nnanmancn Acna, 72.10 n ion-
nennnn nnennoro npe:enn 3aparymrpi noanonir npe(noonri, uro
neine npe(cranennn, npe(mecrnonanmne paannro:y aypnanna:y VllX nn.
ye cymecrnonan, ca:oe noa(nee, na :o:enr nepnon ianonnaannn Anec-
ri n lll n. nn nonon ianonnaannn n lV n. n coa(annn Na(men Anecri.
Henocpe(crnennoe pacnpocrpanenne anrnunoro anannn na reppnropnn Hep-
cnn Cacann(on naunnaercn c 489 r., npe:enn aaipirnn necropnancion mio-
i. H:enno c .roro :o:enra necropnane oocnoninaircn n Hepcnn, npnno-
anr c coon nnorein counnennn anrnunix anropon, ]op:npyercn rpa(n-
nnn nepeno(a n io::enrnponannn na cnpnncinn naii, na nexennncinn
nepeno(nrcn oueni neoimoe ionuecrno nreparypi. Ha Apncroren no-
nocrii in nepene(eni roiio ornuecine rpairari, ocrainie nepeno(i
in ipanne caie n nenonie, a nanecrno, uro n:enno Apncrorei or-
ipi Anaicn:an(pa (nanoimee unco yno:nnannn o ne: ncrpeuae: n
4nanie). Hepno( nanoee nornix ionrairon c npe(crannren:n anrnu-
non ]noco]nn naunnaircn npn Xocpone l Anomnpnane (b81b79 rr.), no
ouenn(no, uro i .ro:y npe:enn npancine npe(cranennn o npe:enn noome,
n n uacrnocrn o ecioneuno: (nnenno:) npe:enn, ye nacunrinair ne-
cioiio neion paannrnn n (oiy:enraino aacnn(ereicrnonani n ncrounn-
iax iai nanecrnie rpeia: i lll n. (o n...
1
.
Beci nonpoc n raio: cyuae cno(nrcn i ro:y, noue:y yuenne
Anaicn:an(pa, ne noyunnmee, iai ye ronopnoci, omnpnoro orinia
n pannen rpeuecion rpa(nnnn, n nanecrnoe n ocnonno: no cnn(erei-
crna: Harona n Apncroren, naxo(nr nnnie napaen c npancin:n
npe(cranennn:n cnycrn ce:i neion noce cnoero noanninonennn B
io: cyuae ea ananaa ncen (pennerpeuecion rpa(nnnn (niiuan
.noxy noa(nen anrnunocrn) n ee a(anrannn na npancion noune orne-
rnri na .ror nonpoc npairnuecin nenoa:ono. Beponrno, nain: i
ncrnne y(er npe(nooenne o (oicorpa]nuecinx ncrounniax iai ne-
pe(arouno: anene rpa(nnnn, no n raio: cyuae ronopnri o npancinx
nnnnnnx na yuenne Anaicn:an(pa na ocnonannn npnne(ennix napa-
een ye cranonnrcn aarpy(nnreino.
Eme o(na ionnennnn yuennn Anaicn:an(pa :oer iri pacc:orpe-
na c rouin apennn rpeio-npancinx napaeen. Anaicn:an(p noara, uro
3e:n naxo(nrcn n nenrpe ioc:oca n pannoy(aena or ncex ipannnx rouei
(A 26. xcfafc.:, O nee), ro e coomaer Axn (Dubia. 4.): 3e:n
npeinaer neno(nnno n cocronnnn pannonecnn n nenrpe ioc:oca
2
.
3(eci nnno npoc:arpnnaercn napaei c apxanuecin:n npancin:n
npe(cranennn:n o ioc:oce-:npono: nnne, r(e ae:n :icnrcn er-
io: nnna n napaei c noa(nen npancion ionnennnen, aa]nicnponannon
n nexennncinx reicrax, r(e ae:n naxo(nrcn n nenrpe ioc:oca n n:eer
:eranueciyi rpannny-neo. Ni ye iacanci npe(cranennn o :npo-
no: nnne, (oann: i .ro:y ro, uro raian :o(ei ne :oer nocxo(nri i
nannoncin: npe(cranennn:, n ioropix n .noxy, naiyi npe:enn na-
nn Anaicn:an(pa, :npoa(anne npe(craer n nn(e (nyx nociocren. Bano
or:ernri, uro cymecrnyer n npnnnnnnainoe ornune yuennn Anaicn:an-
(pa or npe(cranennn o ioc:oce-nnne. nco ioc:ocon y Anaicn:an(pa
ecioneuno, ror(a iai ioc:oc-:nponoe nnno e(nncrnennoe.
Nono na ocnonannn .rnx conocranennn ni(nnnyri reanc o npan-
cio: nponcxo(ennn .rnx narn(on, no neponrnee ncero onn, panno iai
n yuenne o npornnonoonocrnx (ecn nce-rain coracnricn c re:, uro
ye y Anaicn:an(pa npocennaercn ren(ennnn i ero o]op:enni) n
ioc:nuecion cnpane(nnocrn, :orn iri oyconeni nnyrpennn:n co-
nnaini:n nponecca:n rpeuecioro omecrna. B.H. lopan noaraer, uro
(n enponencion rpa(nnnn xapairepna nanauainan renernuecian cnnai
]noco]nn c (e:oiparnen
1
. B nepno( coa(annn npe(nocioi (n nonn-
ennn n aapo(ennn ]noco]nn cncre:a nennocren, onpe(enimnx rpa-
(nnnonnie :nponoaapenuecine opnenrannn, ia apncroiparnuecion, .ro
namo orpaenne n pn(e nponane(ennn 4eornn(a n Coona. Honan cn-
cre:a nennocren, nipaenne n oocnonanne ioropon onapynnaercn
.n yuennnx ca:ix nepnix ]noco]on, cocrannimnx :nerciyi mio-
y, ia cncre:on nennocren cranonnmencn noncnon (e:oiparnn
2
. B
raio: cyuae uepea (e:oiparnuecinn npnnnnn panencrna orncnnercn n
nonnrne ioc:nuecioro panencrna iai pannonecnn, n pannonecne 3e:n n
nenrpe ioc:oca. Ha .rnx e ocnonannnx G. Vlas:os
8
nno(nr rpn ocnon-
nix reanca peioncrpyinnn yuennn Anaicn:an(pa: 1) ocnonni:n cocran-
nimn:n :npa Anaicn:an(pa nnnircn pannie npornnonoonie cni,
aancnpyimne o(na npornn (pyron n (nna:nuecio: pannonecnn, 2) .ro
pannonecne nnyrpenne npnna(enr :npy, ecioneunoe n .ry opiy
ne noneiaercn, 8) npe(cranenne Anaicn:an(pa o :npe iai o ca:opery-
npyime:cn pannonecnn, n ioropo: npeoa(aer ioc:nuecian cnpane(-
1
1a.n 1.1. lenernuecian cnnai ]noco]nn n (e:oiparnn n ]pennen lpennn ;;
ly:annrapnie nayin n Cnnpn. 1998. N 1.
2
1a.n 1.1. lenernuecian cnnai ]noco]nn n (e:oiparnn n ]pennen lpennn ;;
ly:annrapnie nayin n Cnnpn. 1998. N 1. C. 22
8
1/.:1a: C. Equali:y and Jus:ice in Early Greek Cosmologies ;; Classical Philology.
1947. N 47.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 180 1caax f. a+xaa.nxs anfa.a:x4cckx x ... 181
nnocri, aanncnr or conpe:ennoro e:y connainoro nopn(ia, coorner-
crnyimero nonrnuecio:y npnnnnny ncono:nn.
Cymecrnyer n npornnonoonin narn( na ocnoni ]op:nponannn
.ron ionnennnn Anaicn:an(pa. B uacrnocrn, J. Engmann noaraer, uro
pocr (e:oiparnn n Honnn n nepno( nann Anaicn:an(pa i, no (e:oi-
parnn roiio aapo(aaci, n no.ro:y rannon :o(eii (n Anaicn:an(-
pa n coa(annn cocrnennon ionnennnn cnpane(nnocrn in .iono:nuec-
ine n connainie yconnn, coa(annie apncroiparnuecin: npanenne:
1
.
On ocnapnnaer nino(i Bacroca ornocnreino panencrna ]nanuecinx co-
crannimnx :npa n noaraer na ocnonannn ]par:enron A 10 DK, A 27
DK, uro na :o:enr nixo(a na ecioneunoro ropnuee, inmee n neoimo:
ionuecrne no cpannenni c xoo(ni:, nocrenenno c:enner nce xoo(noe
(nce :opn nicixair), n .ro ciopee onncinaer ne .ranrapnie ornomennn
:e(y rpa(ana:n npn (e:oiparnn, a ciopee ry cnryanni, ioropan cyme-
crnonaa n apxanuecinx noncax, ior(a po(onan anari, inman n :eni-
mnncrne, aana(ea ]airnuecin ncen cocrnennocrii, ror(a iai pn(onie
rpa(ane norepnn (ae ro, ue: na(en nanauaino n n:enno .ra cnry-
annn nanyumn: opaao: onncana y Coona
2
. C .ron noannnn, npe(cran-
enne o pannoy(aennocrn 3e:n or ncex ipannnx rouei npocrpancrna ne
n:eer ocnonannn n cocrnennorpeuecio: :nponoaapennn n roiio ror(a
noyuaer oocnonanne noa:onocri npancinx ncroion .rnx narn(on.
ro iacaercn ionnennnn npornnonoonocren n yuennn Anaicn-
:an(pa, ro a(eci :nenne ncce(onareen pacxo(nrcn. Cran(aprnan rou-
ia apennn ce(yer noannnn Apncroren n 4nanie n Nera]nanie,
r(e on paccy(a, npn:ennreino raie n i yuenni Anaicn:an(pa, o
nauae n o .e:enrax (otoro oroni, noa(yx, no(a, ae:n), nonap-
no cnnaannix n nx iauecrnax (ropnuee, xoo(noe, nanoe, cyxoe). Co-
racno npornnnnia: .ron rouin apennn, yuenne o .e:enrax io co-
a(ano (nn yume ciaaari, c]op:ynponano) no ca:n: Apncroree:,
no Harono:
8
. Ch. Kahn npe(ara pacc:arpnnari iai xapairepnie
n:enno (n :nercion mioi ce(yimne napi npornnonoonocren:
ropnuee-xoo(noe, cyxoe-nanoe, cneroe-re:noe, n uernepryi napy
:ycioe-encioe on ocranner no( nonpoco:
4
. Cn:nninn, (n ioro-
poro ionnennnn ueripex .e:enron n nx rpa(annn n coornercrnnn c ia-
uecrna:n ye ia ocnononoaraimen (n onncannn :npa, ncnirinaer
aarpy(nennn c co(epanne: reicra Anaicn:an(pa: Ho nono(y .roro
reicra ce(yer raie or:ernri, uro n npn:epax .e:enron on naaina
noa(yx xoo(ni:, a no(y nanon, uro y nero ne n oiuae: noa(yx on
|oiuno] naainaer nani:, noaran, uro e:y n oimen :epe cnon-
crnen ornunreinin npnanai narn rpy(no no((anaricn onpe(ee-
nni |o]op:enni] cocrnennon rpannnen n erio nnemnen. To n on
(onycrn nepenocri, npnno(n npn:ep nciiunreino pa(n |nicr-
pannn] npornnonoonocrn |.e:enron], ro n onncia nima
1
. 3ro :oer
iri xopomn: cnn(ereicrno: nnnix noniroi (oicorpa]nn nunrari n
yuenne Anaicn:an(pa ionnennni npornnonoonocren nn ueripex
.e:enron nce( aa Apncroree:. B:ecre c re:, n:enno .ro cnn(erei-
crno xopomo noiaainaer, uro n yuennn Anaicn:an(pa eme ne io uer-
ion ioppennnn crnxnn n iauecrn n re: oee rpy(no yrnep(ari, uro
Anaicn:an(p cno(nr nce cymne nemn i orpannuenno:y uncy crnxnn,
xorn n:enno raian noannnn iai neian yume i coornercrnonaa ero
cxe:arnuecio:y onncanni ynnnepcy:a.
B:ecre c re:, npe(cranennn o npornnonoonocrnx, n:eimne :e-
cro npairnuecin no ncex pannerpeuecinx ]noco]cinx ionnennnnx, n:eir
napaen n npancion rpa(nnnn. Ho .rn napaen, onpe(eenno, raie
ornocn:i i rpeuecin: nnnnnn: na aopoacrpnnciyi opro(oicni. Ha
ueripex nepnnunix .e:enron rpeuecion ]nanin n npancion rpa(nnnn
:i onapynnae: roiio ropnuee n nanoe, npnue: n noa(nnx nexe-
nnncinx aopoacrpnncinx reicrax, onncinaimnx cranonenne :npa
2
.
H:enno .rn iauecrna acconnnponanci c Op:aa(o:, ioropin i e(nn-
crnenni: coa(aree: ynnnepcy:a.
Tain: opaao:, re napaen, ioropie :i or:ernn :e(y ]no-
co]nen Anaicn:an(pa n npancion rpa(nnnen, na nam narn(, nnnir-
cn peayiraro: oparnoro nnnnnn rpeuecion ]noco]nn iaccnuecio-
ro n noa(nero nepno(a n .noxy cranonennn innnocrn n Cacann(cio:
Hpane. ro iacaercn npe(cranennn o nauae, nn nicme: npnnnnne,
npnunne noanninonennn nemen n :npe n noa:onocrn nonn:ari ero
iai oecrno, ro n npancion rpa(nnnn n nonon :epe .rn npe(crane-
nnn c]op:nponanci ne panee lVlX nn. n... n orpaeni n nexennnc-
inx ncrounniax. Kpo:e roro, nonn:anne nauaa Anaicn:an(pa iai cyn-
parencrnuecion cxe:arnaannn crannr no( co:nenne noa:onocri npo-
ne(ennn napaeen. B neo: yuenne Anaicn:an(pa :oer iri pac-
1
1nn.nn J. Cosmic Jus:ice in Anaximander ;; Phronesis. 1991. V. XXXVl;1
(Accep:ed Oc:ober 1990). P. 24.
2
1nn.nn J. Cosmic Jus:ice in Anaximander ;; Phronesis. 1991. V. XXXVl;1
(Accep:ed Oc:ober 1990). P. 20.
8
Jcc: 1. The Theology o :he Early Greek Philosophers. Oxord, 19b2. P. 26.
4
1./n C/. 1. Anaximander and :he Origins o Greek Cosmology. New York,
1960. P. 161.
1
Cx+.xkxx. Ko::. na 4naniy Apncroren, 481, 28). J.:+cnfa pannnx rpe-
uecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 122.
2
2.c/nc: 1.C. The Dawn and Twiligh: o Zoroas:rianism. London, 1961. P. 208.
1anxxck.s x.acaxs x ....c.x c x.nckax f.,xuxcx... 182
IABA I\. IEIAKHT H HIAHCKAA TIAHHHA
1. KOHHEHHHA MYIOIO CYBECTBA~ H EE
COHOCTABEHHE C HIAHCKOH TIAHHHEH.
Hapaena: yuennn lepainra c npancion rpa(nnnen, aauacryi
cno(n:in i aan:crnonanni noce(nn: npancinx opaanon, or:euacn
neo(noiparno. A. Gladisch nepni: or:ern, uro narn(i lepainra na
oroni n noxoponnie opn(i conna(air c aopoacrpnncin:n
1
. N.Wes:
nocnnrn npoe:e napaena:a yuennn lepainra n nepcn(cion pen-
rnn nonocrii rany cnoen innrn
2
, r(e yiaaina na napaen, aauac-
ryi ne (anan n: paanepnyroro io::enrapnn. N.Wes: npnno(nr ne roi-
io napaen na pannnx npancinx ncrounnion, no n mnpoio noiayercn
noa(nn:n nexennncin:n counnennn:n, oee roro, aauacryi yiaainan
na napaen c pannenn(nncin:n reicra:n Pnrne(on n Ynannma-
(a:n. Hanpn:ep, paccy(an o naan:ona:enennn .e:enron, on npnno-
(nr napaen na yuenne lepainra nciiunreino na Ynannma(
8
.
Y.cr aaianunnaer .ry rany ce(yimn:n cona:n: Hyri na 3]eca n
Hn(ni (oor. Ho pacnpocrpanenne ueoneuecinx ne:en (oiaainaer,
uro i(n n ro, uro onn necyr c coon, nyremecrnyir n reuenne :nornx
er. Bo npe:ena lepainra 3]ec n Hn(nn coe(nnnnci nocpe(crno:
Hepcn(cion n:nepnn. Hn(nnni npnmn na :arepnionyi lpenni c ap-
:nen Kcepica. Cnnai :e(y :icii lepainra n nepcn(cion penrnen
.nponopnnonaino cnina
4
. 3ro niciaainanne :ono npnnnri n iaue-
1
C/.c::c/ Augus:. Heraklei:as und Zoroas:er. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 18b9.
2
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971.
8
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 17817b.
Loee roro, N. Wes: (eaer ce(yimnn nino(: neian yrnep(ari, uro orcyr-
crnne (pennnx npancinx (oiaaareicrn nciiuaer ncropnueciyi cnnai :e(y
nn(nncion n repainroncion reopnn:n.
4
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 202.
c:orpeno ciopee n ioncrpyirnnncrcio: na:epennn, ue: n ornuecio:,
n n:enno i noce(ne:y opamaercn Apncrorei, ipnrniyn caie :e-
cra n noannnn Anaicn:an(pa. 3a ero (onoino no.rnuecin:n cona-
:n cronr, iai .ro ne napa(oicaino, n(en, uro ynnnepcy: no((aercn
pannonainon cxe:arnaannn. Hni:n cona:n, on oa(aer rap:onnen
n nponopnnen, ioropie aa(ani na:epn:i:n nenunna:n, a noro:y :oer
iri iaprorpa]nponan c yuero: .rnx ornomennn, iai n oniy:ena. ]n
Anaicn:an(pa cxe:arnaannn ynnnepcy:a .ro, npe(e ncero, panno-
nainoe ioncrpynponanne nennnoro c neii npn(ari e:y .:nnpnuec-
iyi ncnocri (iai n cyuae c iapron), n nepenrn or neynopn(ouennon
:noecrnennocrn i rap:onnanponanno:y neo:y. Touno raie iai iapra
ynpomaer nocnpnnrne npocrpancrna, rai n npe(eino oman rexnnuec-
ian cxe:a ynpomaer nonn:anne ynnnepcy:a. ]ae ecn ca: Anaicn-
:an(p ne npe(crann cnoe yuenne n raio: npe(eino ome: nn(e,
cxe:a, ioropan peioncrpynpyercn na ero yuennn, oiaainaercn neci:a
noeanon npn onenie ncen noce(yimen pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn.
B nen aaiiueni npairnuecin nce re npoe:i n naan:ocnnan :e(y
nn:n, ioropie y(yr paapemaricn (ocoiparnia:n, paanuni:n cnoco-
a:n ocymecrnnnmn:n ee nanonenne n ne yrparnnmn:n ee nana-
uainon pannonancrnuecion nanpanennocrn.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 184 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 18b
crne (onymennn, no n roiio, nocioiiy ner (ocrarouno (ocronepnix n
neonponepn:ix cnn(ereicrn rpeio-nn(nncinx ionrairon, nycri (ae
onocpe(onannix uepea Hepcni.
Ornocnreino rpeio-nn(nncinx ionrairon l.A. Komeenio n B.H. Ca-
pnann(n
1
aa:euair, uro npn( n cronr (onyciari, xorn i n :aon
crenenn, anaio:crno rpeion ro:eponcioro npe:enn c Hn(nen. Ho nono-
(y cymecrnonanmero :n]a o noxo(e ]nonnca n Hn(ni, ioropin :or i
no(rnep(nri pannne nimeyno:nnyrie ionrairi, anropi cunrair, uro
nnepnie n(en o noxo(e ]nonnca n Hn(ni noannia n nauae lV n. (o
n... ]ainenmee e paannrne .roro io:neica npe(cranennn cnnaano c
noxo(o: Aeican(pa n cranonenne: ero iyira
2
.
Ha ocnonannn ciaaannoro npe(crannercn co:nnreini: n ryo-
ioe anaio:crno lepainra c Hn(nen. ]encrnnreino, ecn ncxo(nri na
coopaennn, uro nce rpn rpa(nnnn rpeuecian, npancian n (pennenn-
(nncian nocxo(nr i ome:y nn(oapnncio:y iopni, ro paanunie
napaen ne :oryr ne cymecrnonari, no peui n (anno: cyuae :oer
n(rn roiio o (oirpnnaino:, no ne reicrono: napaena:e. Hoannnn
e Y.cra nano(nr na :ici, uro lepainr (oen i n:eri xopomyi
ocne(o:ennocri o co(epannn pannnx nn(nncinx reicron n xopomo
opnenrnponaricn n omnpnon nn(nncion :n]oornn, raiona, nanpn-
:ep, npe(arae:an N. Y.cro: napaei: Bnmny, y(yun nponnennon
n nenponnennon cycrannnen, (yxo: n npe:ene:, paaneiaercn iai nr-
pnnin peenoi, a ni (oni yunricn, npncymnnanci i ero maocrn:
8
.
N. Y.cr no(neprcn neci:a ecrion ipnrnie namnx oreuecrnennix
yuenix 4.X. Keccn(n n B.B. Kon(aein
4
. Onn nipaann co:nenne n
npne:e:ocrn acoirnaannn io:naparnnncrcion :ero(oornn, cun-
ran, uro paora Y.cra nnnercn (ononnreini: cnn(ereicrno: ec-
no(nocrn noniroi orncnnri noanninonenne rpeuecion ]noco]nn nne
omecrnennoncropnuecinx yconnn n n(enno-(yxonnoro in:ara ]pen-
nen lpennn. Hpn .ro: onn ne nciiuair n(ennix n iyirypnix cnn-
aen :e(y napo(a:n (pennero :npa, n uacrnocrn :e(y rpeia:n n nx
coce(n:n. Ho .rn cnnan ne ncer(a n ne no ncex c]epax (yxonnon nann
in croi ra(in:n n npn:onnenni:n (ynpomenni:n), iai .ro npe(-
crannercn la(nmy, Y.cry n neioropi: (pyrn: anropa:
1
.
A.-H. Chrous: n cnoen crarie, nocnnmennon nnnnni aopoacrpna-
:a na yuennn Harona n Apncroren, y(ener necioiio crpannn n
.ro: e iiue pannen rpeuecion ]noco]nn. 3na:ennroe yrnep(e-
nne lepainra 3]eccioro, ronopnr on, a n:enno, uro nonna ecri
oren ncero coornocnrcn c neunon opion :e(y Axypa:aa(on n Ax-
pn:ano:, iai n yrnep(enne 3:ne(oia, uro ioni n Bpa(a ecri
(na ocnonnix npnnnnna nn ]airopa, ioropie ynpannir nceennon,
(o:nnnpyn noouepe(no. 3rn (na npn:epa, ioropie :oryr iri anaun-
reino ynenueni n pacmnpeni, (oni (encrnnreino (oiaainari,
uro neioropie (pannne) rpeuecine ]noco]i in anaio:i c yuenne:
3opoacrpa n oimen nn :enimen crenenn
2
. On aa:euaer raie, uro
nepni:n, iro conocrann npancine npe(cranennn n yuennn pannnx
rpeuecinx ]noco]on, in Apncrorei n Hyrapx
8
. Ha: npe(crann-
ercn, uro ero nino(i cnmio: npn:onnenni n ne(ocrarouno oocno-
nani. B neo:, nec:orpn na (annocri nocranonin .ron npoe:i, ona
(aeia or noa:onocrn ee nonoro paapemennn.
Hrai, name (ainenmee ncce(onanne y(er nanpaneno na oc-
nonnie cocrannimne yuennn lepainra o cyme:, a n:enno npe(cran-
ennn o :y(po: na(:npno: cymecrne nn oecrne, o nepnonauae, o
:nponon cnpane(nnocrn, onpe(enimen npanninoe ]yninnonnpona-
nne ioc:oca, n, naionen, o napax npornnonoonocren n nepno.e:en-
rax, n:enno no .rn: napa:erpa: :i y(e: anananponari onpe(een-
nie coornercrnnn c npancion rpa(nnnen.
1
B penenann na innry D.K. Brooopoouo. Eqvr xo Ivo. B ouvovtqoq
uo xoov. T. 1,2. A0qvo, Eoto. 1990, ioropan nanpanena na coa(anne
nonon cno(in ncex :arepnaon no npoe:e rpeio-nn(nncinx ionrairon n (pen-
nocrn. Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1992. N 2. C. 20120b.
2
1auc.cnka 1.., C.x.nx,x 1.1. (Pen. na innry) ;; Becrnni (pennen ncro-
pnn. 1992. N 2. C. 20120b. Ha ro, uro (o Aeican(pa n:eircn roiio c:yrnie,
cyuannie n orpinounie cne(ennn o Hn(nn yiaainaer raie n l.N. Lonrap(-
ennn. C:. 1an:.,-.caxn 1.A., 1,.xn A.., 1x:.cxn .. Hn(nn n anrnu-
nin :np. N.: Bocr. nr., 2002. C. b.
8
Vishnu being :hus manies: and unmanies: subs:ance, spiri:, and :ime, spor:s
like a playul boy, as you shall learn by lis:ening :o his rolics (i.2) Av o
rot, ov, rooruv |1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord,
1971. C. 192].
4
1cccx,x J.A. 1an,.c.k. 1.1. lepainr n ]pennnn Bocroi (ipnrnuecine aa:er-
in) ;; Hayunie (oia(i nicmen mioi. 4noco]cine nayin. 1981. N b. N.:
Bicman mioa, 1981.
1
1cccx,x J.A. 1an,.c.k. 1.1. lepainr n ]pennnn Bocroi. C. 99.
2
C/:au:1 .-1. The lnluence o Zoroas:rian Teachings on Pla:o, Aris:o:le, and
Greek Philosophy in General ;; New scholas:icism. Wash., 1980. Vol.b4. N 8.
P. 8b48bb]
8
C/:au:1 .-1. The lnluence o Zoroas:rian Teachings on Pla:o, Aris:o:le, and
Greek Philosophy in General ;; New scholas:icism. Wash., 1980. Vol.b4. N 8. P.
8b48bb, npn:. 87.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 186 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 187

Hnrepec i yuenni lepainra coxpannercn co npe:en pannen an-
rnunocrn n nianan ne roiio co(epanne: .roro yuennn, no n crne:
naoennn, n aauacryi (oicorpa]i yiaainair na rpy(nocri nnrepnpe-
rannn n aara(ounocri peuennn
1
. Kai coomaer ]noren a.prcinn,
innra lepainra ia paa(eena na rpn paccy(ennn: oo Bce:, o rocy-
(apcrne n oecrne. Knnry .ry on no:ecrn n cnnrnnme Apre:n(i,
noaaornnmnci (iai ronopnr), nanncari ee iai :ono re:nee, uroi
(ocryn i nen n:en nmi cnoconie n uroi onapo(onanne ne c(eao
ee oripiron (n npoapennn. 4eo]pacr ronopnr, uro n nncannn on nnoe
ne(oronapnnaer, a n nno: ca: cee npornnopeunr no npnunne :eanxo-
nn
2
. Ni ye or:euan aaipirin xapairep nepe(aun anannn nnyrpn
ce:in nn nnyrpn omnn napannix i(en, n ne y(nnnreino, uro raio-
ni: e :oro iri ornomenne n lepainra i cnoen innre n ananni. O
.ro: e ronopnrcn n n npnne(ennon ]noreno: a.prcin: .nnrpa::e:
1c faaxc: ,a4xf.f: ,a kanu. 1c.k.xf.-ccu.
1nx:. c:a fa ,f:, f,,nax ,.s cucx cfaa,
A.k ccacacfnax x f:+.. 1a cc.x fcs acasucnnax
1aa,xf n. f, fa, ca.nu. cacf.cc an.
8
.
He nciiueno, uro n:enno n cny rpy(nocrn nnrepnperannn ]par-
:enron lepainra :ono ynn(eri n nnx anaunreinoe unco napaeen c
npancion penrnen n :n]oornen. ]ae npn nepno: oanaio:ennn c ]par-
:enra:n lepainra .rn napaen iayrcn ouenn(ni:n n iacaircn npai-
rnuecin ncex paa(eon ero yuennn. 3auacryi na :ici o napaena:e
nano(nr n:enno ionreicr nnraropa, iai, nanpn:ep, n ce(yime: ]par-
:enre, coxpanenni: Hnnonro:: lepainr yunr n o nocipecennn norn
nor .ron nnnon, n ioropon :i po(nnci. Hanecrno e:y n ro, uro npnun-
na .roro nocipecennn Lor. On ronopnr rai: Ny(pi: cy(eno, y(yun n
An(e, noccranari or cna c:eprn n cranonnricn nanny crpaa:n nnix n
:eprnix (78 Nch)
4
. Hnnonr no:emaer niciaainanne lepainra n xpn-
crnancinn ionreicr, n aro(apn neioropo:y cxo(crny xpncrnancinx n
aopoacrpnncinx npe(cranennn o aarpono: cymecrnonannn npoc:arpnna-
ercn napaei c npancin: yuenne: o ]panamn. 4panamn .ro (ymn
i(en (nn npane(nix), coa(annie Axypa Naa(on n ne:arepnaino:
nn(e n noyunnmne noce orpaennn nepnoro nana(ennn 3oro ]yxa ae:-
noe nonomenne, noce c:eprn (ymn npane(nnion noanpamaircn n (yxon-
nin :np n npeinair ra: (o ionna :nponon ncropnn. Onn nnnircn
aamnrnnia:n ueoneuecrna, n nepnyi ouepe(i or 3a n ncero, uro c nn:
cnnaano rnen, oeanen, nnmeri n npou. (Amr, 18. |4panap(nn-
nmr]), raie onn rnopni n no(aren nann
1
. B (anno: cyuae napaei
nciyccrnenna, no(onix :ecr no ]par:enrax lepainra n (pyrnx pannnx
rpeuecinx ]noco]on :noro, n n rainx cyuanx rpeyercn anaunreinan
ipnrnuecian n nnrepnperaropcian paora.
acro ne roiio ionreicr (oicorpa]a, no n neioropie napnanri
nepeno(on roro nn nnoro ]par:enra aacranner aa(y:aricn o cxo(crne
yuennn lepainra c npancin:n ionnennnn:n. Ni yiaainan na ro, uro
npe(cranenne o :y(po: oecrne, Ny(po: locno(nne Axypa Naa-
(e cymecrnonao n npancion rpa(nnnn ynepenno panime n neaanncn-
:o or anecrnncinx nnnnnn, npn .ro: .nnrer :y(pin i ero xapaire-
pnayimen uepron. Cxo(nie n(en :ono yc:orperi n yuennn lepainra
aro(apn nepeno(y A.B. ee(eni: ]par:enra 8b Nch: Ho Ny(pi:
|Cymecrno:] :ono cunrari roiio o(no: Y: (|..), :orymnn npannri
ncen Bceennon
2
. B conocranennn ero c ]par:enro: 84 Nch: O(no-
e(nncrnennoe Ny(poe |Cymecrno] naainaricn ne eaer n eaer n:e-
ne: 3enca n cnn(ereicrna:n lepo(ora o nepxonnix orax nanreonon
paanunix rocy(apcrn, ioropix on nena:enno naainaer 3enco:, :i
:orn i erio npe(noonri, uro n cny npancinx nnnnnn (ecn i
:i ncxo(nn na nx npnanannn') lepainr raie no(paay:ena no( n:e-
ne: 3enca Axypa Naa(y, ronopn o Ny(po:
8
. Ha roro napnanra nepeno(a
.roro ]par:enra, ioropin npe(araer N. Narcovich, raioe aaiiuenne
c(eari ye conee: Ny(pocri cocronr n ro:, uroi anari Paay:,
nocpe(crno: ioroporo nce nemn ynpannircn uepea nce
4
. Te: ne :enee,
cpe(n ]par:enron lepainra :i :oe: nanrn oioo (ecnria ]par:en-
ron, n ioropix rai nn nnaue pacc:arpnnaircn nonnrnn :y(pocrn n
+,,a:a, ioropie npn coornecennn nx c npe(cranennn:n o .a:acc no-
anonir na: nicrponri ce(yimyi omyi nnni nn nnnapnanr c la-
ra:n 3aparymrpi: cymecrnyer neuro Ny(poe, e(nncrnennoe n cnoe:
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 179180 (22 A4).
2
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 6.
8
xa:cn ..fckxx, lX, 16.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 28b.
1
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) CH., 1997. C. 821840.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 289.
8
Cp. Kean], ln:n i 3ency (no(paannn lepainry): (an npnuacrnricn Ny(-
pocrn (Ivq), noaranci na ioropyi, ri npannmi nce:n nema:n no cnpane(n-
nocrn (Cp. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. C. 2b6).
4
rv to ooov rotoo0o yvqv otrq xuprpvqoo ovto o ovtv. 3(eci n
(aee rpeuecinn reicr ]par:enron lepainra nnrnpyercn no na(anni A.:ca+:c/
A. Heracli:us. Greek :ex: wi:h a shor: commen:ary. Venezuela, 1967. Hepeno(
]par:enron na pyccinn naii, ecn .ro ne oronapnnaercn cnennaino, c(ean no
.ro:y e na(anni.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 188 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 189
po(e, uro nocpe(crno: Cona (peun, .a:ac. nn +.nfa) oripinaer ana-
nne o cee ueoneiy, cnocono:y .ro ananne nocnpnnnri n nepe(ari co-
ne:ennnia:, corpa(ana:. Hacioiio npannini: y(er n:enno rai nn-
repnpernponari yuenne lepainra n nacioiio noome noa:ono conoc-
ranenne .rnx (nyx ionnennnn n paanix rpa(nnnnx, :i pacc:orpn: nne.
Hano:nn:, uro pacnpocrpanenne :aa(ena:a (r.e. nounranne Naa(i
(Ny(poro) iai oecrna, noarannimero nanreon) n 3ana(no: Hpane
(arnpyercn oueni pannn: npe:ene:. Ha ocnonannn pacnpocrpanennn nu-
nix n:en ycranonen nepno( c Vlll n. (o n... Coracno Anecre .ro
cocrnennoe n:n (n nanoee ycronunnin .nnrer) nepxonnoro oecrna
3aparymrpi n aopoacrpnnnen. Bxo(nmee n cocran n:enn Axypa:aa(i
n.zc//' xapairepnayer :y(pocri oecrna, n nnior(a ne ncnoiayercn
(n ooanauennn ueoneuecinx paay:ennn n :y(pocrn, (n ioropix npn-
:ennoci roiio cono :.1u
1
. B cnoi ouepe(i .ro n (pyrne anaornunie
no anauenni nonnrnn nnone npn:enn:i i oecrny. Ha nnrnncrnuec-
io: yponne .ro yiaainaer na (o:nnnpyimee anauenne oecrnennon :y(-
pocrn, ioropan ore:er n niiuaer n cen nce npoune ee nponnennn.
O(nn: na nponnennn :y(pocrn nnnercn ncene(enne. B aopoacr-
pnncion rpa(nnnn o ncene(ennn Axypa Naa(i oueni ipacnopeunno coo-
maer rai naainae:an Hponone(i n ]op:e nonpocon (Acna, 44), n
ioropon n:enno i Naa(e opamaercn 3aparymrpa c nonpoca:n, orneri
na ioropie nanecrni roiio e:y o nponcxo(ennn :npa, ero ycrpon-
crne, o ncrnne n npanon nepe, no, uro yroronano. n Konne, nanecrno
(Acna, 44.19)
2
. Ta e n(en orpaena n Acne, 29.4: Naa(a anaer oo
nce:: o cnepmnnmnxcn na:epeninx., o (eax, uro nmi aa(y:ani, Hpo-
nnnareen nmi on.
8
. B Lyn(axnmne (c. 17(9v, cri. 7)) ronopnrcn:
Op:aa( ncer(a i nicouanmn: no ncene(enni., n:enno aro(apn
ncene(enni Op:aa( ana o aa(y:anno: Axpn:ano: n o ncxo(e nporn-
nocronnnn |(opa n aa A.1.] (c. 19(10v)). B o(no: na nmron
Op:aa(-nmre, n ioropo: ncce(onaren yc:arpnnair (ocrarouno (pen-
nnn nacr co(epannn, i iaiono:y ornocnrcn (na(nari nanoee pan-
nnx, nepnonauainix n:en Axypa Naa(i, nnri na nx unca orpaair
ero :y(pocri: Paay:, Paay:nin, Yuenie, Yuenin, Naa(a (:y(pocri)
4
.
Axypa Naa(a onnernopner Casfac C.aaa Nanrpa Cnenra
1
. Ha-
cioiio :oer iri conocrann:o .ro nonnrne c oroco: n ro: nn(e, iai
ero nonn:a lepainr B neaopoacrpnncinx, nn(onpancinx npe(crane-
nnnx Nanrpa Cnenra .ro aainnannn, nponanocn:ie k.ax io(y-
na:n n npopnnaren:n. Y aopoacrpnnnen Casfa+ C.aaa+ cunranci ce:i-
(ecnr (na n:enn Axypa Naa(i (Op:aa(-nmr). H:enno onn npe(crann-
nci nanoee (encrnenni:n, neeni:n n coipymnreini:n (n aix
(yxon. B larax 3aparymrpi Nanrpa Cnenra .ro noa(encrnyimee
Cono Axypa Naa(i, ioropoe on (aer 3aparymrpe iai (ap ye(ennn
(n opamennn i(en n ncrnnnyi nepy. H:enno Nanrpa Cnenra (aer
ncrnnnoe ananne o Axypa Naa(e n :npe: Naa(a, 3aparymrpe (an Co-
no uy(o(encrnennoe ro, uro no:oer, naionen, o(oeri ncex aonix
ne(pyron' (Acna, 28.6), Naa(a, n nocne ren, nepe(an ri :ne na ycr
n ycra Cono :y(poe o ro:, iai nnepnie nonnnaci nani' (Acna,
28.11), Cian :ne npan(y, o Axypa' .Kro npoon nyri Conny n
anea(a:. Kaion :acrep cornopn cner n ri:y. Bepno n nacranni
n, 3ro n :noroe (pyroe, o Naa(a, xouy n yanari'. B Bn(en(are
(19.14) ronopnrcn o ro:, uro ]panamn Axypa:aa(i n:eer (ymy n .ra
(yma ecri Nanrpa Cnenra. Axypa Naa(a opamaercn i 3aparymrpe: No-
nci ri, 3aparymrpa, ]panamn :oen, ]panamn Axypa Naa(i, en, nen-
uanmen, (openmen, rnep(enmen, :y(penmen, aronn(nenmen n no npa-
ne(nocrn nicouanmen, (yma ioropon ecri Nanrpa Cnenra.
3a:ern:, uro Nanrpa Cnenra, peui Axypa Naa(i, (aiman ncrnnnoe
ananne o :npe n oripiran roiio napanno:y cnime npopoiy .ro, no
ncen nn(n:ocrn, ioncrpyir 3aparymrpi, rai iai nanoee uacro ncrpeua-
ercn on n:enno n larax (Acna). B larax e c]op:ynponana, nn,
nepnee ciaaari, noyuna (ainenmee paannrne n(yman cnon:n iopnn:n
n nn(onpanciyi rpa(nnni .rnuecian ionnennnn aopoacrpna:a a-
rne :icn aroe cono arne (ea, npoennpyiman na conny:
caipainie ornomennn oecrna n npopoia, n n (ainenmnx reicrax
Cono ynorpenercn n:enno n .ro: anauennn.
Coracno lepainry cymecrnyer omnn (n ncex oecrnennin
oroc, ioropin :oer iri conocranen c oecrnenni: 3aiono:
2
:
Te, iro na:epen ronopnri paay:no (u. .c.. `:,c.a), (oni noa-
1
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 2bb. |no X. o::ei].
2
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 186.
8
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 129.
4
accf.: Hapannie rn:ni. ]ymane, 1990. C. 14. Honnrne xpa( |xratush,
xratush, xratu, xratum] :noroanauno, ocnonnoe anauenne paay:, paay:nin,
:oer nonn:aricn iai non, aa:ice, cna y:a, nponnnareinocri |Jaa.cfxx-
ckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 2b, npn:. 4]. Hepene(ennie iai yuenie, yuenin
cona cistish, cist, cistiv oanauair nponnnareinocri, nonn:anne, :y(pocri, ana-
nne, n n nepnyi ouepe(i, penrnoanoe ananne. (Op:aa(-nmr, 78).
1
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 42b426.
2
Ho :nenni Napionnua, oroc roiio cxo c oecrnenni: 3aiono:, no ne
ro(ecrnenen e:y, nonpein :nenni Ueepa n Herepa (A.:ca+:c/ A. Heracli:us.
Greek :ex: wi:h a shor: commen:ary. Venezuela, 1967. P. 9b).
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 140 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 141
raricn na ro, uro nnnercn omn: (n ncex, iai ropo( aanncnr or ero
aaiona n (ae oee rnep(o: no nce ueoneuecine aaioni coopaayir-
cn c oecrnenni: (28 Nch). Kai iaercn, n:enno oroc oripinaer
lepainry ananne o Ny(po: (26 Nch)
1
. Hec:orpn na rpy(nocrn n nn-
repnperannn (annoro ]par:enra, npnne(ennie (aee naccan noanon-
ir npnanari, uro n yuennn lepainra n:eoci npe(cranenne o Ny(po:
Cymecrne. Ha rex, uin peun |(oirpnni, yuennn] n cima (nayua),
nniro ne (ocrnr nonn:annn roro, uro Ny(poe (cymecrno) ornuno or
ion (pyron nemn (idea) (ot ooov rot ovtv xrporvov) (88
Nch), O(no (cymecrno) e(nncrnennoe (ncrnnno) Ny(poe (to ooov),
eaimee n ne eaimee naainaricn n:ene: 3enca (84 Nch), Ny(-
pocri (to ooov) ecri o(na nemi: anari Nici (Y:) (yvqv), nocpe(-
crno: ioroporo nce nemn ynpannircn uepea nce (ce(yir no onpe(e-
enno:y nyrn) (ovto o ovtv) (8b Nch)
2
. Hrai, ouenn(no, uro
Ny(pocri nn ee nocnrei nonn:aircn iai neuro ornunoe or ncero
(pyroro, paay:nocri, coracno lepainry, nnnercn iauecrno: oecrnen-
non npnpo(i, ueonei e paay:o: ne oa(aer (oux rr yvo, 0rov
r rr) (90 Nch). Hpn .ro:, paanuan npnpo(y oecrnennon n ueone-
uecion :y(pocrn, lepainr (eaer .ro n na yponne naiia, (n nero
oecrnennan :y(pocri aa(aercn uepea nonnrne to ooov, a ueoneuec-
ian nonn:aercn iai voo. 3auacryi lepainr oro(ecrnner Ny(poe
|Cymecrno] n 3enca, on ronopnr: Nonnn
8
npannr nce:n nema:n (to r
ovto ooxr xrpouvo) (79 Nch), xorn ouenn(no, uro ca: c .rn: ne
ncer(a nnone coracen. Konnennnn o Ny(po: nepxonno: oecrne nn,
ciopee, o Ny(po: iai 3ence, paay:eercn, ne npnna(enr lepainry.
Ye y lecno(a n lo:epa oiuno ncrpeuaercn ynorpeenne ^o voo
Zqvo voo, nnnimeecn cran(aprnon naiionon ioncrpyinnen. O uacro-
re ynorpeennn .ron ]op:yi cnn(ereicrnyer ce(yimnn pn(: ^o
voov roooxov
1
, ^o voov rrtrrto
2
, Zqvo voo oyooo
8
, ^o
voov rpuoooto
4
, ^o voov oyooo
b
, ^o v vo ov
6
n ero :ono npo-
(oari. Y lepainra cono vo o ynorpenercn ncero n (nyx ]par:en-
rax 28 Nch n 101 Nch, n oa paaa no ornomenni i ueoneuecio:y
paay:y. Ho ornomenni i oecrny ynorpenircn cona to ooov n
yvqv. Ni ne onapynn ncnoiaonannn .rnx con y lecno(a n lo:e-
pa no ornomenni i 3ency, no onn naunnair ncrpeuaricn n oee no-
a(nnn nepno( Apncro]an, Ax, 1096, Enpnnn(, 1.cn., 1441, Haron,
J.kana, 776e, Haron, 1ac,,.cfaa, 891C
7
.
Coracno rpa(nnnn, nepni:, iro (o lepainra ronopn o oe-
crnennon :y(pocrn n ncnoiaona rep:nn ooov (n ee xapairepncrn-
in, i Hn]arop. Ho ipannen :epe, rai o .ro: ronopnr lepain( Hon-
rnncinn (14 A21 DK)
8
. C (pyron croponi, lepain( Honrnncinn no-
a(nnn anrop (l n n...), n ncnoiaonanne n: rep:nna ooo v, neponrnee
ncero oanauao naioe anaio:crno c yuenne: Harona nn 4noan, ue:
nenocpe(crnennoe anaio:crno c opnrnnaini: yuenne: Hn]aropa. He nc-
iiueno, uro n anrnunie cnpanounnin, aro(apn (oicorpa]a:, noma
nnrepnperannn n:enno lepain(a Honrnncioro
9
. ]pyron conpe:ennni le-
painra Kceno]an, yunnmnn roiio o o(no: ore, nenuanme: cpe(n
oron n i(en (21 B 28 DK), ioropin (nner nce nocpe(crno: paay:a,
nn(n:o nce( aa .nnuecion rpa(nnnen n nanecrnix ]par:enrax ne ynor-
pener rep:nn ooo v (21 B 2b DK: o o o o vru0r o voo +u uu prv
o vto xpoo vr no:imenie: y:a on nce norpncaer).
E(nncrnennin, iro na conpe:ennnion lepainra ynorpener to
ooov no ornomenni i oecrny n necioiinx ]par:enrax .ro 3nn-
xap: (48848b rr. (o n...). B o(no: ]par:enre npoc:arpnnaercn nnnan
noe:nia c lepainro::
1
Coracno nnrepnperannn A.B. ee(ena, oripinmancn npn .ro: :y(pocri (ooo v)
oanauaer ncene(enne (anari nce iai o(no rv ovto rvo), a n:eimancn
a(eci cnnraicnuecian (nyc:icennocri (onyciaer eme o(nn napnanr nepeno(a:
Ecri roiio o(no :y(poe cymecrno, ioropoe anaer nce (J.:+cnfa pannnx
rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 199). Hepeno( Napionnue: .roro ]par:enra
nirn(nr ce(yimn: opaao:: Ecn i ni ciman |n nonnn] ne :enn, no
oroc, ro io i :y(po coracnricn, uro nce nemn ecri o(no. Hpn .ro: on
(onyciaer, uro oroc n (anno: cyuae nepconn]nnnponan, a ooov rotv yiaai-
naer na ornueciyi neoxo(n:ocri coracnn c ni(nnnyri: nooenne: (a ne na
nepconn]nianni :y(pocrn').
2
N. Narcovich yrnep(aer, uro n (anno: ]par:enre to ooov oanauaer ueone-
ueciyi :y(pocri, a nce nonirin nnrepnpernponari a(eci .ro nonnrne iai :y(-
pocri ora npnno(nr i nenoa:oni: urennn:. B:ecre c re:, iai :i yiaainan
n ca:o: nauae rani, nepeno( A.B. ee(ena noanoner rpaironari .ro nonnrne
iai nepconn]nianni :y(poro cymecrna.
8
Nonnn a(eci nepconn]nnnponana (Narcovich, C. 42b) n xrpouvo ciopee
ce(yer unrari iai Nerarei :onnn.
1
1ccxa,, Teoronnn, cri. b87.
2
1ccxa,, Teoronnn, cri. 1002.
8
1ccxa,, Tpy(i n (nn, crii. 488, 661.
4
1a+c, Hna(a, in. 8, cri. 148.
b
1a+c, Hna(a, in. 14, cri. 160, O(nccen, in. b, cri. 187, 1anc::c 1,nn: (ed.
Hugh G. Evelyn-Whi:e), rn:n 4, cri. 896.
6
1anc::c 1,nn: (ed. Hugh G. EvelynWhi:e), rn:n 4, cri. b8b)
7
1:ccc// 1.C., oca11 1. GreekEnglish Lexicon wi:h a Pevised Supplemen:.
Oxord, 1996.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C.147, xa:cn ..f-
ckxx, l.12.
9
1u:kc:1 1. Lore and Science in Ancien: Py:hagoreanism. Cambridge, 1972. P. 6b.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 142 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 148
to ooov rotv ou xo0 rv ovov,
o oooo rp q, ovto xo yvov rr (28 B 4 DK).
1
(Ny(pocri ne n o(no: e(nncrnenno:, no nce nnie cymecrna
oa(air y:o:), na ocnonannn .roro :ono npe(noonri ncnoiaona-
nne 3nnxap:o: cocrnennon eicnin lepainra. C:ic nroporo ne on-
aareino coornocnrcn c oro::
o t xo otq ooov, to vuxto rv0uqtrov (28 B 27 DK).
(Kon :y(poe uro nmemi, paa:imnn o ne: n noun).
Cymecrnyer eme o(nn ]par:enr, orcyrcrnyimnn n na(annn ]ni-
ca-Kpanna: Croen, l, 1, 24: ro ecri or Lor .ro paay:. ro
ecri paay: 3(panin c:ic
2
|t ot rot 0ro; vou. t r vou rot;
povqo]. Ouenn(no, uro n .ro: ]par:enre no ornomenni i oecrny
raie ynorpenercn rpa(nnnonnan .nnuecian eicnia.
Hrai, nce .ro :oer n iaion-ro :epe cnn(ereicrnonari o ro:, uro
(o lepainra (n ooanauennn :y(pocrn oecrna (no ipannen :epe, n
.nnuecion rpa(nnnn, nocioiiy ]par:enri Hn]aropa neian c nonon
ynepennocrii npnanari aa ayrenrnunie) ncnoiaonaoci cono voo, n
noa:ono, n:enno lepainr, nocpe(crno: nonnrnn to ooov (:y(pin,
cne(ymnn, nciycnin) (3enc)) nne paa(eenne nonnrnn paay:a o-
ecrnennoro n ueoneuecioro, oee roro, noome oriaaa ueoneiy n
oa(annn iaio:no paay:o: (78 Nch).
Tai, :i :oe: nn(eri, uro n y lepainra, n n npancion rpa(nnnn
:y(pocri oecrnennan n :y(pocri ueoneia paa(enircn. 3(eci nena-
eno noanniaer ce(yimnn nonpoc. Ecn npnnncinari .ron ionnen-
nnn npancioe nponcxo(enne, ro neoxo(n:o npe(noarari anaio:crno
lepainra c npancion rpa(nnnen, npnue: n opnrnnaino: ee napnanre,
uero neian c(eari ea anannn (pennenepcn(cioro naiia. Ha: iaercn,
uro c(eari no(onoe (onymenne n ornomennn lepainra nerpy(no, no-
cioiiy no npe:n ero nann in naaeni nenocpe(crnennie ornome-
nnn rpeuecinx noncon c nepcn(cion (epanon, no ipannen :epe, n ro:,
uro iacaoci nonpocon nonrnin. Hoce :aoaanncinx aanoenannn n b46
r. 3]eco: npannn rnpani A]nnarop n Ko:a, nepcn(cine cranennnin.
He nciiueno, uro lepainr iai nocnnrannni napcioro po(a n apncroi-
par n :oo(ie ro(i :or roronnricn i (nno:arnuecion :nccnn n Hep-
cnn, n nnone :or iri anaio: c (pennenepcn(cin: naiio:. Ni ne
nciiuae: .ron noa:onocrn eme n noro:y, uro cymecrnyer xopomo
aacnn(ereicrnonannoe yiaaanne na (annne cnnan c Hepcnen ce:in Ha-
rona. Nari Harona nropnuno nima aa:y aa Hnpna:na, cnoero (n(i,
ioropin uacro ornpanncn c nocoicrna:n i nepcn(cio:y napi n paa-
nuni: npannren: Aann. Ero cin or nepnoro paia ]e:, no-nn(n:o:y,
npo(on :nccni orna, ninonnn onaannocrn nepcn(cioro ioncya
(npoicena). Beponrno, noce rnen ]e:a .ra (onocri, y(yun na-
ce(crnennon, :ora nepenrn i Harony
1
.
B oro(ecrnennn lepainro: ero Ny(poro c 3enco: :ono npo-
necrn eme o(ny napaei c npancion rpa(nnnen. Y.cr or:eua, uro (n
npe(cranennn lepainra o cymecrnonannn (pyrnx oron, cpe(n ioropix
3enc nenuanmnn, cymecrnyer npancian napaei: nepci npnanair
(pyrnx oron, 3opoacrp roiio o(noro Axypa:aa(y, or lepainra, iai
n Axypa:aa(a, nnior(a ne cnnr
2
. Y.cr yrnep(aer, uro nocronnno nai-
(aiman aa ueoneio: :y(pan oecrnennan cna, neuro ecconnoe
conepmenno nonoe n lpennn, n na .ro: ocnonannn cunraer, uro 3enc
.ro Axypa:aa(a. ]encrnnreino, npancinn Axypa:aa(a oro(ecrnncn
rpeia:n c 3enco:, uro orpaeno n nepnyi ouepe(i y lepo(ora (l.181).
Coxpannnci rpeuecine na(nncn napn Ko::areni Anrnoxa l (1-n no. l n.
(o n...) c yno:nnanne: 3enca Opo:ac(a
8
. Cymecrnyir (annie ornocn-
reino pacnpocrpanennn na reppnropnnx Ap:nncioro naropin, Cnpnn n
Naon Aann n anrnunin nepno( cnnipernuecinx iyiron, n ioropix 3enc,
Le n Axypa:aa(a oro(ecrnnnci
4
. 3rn ocronreicrna cnn(ereicrny-
er o (ocrarouno panne: nponcxo(ennn n ycronunnocrn ren(ennnn i oro-
(ecrnenni 3enca n Axypa:aa(i, no n ro e npe:n, paay:eercn, nn n ioen
:epe ne cnn(ereicrnyir o nanecrnocrn no npe:ena lepo(ora, re: oee
no npe:ena lepainra, opaaa n arpnyron Axypa:aa(i iai Ny(poro.
C (pyron croponi, na rpeuecion noune cymecrnonaa rpa(nnnn,
nonecrnyiman o ce:n (pennnx :y(penax tv rto oov. H onnri co
ncen ynepennocrii yrnep(ari, uro nipaenne :y(pen iai ooov
ye ror(a ncnoiaonaoci no ornomenni i ueoneiy, neian. Loiman
uacri ncex ]par:enron o ce:n :y(penax nocxo(nr i lVlll nn. (o n...
(]e:erpnn 4aepncinn, ]nieapx, lep:nnn). Hanoee pannn: cnn(e-
reicrno: nnnercn yno:nnanne Harona (nau. lV n.), no .ror ]air
aa]nicnponan ye cnycrn cro er noce nonnennn innrn lepainra.
1
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 142.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 262.
1
1xa. ..A. Haron n :nrpana: ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn, 1998. N 2. C. 46.
2
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 180. ]en-
crnnreino, n Op:aa(-nmre cpe(n nepnix (na(narn n:en Axypa-Naa(i ncrpe-
uaercn n:n Bcenn(nmnn, n noce(yimnx nepeuncennnx ncrpeuaircn Bce-
apnunn, Ca:in-3pnunn, Oueni-3opinn, Hai(arei, Hpece(onarei.
8
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N., 1998. C. 88.
4
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npoe:i. Bonpo-
ci xponoornn. N., 1998. C. 88.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 144 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 14b
Ocraercn (oannri, uro nne(enne nocronnno nai(aimen aa ue-
oneio: cni ne nnnercn npnnnnnnaino nonaropcin: :o:enro: (n
lpennn. Nono ncno:nnri, nanpn:ep, npe(cranenne o 3pnnnnx n nx
pon n rpeuecion :n]oornn. He aainaer o nx anauennn n ca: lepai-
nr (lenoc (Conne) ne nepecrynnr cnoen :epi, nnaue 3pnnnn, no-
:omnnni ]nin, nan(yr ero (b2 Nch), ra e :ici orpaena n reicre
nannpyca na ]epnenn: Conne npannr ioc:oco: coracno ecrecrnen-
no:y nopn(iy. ono ne npecrynaer nooennix rpannn, no, ecn ono
npecrynnr (onie cpoin, ero paaimyr 3pnnnn, coiannni Hpan(i
1
).
Xorn 3pnnnn ne :oryr naanaricn e(nncrnenno :y(pi:, re: ne :e-
nee, nanpn:yi cnnaani c opaao: 3enca.
Ha roro, uro :i ciaaan nime, napaei :e(y Ny(pi: oecrno:
n oroco: n yuennn lepainra n aopoacrpnncin:n Axypa Naa(on n Nanr-
pa Cnenra cranonnrcn ouenn(non. ]encrnnreino, ornpanni: nyniro: oe-
nx ionnennnn nnnercn npe(cranenne o Ny(po:, ynpannime: n crpyiry-
pnpyime: :np n (aime: ncrnnnoe ananne o .ro: :npe. Ho nacioiio
:ono cy(nri o npancio: nponcxo(ennn no(onix noaapennn lepainra
Bo-nepnix, npe(cranennn o nepxonno: oecrne iai oa(aime:
nannicmen :y(pocrii, ne cpannn:on c ueoneuecion, no ncen nn(n:oc-
rn, noanniair n nepno( ]op:nponannn omnnno-po(onoro crpon. Heec-
nin nanreon :icncn no opaany crpyirypi omecrna, a poi n anaue-
nne narpnapxa, a nnoce(crnnn noennoro no(n nn pena nepenocn-
nci na npe(cranennn o nepxonno: oecrne nanreona. H:enno no.ro-
:y npe(cranennn o nenuanmen :y(pocrn nepxonnoro oecrna ncrpe-
uaircn npairnuecin n ion :n]oornn napo(on, naxo(nmnxcn na coor-
nercrnyimen cra(nn omecrnennoro paannrnn n no(onie cieri ce-
(yer ornecrn ciopee i po(nun:, ue: i aan:crnonanni:. Bo-nropix,
caipainin xapairep cona, peun n peun iai cnocoa nponnennn oe-
crna n:eer ryoine iopnn, no-nn(n:o:y, n ion rpa(nnnn, n n uacrno-
crn, mnpoio pacnpocrpanen n nn(oapnncinx n nnenocrounix (ern-
nercinx n ce:nrcinx) npe(cranennnx.
Hanpn:ep, n Pnrne(e cnnmenni:n cunranci Peui (Vc, yin.
peui, cono) n naii oron :erpnuecian peui rn:non. Lorn na-
(eir ranni: cono:, n roiio na raion naii onn roroni orininyricn.
roi a(enri :orn npnnocnri ora: eprny cono: n (eo:, re (oni
n: .ror naii nepe(ari. Hpnomnri no.ra i ranno:y naiiy npepora-
rnna ora (28, c. 9). Heioropie ne(nuecine orn ca:n npe(crair n
iauecrne no.ron (kavi) n cocrannreen rn:non: Hn(pa no.r (Pnrne(a,
l, 180, 9, lll. b2. 6 n (p.), neecnin napi rn:non (Vl. 24.1), nenccnia-
e:in ia(eai rn:non (lll, 6.4), Arnn rannin noiponnrei cnnmen-
non peun, on aonercn no.ro: uame, ue: ioe (pyroe oecrno, on
oa(arei oecrnennon peun (Vl.1b.4), n(oxnonennin npoararei
nyrn (n no.ron (lll.b.1). Cnnmennan Peui crannaci nime ncex oron,
ona nx necer (cr. 12). Ona pacnpe(eena no :norn: :ecra:, :noro-
opaana n cocronr na :nornx uacren, npnro:, uro e(nna (8). Ona (aer
cny nann nce: cymecrna: (4), noanenunnaer i(en n oron (b), ni-
ainaer conecnie cocrnaannn (6), nponnainaer coon nce :npoa(anne
(7), yneiaer ncex aa coon (8)
1
. Hpe(cranenne o ro:, uro nicmee
ananne, iai n coiponennan cyri Peun, nenponnenni n ne(ocrynni npo-
cri: c:eprni:, io ryoio yiopenenni: n P|nr]B|e(e]
2
. Ha ro, uro
ocy(anci napaen :e(y (pennenn(nncin:n reopnn:n cona n
neioropi:n uepra:n Bau |Peun], c o(non croponi, n yuenne: o oroce n
(pennerpeuecion ]noco]nn c (pyron, yiaaina B.H. Tonopon
8
.
B ernnercinx reicrax peun npncyma ioc:oronnuecian ]yninnn,
noanninonenne :npa nenocpe(crnenno cnnaano c peuii n cono:. ]yx
nanauainix no( nouyncrnona eanne ronopnri n ior(a on nponanec
cono, :np cpaay e nonorncn n opaae, ye cymecrnonanme: n
coanannn (yxa (o roro, iai on nponanec cono, cranmee npnunnon co-
rnopennn :npa
4
. B Hannpyce Hecn A:cy ncrpeuae: eme o(nn napn-
anr naoennn cnocoa cornopennn :npa: H:n :oe Aycapec (Ocn-
pnc), ce:n nanauainon :arepnn. A nponanec n:n cnoe, iai cono cni.
n n cpaay paann cen. n cornopn nce
b
. Peun npncyma .,, cna cnn-
nnn, naxo(nmancn n ne(ennn oron, cnnaannix co ananne:. Cnon cai-
painoro cona Hcn(a n Tor orpaair npara n rain: opaao: ne (air
ocranonnricn ipyronpamenni Conna, ron e cnon Hcn(a naeunnaer
aaoenmero :a(ennaXopa n onnner :eprnoro Ocnpnca. Ta e cna
cnnnnn ncnoiayercn n iyironon peun, ioropyi ernnrnne :icnn cee
iai naii oron
6
. Hocpe(crno: rn:non ueonei :or oro(ecrnnri cen c
ie:-ro na oron n rain: opaao: yuacrnonari n ioc:nuecinx coirnnx
7
.
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C.224 (]p. b7).
1
1.x..cnkaa. T.X. Nnp n(en apnen Pnrne(i ;; Pnrne(a. Nan(ai VVlll ;
Ha(. no(roronna T.A. Enaapeniona, orn. pe(airop H.A. lpnnnep. 2-e na(., ncnp.
N., 1999. C. b28.
2
1.x..cnkaa. T.X. Nnp n(en apnen Pnrne(i ;; Pnrne(a. Nan(ai VVlll. N.,
1999. C. 468.
8
Taaaa 1.1. Bau ;; Nn]i napo(on :npa. 3nnnione(nn: B 2-x r. ; l. pe(.
C.A. Toiapen. N.: Con. .nnnione(nn, 1991. T. 1. A-K. C. 220.
4
1., . . J. Ernnercian penrnn, Ernnercian :arnn. N., 1996. C. 28.
b
1., . . J. Ernnercian penrnn, Ernnercian :arnn. C. 2980.
6
cc+.n Xn. Ernner: reoornn n arouecrne pannen nnnnnaannn. N., 1999.
C. 140141.
7
cc+.n Xn. Ernner: reoornn n arouecrne pannen nnnnnaannn. N., 1999.
C. 172178.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 146 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 147
Hanpornn, n anrnunon rpa(nnnn 3enc ne onepnpyer c.aaa+, on nponn-
ner cen, iai npanno, nocpe(crno: ar:oc]epnix nnennn. Te: ne :enee,
cymecrnyer npe(cranenne o Nyaax, ioropie, no ipannen :epe, co npe:enn
lecno(a, nnnircn (ouepi:n 3enca, ioropin yremaercn nx nenne:
1
. Y lecn-
o(a Nyai nonn:aircn ne npocro iai ornnn xy(oecrnennon :y(pocrn,
no n iai n(oxnonnreinnni iix no.rnuecinx ni:icon
2
.
Bce nimeciaaannoe cnn(ereicrnyer o ro:, uro ]op:nponanne
npe(cranennn o caipaino: cone, peun ne npnna(enr nciiunrei-
no nn(oenponencion rpa(nnnn (rpeuecion, npancion), n, neco:nenno,
nnnercn omn: :ecro: n paannrnn ueoneuecion iyirypi, no.ro:y
nonnrne oroca y lepainra, eccnopno, :oro iri peayiraro: nnyr-
pennero paannrnn rpeuecion iyirypi.
Hponnrnponannan nime ]noreno: a.prcin: .nnrpa::a (aer no-
nnri, uro unrari innry lepainra ca:ocronreino ecc:icenno, (n
.roro n iauecrne npono(nnia nyen nocnnmennin. 3ro n:ecre c re:-
ni:, nyranni:, a aauacryi n (nyc:icenni: naoenne: lepainro:
cnonx npe(cranennn nano(nr na :ici o ero eannn npn(ari cnoe:y
yuenni caipainin xapairep. Kpo:e roro, o ro:, uro innra (encrnn-
reino ne (n ncex, :oer cnn(ereicrnonari n ]air no:emennn ee
n xpa: na xpanenne. 3(eci :i no(xo(n: i eme o(no:y acneiry, n ia-
ion-ro :epe ronopnme:y n noiay npancioro nponcxo(ennn npe(cran-
ennn lepainra o Cone, npo]ernuecio:y xapairepy peun lepain-
ra, ioropin ye or:euacn ncce(onaren:n ero ]noco]nn
8
.
]encrnnreino, niciaainannn lepainra oruacrn conocrann:i c npo-
pouecin:n. E:y o(no:y oripioci ananne o Ny(po:, nn oroce n on
crapaercn (onecrn ero (o corpa(an. Ha(nnci c nopraa ]ei]nncioro
xpa:a Hoanan ca:oro cen, nepe]paanponannan lepainro:, ronopnr o
ero eannn c(eari cnoe ananne npnuacrni: i nnemnen no ornomenni
i ueoneiy c]epe, ne nciiueno, uro peui n(er o oecrnennon npnpo(e:
A nonpoma ca:oro cen (1b a Nch), lepainr ca: oricia npnpo(y
ncero (1b d
4
Nch). lepainr yrnep(aer, uro on nponanocnr nc caak
peui, n re: ca:i: ooconer ee or oroca, ioropo:y nropnr. Xorn oroc
o(nn n ror e n nocronnno npncyrcrnyer n .ro: :npe, (pyrne ero ne
cimar: 3ron Hcrnni (o you), no(nnnon iai ona ecri, i(n ncer(a
niiaainair nenonn:anne, n (o roro, iai ycimar ee n o(na(i yci-
man (1 a Nch), i(n, ioropie ocraircn nenonn:aimn:n, ((ae) ior(a
onn yciman |yuenne o oroce], no(oni ryxn: (2 Nch), i(n n
paanoracnn c re:, c ie: onn nenpepinno omaircn (4 Nch), Ha rex,
uin peun n cima (nayua), nniro ne (ocrnr nonn:annn roro, uro Ny(-
poe (cymecrno) ornuno or ion (pyron nemn (idea) (88 Nch). C anao-
rnunon :icii :i ye ncrpeuanci cxo(ni: opaao: nonn:air rooc
oecrnennon :y(pocrn ne(nuecine pnmn.
C .ron rouin apennn ne y(er nciiuenne: n npancian rpa(nnnn.
Oparnnmnci i lara: 3aparymrpi, :i ynn(n:, iai npancinn npopoi
onncinaer cnoe npnananne i cyenni ncrnnnon nepe. Hpn niope ue-
oneia, ioropin i opocn co ao(ennne:, orneuaa Apra (Hcrnna):
.Her (ocronnoro nnr(e, uroi i(n mn na aon ero (Acna, 29.8).
Naa(a rai ciaaa ror(a, on, Axypa, uro :y(pee ncex: . A. Cono
Nanrpy cornopn. A Nanrpy ry, Boxy-Nana, nmi n ycra ncrnnnoro
(pyra cra( non' na ae:e ecri nmi o(nn, iro Non aaneri cnnro urnr,
3aparymrpa, nepen Naa(e, iai n Apre on, On ncer(a npocannr nac,
ecn Cono: o(api ero (Acna, 29.78). C:ic omennn 3aparymrpi
c Naa(on n nocrnennn rannix con Hcrnni. Acna, 81 nonocrii
nocnnmena caipainon pon cona. E(nncrnenno anaimn: nnnercn
Naa(a, n on nepe(aer cnoe ananne 3aparymrpe nocpe(crno: cnonx con
n naiia: A Naa(a, anaimnn, ronopi naiio: cnoero pra
1
, A ror, iro
ecri anaimnn, ronopi no(nnnie cona
2
. 3aparymrpa npe(craer n la-
rax iai ueonei, napannin oecrno: (n cyennn nepe(aun non
Axypa Naa(i. Hpn .ro: neo(noiparno no(uepinnaercn nainn xapai-
rep ornomennn Naa(i n 3aparymrpi:
Aacf .x a ..:a,.nacf: .. +ac aaca..cnxc
T.kax, k.k fa, afkaf:cs k.k ,,:, f.ka+, k.k s
Acna, 44. 1
8
.
.a.s a,,ck,, k.k ,,: ,.cf ,,:,,
n.,4x 4c. J.kan a..,.nxk aax Aac.:k
Acna, 46. 2
4
.
1
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 8b8.
2
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 8b8.
8
Hanpn:ep, A://c: 1c.1. The Logos o Heracli:us: Upda:ing :he repor: ;; Harvard
Theological Peview. 1981. V. 72. N 2.
1
tat n mazd vdvani vaoc hizv thwahy (Yasna, 81.8.)
2
mi vdv vaoct haithm mthrem (Yasna, 81.6) |Aves:a: Yasna. Sacred Li:urgy
and Ga:has ; Hymns o Zara:hush:ra Tr. L. H. Nills (rom o.c:cc 1aak: a: 1/c
1.:1, American Edi:ion, 1898). Transla:ion by C. Bar:holomae, rom 1.J.o.
T.:.a:c./., The Divine Songs o Zara:hush:ra.
8
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) CH., 1997. C. 18b. (nep. H.C.L-
parnncioro).
4
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996.) CH., 1997. C. 187. (nep. E.3. Lepreica).
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 148 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 149
Kai npopoi cona n yuennn Hcrnni, 3aparymrpa neo(noiparno yno-
:nnaer enpopoion n nx rpn(ymee naiaaanne.
.Aa4, s aaccf.f: x x.:n.f: ackacnxfc.cx ..acfaa faax
Acna, 48. 1014
1
.
1x,c. .x kfa-nx,,: c.ac,.xaac u.cfaaa.nxc ,aaa
1a a fa+ cau, s xaccnuca
.xaa k...naa x k.axca, x.aa,sux ckaf
Acna, 44. 20
2
.
.xaax cu 1cn,a. csfcfaxc ,.s xcfxnnax aca.
1xc.: c+, ,:afaa:, a A..,.
Acna, 49.1.
8
.
T9. 1:a ,a.na +a c.,u.f:, kfa ans. u,, +,,a:a 1c.xfc.s
2x.nx, C ,., kfa +acf x.x ,cf.naaxf xcfxn, c.aa caac:a s.ak.,
ka:,. c a+au:k Taac:a k.cna:a C:ns, C A..,., ,,cf ac,c.cn.
,a.s fx ,a, cfaan. 2U. fa fc, kfa c.c,,cf 1cfxnc x fc, kfa ,..ck af
ncc, x c,,,f anx ,a.:ac ac+s a cf.,.nxs x fc+nafc, c .aax
xucx x kxk.+x :as. T.ka:a c,uccfaaa.nxs, 1a, ac.c,aa.fc.x .x,
,acfx:.x ..:a,.s a.+ c.+x+, 4cc. a.ux cacfacnnac ,csnxs.
Acna, 81. 1920
4
.
Cfk.... a :acfcxx+cfac .ck.a.x 1x. , +acf. .x+ax.
.. ,,cf n.k...n an , Aacf. c,,cxcka:a ..a. xna.,
Acna, b1. 1218
b
.
B iaion-ro :epe .rn cona 3aparymrpi nepeiniaircn c ornome-
nne: lepainra i re: i(n:, ioropie ne ciman oroca: onn ne
cimar, ne nonn:air, ne :icnr nocronnnoe ceronanne lepai-
nra na cnonx corpa(an. N. Wes:, ne co:nenanci, ornocnr ]nrypy le-
painra i npopouecin:, xapairepnayn ero ce(yimn: opaao:: C ero
nerepnn:on araion na ycranonennie penrnoanie oiuan, ero yrpoaon
y(ymero naiaaannn (n ncex npnnepennen n, ero npe(ynpe(enne:
npornn ninncrna n upp lepainr nopaaer npo]ernuecin: rono:, ra-
in:, ioropin nano:nnaer oee unraren 3opoacrpa
1
. Ha nam narn(,
(ae ecn npnanari, uro neioropie nooennn (oirpnni lepainra n
anyuar iai corepnuecine, yc:arpnnari nx nponcxo(enne, panno iai n
nponcxo(enne nncrnryra npopouecrn nciiunreino n npancion, n n
ro: unce nepcn(cion cpe(e io i oimn: aay(enne:. Or(ei-
nie i(n, noyuanmne ananne o cnepxrecrecrnenno:, paanoro po(a
ra(aren, io(yni, npopoin n nponn(ni cymecrnonan n ueoneuecio:
omecrne c ryoion (pennocrn. Onpe(eennin connainin con i-
(en, ioropi: rpeonaaci npo]eccnonainan no(roronia (n ornpane-
nnn penrnoanix ]yninnn, ni(encn, neponrno, n nepno( paaoe-
nnn nepnoirnoomnnnoro crpon n pocra connainon (n]]epennnannn
2
.
B Haecrnne .noxn Cy(en (XlllXl nn. (o n...) (aa(oro (o nepcn(cioro
aanoenannn'), io nenioe :noecrno paanunix ra(areen, nenre-
en n npopoion, n npopoion Baaa io e(na n ne oime, ue: Axne
8
.
ro iacaercn npancioro :npa, paay:eercn, on ne i nciiuenne: n
ornomennn paannrnn npo]ernuecinx npairni. 3opoacrp ornepr npenne
nn(onpancine iyiri, n ro: unce ynorpeenne xao:i n npe(ciaaa-
reinie npairnin, ornpanne:ie pena:n-iapanana:n. B rai naainae-
:o: aopoacrpnncio: Cn:noe nepi uapo(en n uapo(ennie nepeunc-
nircn napn(y c (.na:n, ca:i:n naryni:n, ca:i:n nni:n, ca:i-
:n rernopni:n na ncex cymecrn
4
. Honnrnn io(yn, io(oncrno
(anecr. ytu) n anaornunie n: n:en orpnnareinie anauennn roiio
n Anecre n ne pacnpocrpannnci na npanciyi rpa(nnni n neo:
b
.
Banocri npe(ciaaareinon npairnin n cocrnenno npancion cpe-
(e nicrpnpyer oecrno ((.n) Kyn(a c ]yninnn:n npopnnannn n :a-
rnn. Bn(en(ar (XlX, 41) onpe(ener ero iai ((ae) ea oninnnime-
ro nannria (nn noome .icrarnuecioro cpe(crna) oninnennin (naxo-
(nmnncn n .icrarnuecio: noay(ennn iai n cnoe: ocnonno: iaue-
crne)
6
. B nepcn(cinx naiiax cona, nocxo(nmne i ro:y e iopni, uro
1
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 184.
2
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 186. (nep. H.C. Lpa-
rnncioro).
8
1.:xnckxx 1.C. Anecra ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH.,
1997. C. 61. (nep. H.C. Lparnncioro).
4
Aves:a: Yasna. Sacred Li:urgy and Ga:has ; Hymns o Zara:hush:ra Tr. L. H.
Nills (rom o.c:cc 1aak: a: 1/c 1.:1, American Edi:ion, 1898). Transla:ion by C.
Bar:holomae, rom 1.J.o. T.:.a:c./., The Divine Songs o Zara:hush:ra.
b
1.:xnckxx 1.C. Anecra ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH.,
1997. C. 61.
1
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 198.
2
1xckxx A.1. Lnencine npopouecrna n nencine npopouecrna. N., 1987.
C. 8288.
8
1xckxx A.1. Lnencine npopouecrna n nencine npopouecrna. N., 1987. C. 88.
4
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.N., 1998. C. 88.
(Hep. H.N. Crenn-Ka:encinn).
b
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 288.
6
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 288.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 1b0 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 1b1
n n cone 1unc., oanauanme:y, no ncen nn(n:ocrn, pacrenne c ncnxo-
rponni:n cnoncrna:n, cnnaannoe c iyiro:, co(epar cepni nepexo(n-
mnx anauennn :y(pin, anaimnn, npopoi, ra(arei n orpaair
:y(pocri iai coiponennoe ananne, noyuennoe nocpe(crno: .icrarn-
uecion npairnin
1
. B (oxpncrnancion Ap:ennn nounracn Apa:aa( n
ueripex nnocracnx, o(na na nnx Kund Aramazd, no(onoe aan:crno-
nanne :oro iri c(eano roiio na (oaopoacrpnncinx ]op: :aa(ena-
:a (Vlll n. (o n...)
2
. Kyironoe ncnoiaonanne x:einix nannrion n
.icrarnuecian npairnia in mnpoio pacnpocrpaneni y npancinx napo-
(on, na uro raie yiaainair :n(nncine .rnonn:i n rononn:i, ooana-
uaimne coornercrnyimne pacrennn n cpe(crna, noyuae:ie na nnx
8
.
Eme o(non nanon croponon npe(ciaaareinon npairnin n Naon
Aann nnnnci paanoro po(a opaiyi, inspira:ion man:ics
4
, nanoee
nanecrnin npn:ep raioro opaiya na enponencion reppnropnn (ei-
]nncian Hn]nn
b
. Opaiy Anoona n ]ei]ax c ionna Vlll n. (o n...
cra nenrpo: penrnoanon n nonrnuecion nann pemnreino (n ncen
3a(i
6
. Y lo:epa opaa Anoona-npopnnaren e(na roiio na:euaer-
cn, no ye y 3cxna oicnn ecri npopoi 3enca-orna
7
. ]ei]nncinn
opaiy i nanecren (aeio aa npe(ea:n 3a(i, i ne:y opamanci
ne roiio rpein lepo(or nonecrnyer o opamennn i Opaiyy n(nn-
cioro napn Kpeaa (1ca,af, l, 69). B .ror e ca:in nepno( ia mnpoio
pacnpocrpanena npairnia .icrarnuecinx npopounn n Accnpnn, ocoenno
n iyire Hmrap Apecion
8
. B Ernnre raie cymecrnonaa rpa(nnnn
nonpomannn opaiya. Coracno lepo(ory (ll. 88), npopouecinn (ap. ne
(an n y(e c:eprni:, .rn: (apo: oa(air nmi neioropie orn. Tai,
y nnx ecri npopnnanma lepaia, Anoona, A]nni, Apre:n(i, Apeca n
3enca. Hanoimn: ynaenne:, o(naio, noiayercn npopnnanme aro-
ni n ropo(e Lyro. Cnoco npopnnannn, nnpoue:, ne nci(y o(nnaion, no
paanuen (1ca,af, ll, 88). lepo(or coomaer raie n o ro:, uro nep-
cn(cinn napi Ka:nc opamacn i ernnercio:y opaiyy n ropo(e Lyro
(1ca,af, lll, 64).
Penrnoanie npe(cranennn na Lnne: Bocroie no(paay:enan
anaunreinoe unco oron, oimnncrno na ioropix :oro (anari opaiy-
i n n:eo cnonx npopoion, y ncex napo(on (pennocrn n, nanepnoe, y
ncex (pennnx oron in cnon npopoin
1
. Hpopoin n npopouecrna (pyrnx
oron npn .ro: ne pacnennnanci iai enpopoin nn e-opaiyi. Be-
ponrno, npn Knpe Benio: :arn peni aopoacrpna:a cranonnrcn nn-
nreini: coconne:, npn .ro: cnercioe naceenne n npe(crannren
napcioro po(a n anaunreinon uacrn ocraircn npnnepenna:n paanunix
:o(n]niannn nn(onpancion penrnn nnori (o napcrnonannn ]apnn l,
npn ioropo: n:n Axypa:aa(i iai nepxonnoro ora nnepnie yno:nnaercn
n o]nnnaino: ncrounnie Lexncryncion na(nncn. Hpn:euareino,
uro n reuenne ncero .roro nepno(a axe:enn(cine napn noiponnreicrnona-
n xpa:a: Anoona n :arepnionon lpennn. Bo npe:n nonni Knpa ll (Ben-
ioro) c n(nen n b47 r. peni .rnx xpa:on n Naon Aann in nacrpoeni
nponepcn(cin. Coxpannoci nnci:o ]apnn l ynpannime:y napcin:n ae:-
n:n n Narnecnn, n ioropo: on ronopnr: 3a ro, uro ri npeneperaemi
:on: yiaaanne: ornocnreino oron, ri nouyncrnyemi rnen :oen (ymn,
ecn roiio ri ne na:ennmi cnon nocrynin, ri copa no(ari co cnnmen-
nix ca(onnnion Anoona n npniaaa n: opaorari nexpa:onyi ae:i,
ne ne(an o :onx uyncrnax i .ro:y ory, ioropin ciaaa nepca: nci npan-
(y.
2
. Ouenn(no, uro ]apnn nenn opaiyi Anoona neaanncn:o or o]n-
nnainon rocy(apcrnennon penrnoanon nonrnin.
Heioropoe nciiuenne n .ro: pn(y, noayn, :ora i npe(-
crannri Haecrnna, no n ra:, npn :onorencrnuecio: xapairepe nic-
iaainannn nencinx npopoion cpe(n ocnonnon :acci naceennn in
mnpoio pacnpocrpaneni iyiri nnopo(nix, uynx oron (Knnra Cy-
(en, Hpopoin)
8
.
lepainr nacrannaer, uro nponanocnr ne cnoi peui, no oroc, no
nnuro n ne npennrcrnyer e:y ornuari cnoi cocrnennyi peui or n(ox-
1
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 288.
2
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 289.
8
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann. N., 1970.
C. 181.
4
1u:kc:1 1. l:ineran: Diviners and Nagicians: A Neglec:ed Elemen: in Cul:ural
Con:ac:s ;; The Greek Penaissance o :he Eigh: Cen:ury B.C.: Tradi:ion and
lnnova:ion. Proceedings o :he 2nd ln:erna:ional Symposium a: :he Swedish lns:i:u:e
in A:hens, 1b June, 1981. S:ockholm, 1988. P. 117.
b
1,.xuaa. C.1. ]ei]nncinn opaiy n cncre:e anrnunix :erocy(apcrnennix
ornomennn (Vll V nn. (o n...). CH., 2001.
6
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 861.
7
.acca .J. Teoronn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N., 1996.
C. 8b9860.
8
1u:kc:1 1. l:ineran: Diviners and Nagicians: A Neglec:ed Elemen: in Cul:ural
Con:ac:s ;; The Greek Penaissance o :he Eigh: Cen:ury B.C.: Tradi:ion and
lnnova:ion. S:ockholm, 1988. P. 117.
1
1xckxx A.1. Lnencine npopouecrna n nencine npopouecrna. N., 1987. C. 87.
2
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. CH.-N., 1998. C. 484.
8
1xckxx A.1. Lnencine npopouecrna n nencine npopouecrna. N. 1987.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 1b2 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 1b8
nonennn n oriponennn Hcrnni. Taie iai (ei]nncian pnna, neponr-
no, :ora ornunri cnoi cocrnennyi peui or npopouecinx con, nioi
nponanocn:ix uepea nee nocpe(crno: n(oxnonennn, iai cocrnenno, n
ion npopoi
1
. Kai noarair neioropie ncce(onaren, cymecrnyer :no-
ecrno ]airon, noanonimnx (y:ari, uro lepainr roe nn(e cen iai
:e(ny:a neioroporo po(a penrnoanix nponoaramennn n ocnoo(ennon
ncrnni
2
. N. Y.cr yrnep(aer, uro n:enno npo]ernuecinn xapairep nic-
iaainannn lepainra, no ne iai raionon, a no(ipenennin (oirpnnai-
ni:n napaen:n, cranonnrcn anaunreini: nyniro: na nyrn (oiaaa-
reicrna noa:onix npancinx nnnnnn na cranonenne yuennn lepain-
ra
8
. B (encrnnreinocrn, iai na: y(aoci noiaaari, npopouecinn nncrn-
ryr ne i xapairepnon uepron npancion :n]o-penrnoanon rpa(nnnn,
ciopee .ro oman (nnnapnanrnan) noannnn iyirypno-ncropnuecioro npo-
necca n n ]pennen Naon Aann, n n lpennn, n na (pyrnx reppnropnnx.
Hrai, nime :i oparnn nnn:anne, uro n iauecrne npopouecinx
uepr N.Wes: nepeuncner ueripe nynira (oirpnni lepainra, ia(an na
ioropix, (encrnnreino :oer iri coornecena c aopoacrpnncin: yuenn-
e:. Bo-nepnix, .ro oriaa or ycranonennix penrnoanix oiuaen. Co-
racno cnn(ereicrny Kn:enra Aeican(pnncioro, lepainr neci:a ne-
rarnnno ornocncn i paanoro po(a :ncrepnaini: npairnia:: Ko:y npo-
pnnaer lepainr 3]eccinn Lpo(nmn: n noun :ara:, naixanra:, :ena-
(a:, :ncra:. 3ro n: on rpoanr noc:eprni: noa(annne:, n: nponemaer
oroni, no neuecrnno onn nocnnmaircn n ro, uro cunraercn ranncrna:n y
i(en (Hporpenrni, 22, 2) (87 Nch)
4
, no cnn(ereicrny Apncroipnra,
on ornepra (enreinocri, cnnaannyi c mnpoio pacnpocrpanenni:n n
3a(e npairnia:n ounmennn, n n nepnyi ouepe(i c iponani:n eprna-
:n: Borme ounmaircn iponii <iponii> ocinepnennie, iai ecn i
iro, n rpnai non(n, rpnaii or:inacn: ero i coun cy:acme(mn:, ecn
i iro na i(en aa:ern, uro on rai (eaer. H nanannnn: .rn: nor onn
:onrcn, iai ecn i iro ece(ona c (o:a:n, nn o orax ne n:en nonn-
rnn, nn o reponx (86 Nch). 3aparymrpa pe]op:npona rpa(nnnonnyi
npanciyi penrni, aanpernn .icrarnuecine npairnin n iponanie epr-
nonpnnomennn n cymecrnenno nn(ona:enn nanreon, no rane ioroporo
cron Ny(pin locno(nn: coracno Anecre, Axypa:aa(a rpeyer (n cen
uncro (yxonnoro noionennn, :onrni nepe( cnnmenni: orne:. Ha oiu-
nix ]op: eprnonpnnomennn n uecri Axypa:aa(i (onyciaoci roiio
noannnne c:ecn coia xao:i c :ooio: (Op:aa(-nmr)
1
. Hec:orpn na
cymecrnennoe nnemnee cxo(crno, yiaaannie (oirpnni cymnocrno pac-
xo(nrcn: n neo: lepainr npo(oaer ocranaricn n pa:iax rpeuecion
iyirypi n penrnn, ne ornepran penrnn iai raionon, ipnrnia e ero
nanpanena na k.xnxc a+a ee nponnennn. Ny(poe E(nnoe, :ory-
mee npannri nce:n nema:n, oruacrn :oer iri conocraneno c 3enco:,
no .ro neuro nnoe, ue: 3enc (8b Nch). Hpe(mecrnennni lepainra
Kceno]an noce(onareino ocymecrnn ipnrniy anrpono:op]nix npe(-
cranennn o orax n :i n (anno: cyuae aa:ern:, uro noaapennn lepain-
ra ne onaareino nnnircn peayiraro: noa:onix npancinx aan:crno-
nannn, a ciopee ecri peayirar paannrnn ]noco]cinx (no ne penrnoa-
nix') n(en cnoero npe(mecrnennnia n lepainr nn n ioen :epe ne npnai-
naer i penrnoani: pe]op:a:, on crapaercn pannonananponari nano-
ee nenoce(onareinie n npornnopeunnie nooennn penrnn.
Bo-nropix, n iauecrne npopouecion uepri yno:nnaercn yrpoaa y(y-
mero naiaaannn (n ncex npnnepennen n, ni(epannan n ro: e
(yxe, uro n opamenne 3aparymrpi i nni: iapanana:: Hpan(a (]ni.)
nocrnrner :acrepon n n ecnn(ereen (19 Nch)
2
. Kaercn, uro na
.rnx con ce(yer, uro lepainr rai e, iai n 3aparymrpa, npornnonoc-
rann i(en iai npnnepennen ncrnnnoro n onoro yuennn, noce(nnx
e on(aer naiaaanne. B (encrnnreinocrn, ionreicr Kn:enra Aei-
can(pnncioro, nnrnpyimero .ro niciaainanne, ne noanoner peioncrpyn-
ponari cocrnennin ionreicr lepainra, ne nciiueno, uro peui :oer
n(rn nn o cy(enon npairnie ne y(e: aainari, uro lepainr nnca
n o rocy(apcrnennix (eax, nn npocro o onnonenrax, c ioropi:n ]no-
co], no cnoe:y oiinonenni, (ocrarouno rpyo noe:nanpyer
8
.
1
Cp. Heaeinni (2:17, 8:114, 8:1721).
2
A://c: 1c.1. The Logos o Heracli:us: Upda:ing :he repor: ;; Harvard Theological
Peview. 1981. V. 72. N 2. P. 170.
8
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 198.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 240.
1
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) CH., 1997. C. 164.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 197.
8
Hpe(mecrnyimnn nacca (Crpo:ari, V, 9, 2 (20 Nch)) raie :ao, uro (aer
(n nonn:annn opnrnnainoro ionreicra lepainra. Kn:enr paccy(aer o nepe,
npornnonocrannn en :y(pocri. Bapnanri nepeno(a npnno(n:oro n: a(eci ]par-
:enra lepainra raie paanuaircn. Coracno nepeno(y A.B. ee(ena, lepai-
nr (encrnnreino ronopnr o ro:, uro :y(pie cnoconi paanuari :e(y ncrn-
non n oii n npe(ocreperari or noce(nero, uro erio nnncari n aopoacrpnn-
cinn ionreicr: Crao iri, ca:in neco:nennin |:y(pen] pacnoanaer :nn:oe,
uroi ocreperari or nero (J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989.
C. 197). Hepeno( Napionnua ro nanoee ynaae:in ueonei (cpe(n
rpeion) anaer n no((epnnaer ncero nmi aay(ennn (nn onie :ne-
nnn) yiaainaer na cranonenne ]noco]cion rpa(nnnn paanuennn anannn
n :nennn n nnone coornercrnyer (oirpnne lepainra o ro:, uro ueonei ne
oa(aer paay:o:, a cnocoen roiio na :nenne.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 1b4 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 1bb
ro iacaercn rperiero nynira npe(ynpe(ennn npornn ninn-
crna, ro n a(eci noa:ono roiio nnemnee conocranenne. Y 3opoacrpa
peui n(er ne o ninncrne noome, a roiio o ncnoiaonannn .icrarnuec-
ioro ncnxorponnoro nannria (xao:i), ioropin ncnoiaonacn ne n no-
nce(nennon npairnie, a nciiunreino npn ornpanennn coornercrnyi-
mnx pnryaon. Biciaainannn lepainra n nepnyi ouepe(i n:eir orno-
menne i nonce(nennon nann cnonx corpa(an, uin: :opaini: on-
io: lepainr i cepieano oecnoioen, ue: i iain:-no :ncrnuecin:
nn penrnoani: nooennn:. Bnone noa:ono no(onoe ornomenne
i ninncrny nepeceiaercn c nenpnnrne: ]noco]o: (nonncnncioro iyi-
ra n cnnaannix c nn: :ncrepnn.
erneprin nynir ocy(enne (epaocrn (upp) ciopee ce(y-
er pacc:arpnnari n npornnonocranennn (epaocrn ncrnne (xq), no:nn
o ro:, uro ncrnna n oi nnnircn ocnononoaraimn:n nonnrnn:n n
aopoacrpnncion penrnn. Ho noia (ccianci na npe(i(ymnn nynir) :i
ciaaan o .ro: (ocrarouno.
B:ecre c re:, :i or:ern: eme o(nn nynir, ioropin, noayn,
nanyumn: opaao: xapairepnayer ioro npopoia .ro uy(eca, io-
ropie npopoi cnocoen npe(rnnnri corpa(ana: n iauecrne no(rnep-
(ennn cnoero oecrnennoro nponcxo(ennn nn oecrnennon :nc-
cnn. H a(eci lepainr n uepe(y npopouecinx ]nryp nniai ne nnncina-
ercn: ]noren a.prcinn naainaer ero uy(aio:, no nniai ne uy(ornop-
ne:. Ho aaro uy(eca airnnno (e:oncrpnponan Hn]arop ((ocrarouno
ncno:nnri o ero ecuncennix penniapnannnx, aooro: e(pe, cnoco-
nocrn inari o(nonpe:enno n paanix :ecrax, cnoconocrn npe(nn(eri
y(ymee n .ro (aeio ne nonin cnncoi), Aapnc, nyremecrnonanmnn
na aooron crpee, io(yn n 3anpernrei nerpon 3:ne(oi, (a n
:norne (pyrne na rpeion n :aoaannnen. Ha(o ciaaari, uro 3aparymr-
pa, nacioiio noanoner cy(nri ero cnino :n]oornanponannan n
]par:enrnponannan norpa]nn, raie uy(ec ne rnopn, i nacrpoen
npornn rpa(nnnonnix penrnoanix npairni, no npn .ro: uerio orona-
pnna, uro on ncnonner noi Axypa Naa(i.
Kai nn(n:, n ornomennn ncex ueripex nyniron lepainr (e:oncr-
pnpyer ciopee opnrnnainyi rpa(anciyi, ue: penrnoanyi npo]ern-
ueciyi noannni. Ho:n:o npouero, npopouecinn ron, na ioropin opa-
mair nnn:anne :norne ncce(onaren, xapairepnayer n nepnyi ouepe(i
ocoennocrn crnn naoennn, ue: cnocoa noanannn. B ro: e, uro
iacaercn nonpocon noanannn, lepainr npe(eino pannonancrnuen n n
ero ioncrpyinnnx :ecra oriponenni ne ocraercn.
Hpairnuecin nce pannne rpeuecine ]noco]i coracni c re:, uro
npnpo(nin :np (ocrynen n omymennnx n (n ero noanannn ncnoiayircn
oprani uyncrn. Ho no:n:o npnpo(i cymecrnyer n neuro ncsanac, ro, uro
cronr aa nema:n, nnennn:n uyncrnennoro :npa. Tpa(nnnonnin orner
penrnn n ornomennn noanannn .roro nnoro nacra cymecrnonannn
nnrynrnnnoe, nppannonainoe nn :ncrnuecioe noananne, iai npanno,
nocpe(crno: oriponennn. 4noco]nn npe(araer noananari nennnoe no-
cpe(crno: :imennn (ornuecinx npone(yp) n pannonainix ipnrepnen.
lepainro: npoe:a noanannn :npa ]op:ynpyercn iai npoe:a
noanannn nnnoro n nennnoro, aa(aercn npornnonoonocrn:n n rep:nnax
to r ovr to o ovr . B nnno: nn(e .ro nooenne no ]par:enrax
ca:oro lepainra ne yno:nnaercn, no erio peioncrpynpyercn na nnx,
uro yiaainaer na ocoananne cymecrnonannn .ron npoe:i n nacronun-
nin nonci ee pemennn. Cymecrnyer (na noa:onix napnanra nepeno(a
.rnx rep:nnon, ioropie yiaainair na neponrnie nanpanennn n no(ope
pemennn ornocnreino onpe(eennn cnocoa noanannn y lepainra.
C o(non croponi :i :orn i c]op:ynponari npoe:y iai npo-
e:y noanannn apn:oro-neapn:oro. Taion nepeno( to rovr to
oovr, noayn, ne y(er nnnricn yinaini:, no on coornercrnyer
pn(y uyncrnennix omymennn, ooanauenno:y lepainro:: O ro: e,
uro |Bceomnn oren] apn: n ne coipir (n i(en, on ronopnr rai: ro
:ono nn(eri, cimari, yanari, ro n npe(nounrai, r.e. apn:oe ne apn-
:o:y (b Nch), ra: e: lepainr nnnie nemn nennr n pannon :epe c
nennni:n, ncxo(n na roro, uro nnnoe n nennnoe opaayir e(nncrno
(ooov o oxoq, o0qo, touto ry potr)
1
.O3ro ro, uro :ono
ynn(eri raaa:n nn nocnpnnnri c no:omii nnix opranon uyncrn n ro,
uro n: ne (ano. Narcovich, Nes:le n Kirk-Paven nepeno(nr o0qo n:en-
no n .ro: iiue iai percep:ion nn apprehension, ro ecri uen-ro
nunin onir nn nepennanne, uro (ono yiaainari ciopee na nono-
ry, neci cneirp uyncrnennix nocnpnnrnn. C rouin apennn .:nnpna:a
(nn noanrnnna:a) n:enno raian nnrepnperannn nirn(ea i ye(n-
reinon n npe(nournreinon, no npn raion rpaironie noanniaer aarpy(-
nenne. Orner na nonpoc, iai noananari apn:oe, ouenn(en, no nencno,
iaioni cnocoi noanannn neapn:oro, roro, uro cipiro n ne(ocrynnoro
oprana: uyncrn. Loee ye(nreino pacipinaer .ro nooenne nropon
napnanr, ior(a npoe:a ]op:ynpyercn iai noananne nnnoro-nennno-
ro. Lyinaino cono o0qo oanauaer yanananne (ananne), n raion
c:ic cpaay nepeno(nr nac na oacrn uyncrnennoro nocnpnnrnn n o-
acri pannonainoro oc:icennn (encrnnreinocrn. Tor(a o0qo yia-
ainaer na pannonancrnuecine ipnrepnn n opaorie uyncrnennix (an-
nix, cnoco ]op:nponannn nn noyuennn anannn n (oanner re: ca-
:i: eme o(nn cnoco noanannn. Tor(a nimeyno:nnyrin nacca lepai-
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 191.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 1b6 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 1b7
nra (b Nch) :i :oe: nnrepnpernponari ce(yimn: opaao:: ro
:ono nocnpnnn:ari uyncrna:n n paay:o:, ro n npe(nounrai. Bn(no,
uro lepainr n raio: cyuae cnennaino yiaainaer, uro n:enno on npe(-
nounraer na n:eimerocn naopa napnanron, n ouenn(no, (ono iri
ro, or uero lepainr oriaainaercn. H .rn: :oer iri roiio penrnoa-
nin onir :ncrnuecioro oriponennn, nn nenocpe(crnennoro (nnrynrnn-
noro) cxnarinannn, nnaue ion cnoco nppannonainoro noanannn,
ioropin n npe(crannercn nenpne:e:i: (n lepainra.
Tain: opaao:, lepainro: nonyrno crannrcn n npoe:a panno-
nainoro n nppannonainoro noanannn. Kor(a :i paccy(ae: roiio o
nnno: nn ]eno:enax, npnpo(no:, ]nanuecio: :npe ro cnoco ero
noanannn ouenn(en, n :ono npe(noonri, iaiono io i pemenne
lepainra, ecn i peui ma roiio o .ro:. Ho rpy(nocri noanniaer
cpaay e, iai roiio :i or npnpo(nix oreiron nepexo(n: i nnenpn-
po(ni: cymnocrn: nn i ro:y, uro noa(nee cranyr n:enonari Loro:,
E(nni: n npou. Kai noa:ono raioe noananne H ]noco] (oen
yiaaari coornercrnyimnn cnoco noanannn. Ho, iai iaercn, raion non-
poc :oer noanninyri roiio ror(a, ior(a ye uerio c]op:nponano
npe(cranenne o Lore, o paanunn :e(y cymnocrii n cymecrnonanne:
n aa(ani ipnrepnn orpannuennn pannonainoro noanannn. H:enno no-
.ro:y, na nam narn(, ior(a pannonana: roiio naunnaer cnoe cranon-
enne, a crapan :n]o-penrnoanan napa(nr:a naxo(nr (ocrarouno ecr-
iyi ipnrniy co croponi nonnncinx ]noco]on, n ro: unce n lepain-
ra, rpy(no npe(noonri, uro ca: on :or iri cionen i :ncrnnna:y.
Hrai, lepainro: aa(ana cnoero po(a nepapxnn nocnpnnrnn n, uro
nnone noa:ono, noanannn noome. On yrnep(aer, uro raaa oee
rounie cnn(eren, ue: ymn (6 Nch), n neponrno, (n (oiaaareicrna .roro
nooennn npnno(nr npn:ep c (eri:n, ioropie o:anyn cenoro lo:e-
pa. Ho (aee :i nn(n:, uro raaa n ymn (ypnie cnn(eren (n i(en,
ecn (ymn y nnx napnapcine (18 Nch), n Ceicr 3:nnpni, nnrnpyn .ror
]par:enr, (aer neci:a :erinn io::enrapnn, uro napnapcine (ymn rnrore-
ir i nppannonaino:y noananni. Tor(a nonnren n orner na peaonnin non-
poc: iai noa:ono noananne oroca oroc, coracno lepainry, :ono
cimari, no ne nce: (ano nonn:ari ycimannoe. Kain: e opaao: :o-
no npnnanricn i ero nonn:anni ]n noanannn oroca ne(ocrarouno
o(nnx roiio uyncrnennix nocnpnnrnn (nx orpannunnaer eme n ro, uro
Hpnpo(a inr npnraricn (u o r xo0 Bpo xrtov xpu tro0o r )
(8 Nch) peui, nn(n:o, n(er o nennno: iai ne(ocrynno: apenni). o-
roc, re: ca:i:, ornocnrcn i ron npnpo(e nennnoro, ioropan (ocrynna (n
noanannn c no:omii paay:a. Ho iai ce(yer na ciaaannoro nime, (n
nocrnennn oroca nyen nonin naop nocnpnnrnn, niiuan o 0qo,
no, npe(e ue: noananari .ro 1c4fa, ero nyno ycimari.
Ecri eme (na ]par:enra, r(e lepainr paccy(aer o coornomennn
cimn:oro n nonn:ae:oro npn:ennreino i noananni nennnoro. 1 Nch:
tou r oyou tou rovto or ouvrto yvovto ov0po xo poo0rv
q oxouoo xo oxouoovtr to ptov, 3ry-nor Peui (oroc) cymyi
neuno i(n ne nonn:air n npe(e, ue: nicymari (ee), n nicyman
o(na(i, 2 Nch: ouvrto oxouoovtr xoov rouxoo, Te, iro
ciman, no ne nonnn.. 3(eci :i (oni oparnri nnn:anne na ro,
uro ueoneuecioe nenonn:anne lepainr nipaaer c no:omii cona
ouvrto (to uvrtov nepe(aer c:ic anannn, nponnnareinocrn n n
iaion-ro :epe :y(pocrn) r.e. eme o(nn cnoco noanannn, oee
conepmennin, ue: o 0qo ne npocro noyuenne anannn, a ero
oc:icenne, nonn:anne. ro e neoxo(n:o (eari i(n:, (n roro,
uroi nce-rain nayunricn anx+.f: H a(eci npe(cranner nnrepec
eme o(nn napnanr nn cnoco npnnennn i nocrnenni oroca,
nipaennin ]op:yon noanan ca:oro cen. H:enno n nen aaiiuen
ocnonnon npnnnnn ca:onoanannn, nn nyri, ne npon(n ioropin, neian
npnnrn i nonn:anni oroca.
Ha nam narn(, npnnnnn ca:onoanannn nipaen lepainro: n cone
po vqo (paccy(nreinocri, nocnpnnrne, nonn:anne, :ici, n eme pn(
anauennn, ioropie necyr neioropyi .:onnonainyi narpyaiy)
1
. Hoanon:
npnnecrn cee pn( ]par:enron, ioropie nicrpnpyir .ro nooenne.
1b Nch: rqooqv rrutov A nonpoma ca:oro cen.
28 Nch: tou oyou rovto uvou ouov o ov rovto
povqov Xorn oroc om, :norne nnyr rai, iai ecn i y nnx
ia cnon cocrnennan :y(pocri.
28 d
1
Nch: uvov rot oo to povrv 3(panin paccy(oi y
ncex omnn.
28 e Nch: o v0p oo o o r trot yv oxrv r outou xo opovr v
Bce: i(n: (ano noananari cen n iri neo:y(penni:n
2
.
28 Nch: opovrv oprtq ryotq, xo ooq oq0ro ryrv xo
orv xoto uov roovto Ueo:y(pne nenuanman (opo(e-
rei, :y(pocri e n ro:, uroi ronopnri ncrnny n (encrnonari coracno
npnpo(e, ocoananan.
Hrai, lepainr naunnaer c roro, uro on ncia ca:oro cen. H:enno
.rn noncin, cy(n no nce:y, npnnen ero i nino(y, uro paccy(oi y ncex
1
Hepeno( 28 d128 (aercn no na(anni: J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco-
]on, C. 198.
2
N. Narcovich rpairyer po vqo iai penrnoano-.rnuecine nop:i nn :y(pocri,
ccianci raie na eme o(nn napnanr nnrepnperannn (/:1c: Kirk 61 ): .ro o(nonpe-
:enno n n(en airyainoro nocnpnnrnn n ro, uro cnococrnyer (eari npanninie
nino(i na ocnonannn .roro nocnpnnrnn (A.:ca+:c/ A. Heracli:us., P. 96).
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 1b8 1anucuxs ~+,,a:a c,uccfa. x cc caacf.a.cnxc c ... 1b9
i(en omnn, uro noanoner nce: noananari cen n iri opovrv.
Hpn .ro: lepainr cnennaino oronapnnaer ror :o:enr, uro po vqo
.ro roiio (opo(erei, oroc e noanaercn c no:omii :y(pocrn. Ha(e-
ennocri paccy(io: .ro nanin .e:enr, (eaimnn ueoneia ueone-
io:, n noanonimnn e:y :icnri. Ho uroi crari :y(pi:, nyno npon-
rn nce cocrannie .rani nyrn noanannn, aaiiuennie n ce(yime:. Te:
ca:i: :ono ooanaunri nnri crynenen noanannn n rnoceoornn lepai-
nra: o oov o o xoq uyncrnennie nocnpnnrnn, o 0ro noyuenne
anannn na ocnonannn uyncrnennix nocnpnnrnn, to uvrto v oc:icenne
npe(i(ymero .rana, po vqo nncrpy:enr ca:onoanannn. Toiio npon-
(n nce .rn ueripe .rana, ona(en nce:n cnocoa:n noanannn n conoiynno-
crn, ueonei npnoperaer cnoconocri npnnanricn i :y(pocrn (oo q),
nonn:ari ycimannin oroc. Ha pn(a ]par:enron ce(yer, uro oroc
(n lepainra n iaion-ro :epe oro(ecrnn: c Hpnpo(on (8 Nch, 28
Nch), no oroc (encrnnreino neuro nennnoe, no (ocrynnoe paay:no:y
nocrnenni, n cny .roro ne rpeyercn npnerari i :ncrnuecion npairn-
ie nyri noanannn oroca npe(crannercn cyryo pannonancrnuecin:.
]pyrn:n cona:n, ]par:enri (onecn (o nac :ero( noanannn nennnoro,
uro (ono yiaainari na ro, uro ca: lepainr npnme i .ro:y nino(y
orni(i ne uepea oriponenne, a ca: nenocpe(crnenno npon(n nce .rani
(na uro yiaainaer n orciia na cen, na cnon cocrnennin anropnrer).
Ha roro, uro :i ciaaan, npe(crannercn aarpy(nnreini: noa-
rari oroc ncrounnio: nenocpe(crnennoro anannn, orpinaimerocn no-
cnnmenno:y. Hcrounnio: anannn nnnircn nce nepeuncennie lepai-
nro: crynenn noanannn, noce(nnn na ioropix (cimanne n nonn:a-
nne oroca) (ocrynna :y(po:y n ne oanauaer :ncrnuecioro oriponennn.
Hacronunnin npo]ernuecinn ron lepainra ciopee ncero, cynr :npo-
noaapenuecion mnp:on, orropannaimen ncrnnnoe ananne or roni c
napnapcin:n (yma:n, rnroreimn:n i nppannonana:y.
3opoacrp (a n (ainenme: ero noce(onaren :n(nncine :arn
1
)
nponoaracn, uro ecri oecrno, cronmee onpe(eenno nime ncex oc-
rainix cnepxrecrecrnennix cymnocren (.non, .ro ncenimnee cyme-
crno ne n:eer cee pannix cpe(n (pyrnx n n .ro: c:ice ono o(no
e(nncrnennoe, oa(aimee Hcrnnon, Ny(pocrii. He n:en nipaennon
anrpono:op]nocrn, .ro cymecrno xapairepnayercn neioropi:n anrpo-
no:op]ni:n iauecrna:n: y nero ecri naii, n ono cnocono ronopnri,
nepe(anari cnoi noi napanno:y.
B iaio:-ro c:ice cxo(nin pn( ncrpeuae: n y lepainra: cyme-
crnyer O(no neanrpono:op]nan na(:npnan cymnocri, oa(aiman
Paay:o: n oripinaiman nocpe(crno: peun ncrnny ro:y, iro :oer ee
cimari. H:enno n .ro: n cocronr (ocrarouno yconnoe conna(enne
(oirpnn lepainra n :aa(ena:a (n ocoennocrn aopoacrpna:a) o 1,xn-
cfacnna+ A,,a+ C,uccfac, n n:enno ero neanrpono:op]nocri, orcyr-
crnyiman n (pyrnx iyirypnix rpa(nnnnx, :oer npe(crannri nnre-
pec iai onpe(eenno npancian napaei, nonnnnmancn n anrnunon rpa-
(nnnn co npe:enn Kceno]ana, lepainra n Hap:enn(a. Kpo:e roro, noa-
paenne ornocnreino necona:epn:ocrn aopoacrpnncinx narn(on iai
reoornuecinx n ]noco]cinx noaapennn lepainra :oer iri cnnro
ncxo(n na yuera connaino-nonrnuecion cnryannn anaornunan cn-
ryannn nopo(aer anaornunie npe(cranennn: n oonx cyuanx na-
npnennan nnemnenonrnuecian ocranonia (naern iouennnion na oce(-
ie ne:ena c o(non croponi, yrpoaa Hepcn(cioro aanoenannn c
(pyron), nenonn:anne cone:ennnion nn corpa(an, operenne ana-
nnn, :y(pocrn nanne, ca:o nonn:anne .ron :y(pocrn.
C (pyron croponi, :i niny(eni oriaaaricn or yinainon nn-
repnperannn (annoro paa(ea yuennn lepainra iai yrnep(ennn o ro:,
uro Ny(poe nocpe(crno: Cona oripinaer ananne o cee ueoneiy, io-
ropin ero nocnpnnn:aer n rpancnpyer na omnny nn corpa(an. Bo
ncnio: cyuae, :i (oni nnaue paccrannri ainenri n .ro: yrnep(e-
nnn, nocioiiy n raion ]op:ynponie ono npe(noaraer n iauecrne no-
ananareinon aai oriponenne iai :ncrnuecinn cnoco noanannn. Ni
ye(nnci, uro re yconnn, ioropie xapairepnayir npopouecioe ana-
nne, c o(non croponi :oryr iri npn:enn:i i yuenni lepainra,
cpe(n nnx araia na ycranonennie penrnoanie oiuan, yrpoaa y(yme-
ro naiaaannn (n nenpne:imnx nonoe yuenne, npe(ynpe(enne npornn
ncnoiaonannn ncnxorponnix npo(yiron, a rannoe ocoin npo]ern-
uecinn ron. C (pyron croponi .rn yconnn npn:ennreino i yuenni
lepainra necocronreini, nocioiiy npn nanme: pacc:orpennn
oiaainaircn maro: n paannrnn onpe(eennix pannonainix ]noco]c-
inx ycranonoi, a ne npopouecin:n npe(nncannn:n. 3a npopouecin: ro-
no:, ioropin :i npn eannn :oe: yc:orperi n .ro: yuennn, cipina-
ercn opnrnnainin crni naoennn, no ne orpaenne cnocoa noana-
nnn. B nonpocax noanannn lepainr npe(eino pannonancrnuen n npe(a-
1
He noae, ue: c Vl n. (o n... :arn, neponrno, ye npe(crannn coon penon
aopoacrpnncioro iyira, nnnnci anaroia:n pnryaa n opn(on, xpannren:n
penrnoanix rpa(nnnn :n(nn n nepcon. ]o nac (omn paanoopaanie anrnunie
cnn(ereicrna o :arax. lepo(or nnmer, uro :arn :n(nncioe ne:n. O(naio,
iai :ono aa:ernri na onncannn Hnnne: yuennn :aron, nepci raie npnnn:a-
n aopoacrpna:, nponone(onan ero n naainanci :ara:n. Bo ncnio: cyuae, Hn-
nnn n neioropie (pyrne anropi anrnunocrn naainair :ara:n nepcon n yrnep(a-
ir, uro yuenne :aron noannio n Hepcnn |.n,.+.ca A.. Hpan npn nepnix
Axe:enn(ax (Vl n. (o n...). N., 1968. C. 1b7]. Bo ncnio: cyuae, rpein n:en
oiinonenne no(uepinnari :noroneionyi :y(pocri ernnercinx penon, npanc-
inx :aron n nannoncinx xa(een.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 160 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 161
2. BIEMA, CYIIA H YBA B YHEHHH IEIAKHTA B
COHOCTABEHHH C HIAHCKOH TIAHHHEH
Hpe(cranennn o oroce n :y(pocrn y lepainra recno c:iiaircn
c (pyrn:n npe(cranennn:n, ]op:npyimn:n onroorni lepainra o
npe:enn, cy(ie n (yme. oroc lepainra nceom n oro(ecrnnercn c
cy(ion n c aaiono:
1
.
Hpancian rpa(nnnn neo(noanauna n ro:, uro iacaercn npe(crane-
nnn o npe:enn n cy(ie. ]oirpnna 3opoacrpa no(paay:enaer (nonioe
nonn:anne cy(ii n npe(onpe(eennn. C o(non croponi uro yroronano
.n Konne nanecrno, r.e. oman cy(ia :npa n ia(oro ueoneia n or-
(einocrn npe(onpe(eena ao n ero noce(onaren nornnyr n pac-
nanenno: orne. Ho npn .ro: cy(ia (peui n(er o noc:eprnon cy(ie)
ia(oro or(einoro cymecrna, y(i .ro ueonei, (.ni, axypi nn (ae
Hanauainie ]yxn, onpe(enercn ero cocrnenni: cnoo(ni: niopo:
n noiay (opa nn aa. Ha .rnx ]yxon 3on napa (n cen neuncroe
(eo, uncrory e napa ]yx Henopounin. Ne(y nanparen:n ne
napan Hpan(i con:i (.non n iro n:n o:anyr (|]oirpnna (yana-
:a]. Acna, 80. b6).
Kai ye yno:nnaoci, n rarnuecio: n opro(oicaino: aopoacrpna-
:e ueonei aann:aer airnnnyi noannni no ornomenni i niopy co-
crnennon cy(ii: on npnnn:aer no cropony aa, no cropony (opa n
opie .rnx (nyx naua, nec:orpn na ro, uro n neo: ncxo( .ron opii
npe(onpe(een aapanee.
T. fcc: a.u,c: s k fc+, kfa a4cf c.,u.f: <.`
2. 1xc.,u.xfcc: ,u.+x caax+x k n.x.,4uc+,,
1anxknxfcc: scna+ anx+.nxc+ ,a, acaa.nxx,
.a k.,ax cc, C,,na+ ,nc+ c.+ x... a,na x. nx.
T
.
Heioropie conepmair ao(ennnn no( nnnnne: (.non (Lyn(a-
xnmn, c. 99 (b0v))
2
, (pyrne e, Te, iro (oponoino (ca:n) conepmn-
n ao(ennnn, iai ]axai, 4pacnnr n (pyrne no(onoro po(a, iai aacyn-
naimne c:eprn no(neprnyrcn naiaaanni. (Lyn(axnmn, c. 68 (8br))
8
.
]pyroe nanpanenne paannrnn npancion penrnoanon :icn ayp-
nanna: n oimen crenenn coxpanno :n]oornuecine npe(crane-
nnn o cy(ie, ioropie pacxo(nrcn c aopoacrpnncin:n: aypnannri nepn-
n n ney:on:ocri nacrn cy(ii n npe:enn n n rmernocri ueoneuec-
inx noniroi pemnri cy(iy nocpe(crno: niopa :e(y (opo: n ao:
4
.
B nexennncio: counnennn ]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa( (Cy(e-
nnn ]yxa paay:a) (n nepe(aun nonnrnn cy(ia (br[h, br[h[nisn <
br[h[ndan rnopnri, coa(anari) n npe(onpe(eenne (bax: < bax:an,
bax (enri, paa(enri n bagbax:) ncnoiaonani o(noiopennie
n:ena cymecrnnreinie, .rn:oornn n ionreicr ynorpeennn noce-
(nero noanonir cunrari, uro ono ncnoiayercn roiio (n ooanaue-
nnn npe(onpe(eennn, ncxo(nmero or non oron. Ha nonpoc, (air n
orn i(n: aa cnepmenne (opix (e n (ocronncrna urono (nemn),
]yx paay:a orneuaer: ]air, n .ro ro, uro naainair cy(ia n npe(on-
pe(eenne. Paa(enir rain: opaao:: ro, uro inaer cnauaa, cy(i-
a, a uro pacnpe(enir noro: npe(onpe(eenne. Ho orn .ro :ao
npe(onpe(enir, n .ro ninnnercn n (yxonno: :npe, rai iai (nnaue)
nnin Axpn:an (nocnoiayercn) .rn: npe(oro:. oreper orarcrna
n . na(enr n:n i(en (ypnix n ne(ocronnix (XXlV.19). Hn ra
e :ici n XXll.16: Boa:ono, crapanne opecrn ae:nie ara n
orarcrna nn ner To (opo, uro ne npe(onpe(eeno, neian opec-
rn crapanne:, a ro, uro npe(onpe(eeno, icrpo npnxo(nr aro(apn
crapanni. Ho crapanne, ecn npe:n na ero |ueoneia] (cropone), na
ae:e ecnoeano, no noro:, na neecax, ono npnxo(nr na no:omi
(ueoneiy) n nepenemnnaer (uamy) necon. Bn(no, uro npnananne cni
cy(ii n npe(onpe(eennn nnone coornercrnyer a(eci aopoacrpnnc-
in: npe(cranennn:, nocioiiy nanoe :ecro nonpene:y aann:aer
1
1a.n 1.1. ]pennerpeuecian :n]oore:a cy(ii. Honocnnpci, 1990. C. 802808.
1
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 182188. (nep. H.C-
.Lparnncioro)
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 28b.
8
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 807.
4
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 14.
raer oreirnnnin :ero(, uerioe pyiono(crno i ro:y, k.k n:enno y(er
nponcxo(nri noananne, n ro npe:n iai :ncrnin yiaainair roiio na ro,
4fa nyno (eari, uroi (ocrnui onaareinix yconnn (n (ocrnennn
oriponennn. Ho.ro:y :ero( lepainra roiio nnemne n npn nonepxnocr-
nix oneniax :oer iri coornecen c :ncrnuecin: n cny roro, uro :nc-
rnuecin noyuennoe ananne raie :oer iri nonropeno a(enra:n yue-
nnn. Hrai, lepainr pannonaino aa(aer cnoero po(a nnrncrynenuaryi
nepapxni nocnpnnrnn n, uro nnone noa:ono, cnoco noanannn noome.
oroc n raio: cyuae ne nnnercn ncrounnio: nenocpe(crnennoro ana-
nnn, oripinaimn:cn nocnnmenno:y, a .ro noce(nnn na crynenen no-
anannn, ioropan (ocrynna roiio :y(po:y n ne oanauaer :ncrnuecioro
oriponennn. Hpn raion rpaironie .roro paa(ea yuennn lepainra :i
ye ne naxo(n: ocnonannn (n conocranennn ero c npancion rpa(nnnen.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 162 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 168
nunin niop ueoneia n ero airnnnan noannnn n noiay (opa, ue:y
y(er coornercrnonari noc:eprnoe noa(annne
1
.
Heioropie naccan na Nenor-n Xpar nocnr onpe(eenno aypna-
nnrcinn xapairep, yiaainan na ney:on:ocri cy(ii. XXVll. 1011:
Bce ae:nie (ea nponcxo(nr no (npe(onpe(eenni) cy(ii n pemai-
mero n orpannuennoro npe:enn, ioropoe (ecri) ca: 3ypnan, :oryunn
(oronpe:ennin npannrei. B ia(o: noapacre npnxo(nr i ro:y, io:y
npe(naanaueno, ro, uro (ono nponaonrn, c. b0: Cy(ia ro, uro
(nnnercn) nape: na( nce:n n nce:, c. b4bb: Ecn ro:y, iro ennn,
neneecrnen n aoen, cy(ia craner (pyro:, ro .ra ero eni y(er
no(ona ycep(ni, neneecrno :y(pocrn, a aoa (opore. A ecn
ro:y, iro :y(p, (ocronn n xopom, cy(ia craner nparo:, ro .ra ero
:y(pocri npenparnrcn n nepaay:ne n rynocri, (ocronncrno n nene-
ecrno, a ero ananne, y:enne n (ocronncrno oiayrcn ecnoeani.
Ecn (encrnnreino npnanari, uro aypnanna: i pacnpocrpanen n
cpe(e :n(nncinx :aron no ipannen :epe c bb0 r. (o n... n aypnannrcian
nepcnn :n]a o nopo(ennn 3ypnano: (nyx nanenon aroro (yxa n
aoro (yxa npe(mecrnonaa ]oirpnne (yana:a 3aparymrpi (Acna,
80)
2
(ioropin rai ronopnr o nanenax, conno ay(nropnn ye anaer o
nnx), ror(a lepainr nnone :or iri anaio: n:enno c .ron nepcnen, ecn
ne pari n pacuer rpa(nnnonnie rpeuecine npe(cranennn o cy(ie. Heio-
ropie ]par:enri lepainra, (encrnnreino, :oryr iri coornocn:i iai c
aypnannrcin:n npe(cranennn:n, rai n nnone coornercrnyir re:, ioro-
pie cymecrnonan n lpennn c (pennocrn. B (pennerpeuecion iyirypnon
rpa(nnnn cy(ia :icnrcn iai eanunan cna, nnor(a en npn(aercn
anauenne ocymecrnennn noenarnnennn nn(nnn(yananponannoro o-
ecrna, no n io: cyuae onpe(eennn: cy(ii npncyma ]arancrn-
uecian oipacia
8
. B yuennnx nepnix (pennerpeuecinx ]noco]on anaun-
reinyi poi nrpaa pe]eicnn na( co(epanne: :n]oornuecinx npe(-
cranennn o cy(ie, |uro] no(rnep(aercn n n cyuae c yuenne: lepain-
ra. B .rnx npe(cranennnx ]noco] naxo(nr n(ei nceomero ]arana:a
n ncnoiayer ee, uroi no(uepinyri nceomnocri n nenpeo(on:yi cny
neoxo(n:ocrn
4
. lepainroncian ionnennnn oroca craa (one(enne:
(o ornuecioro aanepmennn eanuno]arancrnuecion ren(ennnn n
npe(cranennnx o cy(ie n n:enno uepea nonnrne oroca n(en eanunon
neoxo(n:ocrn ocnoo(aaci or ee :n]oornuecion ]op:i nipaennn
b
.
Ouenn(no, uro n nonn:annn cy(ii lepainr oee naoi i rpa(n-
nnonni: rpeuecin: npe(cranennn:, nocioiiy, iai io noiaaano, cy(ia
n npancion rpa(nnnn, ouenn(no, ne n:eer eanuno-]arancrnuecioro xa-
pairepa, na uro yiaainaer n .rn:oornn con, ooanauaimnx cy(iy, ni-
paaimnx, raie iai n my:epcion n ernnercion rpa(nnnnx noenarnn-
enne nn(nnn(yananponannix oron
1
, a n aopoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn npe-
(onpe(eena cy(ia :npa n neo:, a ia(in ueonei n or(einocrn oa-
(aer nonoron cnoo(noro niopa ornocnreino cnonx (encrnnn.
3a:ern:, uro n anrnunocrn cocrnenno oecrno npe:enn Xpo-
noc nonnnercn n noa(nen op]nuecion rpa(nnnn (Teoronnn Heponn-
:a n leannia) n nn(e ipiaroro ]paiona c (ny:n roona:n, iia n
ina, c nno: ora nocepe(nne. Ero conpono(an Anania n A(pacren
(Heoxo(n:ocri n Henaenocri)
2
. Ho(onoe onncanne Xponoca conoc-
rann:o c npe(cranennn:n o 3ypnane, ioropin nounracn ne roiio iai
oecrno npe:enn, no n iai oecrno cy(ii. ]ainenmee paannrne
raion opaa noyuaer n Panco(nuecion reoronnn n n rep:ernuecio:
yuennn. B .ro: cyuae (ocrarouno cono paccy(ari o ro:, iain:n
in (ecn in noome) .rn npe(cranennn no npe:ena lepainra.
Ho:n:o npe(cranennn o cy(ie n nx aypnannrcion rpaironie yue-
nne lepainra o npe:enn naxo(nr onpe(eennie napaen c npancion
ionnennnen npe:enn.
Kai n Anaicn:an(p (a noa:ono, n nce( aa nn:), lepainr rono-
pnr o ia(in paa noaononne:o: noanninonennn :npa noce paapyme-
nnn ia(oro npe(mecrnyimero. 3ro noaononenne n(er na neioroporo
neynnuron:oro neunoro ncrounnia, (n Anaicn:an(pa .ro .cxan, a
(n lepainra, neponrno, .a:ac, no npn .ro: oroc ne nnnercn naua-
o:, on, ciopee npnnnnn noanninonennn. oroc oro(ecrnn: c 3ono:-
npe:ene:, uro ce(yer na ]par:enra 1 Nch: oroc, cymnn neuno. n
oroc (fa) 3on... oroc cymecrnyer neuno, nceneo n ncer(a cy-
mee. ono ecri peenoi, nceneo n nanein neunin napi ncero cymero..
Coxpanncn eme o(nn ]par:enr lepainra, n ioropo: yno:nnaercn 3on:
3on peenoi, nrpaimnn n necceni, peeniy npnna(enr napcian
nacri (98 Nch).
He nciiueno, uro 3on n yuennn lepainra noa:ono ncroionari
iai ecioneunoe npe:n. Bo-nepnix, n cocrnenno anrnunon rpa(nnnn
Kponoc (nnoce(crnnn oro(ecrnnnmnncn c Xponoco:) penpeaenrnpyer
npe:n iai c:eny noioennn oron. Boa:ono, n cny .roro (n nipae-
nnn nonnrnn npe:enn lepainr ncnoiayer cono 3on, uroi no(uepi- 1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 18.
2
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) CH., 1997. C. 180188.
8
1a.n 1.1. ]pennerpeuecian :n]oore:a cy(ii. Honocnnpci, 1990. C. 207.
4
1a.n 1.1. ]pennerpeuecian :n]oore:a cy(ii. Honocnnpci, 1990. C. 801.
b
1a.n 1.1. ]pennerpeuecian :n]oore:a cy(ii. Honocnnpci, 1990. C. 802.
1
1a.n 1.1. ]pennerpeuecian :n]oore:a cy(ii. Honocnnpci, 1990. C. 217.
2
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn. N.,
1996. C. 71b.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 164 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 16b
nyri, uro .ro (pyran cymnocri c (pyrn:n ]yninnn:n. Bo-nropix, n an-
rnunon rpa(nnnn nonnrnn neunoro npe:enn, neunocrn iai raionon eme
ner, n ono roiio naunnaer ]op:nponaricn, n lepainr ynorpener
nanoee orneuaimnn .ro:y napnanr. B rpeuecion rpa(nnnn ye y
lo:epa no ornomenni i ora: ncrpeuaircn .nnreri ecc:eprnie n
neunie, no neioropie ncce(onaren cxo(nrcn no :nennn, uro n (an-
no: cyuae neunocri n ecc:eprne nonn:aircn ne iai nnennan ec-
ioneunocri, a iai neioropin cpoi, necona:epn:in co cpoio: nann
ueoneia. Ha o(nn na cnocoon nipaanri nonnrne neunocrn yiaainaer
A.B. ee(en: eme 3:ne(oi, uroi ciaaari neunocri, y(er rono-
pnri o neciaaanno: (= orpo:no:) neie (oorto ov) (81 B 16 DK)
1
.
Ye i lV n. (o n... cymecrnonao nonnrne orpo ov, ncrpeuaimee-
cn y Apncroren n omee (n noa(nen npoai, a nn(e orpto ov,
nnnime:cn no.rnuecion napnannen npe(i(ymen, ono ncrpeuaercn n
no.:e na ]epnennncinx nannpycon lV n. (o n...
2
. Hano:nn:, uro n:enno
.on coornocncn n anrnunon rpa(nnnn c cy(ion (nanp. 1u:. Andr. 121b).
B npancion rpa(nnnn (iai n n ernnercion) cy(ia cnnaana co npe:ene:
(Nenor-n Xpar, c. 24, XXVll.10)
8
.
]n oee nonoro npe(cranennn o ionnennnn npe:enn y lepai-
nra neoxo(n:o ocranonnricn na nonnrnn nenioro ro(a. N. Wes: n
(anno: cyuae npono(nr napaei :e(y recno(oncin: :n]o: o npe-
:enax n :n]o: o aooro: neie Hn:i, a raie c :n]o: o Bnmny Hypa-
ne
4
, n ioropo: Bnmny n:enyercn nrpnni: peenio: iai napaei i
coornercrnyime:y ]par:enry lepainra
b
. O nenio: ro(e cnn(erei-
crnyer Uenaopnn: Kpo:e roro, n:eercn ro(, ioropin Apncrorei |]p. 2b
Pose] naainaer ciopee nenuanmn:, neen nenin:, ero opaayir ne-
pno(i Conna, yni n nnrn naner, ior(a onn noanpamaircn n ro e
coanea(ne |3o(naia], n ioropo: nnior(a naxo(nnci o(nonpe:enno. Be-
nuanman an:a .roro ro(a |no-rpeuecin] naainaercn iaraina:o:, a no-
name:y norono:, ero e .innpoaon, r.e. :nponi: noapo:. Ho
n .rn c:ennimne (pyr (pyra npe:ena :np, iai noarair, ro ninraercn
orne:, ro aaronnercn no(on. 3ror ro( Apncrapx onpe(en n 2484 er,
Aper ]nppaxnncinn n bbb2 ro(a, lepainr n nn 10800, ]non
10884, Op]en 120, Kaccan(p 1800000 coneunix er. ]pyrne e
noaran, uro on ecioneuen n nnior(a ne noanpamaercn i nauay (6ba
Nch, O (ne po(ennn, 18, 11), lepainr |noara, uro neninn ro(
cocronr] na noce:na(narn ricnu coneunix er, croni ]noren y:noa
repainroncinn ro( na 86b (6bb Nch)
1
.
Or:ern: roiio, uro yno:nnaimnecn a(eci .nni noaran, uro
neninn ro( nonropnercn uepea onpe(eennie npo:eyrin npe:enn, no
in eme (pyrne, iro noara, uro on ecioneuen (nn ciopee, cyuaer-
cn e(nno(i, iai, nanpn:ep, y npannen). 3ro n:eer onpe(eennyi cnnai
c anoiannrnuecin:n npe(cranennn:n.
Kor(a ronopnr o npancinx npe(cranennnx o ioc:nuecion ncro-
pnn, yrnep(air nx anoiannrnuecinn xapairep. Cono anoiannrn-
uecinn n (anno: cyuae nonn:aercn n ero rpa(nnnonno: anauennn .c-
xaroornuecioro yuennn, ioropoe npncyrcrnyer n crpyirype ioc:nuec-
ion ncropnn, paa(eennon, n cnoi ouepe(i, na nepno(i
2
. C (pyron cropo-
ni, rep:nn anoiannrnuecinn, anoiannrna: ncnoiayercn c neii
ooanaunri rnn nreparypi, co(epamnn nncannn c xapairepo: or-
iponennn, ioropie onapynnair neuro rannoe n norycroponnee, n
ocoenno onncannn ionna npe:en, no raie ooanauair oacri n(en
nn rnn penrnn, ioropie oiuno nipaeni n no(onon nreparype
8
.
Hec:orpn na ro, uro anoiannrna: n npancion rpa(nnnn ]airnuecin
onncinaercn nocpe(crno: xpncrnancion anoiannrnuecion rep:nnoo-
rnn, neioropi:n ncce(onaren:n npnanaercn, uro npancinn anoiann-
rna: nnnercn oee pannen rpa(nnnen no ornomenni i nerxoaanerno-
:y n nonoaanerno:y. Hcropnin penrnn yrnep(air nnnoe nnnnne na
nx ]op:nponanne nnoae:nix, n ocoenno npancinx, npe(cranennn
4
.
Hec:orpn na ro, uro ocnonnon nacr npancion anoiannrnuecion nre-
parypi ornocnrcn i lX n. n..., n nen nnno nipaen anecrnncinn ]on, uro
no(rnep(aercn iai ]airoornuecin, rai n na nnrnncrnuecio: n crn-
1
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. b6.
2
l. Solmsen npnanaer cymecrnonanne .ron ]paai y Anaicn:an(pa, uro Wes:
cunraer neye(nreini: |C/::an Ta:c. The Apocalip:ic Ac:ivi:y. The Case o msp
Nmag ;; Apocalip:icism in :he Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas: ;
Proceedings o :he ln:erna:ional Colloquium on Apocalip:icism. Uppsala, Augus:
1217, 1979. Ed. D. Hellholm ; J.C.B. Nohr (Paul Siebeck). Tbingen, 1989. P.
220, 1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 219, 7b].
8
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 90, 100.
4
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 94.
b
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 190192.
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 228.
2
Hultgrd . lorms and Origin o lranian Apocalip:icism ;; Apocalip:icism in :he
Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas:. Tbingen, 1989. P. 887.
8
C/::an T. The Apocalip:ic Ac:ivi:y. The Case o msp Nmag ;; Apocalip:icism
in :he Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas:. Tubingen, 1989.
4
C/::an T. The Apocalip:ic Ac:ivi:y. The Case o msp Nmag ;; Apocalip:icism
in :he Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas:. Tbingen, 1989. P. 26,
C/.:/c:a:1/ J.1. Greek, Persian, Poman, Syrian, and Egyp:ian lnluences in
early Jewish Theology ;; Hellenica and Judaica. LeuvenParis, 1986. P. 284.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 166 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 167
ncrnuecio: yponnnx
1
. Nono yrnep(ari, uro anoiannrnuecine rei-
cri nexennncion (cpe(nenepcn(cion) nreparypi ]airnuecin nnnir-
cn nepeno(a:n anecrnncinx reicron, uacri ioropix coxpannaci, a uacri
yrpauena
2
. Hano:nn:, uro nime :i ye iacanci nonpoca acoirnoro
ionna npe:en n cnnainan nonnenne no(onix npe(cranennn c aapo-
(enne: npe(cranennn o nnenno: npe:enn n npornnonec nninuecio:y
npe:enn :n]ono.rnuecion rpa(nnnn. H nocioiiy anecrnncian rpa(n-
nnn ncropnuecin npe(mecrnonaa npe:enn coa(annn lepainro: cnoero
yuennn, ro :ono npe(noonri npancioe nponcxo(enne .cxaroorn-
uecinx noaapennn lepainra, ioropie, no:n:o npouero, conna(air c
anecrnncin:n n neioropix (eranx.
Hpe(e, ue: ocranonnricn na ananae napaeen, :i (oni
pacc:orperi noa:onocri nn(oenponencioro nponcxo(ennn no(onix
noaapennn. A. ]i:eani noaraer .cxaroorni omn: :ecro: nn(oen-
ponencinx napo(on na ro: ocnonannn, uro ona npncyrcrnyer n cian(n-
nancion reoornn, n ieircion penrnn, n :aa(ena:e n npe(ne(nncion
:n]oornn, nioi aa]nicnponannon n ciere Naxaxapari
8
. On nn-
mer: Hcropnn :npa nanpanena i opiny, i paapymenni, aa ioropi:
ce(yer noapo(enne, n orn, (na noioennn oron ((o n noce ipnanca),
ionrpacrnpyir (pyr c (pyro:
4
. 3(eci :ono nipaanri neioropie co-
:nennn ornocnreino omenn(oenponencioro nponcxo(ennn .cxaroo-
rnuecinx noaapennn. Ha ncex nepeuncennix rpa(nnnn nanoee (pen-
nen, noayn, nnnercn :aa(ena:. Naxaxapara cpannnreino no-
a(nnn ncrounni, reicr ioroporo, xorn n nocxo(nr i l ric. (o n..., nperep-
nena anaunreinie na:enennn nnori (o lX n. n... Cian(nnancian n
ieircian rpa(nnnn cpannnreino noa(no io(n]nnnponani n, noa:o-
no, necyr nnnin orneuaroi xpncrnannaannn, ue: n :oryr iri oycon-
eni .cxaroornuecine npe(cranennn n nnx. B pannnx rpeuecinx rei-
crax no(onie npe(cranennn ne ncrpeuaircn. Hoayn, nepni: cpe(n
rpeion, iro (aer ipo:e omnx npe(cranennn o aopoacrpnncion penrnn
ioporioe onncanne npancioro anoiannrna:a, npnue: n ero aypnannrc-
ion nepcnn, no r(e crpyirypa cpe(nenpancion .cxaroornuecion cxe:i
xopomo orpaena
b
, i Hyrapx, onncanmnn .rn npe(cranennn uacrnu-
no co cciion na 4eono:na Xnoccioro (p. oi. 878 r. (o n...)
1
. Ha .ro:
ocnonannn na: npe(crannercn noa:oni: nciiunri omenn(oenpo-
nencioe nponcxo(enne anoiannrnin n npe(noonri ee opnrnnai-
noe npancioe nponcxo(enne.
B yuenne o ionne :npa lepainra ioc:oc ne neuen n cropaer or
nairia ornn, oroni nce oon:er n nce paccy(nr. Koc:oc po(a-
ercn na ornn n cnona cropaer (ora uepea onpe(eennie npo:eyrin
npe:enn (b1 Nch). To, uro :nponon noap y(er :nponi: cy(o:, crano-
nnrcn nonnrni: na ]par:enra 82 Nch: Bcex n ncn, narpnnyn nneaanno,
y(er Oroni cy(nri n cxnarnr. O .ro: e coomaer n Kn:enr Aei-
can(pnncinn: 3]ecen. anaio: c yuenne: o ounmennn rpemnnion n
orne, yanan o ne: na nerpeuecion ]noco]nn. (19 Nch).
Coracno npancin: npe(cranennn:, ncropnn :npa (enrcn na rpn
.pi: 1) cornopenne 2) c:emenne (opa n aa 8) paa(eenne. Bpe:n,
ior(a ao y(er noe(eno n :np noccranonen n ero nanauaino: napn-
anre, conepmenno: nn(e, naainaercn J.uakfx (uy(o(eanne). 3ror
nepno( xapairepnayercn nceomn: nocipecenne:, Bicmn: cy(o:, na
ioropo: npane(nie y(yr or(eeni or rpemnix
2
. .Oroni (Arap) n o-
ecrno Apna:an (oecrno (pyi n ncneennn) pacnannr :era,
(uro) n ropax n xo:ax, n on ocranercn na ae:e no(ono peie. To:y,
iro npane(en, ror(a noiaercn rai, conno on n(er n reno: :ooie, a
ro:y, iro rpemen, ror(a noiaercn rai, conno on na ae:e n(er n
pacnanenno: :erae (Lyn(axnmn, c. 68 (8br))
8
.
3cxaroornuecine npe(cranennn n ro: nn(e, n iaio: :i nx ncrpe-
uae: y lepainra, ecn npe(noonri nx noa:onoe npancioe nponcxo-
(enne, ne (o ionna ni(epani, nocioiiy :np rnner ne e(nno(i, a c
onpe(eennon nninunocrii. 3ro ronopnr o ro:, uro ne yrpauena anaun-
:ocri :n]oornuecioro :npoomymennn, coracno ioropo:y npe:n nocnr
nninuecinn xapairep, oyconennin npnpo(ni: iaen(apni: nnio:.
1
Hultgrd . lorms and Origin o lranian Apocalip:icism ;; Apocalip:icism in :he
Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas:. Tbingen, 1989. P. 887, 892.
2
Hultgrd . lorms and Origin o lranian Apocalip:icism ;; Apocalip:icism in :he
Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas:. Tbingen, 1989. P. 898.
8
k+c.x.: 2. Bepxonnie orn nn(oenponennen. N., 1986. C. 187.
4
k+c.x.: 2. Bepxonnie orn nn(oenponennen. N., 1986. C. 188.
b
1u/1.:c . lorms and Origin o lranian Apocalip:icism ;; Apocalip:icism in :he
Nedi:erranean World and :he Near Eas:. Tbingen, 1989. P. 407.
1
1.,f.. O Han(e n Ocnpnce ; Hyrapx. Nopann. Plu:archi chaeronensis.
Scrip:a Noralia. ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1977. N 8, Becrnni (pennen
ncropnn. 1977. N 4, O Han(e n Ocnpnce, 46: Ho rpn(er naanauennoe cy(ion
npe:n, ior(a Apn:annn, niananmnn :op n roo(, y(er aa .ro no cnpane(nnocrn
nancer(a ynnuroen n ncueaner, ae:n e craner ponnon n ra(ion, n y(er
o(na nani n o(no rocy(apcrno y ncex i(en, aennix n ronopnmnx na o(no:
naiie. A 4eono:n co con :aron yrnep(aer, uro na rpn ricnun er no ouepe(n
o(nn or noe(aer, a (pyron y(er noe(en, aare: rpn ricnun er onn iircn
n cpaaircn, n o(nn paapymaer rnopennn (pyroro, no, n ionne ionnon, la(ec
ncueaner, n i(n cranyr cuacrnni:n, ne ny(anci n nnme n ne crpon naneca.
2
1axc A. 3opoacrpnnni. Beponannn n oiuan. CH., 1994. C. 8687, 89.
8
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 807.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 168 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 169
Taie iai n n aopoacrpna:e, y lepainra :np rnner or nairia ornn, no
no npancio:y ianony .ro cyunrcn e(nno(i n ionne :npa, coracno
lepainry .ro :noroiparnin nponecc. Tain: opaao:, (n nino(on o
noce(onareinon .cxaroornuecion oipamennocrn yuennn lepainra :a-
repnaa nnno ne(ocrarouno, no nciiuari noa:onoe npancioe nponc-
xo(enne .rnx narn(on lepainra npe(crannercn necoopaani:.
Kor(a lepainr ronopnr o neuno: noaononennn :npa no neoxo-
(n:ocrn, ror(a on ncxo(nr na neoxo(n:ocrn n oreirnnnocrn aaiona-
oroca, coracno ioropo:y :np noaononnercn n, iaercn, .ro co(ep-
nr onpe(eennyi nonnany (n anrnunon rpa(nnnn. Be(i (n noaonon-
ennn :n]oornuecion nninunocrn rpeyercn crporoe ninonenne on-
pe(eennix pnryaon n onpe(eennoe npe:n. Hpn:ep :oryr cynri
3encnncine :ncrepnn, nanpanennie na no((epanne no(opo(nn. Ka-
(in ro( ia(in na :ncron no npe:n :ncrepnn nponna n:ecre c ]e-
:erpon ror nepno(, ior(a Hepce]ona naxo(nrcn n An(e n nenanecrno,
nin(er n ona na ae:i. lepainr ornepr neonpe(eennin ncxo( pnry-
aa, ero ornomenne i :ncrepnn:, pnryainon npairnie nerarnnno, ne-
c:orpn na npnna(enocri i napcio:y po(y n onaannocri ninonnri
peuecine ]yninnn, ro ecri ornpannri cocrnenno pnrya. B yuennn
lepainra nce eme coxpannercn npe(cranenne o nninunocrn, no onn
pannonananponani, (e:n]oornanponani, n .ro ouenn(nin mar nnepe(
no ornomenni i rpa(nnnonni: anrnuni: npe(cranennn:.
B naoennn 4nona Aeican(pnncioro npe(cranennn lepainra
o 3one noyuair noa:onocri (ononnreinon rpaironin: .crapa-
nnn Tnopna rmerni n on nnue: conepmenno ne ornuaercn or nec:im-
enix (eren, ioropie, uacro peannci na :opcio: epery, noa(nnrair
xo:nin na necia, a noro: cnona ynnuroair.
1
. 3(eci npoc:arpnnaer-
cn nourn ra e n(en, ioropyi :i ncrpeuan n reicre Nenor-n Xpar, c.
24
2
: :npi rnopnrcn c aroconennn ecioneunoro npe:enn, ia(an
nonan nrpa 3ona npe(cranner coon orpeaoi ioneunoro npe:enn (3ypnan
aiapana 3ypnan (apraxna(ara n Anecre). Beci:a noiaaareini n .ro:
nane cnn(ereicrna 4nona Aeican(pnncioro o cy(ie (Tix.), ioropan
pacnopnaercn ueoneuecion nanii, conno npn nrpe n necceni, n lpn-
ropnn Haanananna: Bpe:n (Xponoc) iarnr nce, no(ono mamia: n nec-
cene
8
. Ecn npnanari npanory A.B. ee(ena ornocnreino ayrenrnunoc-
rn nipaennn o rpo o v (n Anaicn:an(pa
4
, ro nnone ornuno, uro
npe(cranennn o ecioneuno: neie, npe:enn ye :orn co(eparicn n n
yuennn lepainra.
Hpocennaercn n neian omnocri noaapennn lepainra n op]n-
uecinx npe(cranennn o cornopennnx n paapymennnx :npa, n ioropix
(:era]opnuecin) xo:nin na necie penpeaenrnpyir e(nnoe;:ona(y, a
paapymenne nx ecri paa(eenne na :noecrno or(einix necunnoi. To
e nn(n: n n op]nuecio: yuennn o :nponon nann, ioropan, iai nani
ioc:nuecioro ]nonnca-3arpen, pacna(aercn na uacrn, y:npaer, a aare:
nnoni noapo(aercn n e(nnoe neoe :ona(y.
Hpe(cranennn lepainra o 3one iai ecioneuno: npe:enn, io-
neuno, :ono npnnnri, no roiio n iauecrne paouen rnnoreai, no-
cioiiy cymecrnyer eme o(no nonn:anne cona ov, ioropoe acconn-
npyercn c uq .
Bo nropon rane :i yiaainan, uro n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn cyme-
crnonao nonn:anne cona an iai reecnon n(iocrn, n:ecre ioropon
nani noin(aer reo. an oro(ecrnncn c o(nn: na nn(on (ymn c
ckc, a ne c re:n ee uacrn:n, ioropie nponnnir cen ]nanuecin
prvo 0uo. Coracno Hnn(apy, ovo rov (= ncixe), ioro-
pan o(na nmi or oron, nepennaer c:epri. Ona cnnr, ior(a (en-
crnyir ueni, no cnnmn: no :noecrne nn(ennn nnner rpn(ymne
pa(ocrnie n neuainie coirnn (4p. 181, 96). Tai n y lo:epa ncixe,
no-nn(n:o:y, ne yuacrnyer n oiunon nann nanny n paa:emaercn n
roone, .ne onapynnaer (nnennn, cnnaannoro c oi(ennon na-
nii
1
. Anaornunoe nonn:anne (ymn n ee xapairepncrni naxo(n: y
lepainra. lepainr ronopnr, uro iai nani, rai n c:epri npncyr-
crnyir iai n namen nann, rai n n c:eprn: ior(a :i nni, ro (ymn
namn :eprni n noxoponeni n nac, ior(a e :i y:npae:, ro (ymn
onnair n nnyr (47 d
8
Nch), eonei n noun aanraer cner (n
cen, xorn ero apenne racner, xori nn, on conpniacaercn c :eprni:n,
(a n:enno) noia cnnr, xori npocinaercn, on conpniacaercn co cnnmn-
:n (48 Nch), To, uro :i nn(n:, ior(a npocinae:cn ecri c:epri, n
ro, uro :i nn(n:, ior(a aacinae: ecri nani (peainocri) (49 Nch).
lepainr, iai iaercn, ncrnnni: cymecrnonanne: npnanaer cymecrno-
nanne (ymn noce c:eprn. 3opoacrpnnni, iai n lepainr, noarair,
uro ncrnnnoe cymecrnonanne nacrynnr roiio noce aanepmennn :n-
ponon ncropnn, cnnaannoro c oionuareinon noe(on na( ao:, no ia-
iono y(er noc:eprnoe cymecrnonanne ia(oro ueoneia, onpe(ener
ero opaa nann n .ro: :npe, nano ee(nennoe ncrynenne n opiy
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 248.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 90.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 242248.
4
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncrorei ;; Bec-
rnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. b6b8.
1
Cnx.nc 1. Ha ioennx oron. Hcroin enponencion :icn o (yme, paay:e, ree,
npe:enn, :npe n cy(ie. N., 1999. C. 117.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 170 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 171
co ao: ia(oro, a ne roiio n ionne npe:en. ]n lepainra, iaercn,
opaa nann ueoneia ne orpaaercn na ero yuacrn noce c:eprn, no
orn n i(n uryr rex, ioropie nan na nonne (96 Nch). B .ro:
cyuae lepainr ne ocoenno naoi i npancin: npe(cranennn:, na
nepnin narn( nx nepnee conocrannri c op]nuecin:n.
Cymecrnyir onpe(eennie aarpy(nennn, cnnaannie c nonn:ann-
e: .ona iai nanennon n(iocrn. Hanpn:ep, na ]par:enra 1 Nch
ce(onao i, uro oroc .ro nanennan n(iocri, no oroc, iai :i
nn(en, n:eer ornennyi npnpo(y. B (anno: cyuae :ono npe(noo-
nri, uro no n a(eci cymecrnyer neioe ro(ecrno npornnonoonoc-
ren, no, nce-rain, io npe:enn lepainra an ye noyun cnoe no-
a(nenmee anauenne nanennoro neia. ]pyran rpy(nocri, noanniaiman
npn ncnoiaonannn npe(oennon rpaironin nonn:anne lepainro:
nn(nnn(yainon ueoneuecion (ymn. B cnonx npe(cranennnx o (yme
lepainr nnno aann:aer noannni, n(ymyi npaapea c rpa(nnnonni:n
anrnuni:n npe(cranennn:n o cymnocrn (ymn. oroc npncym ne roi-
io ynnnepcy:y, no ueoneuecion (yme. Hn n iaio: nanpanennn ner
npe(ea (yme (uq), no iaio:y i nyrn ri ne nome: rai ryoia ee
:epa (.a:ac). ]yma po(aercn nanon, nn, no ipannen :epe, na na-
rn (40 Nch, 66 Nch) n no :epe roro, iai ona nanpaercn :y(pocrn,
oroc n nen noapacraer (112 Nch), n ona noyuaer nepenec ornennon
npnpo(i. Cyxan (yma :y(penman n nanyuman (68 Nch).
B rpa(nnnonnix npe(cranennnx no(a .ro nani. Anani nonn:a-
aci iai n(iocri, y:epmne oro(ecrnnnci c cyxocrii. Cymecrnyir
:n]i o noyuennn ecc:eprnn nn inocrn nocpe(crno: roro nn nnoro
napnanra ncnoiaonannn no(i (n(iocrn). Hanpn:ep, :n] o lanie, io-
ropin noyun ecc:eprne na ncrounnia ecc:eprnn, pacciaa Enpnnn(a
o Ca(e lecnepn( na aana(no: ipae ae:n, r(e reiyr ecc:eprnie ncrou-
nnin., :n] o Ne(ee, ioropan npenparna Acona n inomy nopi nnere-
nnn, ormeymnn c nero crapocri xnrpoy:ni: cnocoo:, ncinnnrnn cna(o-
in n aoorix iorax, n (pyrnx nepcnnx :n]a Acon ninnnaer aeie
1
.
Cymecrnyer :noecrno (pyrnx npn:epon na paanix :nponix rpa-
(nnnn, r(e :ici o no(e iai ncrounnie nann nena:enno nonropnercn.
He nnnercn nciiuenne: npancian rpa(nnnn, n ioropon no(i ncnen-
ir, noapo(air, (air nani n r.n. B aopoacrpnncinx npe(cranennnx n
oroni n nara coa(annn Op:aa(a, ioropie in ncnopueni 3i:
(yxo:. On nanec ymep nce: coa(annn: Op:aa(a, on e nopo(n aacyxy
(Lyn(axnmn, c. 2627)
2
. Ecri n Lyn(axnmne naccan, raie yiaai-
naimne na nnnreinyi cny no(i: ]o npnxo(a i iiy Op:aa( (c:e-
ma) neenyi iononi. c neoimn: ionuecrno: no(i n no:aaa
(ei) (ero) raaa, uroi y:enimnnci ero necuacrin or y(apon n nanac-
rn (Lyn(axnmn, c. 28)
1
. (3on (yx) yunnn nrny c pacrennn:n, rai
uro onn aacoxn. A:axpacnan( A:op(a( iai cocrnennni pacrennn paa-
:eiun nx n c:ema c no(on, (ioropyi) aaxnarn Tnmrap, n Tnmrap
npon .ry no(y (o(e: no ncen ae:e. H no ncen ae:e nipocn pacre-
nnn (Lyn(axnmn, c. 88)
2
.
Tain: opaao:, n n .rnx npe(cranennnx lepainr (aei or rpa(n-
nnonnix npancinx narn(on, panno iai n or anrnunix, no nnone noce-
(onareino naaraer re npe(cranennn, ioropie on, noa:ono, ninec na
cocrnennix ecrecrnennonayunix nai(ennn aa npnpo(on. He ncii-
ueno, uro n:enno .ra nepenocri no ornomenni i rpa(nnnonnon
penrnn nocyna ocnonon (n coa(annn anei(ora o ero ionunne.
8
B yuennn lepainra o (yme, iai yno:nnaoci nime, :ono ona-
pynri neioropie anaornn c op]nuecin: n npancin: yuennn:n. Ecn
cnnmne, npeinaimne n cnoe: :npe .ro reecnan npnpo(a, ro co-
ornercrnenno, (yma .ro ra uacri, ioropan o(pcrnyer n cnocona
cimari oroc, (yme npncym ca:onoapacraimnn oroc (112 Nch).
Hpan(a, .ron cnoconocrii oa(air roiio (ymn cyxne, ioropi:
:ono arpnyrnponari :y(pocri iauecrno oecrnennon npnpo(i.
Coracno yuenni op]nion, (yma cymecrnyer (o nceennn n reo n
neioe: aenno: :ecre n n cuacrnno: cocronnnn. ]ymn na(air, nce-
nnci n rea, ioropie nnnircn (n nnx re:nnna:n nn rponnna:n.
]yma crpe:nrcn nipnaricn na .roro :npa n nepnyricn n aennin :np.
Ho c(eari .ro neerio, noro:y uro c:epri rea ne oanauaer ocnoo(e-
nnn, (yma ryr e ncenercn n (pyroe reo. Toiio oionuareino ouncrnn-
1
Cnx.nc 1. Ha ioennx oron. Hcroin enponencion :icn o (yme, paay:e, ree,
npe:enn, :npe n cy(ie. N., 1999. C. 278.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 269270.
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 270.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C.27b276.
8
Ecri eme o(nn napnanr nonn:annn coornomennn nani-no(a n c:epri-cy-
xocri. H.N. ]inionon yiaainaer na rnnnunin ce:anrnuecinn pn( c:epri-o-
eann-ri:a-noui-xoo(-no(a, npe(noaran ero .ioornueciyi oyconennocri,
n cnnan c ue: n apinx n cyxnx pernonax on npnnn:aer nnon nn( (nanp. my:ep-
cioe cono ngig oxnarinaer roiio anauennn oeani-ri:a-noui. Ce:nrcinn
iopeni 'hay ; 'how oanauaer nani, a nponano(noe or nero 'Hya n:n ora
nnornopnix no(no(nix npecnix no( (n noome ncero noeanoro n arornopnoro
(n ueoneia), 'hayy-a: oanauaer nnoe, nnornoe n nnnercn cnennaini:
cono: (n a:en, ioropie n :n]oornn nanpn:yi cnnaani c no(a:n n ncrounn-
ia:n n nnnircn nx xpannren:n. Orci(a nipnconinaercn (pyron ce:anrnuec-
inn pn( no(a-nara-a:en-c:epri |:skanaa 1.A. Apxanuecine :n]i Bocroia n
3ana(a. N., 1990. C. 42]. 3ro, noa:ono, orncnner n oparnoe coornomenne
cyxocri ; nani y lepainra, no ne nponnaer cner na ero ncrounnin.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 172 1c+s, c,,:. x ,,u. a ,4cnxx 1c.k.xf. a caacf.a.cnxx... 178
1
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 21.
2
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 77, 81, 110.
8
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 77.
mnci or aoro, rpexonnoro, rnrannuecioro .e:enra, (yma noyuaer noa-
:onocri ocnoo(nricn or crpa(annn. 3(eci ncno nipaeni npe(cran-
ennn o noc:eprno: noa(annnn aa nocrynin, n(en ounmennn or rpexa.
Hpane(nix (nocnnmennix) (er aarponoe aencrno n neunoe naia-
aanne nenocnnmennix. lonopn o op]nuecio: yuennn, uacro ronopnr o
napaenx c y((na:o:, ne(nuecion n pax:anncrcion ]noco]nen.
Nono nn(eri n .ro: yuennn n ce(i npancinx npe(cranennn o .a.-
ux. Coracno :a(oanecrnncion ionnennnn 4panamn, nn (yma ueone-
ia, cymecrnyer nanauaino, (o ero nonnennn na cner, coe(nnnercn c re-
o: n :o:enr po(ennn n noce c:eprn oreraer or noionnnia n noanpa-
maercn n (yxonnin :np, r(e en cy(eno npeinari (o ionna :nponon
ncropnn n Cy(noro (nn (4panap(nn-nmr).
Haron n necioiinx (naorax yno:nnaer (oirpnny aaiiuennn
(ymn n reo iai naiaaannn aa iaionro cepieanin rpex (Kparn, 400c,
4e(on, 62b, 3aioni, 8b4b), ornocn ee i op]nuecion reopnn
1
. Hcrnnnan
nani (ymn nacrynaer noce ocnoo(ennn or c:eprnon ooouin. A
ne y(nnncn i, ecn i oiaaaoci, uro Enpnnn( ciaaa Anani ne
anaunr n y :eprnix c:epri ;; H y:eperi, na naiie renen, onri.
H or :y(penon cixa n, uro :i :eprni n uro reo name rpo
(Haron, loprnn, 492 E). B iaionro :epe co cona:n Harona coorno-
cn:i ce(yimne niciaainannn lepainra: Lecc:eprnie c:eprni, c:ep-
rnie ecc:eprni, no nepnie nnyr c:eprii noce(nnx, n y:npair aa
cuer nx nann (47 Nch), To, uro :i nn(n:, ior(a npocinae:cn ecri
c:epri, n ro, uro :i nn(n:, ior(a aacinae: ecri nani (peainocri)
(49Nch). 4par:enri op]nuecion reoronnn na (epnennncinx nannpycon,
iai or:euaer N. Wes:, coornocn:i iai n crnncrnuecio: ornomennn,
rai n n co(epareino:, c reicro: lepainra
2
. Hpan(a, neioropie op-
]nuecine ]par:enri (arnpyircn nnno oee noa(nn: npe:ene:, ue:
reicr lepainra noa:ono, ne panee 400 r. (o n...
8
. Yiaaannie rei-
cri lepainra n Harona :ono io i conocrannri na npe(:er op]n-
uecioro yuennn o ree iai rponnne (ymn n c:eprn noce ounmennn or
aoro, rnrannuecioro nauaa iai ocnoo(ennn n noanpamennn i cuacr-
nnon nann n aenno: :ecre, ecn i ne cymecrnonan cepieanie
noapaennn no nono(y ornecennn (oirpnni con:emennn n ueoneie a-
roro (nonncnncioro n aoro rnrannuecioro naua i op]nuecion. Come:cn
n (anno: cyuae na N. Wes:`a, ioropin yrnep(aer, uro .ra (oirpnna,
aanncannan On:nno(opo: iai op]nuecian, n (encrnnreinocrn nnner-
cn nnrepnperannen neonaronnion n ne :oer iri coornecena c op]n-
uecin:n nnia:n, nocioiiy ne no((epana (pannn:n) anrnuni:n nc-
rounnia:n
1
.
O(naio npnne(ennie nime ]par:enri n:eir neioropie napaen
c aopoacrpnncin:n npe(cranennn:n, xorn onn, paay:eercn, no :noro:
yconni. Tai, (encrnnreino, aopoacrpnnni npornnonocrannir nani n
c:epri, no c:epri nnior(a ne nn(nrcn n:n iai aro, nanpornn, .ro
nopo(enne 3oro ]yxa, ioropin ca: nonn:aercn iai ne-nani. B Ane-
cre ronopnrcn o Acro Bn(ory, Paaaraime: nori (.ne c:eprn,
rennn n ocinepnennn, ioroporo aaiiuaer n cee :eprnan nori. ]n
aopoacrpnnna c:epri ne nnnercn cnocoo: opecrn ncrnnnoe cyme-
crnonanne, ]panamn (yma y:epmero npane(nnia (rpemnnin ornpann-
ircn n a( cpaay noce c:eprn, a oionuareinan rnei (er nx roiio
noce Cy(a) on(aer oionuannn 12-ricnueernero cpoia :nponon
ncropnn, noce uero noyuaer neunyi nani ecc:eprne. Hrai, na
ocnonannn (ome(mnx ]par:enron nenoa:ono nn npnuncnri lepainra
i op]nia:, nn orpnnari noa:onocrn iaiorono naan:onnnnnn .rnx
(nyx yuennn. B io: cyuae .ror nonpoc rpeyer ocoo rmareinoro
nayuennn, ioropoe nixo(nr aa pa:in namero ncce(onannn.
]oann: eme necioiio con o yuennn o (yme lepainra. A.B. ee-
(en
2
npe(araer peioncrpyinni npe(cranennn lepainra o (yme, n io-
ropon na ocnone nnrnncrnuecioro ananaa ]par:enron n ccioi anrnu-
nix anropon na lepainra on npnxo(nr i nino(y o ro:, uro yuennn o
ornennon (yme y lepainra ne io. lonopn ncixe, lepainr no(pa-
ay:ena n nepnyi ouepe(i (ixanne, nnen:y, noa(yx, npn(anan e:y :ai-
poioc:nuecioe anauenne (ixanne na(:npnoro cymecrna nn oe-
crna. Orneprnyn rain: opaao: nonn:anne ornennocrn iai xapairepnc-
rnin (ymn (nn :nponon (ymn), ee(en npnxo(nr i nino(y, uro oroni
ninonn poi ciopee ne ca:ocronreinoro nepno.e:enra, a :e(naro-
pa, nocpe(nnia :e(y rpe:n nepno.e:enra:n n oecrno:. Ni i ne
no nce: coracnnci c A.B. ee(eni:, no ecn .ra rnnoreaa n:eer
npano na cymecrnonanne, ro ona (aer eme o(ny nanyi napaei yue-
nnn lepainra c npancion rpa(nnnen, a n:enno: oroni y npannen-aopoa-
crpnnnen ninonner poi n:enno nocpe(nnia :e(y Axypa:aa(on n
ueoneio: nn :npo:. Y apnen poi :e(naropa-nocpe(nnia ninonn
Co:a (nn Xo:-Xao:a y nn(onpannen). 3opoacrp ornepr iyir Xo:a, n
:e(naropnie ]yninnn in npnnncani orni. Ni ne y(e: no(pono
1
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. Oxord, 1988. P. 164, co cciion na Linor:h.
2
.cc,ca .1. 1YXB2 HEIPATA (O (enorare rep:nna uq n ioc:oornuecinx
]par:enrax lepainra 6667 Nch ;; Crpyirypa reicra. N., 1980.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 174 J4cnxc 1c.k.xf. a afxaaa.anacfs 17b
8. YHEHHE IEIAKHTA O HIOTHBOHOOAHOCTAX
Konnennnn npornnonoonocren o(na na iiuenix n yuennn
lepainra, n on, noaran ro(ecrno npornnonoonocren, cunraer, uro
noananne o(non cocrannimen napi nenoa:ono ea anannn o (pyron.
Hapi npornnonoonocren n:eir onroornuecinn craryc, nocioiiy
nnnircn ne croiio ]nanuecin:n ]airopa:n :npa, cioiio cycran-
nnonaini:n nepno.e:enra:n n ioc:oronnuecion n ioc:oornuecion
crpyirype. Ecn :i npnanae: nanune .rnx npe(cranennn y lepain-
ra n n pannerpeuecinx ]noco]cinx yuennnx, ro nx opnrnnainocri ne
y(er acoirnon, nocioiiy on, neponrno, nropnr (oirpnna: cnonx
npe(mecrnennnion Anaicn:an(pa n nn]aropennen
1
.
Hoayn, nanoimee anauenne npn conocranennn c npancion rpa-
(nnnen noyuaer ro(ecrno Hcrnna ; oi: (i(n) ne anan i
n:enn Hpan(i (^ xq), ecn i .rn nemn (r.e. npecrynennn nn necnpa-
ne(nnocri) ne cymecrnonan (4b Nch). 3ry rouiy apennn nicrpnpyer
niciaainanne Xpncnnna: .y(ro (opo :oro i cymecrnonari, ecn i
o(nonpe:enno ne io aa. Tai iai (opo npornnonoono ay, onn no
neoxo(n:ocrn (oni npornnocronri (pyr (pyry n iai i (eparicn
aro(apn naan:no:y npornnoynopy. Hn o(na npornnonoonocri ne :o-
er cymecrnonari ea roro, uro en npornnonoono. Kai :oro i cyme-
crnonari nonnrne cnpane(nnocrn, ecn i ne io eaaaionnn
2
.
B npancion nnci:ennon rpa(nnnn cymecrnyer anaunreinoe unco
npn:epon, ioropie nipaair anaornunyi :ici: ce(onanne ncrnne
(ono onnparicn na ananne o xy(me:, o ae. Hpnne(e: o(nn, neci:a
ipacnopeunnin, noyunreinoro xapairepa nacca na Nenor-n Xpar, c.
2228: .rpemnni nona(aer n ca:in re:nin a(, n ero npnno(nr i n-
no:y Axpn:any. H Axpn:an n (.ni nac:exaircn n na(enaircn na( nn:,
:o: Kaioni in rnoe ney(onoicrnne n ney(onernopennocri Op:aa-
(o:. uro ri na(y:a ynn(eri nac n re:nin a(, r(e :i yunnn: ree ao,
ne noma(n: ren n ri n reuenne (ororo npe:enn y(emi nn(eri ao
H aare: onn naiaainan ero n npnunnnn e:y paanoe ao. Bnnn .ro:y
naccay n anan, uro ero (er n cyuae nperpemennn, a(enr aopoacrpna-
:a (oen y(er oparnricn i npane(non nann.
Hpe(cranenne o Cnpane(nnocrn, Hcrnne, ioneuno e, cymecrno-
nao n anrnunon rpa(nnnn n (o lepainra. Y lecno(a, nanpn:ep, ]nia
nocce(aa na rpone pn(o: c 3enco: (Tpy(i n (nn, cri. 2b6269)
8
.
1
.nauca .1. Hranncian ]noco]nn. N., 197b. C. 12012b.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 21b.
8
1ccxa,. Honoe copanne reicron. N., 2001.
iacaricn napaeen c nonn:anne: ornn, nocioiiy n nayunon nrepa-
rype nonpoc o npancio: nnnnnn a(eci no(nn:acn neo(noiparno.
]oann: eme (ne napaen. 4par:enr (76 Nch) lepainra raie
noanoner (y:ari o npancinx napaenx: Tpyni oee ce(yer ni-
pacinari, ue: nanoa. 3a nci ncropni rpeuecion nnnnnaannn, naunnan
c Nnnoncio-:niencion .noxn, na( rpyna:n conepmacn no opn( ipe-
:annn, no norpeennn. ]ocrarouno oparnricn, nanpn:ep, i (pa:e
Co]oia Anrnrona, uroi nonnri, nacioiio nano (n nepconaen
(pa:i npe(anne rpyna ae:e. Ha paaronopa (nyx cecrep, (ouepen napn
3(nna, Anrnroni n Hc:eni, ce(yer, uro :orne or(ari npax no-
crynnri no npan(e npane(non n no aaiony, ne noxoponennin nce
panno uro nopyrannin, npe(ari rpyn ae:e anaunr ncnonnri aa-
ner no(ae:nix, nponnnri aropo(crno
1
.
]n aopoacrpnncion iyirypi xapairepno noce c:eprn ocrannri
rpyn coaia: n nrnna:, noce conpan uncrie iocrn (n norpeennn.
Cymecrnonanne raioro opn(a cnnaano c yuenne: o nocipecennn :eprnix
no norn nepe( noce(nn: cy(o:, ipo:e roro, aaxoponenne n ae:i norn
ocinepnno ae:i (Bn(en(ar, 8, |Horpeainin opn( n pnryainoe
ounmenne or rpynnon cinepni]
2
). Hpn Axe:enn(ax no(onin norpe-
ainin opn( coi(acn roiio :ara:n. Axe:enn(i n npoune nepci
xoponnn rpyni, n ro npe:n iai :arn nicrannn nx (n nonpannn
nrnna:n n anepn:n n aare: iocrn norpean n re: ca:i: naeran oci-
nepnennn ae:n. Crpaon (XV, 8, 20), ocnoninanci na oee pannnx nc-
rounniax, nnmer, uro nepci xoponnr y:epmnx, npe(napnreino o:aaan
nx nocio:. ro e iacaercn :aron, npo(oaer on, nx noce c:eprn or(a-
ir na cre(enne nrnna:. Coracno Unnepony, rea :aron or(air na pac-
repaanne anepn:, a n lnpiannn napo( co(epa (n .ron nen omecrnen-
nix coai, anarnie e n:en (o:amnnx coai aropo(non nopo(i
8
.
Hpancine npe(cranennn o aaxoponennn n nepno( nann lepainra in
nacroiio paaomenni:n n paanuni:n, uro yc:arpnnari n nnx e(nncrno
n yrnep(ari aan:crnonanne lepainro: n:enno .rnx n(en rpy(no. Kpo-
:e roro, raian noannnn lepainra naxo(nr orncnenne n nanyrpn ero
cocrnennoro yuennn. ]yma ueoneia nenna, nocioiiy npnuacrna ornen-
non cycrannnn n :oer, iai n oroni, neponrno, nri neuno, reo e,
ocranennoe (ymon, ye (encrnnreino nnuero oee ne anaunr.
1
Caak.. ]pa:i ; Hep. 4.4.3enncioro, na(. no(roronnn N.. lacnapon n
B.H. Apxo. N.: Hayia, 1990. C. 12b126.
2
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) CH., 1997. C. 96.
8
.n,.+.ca A.., yionnn B.l. Kyirypa n .iono:nia ]pennero Hpana. N.:
Hayia, l. pe(. nocr. nr, 1980. C. 821.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 176 J4cnxc 1c.k.xf. a afxaaa.anacfs 177
B npancion rpa(nnnn npornnonocranenne fa-Hcrnni n ,:-n
nipaeno oee peaio, n nponnnercn iai na yponne ioc:oornn, rai n
n connaino:, n n nunocrno: nanax. Ho napaei :e(y (ny:n yue-
nnn:n, eayconno, npncyrcrnyer.
Ny(pocri n ncrnna naan:ocnnaani. B coornercrnnn c niciaaina-
nne: lepainra, Ny(pocri n ro:, uroi ronopnri ncrnny n (encrno-
nari coracno npnpo(e, ocoananan, uro a(panin paccy(oi y ncex omnn
(28 Nch). B aopoacrpna:e nonnrni paay: (:y(pocri) orno(nrcn
ocooe :ecro. Ny(pocri, paay:, iai :i ye yiaainan, nnnircn arpn-
yra:n Axypa Naa(i n, coornercrnenno, ero npnnepennen, nanpn:ep,
iro aro:y(p a(eci |n ae:no: :npe], ro:y neunoe npeinanne ra:, r(e
onraer npe:y(pocri
1
. B Nenor-n Xpa( uerio nponncana poi paay-
:a: neo, ae:n n nce rnopennn coa(ani, oxpannircn n ynpannircn
paay:o:, n: ycranoneni aaioni :npa. ]opie (ennnn n npane(nie
nocrynin conepmaircn c no:omii paay:a, paay:no:y n y(onernopen-
no:y npnunnnercn Axpn:ano: :enime npe(a, oa(aimero paay:o:
ce(yer cunrari orari:, paay: yume ncnioro orarcrna, cnoco-
crnyer operenni yumen nann, pa(ocrn n cani, a noce c:eprn
no:oraer naeari a(a n (ocrnui pan, c ero no:omii :ono oporicn c
Axpn:ano:, (.na:n n nenpanna:n
2
. B Lyn(axnmne (c. b4 (28r)), ra:,
r(e peui n(er o ranencrne cpe(n i(en, nnornix n ncninx nemen, na
(nyx ueonei rana ror, iro :y(pee n npan(nnee
8
. O(naio, ce(yer or:e-
rnri, uro :y(pocri, paay: n cnpane(nnocri .ro re nonnrnn, ioropie
aann:air nanoe :ecro n ion penrnoano-:n]oornuecion n ]noco]-
cion cncre:e, a noro:y ne n:eir nciiunreino npancioro nponcxo(e-
nnn. B cyuae conocranennn npancion rpa(nnnn n yuennn lepainra
coornercrnyimne napaen ciopee orncnn:i omnocrii nn(oenponen-
cioro nponcxo(ennn, a ne npancin:n nnnnnn:n.
Eme o(nn nacr npe(cranennn lepainra, nipaennin ]op:y-
on ]ono anari, uro nonna omenpnnnra, uro npa(a oiunin
nopn(oi nemen ( xq) n nce noanniaer uepea npa(y n aan:oopaano
(n nne no nce npe(onpe(eeno cy(ion nceneo) (28 Nch)
4
, rai-
e conocrann: c aopoacrpnncin: yuenne:, n ioropo: n:enno npa(a
:e(y (ny:n (yxa:n Larn: n 3i: (aa nauao ]nanuecio:y :npy,
ioropin coa(an na nepno( n 12000 er
1
(n roro, uroi noionunri c
aaiiuenni: nnyrpn nero 3o:, n ionen, ioropin (er :np n nce
cymnocrn .roro :npa, (encrnnreino npe(onpe(een (Lyn(axnmn,
c. 1722)
2
. C (pyron croponi, no npe:ena lepainra nonrnuecian
cnryannn noipyr 3]eca ia ipanne necraninon. Bnyrpennnn non-
rnia nonnncinx ropo(on xapairepnaonaaci ipnanco: nacrn: nonce:e-
crno apncroiparnn, (e:oiparnn n rnpannn c:ennn (pyr (pyra. Bo nnem-
nen nonrnie (nnmeecn mecri er nonnncioe noccranne npornn roc-
no(crna Hepcnn (b00494 rr. (o n...) io ecroio no(aneno n npn-
neo n yna(oi :aoaanncine rpeuecine nonci. He nciiueno, uro
ornnenne lepainro: nonni nape: ncero :oro iri peayiraro:
oc:icennn peann cnoero npe:enn.
Hec:orpn na npe(cranennie napaen c npancion rpa(nnnen n
nonn:annn ncrnnnoro n onoro, cnpane(nnocrn n necnpane(nnocrn,
ecri pn( (ononnreinix noapaennn npnne(enni: nime niciaainann-
n:, ioropie ne noanonir npe(noarari n (anno: cyuae noa:onoro
npancioro nnnnnn. B nepnyi ouepe(i .ro conoynorpeenne. Ecn n
npancion rpa(nnnn no:n:o ocnonnon onnoannnn Axypa Naa(a Anrpo-
Nannii Hcrnne-uc iai nceencio:y aaiony n ioc:oornuecio:, conn-
aino: n nunocrno: nanax npornnonocrannercn oi-,: iai orpn-
nareinan cna :npoa(annn n .rn rep:nni (ocrarouno ycronunni, ro n
reicre lepainra na nepnoe :ecro nixo(nr n:enno ca:a ionnennnn npo-
rnnonoonocren, n (n nero ne nnnercn npnnnnnnaini: ee onpe(een-
noe rep:nnoornuecioe nipaenne. Tpa(nnnonno ncce(onaren anrnu-
non :icn npornnonocrannir xq u pp
8
, no y ca:oro lepainra raion
ecrion napi :i ne nan(e:, on npornnonocranner ncrnne no:n:o u pp
raie ru o n o xo. Ecn i .rn nonnrnn nocnn onroornuecinn
craryc n yuennn 3]ecna, ro ne nciiueno, uro c ero ornomenne: i cony,
lepainr, noce(onareino npn(epnnanci npancinx n(en, nanepnnia nc-
noiaona i (n nepe(aun .ron onnoannnn ycronunnin rep:nn. Ho.ro-
:y, iai na: iaercn, n (anno: cyuae yume ronopnri o neaanncn:ix
nyrnx paannrnn omnx nn(oenponencinx npe(cranennn.
Hapaei c npancion rpa(nnnen onapynnaercn npn opamennn
i op]nuecin: iocrnni: nacrnnia: na Oinnn V n. (o n... Banocri
1
Acna, 80.9 (nep. K.A. Kocconnua). ]pyron napnanr nepeno(a uroi :y(pin
npeina ra:, r(e onraer npe:y(pocri (nep. K.l. 3ae:ana). accf. n pyccinx
nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997. C. 181182.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 14.
8
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 299.
4
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 201.
1
Cp. c n(een o nenio: ro(e, npnnncinae:on lepainry.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 26b268.
8
Cp. nanpn:ep, 1a.naa 1s4. 1c. ]o no npe:n noce ;; 4pani]opr l.,
4pani]opr l.A., Yncon ]., Aiocen T. B npe((nepnn ]noco]nn. ]yxonnie
nciannn (pennero ueoneia. Hep. c anr. T.H. Tocron. N., 1984, Jcx,cnc:
C.A. Nn] n nreparypa (pennocrn. N., 1998.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 178 J4cnxc 1c.k.xf. a afxaaa.anacfs 179
.rnx nacrnnoi n ro:, uro na pannnx op]nuecinx reicron .ror nano-
ee pannnn. Op]nuecine reoronnn io(n]nnnponani ne noae lV n. (o
n... B cyuae c iocrnni:n nacrnnia:n :ono npe(noonri, uro op-
]na: n Oinni aaneaen eme na Nnera. B uacrnocrn na o(non na nnx
unraercn na(nnci
Epqvq oro Nnp opia (npa(a, nonna),
Aq0ro ruo ncrnna oi.
3rn e napi npornnonoonocren ]op:npyir n yuenne lepain-
ra, iai, nanpn:ep, no ]par:enre 77 Nch: Lor: (eni-noui, an:a-ero,
nonna-:np, nairoi-ny(a.
A.C. Pycnena, onynionanman oinnncine nacrnnin, noaraer,
uro lepainr i nenocpe(crnenno cnnaan c op]nuecin:n :ncrepnn:n
n napo(non penrnen, orci(a aan:crnonanne n: crnn, neioropix nonn-
rnn n anrnrea, n cnoi ouepe(i ce(i nnnnnn ]noco]nn lepainra
ncrpeuaircn y op]nion
1
.
Yiaaannie napi npornnonoonocren n:eir coornercrnnn n npan-
cion rpa(nnnn, r(e :np n opia .ro re nauaa, ioropie crpyirypn-
pyir :np, a n aopoacrpnncio: yuennn n:enno .rn napi npornnonoo-
nocren ear n ocnone irnn: opia npe(crannercn c:ico: iai ue-
oneuecioro cymecrnonannn, rai n cymecrnonannn ioc:oca, .rani :npa
n ncropnuecio: npe:enn ana:enyircn opion :e(y cna:n ncrnni n
n (nn axyponcin:n n (.noncin:n), uro orpaeno npairnuecin n io:
aopoacrpnncio: reicre.
He nciiueno, uro npancine n(en, n ro: unce n(en ]op:npyi-
merocn aopoacrpna:a, nnone :orn nonnnri ecn ne na noanninone-
nne op]nuecioro yuennn, ro, no ncnio: cyuae, na ero (ainenmee
paannrne, n, noa:ono, onocpe(onanno, uepea op]na: n ero pannnx
]op:ax na lepainra. B aaiiuenne (oann: nmi ro, uro i V n. (o
n..., ioropi: (arnpyircn oinnncine nacrnnin, nonnrnn :npopi-
a, ncrnnaoi na .rnx nacrnniax nnone :orn iri npo(yiro:
npancioro nnnnnn.
]o cnx nop :i ronopnn o ro:, uro (n ]par:enron, (eraen yue-
nnn, nmennix ionreicra, :ono erio no(opari coornercrnnn, uro
noiaaao n conocranenne neioropix (eraen n nonnrnn n yuennn le-
painra c npancion rpa(nnnen. Ho nacioiio npoe:no aa(annoe nn(e-
nne npornnonoonocren n omen cncre:e narn(on lepainra :oer
iri coorneceno c npancin: yuenne: Ha ocnonannn neci:a orpannuen-
nix no ionuecrny ]par:enron, n ioropix aarparnnaercn re:a npornno-
noonocren, cono cy(nri o peaino: co(epannn opnrnnainoro
reicra. Hpoe:a, iaaaoci i, pemaercn uepea npnneuenne oee no-
a(nnx cnn(ereicrn nn reicron, ioropie noanonir io:nencnponari
ne(ocraroi namnx anannn n .ron oacrn. Ho n a(eci cymecrnyir onpe-
(eennie rpy(nocrn. Haron, Apncrorei n ero noce(onaren, a aare:
cronin ncxo(nn na cnonx cocrnennix npe(cranennn n n:enno nx .i-
crpanonponan na yuenne lepainra, ne crann nepe( coon aa(auy ne-
peciaaari 3]ecna. ]oicorpa]i, io::enrnpyn (ocoiparnion, onnpanci
na iaccnueciyi rpa(nnni, n uacrnocrn, na npe(cranennn o eamnx
n ocnone :npa ueripex napnix nepno.e:enrax crnxnnx, ioropie
yc:arpnnanci n:n ye n (oirpnnax pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on (xo-
o(noe-nanoe ropnuee-cyxoe .ro nnapnie onnoannnn, uepea
ioropie pacipinaercn cyri npe(cranennn o .rnx crnxnnx). Co:nn-
reino, uroi lepainr :or n:eri noce(onareinie npe(cranennn o
ueripex crnxnnx (oroni-noa(yx-no(a-ae:n) iai cocrannimnx ioc:oca,
nnaue c:ennimnx (pyr (pyra cra(nnx ioc:oronnuecioro nponecca.
Ornpannon rouion (n peioncrpyinnn narn(on lepainra na npo-
rnnonoonocrn :oer cynri ero niciaainanne o opamennnx ornn:
cnauaa :ope, noonnna or :opn .ro ae:n, (pyran noonnna
npecrep (nocna:enenne) (b8 Nch). Peui a(eci n(er, iai iaercn, o
ionipernix peannx (oreirax) uyncrnennoro :npa, o ro:, uro cyme-
crnyer n npnpo(e n iai ono ]yninnonnpyer no npnpo(e. Nope, nonn-
:ae:oe n (anno: ionreicre iai reorpa]nuecinn nn, yume ciaaari,
npocrpancrnennin oreir, cymecrnenno ornuaercn or no(i iai crnxnn
(]nanuecioro oreira), ro e ornune :i yc:arpnnae: n co(epannn
narn(on lepainra, iacaimnxcn nonnrnn cymn n ae:n, xorn ono n ne
namo orpaennn na yponne naiia n coxpannnmnxcn ]par:enrax, iai n
npe(i(yme: cyuae (uypq vs. 0ooooo). Hx nanune n :npe a4cax,na, n
]par:enr orpaaer ro, uro :i i naanan yconno ipyronoporo: ne-
mecrn n npnpo(e (iai uacrnin cyuan ncnapenne no(i).
lepainr yno:nnaer roiio o rpex cocrannix uacrnx ioc:oca
.ro :ope, ae:n n npecrep. Hoce(nnn cocranniman (pqotqp ,ka.
nnxpi nn yparan co ncnimia:n :onnn), ciopee :oer iri nonnra
iai neecnin oroni (.]np
1
). B reicrax io::enraropon (ocoenno pn:c-
inx) nonnnercn eme o(nn .e:enr noa(yx, ioropin, neponrnee
ncero, nocxo(nr i cronuecion nnrepnperannn yuennn lepainra n co-
crnenno:y narn(y cronion na crpoenne ioc:oca. Hpecrep ne ro(e-
crnenen noa(yxy, xorn raian rouia apennn ne nmena ocnonannn. Hpe-
crep .ro nce npocrpancrno :e(y ae:en n neo:, aanonennoe noa-
1
1,csca. .C. Op]na: n iyir ]nonnca n Oinnn ;; Becrnni (pennen ncro-
pnn. 1978. N 1. C. 98.
1
Kirk nepeno(nr npecrep iai burning, c nn: con(apen Narcovich.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 180 J4cnxc 1c.k.xf. a afxaaa.anacfs 181
(yxo:. Ho ouenn(no, ero c:ic ne cno(nrcn i noa(yxy iai .e:enry, on
aann:aer ionipernin npocrpancrnennin oiyc, panno iai n cyma, n
:ope n ro: e c:icono: pn(y, n nmen .e:enrapnix iauecrn. Ha
nepnin narn( iaercn, uro o ueripex .e:enrax ronopnrcn no ]par:en-
re 42 Nch: Xoo(noe cranonnrcn reni:, renoe xoo(ni:, nanoe
cranonnrcn cyxn:, nccoxmee nani:, n uro .rn iauecrna yiaainair
na noa:onocri naan:ona:enennn coornercrnyimnx .e:enron (crn-
xnn). Ho c:ic .roro ]par:enra, ioropin enr na nonepxnocrn n ro-
paa(o oee npocr, nnone :oer iri cne(en i onncanni ecrecrnennix
npnpo(nix nponeccon, n n nepnyi ouepe(i i onncanni cyrounoro nnia
(anaornunin nni yc:arpnnaercn neioropi:n ncce(onaren:n n yue-
nnn Anaicn:an(pa) yrpo: conne narpenaer ae:i, nicymnnaer pocy,
neuepo: ae:n cnona oxa(aercn, n cnona nina(aer poca.
Ha(o or:ernri, uro nnrepec lepainra cno(nrcn ne croiio i ioc-
:oornuecio:y nponeccy nepexo(a .e:enron (pyr n (pyra (uro oiu-
no npnnnro nonn:ari no( rpanc]op:annn:n ornn), cioiio i na:ene-
nnn: n npnpo(e. B ocnone ncero enr ipyronoe (nnenne (n ipyre
nauao n ionen con:ecrni (84 Nch)), n na:enennn n npnpo(e nponcxo-
(nr nninuecin, n:enno no.ro:y n nyri nnepx n nyri nnna o(nn n ror
e (88 Nch)
1
. Hpe(e ncero, opaano: npnpo(nix na:enennn cyar
cyrounin nni, o ioropo: ronopnoci nime, n ro(onon nni. Bo ]par-
:enre 64 Nch peui n(er o npe:enax ro(a, c:ena ioropix perynpyercn
Conne: n ioropie npnnocnr nce nemn. Co(epanne ]par:enra na-
:ennnci, or(ixaer n yro:nreino rnio rpy(nricn (n roro e ca:o-
ro n iri ynpanne:i: n: (b6 ab Nch) nnone :oer iri ncroiona-
no ne roiio iai npe(cranenne o na:enennnx ornn (Narcovich), no n
iai npe(cranenne o c:ene uacren cyroi, nn ceaonon. Oa .rn nnia
aanncnr or (nnennn Conna, a Conne npannr ioc:oco: n coorner-
crnnn c ycranonenni:n cpoia:n. Bano n .ron cnnan or:ernri, uro
na:enennn n npnpo(e conepmaircn ne roiio n coornercrnnn c cyrou-
ni:n nn ro(oni:n nnia:n: ecri eme oee npocrpannin nni, ioro-
pin, ciopee ncero, :oer iri oro(ecrnen c nenin: ro(o:. Ben-
inn ro( raie cnnaan c opamenne: Conna, ioropoe n:ecre c ynon
n eme nnrii nanera:n (ono o(nonpe:enno noanparnricn n ro e
coanea(ne, oriy(a onn naunnan cnoe (nnenne n nauae (annoro nni-
a (6b Nch). Coracno lepainry, .ror ro( cocronr na noce:na(narn
ricnu coneunix er, a nonopornie rouin .roro ro(a Uenaopnn n:enyer
.innpoaon n (naioc:eaon. 3ra rep:nnoornn (ocrarouno ycronunna y
nnrepnperaropon, no neponrnee ncero n:eer cronuecioe nponcxo(enne.
Coracno ]par:enra:, lepainr ronopnr roiio o nairie n ne(ocrar-
ie, npn .ro: nanoee pacnpocrpanennan nnrepnperannn, nocxo(nman i
cronia:, cno(nr n ny(y, n nairoi i nponnennn: ioc:nuecioro ornn
iai i nocna:enenni (.innpoae) n yracanni ((naioc:eae) .roro ornn
(bb Nch, 79 Nch). Orpocnn cronueciyi nnrepnperanni, :i naxo(n:
onpe(eennie orroocin npe(cranennn o (naioc:eae n .innpoae iai
rnen or nenioro noapa n (nreinoro nepno(a npeinannn n ynopn-
(ouenno: cocronnnn, n uacrnocrn, n reicrax, ncropnuecin oee na-
inx npe:enn nann lepainra, nanpn:ep n Tn:ee Harona (22d,
28e). ]pyron napnanr nnrepnperannn, nocxo(nmnn i 4nony (bb b2 Nch)
n Cn:nnini (b4 Nch), ior(a nairoi n ny(a npe(crannircn nnio:
noa(annnn io:nencannn aa ymep, ioropin .e:enri npnunnnir (pyr
(pyry, n nce nemn no( aaor ornn, nce npenpamennn n ioc:oce
nponcxo(nr coracno poionon neoxo(n:ocrn. 3auacryi .rn n(en nonn-
:aircn iai napa]paa Anaicn:an(ponon :icn o poionon aa(oennocrn.
Y nac ner noa:onocrn no(rnep(nri .ry :ici reicroni:n cpe(crna:n,
no n n:eimnxcn ]par:enrax lepainr ne yno:nnaer o ioc:nuecio: napy-
mennn :epi. Loee roro, (ae Conne, ioropoe nnnercn nocnree: npa-
nninon nninuecion aaiono:epnocrn ]yninnonnponannn ioc:oca, ne
:oer npecrynnri nooennon e:y :epi, no(unnnnci naneuni: aaiona:.
3ro coornercrnyer raie (pennn:, c]op:nponanni: eme :n]oornuec-
in: coananne: npe(cranennn:. B cny ncero ciaaannoro nepnin napn-
anr peioncrpyinnn npe(crannercn nanoee npne:e:i:.
Cnoero po(a oomenne: npe(cranennn o :noecrnennocrn nni-
on, ioropie nnnircn ocnonon ]yninnonnponannn ioc:oca, :oer cy-
nri ]par:enr 77 Nch: Lor: (eni-noui, an:a-ero, nonna-:np, nairoi-
ny(a. 3(eci lepainr ore(nnner nce pacc:orpennie nnii n e(nnyi
cono(unnennyi cncre:y: cyrounin nni, ro(onon, aare: nni nonna-
:np .ro nnuro nnoe, iai ipyronopor nemecrna (cp. b8 Nch), a c:ic-
oni: anaoro: napi nairoi-ny(a nnnercn neninn ro(. B raio:
cyuae nce yno:nnyrie napi ciopee ce(yer nonn:ari ne iai naop ncex
noa:onix npornnonoonocren (cp. A.B. ee(en), a iai yiaaanne na
crpyirypy ioc:oornuecinx na:enennn, nn ioc:oorni n cocrnenno:
c:ice. Bce .rn nnii no(unneni e(nnon ynpannimen cne, neioe:y
ory. Ho ecn no ornomenni i nn(n:o:y (uyncrnenno:y) yponni :ono
yrnep(ari, uro nce .rn nnii cnnaani c (nnenne: conna, ro e(nnan
cncre:a .rnx nnion no conoiynnocrn (niiuan yponeni ncsana:a, ,+a.-
xfc.:na:a) ynpannercn oroco:, re:, uro, n ornune or Conna, no co-
crnenno:y e nipaenni lepainra, nnior(a ne aaxo(nr (81 Nch).
3(eci xopomo npoc:arpnnaercn n ]yninnn lepainroncioro ornn, ioro-
1
3a:ern:, uro .ra n(en n naoennn Hap:enn(a (B 6 DK), neponrno, npe(noa-
raer oee ryoinn c:ic niciaainannn lepainra, no a(eci :i ne y(e: na
nen ocranannnaricn.
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 182 J4cnxc 1c.k.xf. a afxaaa.anacfs 188
pin n nnno: nn(e ne npncyrcrnyer n ne nponncan nn n o(no: na .rnx
nnion, no n ia(o: na nnx ninonner cnoero po(a :e(naropnyi ]yni-
nni: cnerna (Conne, yna n npou.) ecri cocrnenno uamn, aanonennie
orne:. B ipyronopore nemecrn oroni ne nnnercn or(einon nnno nipa-
ennon uacrii npocrpancrna, no oecneunnaer o:en :e(y rpe:n crpyi-
rypni:n .e:enra:n npocrpancrna, n, naionen, n crpyirype nenioro ro(a
on nponnnercn n uncro: nn(e n nepno( nocna:enennn, nni:n cona:n,
ncninn paa ueonei cnocoen aa]nicnponari ne ca: oroni, a roiio ero
na:enennn upo tpoo .
Hrai, ioc:oornuecinn nponecc aa(aercn uepea cxe:arnunoe oro-
paenne noce(onareinix noennn npnpo(nix nnion o(nn n (py-
ron, a rpannnen (n .rnx nnion, nx :epon n perynropni: :exanna:o:
cynr oroc. lepainr oro(ecrnner ero c oecrno:, no eicnia,
cnenn]nunan (n :n]oornuecioro naiia, ne (ona nno(nri n aay-
(enne: 3]ecen ne repner npn .ro: pannonancrnuecinx ocnonannn. o-
roc (ocrynen (n noanannn, no ero cymnocri rpy(no nipaanri npn no:o-
mn oiunix con. ]n (ocrnennn .ron nen lepainr ncnoiayer npnn-
nnn no(onn, nponopnni
14
. Nepa n aaion yno(onircn ory (nn 3en-
cy) rouno raie iai Conne, coracno ioropo:y nponcxo(nr c:ena uac-
ren cyroi nn npe:en ro(a, yno(onercn na nneuyncrnenno: yponne
ro:y, uro nnior(a ne aaxo(nr, no ninonner coornercrnyimyi ]yni-
nni orocy. Ka(in na cymecrnyimnx nnion npe(cranen onpe(e-
enni: naopo: npornnonoonocren, no na yponne oroca .rn nporn-
nonoonocrn crnpaircn. Nnp oroca iai :np neunoro irnn nmen
cranonennn n (nnennn, a re: ca:i: n npornnonoonocren ocnon-
nix xapairepncrni uyncrnennoro :npa (oroc o(nn n ror e (47 Nch),
(n ora nce npeipacno n cnpane(nno, no i(n npnanan neioropie
nemn necnpane(nni:, (pyrne cnpane(nni:n (91 Nch)). roi no-
nnri e(nnyi n nena:ennyi npnpo(y oroca, ce(yer nonnri, iai nponc-
xo(nr na:enennn n npnpo(e na yponne npornnonoonocren, rouno raie
iai ueonei ne ana i n:n Hpan(i, ecn i .rn nemn |r.e. npecryn-
ennn nn necnpane(nnocri] ne cymecrnonan (4b Nch) nn ecn
i ne io conna, (n ncex (pyrnx anea( ia i (neunan) noui (60
Nch). Tain: opaao:, ea ocoanannn pnr:on n crpyirypi uyncrnennoro
:npa, ero reiyuecrn n nninuecinx na:enennn n ne: nenoa:ono ocoa-
nari e(nnyi n nena:ennyi npnpo(y oroca. Hepexo( e or npe(crane-
nnn o uyncrnenno: :npe i npe(cranennn: o oroce (oen iri aa(an
noce(onareinon cxe:on conocrann:ix nponopnnn, ioropie n nrore
14 Cp. ror e npnnnnn no ]par:enrax 48, 90, 92 Nch n (p.
npnno(nr i (ny: ocnonni: ioc:oornuecin: npornnonoonocrn:: neu-
no:y cranonenni n neuno:y irni.
Conocranenne yuennn lepainra c npancin:n (oirpnna:n, iai
:i c:orn ynn(eri, cpaay e (aer :accy anaornn n noanoner nponecrn
oimoe unco napaeen, na ocnonannn ioropix aauacryi n (eaircn
nino(i o npancinx nnnnnnx, no raion no(xo( uacro ne ni(epnnaer
ipnrnin. B omen cncre:e narn(on lepainra ninnnircn (ne rannie
ocoennocrn n nonn:annn lepainro: npornnonoonocren, ioropie
ce(yer or:ernri .ro conpnennocri, ro(ecrno, e(nncrno npornno-
noonocren n nninuecian :o(ei nx ]yninnonnponannn. Xapairepn-
ayimn: :o:enro: (n ncen npancion rpa(nnnn nnnercn ee (yancrn-
uecian oipamennocri. Ye n larax onroornanpyercn necona:epn:ocri
(nyx nepnonaua ]opa n 3a. Hapi npornnonoonocren n .ro:
cyuae nnnircn ne croiio nnapni:n onnoannnn:n, cioiio xapaire-
pncrnia:n nn cnoncrna:n .rnx cycrannnonainix naua n, iai n ca:n
nauaa, n npnnnnne ne ro(ecrnenni (pyr (pyry. lanni:n xapairepnc-
rnia:n naua nnnircn ce(yimne napi: ncrnna oi, nani ne
nani, paay: neananne, :np npa(a. Hcxo(nin npnnnnn npornno-
nocranennn n anrponoornn (eenne na cnonx n uynx c rouin ape-
nnn npnnepennocrn (opy nn ay. Hrai, na yponne onroornn n ioc:o-
ronnn napi npornnonoonocren npoc:arpnnaircn (ocrarouno uerio, nocnr
npn .ro: ne ca:ocronreinin xapairep, a orpaair cnoncrna neconocra-
nn:ix nepnonaua. ro iacaercn ioc:oornn, n nen nnno npocennaercn
rpna(nunan crpyirypa, or:euennan A. ]i:eane:. Bo ncnio: cyuae,
(yana: n ocnonannn npancinx npe(cranennn, ioropin c:ennir :onnc-
rnuecine ren(ennnn n Anecre n uerian crpyirypa ioc:oornn, cnn(e-
reicrnyir no o nono: :nponoaapenuecio: .rane n paannrnn npancion
rpa(nnnn n nepno(, o ioropo: n(er peui, no o nnnnnn rpeuecinx ]no-
co]cinx yuennn na cranonenne npancion :icn.
B noiay noce(nero npe(nooennn ronopnr ce(yimnn apry-
:enr. Taine napi npornnonoonocren, iai xoo(noe ropnuee,
nanoe cyxoe n pannnx npancinx ncrounniax (lari, Anecra)
ne npocennaircn c (ocrarounon ncnocrii, no n ionnenryananpo-
nanno: nn(e nonnnircn n nexennncinx reicrax (oi. lX n. (o n...,
nanpn:ep, n Denkar:) iai npornnonocranenne ropnuero n nanoro
xoo(no:y n cyxo:y, no onnri n iauecrne xapairepncrni (nyx nepnona-
ua. Nono yrnep(ari, uro ncxo(ni:n (n noanninonennn .rnx nap
npornnonoonocren in npe(cranennn rpeuecinx ]nanion, ioro-
pie n cnino a(anrnponanno: nn(e uepea nocpe(crno Bnaanrnn nomn
n npanciyi cpe(neneionyi reoorni.
Eme o(nn iiuenon :o:enr (n npancion rpa(nnnn .ro ee
nnennan, .cxaroornuecian nanpanennocri. O(no na nepnonaua
1c.k.xf x x.nck.s f.,xuxs. 184
IABA \. 4HOCO4I HTAHHCKOIO HAHIABEHHA H
HIAHCKAA TIAHHHA
1. HAHAO HTAHHCKOH 4HOCO4HH. OHTOOIHHECKHE
B3IAI HAIMEHHA H HX COHOCTABEHHE C HIAHCKOH
TIAHHHEH
Hranncian ]noco]nn n reorpa]nuecio: ornomennn anaunreino
y(aena or npancioro :npa n n co(epareino: nane ona rpa(nnnonno
npornnonocrannercn ]noco]nn rpeuecioro Bocroia, (n ocnonnix
npe(crannreen ioropon (Anaicn:an(p, lepainr) napaen c npanc-
in: yuenne: npono(nnci neo(noiparno. H:enno no.ro:y nnrepecen
nonpoc o onocpe(onannon rpancnnnn nnoiyirypnix opaanon n rpe-
ueciyi ]noco]ciyi :ici. Ecn npnanari noa:onocri aan:crnona-
nnn npancinx iyirypnix opaanon neioropi:n pannerpeuecin:n ]no-
co]a:n, nanpn:ep, Hn]aropo: nn Kceno]ano:
1
, ro cranonnrcn nonnr-
ni: nyri nepe(aun .roro anannn n Hrani.
Kai noaraer N. Y.cr, noce yuennn Nnercion mioi, nocrou-
nie nnnnnn, n cymecrnonannn ioropix on ne co:nenaercn, ne yrparnn
cnoen anaun:ocrn, onn coxpannircn na nce: npo(oennn V n., n cna
.rnx nnnnnn onennnaercn no lepainry. lpeuecian :ici oepny-
aci na cen n ycnannaa ro, uro ye io npnnnro. B .ro npe:n A]nni
aann:air anaunreinoe :ecro n io::ynniannn :e(y paani:n uacrn:n
lpennn. Kpo:e roro, nauacn pocr ca:o(ocrarounocrn rpeuecioro panno-
nana:a. Oaop npnpo(noro :npa ycnenno noy(a ]op:ynponanne
omnx npnnnnnon, ioropie npe(aran oee npnneiareinie peme-
nnn npoe:i ioc:oornn, ue: ne.:nnpnuecine nocryari, ioropie :ora
1
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 218218,
227229.
3o, Ti:a xapairepnayercn npe:enni: irne:, e:y npe(yroronana
rnei n ionne npe:en. B:ecre c nn: na irnn yxo(nr n ero cnoncrna,
xapairepncrnin. B ornune or yuennn lepainra, (nnenne ne npe(-
crannercn neoxo(n:on xapairepncrnion cymecrnonannn ioc:oca, a
nnnercn cnoncrno: aoro nauaa n npnnnocnrcn n :np n:ecre co ao:.
3cxaroornuecine coirnn n ionne npe:en, onncinae:ie n npancion
penrnoanon rpa(nnnn, n:eir ornomenne roiio i ao:y nauay n :npe.
Ounmenne orne:, uacro conocranne:oe c .innpoaon lepainra, ne ne-
uer aa coon nonon rnen ynnnepcy:a, :np npo(onr cnoe cyme-
crnonanne n ounmenno:, n(eaino:, nmenno: aa cocronnnn.
Hrai, npe(cranenne o npornnonoonocrnx cymecrnyer n n ]no-
co]nn lepainra, n n npancion penrnoanon rpa(nnnn, no nx ocnonannn
acoirno paanuni. Ecn yuenne lepainra .ro, n nepnyi ouepe(i,
:onna: c coxpanenne: rpa(nnnonnix (n :n]oornuecioro :imennn
nninuecion :o(en ]yninnonnponannn ioc:oca, nnapnix onnoannnn
n renerna:a, ro npancine npe(cranennn o npornnonoonocrnx nenoa-
:ono pacc:arpnnari nne ioc:oornuecioro (yana:a n nnennon crpyi-
rypi paannrnn ioc:oca. Ta: e, r(e ionnennnn npornnonoonocren
nnone conocrann:i, nnno npoc:arpnnaircn noa(neanrnunie nnnnnn
na npanciyi rpa(nnni. Tain: opaao:, nec:orpn na ro, uro ca:n no
cee napaen cymecrnenni, peayirari nx conocranennn na (oirpn-
naino: yponne ocranner :ao mancon (n eccnopnoro npnanannn
npancinx aan:crnonannn n rpeuecion ]noco]nn, n uacrnocrn, n ]no-
co]nn lepainra.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 186 1.4..a xf..xxckax x.acaxx. Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a ... 187
npe(onri nnoae:nan :ici. Hpn:epo: ioc:oora, ioropin npn:enn
cinoanon .:nnpna: n noce(onareino ne onapynna napnapcinx
nnnnnn, nnnercn Kceno]an
1
.
Kceno]an npon (oryi nani oee (ennnocra er, n noapa-
cre oioo (na(narn nnrn er noinny po(non ropo( n Naon Aann n c
rex nop cinracn no cnery (B 8 DK). 3rn cne(ennn ne:noroe :oryr
(oannri i npe(nooenni o ro:, ior(a on c]op:ynpona cnon ]no-
co]cine narn(i. Heioropie na nnx :orn iri nanecrni (nn, no
ipannen :epe, nain) lepainry, no .ro raie :ao uro nponcnner.
Hanpn:ep, coner, (annin ernnrnna:, ne onainnari oron, ecn
cunrair nx raioni:n, a ecn cunrair c:eprni:n ne urnri iai
oron, Apncrorei n Hyrapx npnnncinair Kceno]any (B 18 DK), a
Apncroipnr, Enn]annn (n, noa:ono, Kn:enr Aeican(pnncinn)
lepainry (B 127 DK). To, uro Kceno]an nnca, aa]nicnponano n no-
a(nnn nepno(, n nnuero ne ronopnrcn o npennx ro(ax ero nann. Cy(n
no nce:y, on (encrnnreino :noro nyremecrnona, ina n paanix ropo-
(ax Naon Aann n lpennn, noa:ono n Ernnre, n ne nciiueno, uro ero
yuenne c]op:nponaoci n aaionuenno: nn(e ye n Hrann. Boa:ono,
uro npancine nnnnnn na cranonenne yuennn Kceno]ana orpannunnci
nepno(o: ero nann n po(no: Koo]one. H:enno no.ro:y :i pacc:ar-
pnnae: Kceno]ana iai npe(crannren, a yume ciaaari po(onauainnia
nranncion ]noco]nn (npen:ymecrnenno ee .encioro nanpanennn).
Ho rai nn nnaue, onpe(eennie napaen yuennn Kceno]ana c npanc-
ion rpa(nnnen npoc:arpnnaircn.
Ocnona onroornn Kceno]ana ero E(nnoe, ioropoe paay:no, neu-
no, nena:enne:o, ne(nnn:o. 3rn e cnoncrna npncymn Op:aa(y n npan-
cion rpa(nnnn, re e iauecrna :i naxo(n: y Hap:enn(a npn onncannn
ero irnn. |Ecri] o(nn |roiio] or, :e oron n i(en nenuanmnn,
ne noxonn na c:eprnix nn onio:, nn coananie: (A.H. animen
(aer nepeno( ne no(oen c:eprni: nn reo:, nn :icii
2
) (B 28 DK),
Beci on nn(nr, neci :icnr, neci cimnr (B 24 DK), no ea (]nan-
uecioro) ycnnn cnon :icn nce norpncaer (B 2b DK). 3rn napaen
c opaao: ne anrpono:op]noro oecrna-Hea, oa(aimero :y(poc-
rii n ananne:, ioropie nnnircn, ipo:e roro, ero ocnonni:n xapaire-
pncrnia:n n npancion rpa(nnnn, ye ocy(anci na:n. ]oicorpa]i
coomair, uro or Kceno]ana no(oen mapy, n .ro coornercrnyer npe(-
cranenni o irnn y Hap:enn(a n 3:ne(oia, xorn ca: Kceno]an ne
ronopnr o .ro: n (ome(mnx ]par:enrax on ronopnr, uro or ne
no(oen ueoneiy, no ne ronopnr, ue:y on no(oen. 3a:anunno conocra-
nnri .rn npe(cranennn c nioi nmenni: anrpono:op]noro opaaa Axypa
Naa(on, iain: on npe(craer n larax, no n (encrnnreinocrn, iai :i
yno:nnan nime, nepcn(cian nionorpa]nn Axypa:aa(i nepno(a b20 r. (n
uacrnocrn n Lexncryncion na(nncn) ne noanoner na: .roro c(eari.
Bnone coornercrnyer npancin: narn(a: nooenne, uro Lor Kce-
no]ana nenuanmnn na oron. ]encrnnreino, nenuanmnn, no ne
e(nncrnennin, n .ro nooenne ne naxo(nr no((epin n rarnuecio:
aopoacrpna:e, n n:ecre c re:, nmeno (yancrnuecion aai, xapairep-
non (n noce(nero. Kceno]an niciaainaer neioropie :opanaaropc-
ine nooennn, ronopn o eaaaionnnx, no n nnno: nn(e paccy(ennn o
(ope n ae y nero :i ne nan(e:. Boome, paccy(ennn Kceno]ana o
ore cnino pannonananponani n ocnonani na (e(yinnn n reduc:ion ad
absurdum. Ho.ro:y, (ae ecn :i nonirae:cn n iauecrne (ononnrei-
no apry:enra i nanuni npancinx opaanon n yuennn Kceno]ana npe(-
onri orcyrcrnne (nnennn n E(nno:
1
, ro n a(eci ono nonnnercn
ciopee n cny pannonancrnuecioro oocnonannn cnonx narn(on, orn-
uecion nenouin paccy(ennn, ue: npocro nepi, (a eme aan:crnonannon
nanne. Coracno Kceno]any, onnparicn na oprani uyncrn n noanannn
ecc:icenno (A 49 DK), no n nocrnenne paay:o:, noayn, roe ne
(aer ncrnnnoro peayirara: Hcrnni rounon nniro ne yape n nniro ne
yanaer na i(en o orax n o nce:, uro n roiio roiyi: ecn io:y n
y(acrcn nnone ciaaari ro, uro cioci, ca: nce panno ne anaer, no nce:
nmi (ora(ia inaer (B 84 DK)
2
. 3rn narn(i iap(nnaino npornnono-
oni npancin: (rarnuecin:) npe(cranennn:, nocioiiy (n 3apa-
rymrpi raioro nonpoca ne :oro noanninyri ncrnna-.f. oreirnnno
cymecrnyer n (ana ia(o:y ueoneiy, nnoe (eo ero nunin niop
:e(y (opo: n ao:.
Hrai, ecn neioropie nooennn yuennn Kceno]ana n narain-
nair na :ici, uro onn aan:crnonani nn n.acsna npancin:n ionnen-
ra:n, n neo: nx anana ((ae cyryo nonepxnocrnin) noiaainaer,
n(ennan nanpanennocri yuennn Kceno]ana npnnnnnnaino pacxo(nr-
cn c npancin:n narn(a:n. Ho, n io: cyuae, Kceno]an nnrepecen
iai noa:onoe cnnayimee aneno :e(y ]noco]nn:n lpeuecioro Bo-
croia n 3ana(a n iai onpe(eennin ncrounni (n ]op:nponannn neio-
ropix narn(on Hap:enn(a.
1
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 227.
2
.nauca .1. Hranncian ]noco]nn. N., 197b. C. 1bb.
1
Hano:nn:, uro coracno npancin: npe(cranennn:, (nnenne noanniaer n
:npe roiio noce nropennn n nero aix cn.
2
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 178.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 188 1.4..a xf..xxckax x.acaxx. Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a ... 189
Anananpyn yuenne Hap:enn(a, N. Wes: npono(nr napaen nc-
iiunreino c (pennenn(nncion rpa(nnnen, ne iacanci npancion re:arn-
in
1
. On yno:nnaer roiio o (yana:e cnera n ri:i, o ioropo:, iai iaer-
cn, io nanecrno Apncroiceny n En(e:y n ioropin n lV n. (o n... i
pacnpocrpanen n Hpane
2
. Te: ne :enee, :i :oe: onapynri npancine
napaen iai n nno(non uacrn yuennn Hap:enn(a, rai n n naoennn n:
oonx cnocoon noanannn irnn. 3(eci c neoxo(n:ocrii ncraer npoe-
:a: iain: opaao: Hap:enn(y na nranncion 3en :orn crari nanecrni
npe(cranennn npannen, n .ro npnro:, uro rpa(nnnn y:aunnaer o ero
nyremecrnnnx na Bocroi, (ae ecn raionie n n:en :ecro. Ha: iaer-
cn .ror ]air orncnn:i:, ecn ncxo(nri na roro, uro Hap:enn( oyuacn
y nonnnnen n nn]aropennen. ]noren a.prcinn (lX, 2128) coomaer:
On (Hap:enn() i yuennio: Anaicn:an(pa. Ho xori on n yuncn y
Kceno]ana, a noce(onaree: ero ne cra. Hpn:iny i nn]aropenny
A:nnni, n n:enno A:nnne:. opamen i coaepnareinon nann.. A:n-
nx, Hpoi n 4ornn e(nno(ymno yrnep(air, uro Hap:enn( npome
nn]aropenciyi mioy (A 4 DK), a Crpaon npn:o naainaer Hap:enn(a n
3enona :ya:n-nn]aropenna:n (A 12 DK)
8
. 3ro eme paa no(rnep(aer
reanc o ro:, uro, ecn :i npnanae: nanune npancinx opaanon n rpeuec-
ion rpa(nnnn, ro n:enno Hn]arop :or oanaio:nri 3a(y c nn:n.
Ho.:a Hap:enn(a (arnpyercn oi. 490 r. (o n...
4
. Ai:. Hap:enn(a
npnxo(nrcn na b04b01 rr. (o n..., no coracno Harony on na 2b80 er
:ooe
b
. Ho :nenni N. Y.cra, no.:a Hap:enn(a n:eer neioropoe cxo(-
crno c op]nuecin:n crnxa:n, uro yiaainaer ecn ne na npn:ie napae-
n :e(y nn:n, ro, no ipannen :epe, na omnn ncrounni (n nnx
6
. O
.ro: ronopnr n ror ]air, uro Hap:enn( n 3:ne(oi, cunranmnecn opnrn-
naini:n ]noco]a:n, ocnonaren:n aana(non rpa(nnnn rpeuecion ]n-
oco]nn, n (encrnnreinocrn, in (pyrn: noico: o(non n ron e rpa-
(nnnn, epymen nauao n Honnn. ]ononnreini: no(rnep(enne: cia-
aannoro nnnercn ror ]air, uro :norne na crapmnx conpe:ennnion Hap-
:enn(a n 3ee (oni in iri cpe(n nepnix ioonncron na 4oien
7
.
Ha: npe(crannercn ionirni: npe(crannri raine napaen n
nopn(ie, coornocn:o: co crpyirypon nap:enn(oncioro reicra, n (ari
n: neioropoe oocnonanne n nane noa:onocrn npancinx nnnnnn.
~1a+xx. Ha nno(non uacrn no.:i Hap:enn(a ce(yer, uro na
nyri noanannn iai Hcrnni ( Aq0rq), rai n ye(ennn, :nennn i(en
]noco]a npnnen 3aion (0r) n Hpan(a (xq) (B 1 DK)
1
. Coracno
anrnuni: npe(cranennn:, Aq0rq .ro oreirnnnan ncrnna, cnpa-
ne(nnocri, ioropan connaino: nn cyreirnnno: nane peanayer-
cn iai cocrnenno aaion nn oiuan (xq) n iai ro, iain: opaao:
.ror aaion aaknaacnna nn n c,,cna+ as,kc ncnonnercn (0r).
Ye na .ro: yponne :i :oe: nponecrn onpe(eennie napaen
c npancion rpa(nnnen. B larax 3aparymrpon (n nocrnennn n ycra-
nonennn ncrnni npnainaircn pannonopn(ionie c nap:enn(oncin:n o-
ecrna, n:eimne cxo(nie ]yninnn Apra (Ama) n Xmarpa: Hocrnui
Hanyumnn Pacnopn(oi |Amy] no:orn :ne (AxypaNaa(a). cnoi
Xmarpi n Apri |Amn]. (Acna, 48.1, 1014)
2
. Ama (.:/.) conocrann-
:a n c Hcrnnon, n c 4e:n(on Hap:enn(a, nocioiiy nonn:aercn iai
ynnnepcainin aaion :npoa(annn, perynpyimnn iai npnpo(nie npo-
necci (nanp. cyrounin, ro(onon nnii), rai n omecrnennie ornome-
nnn (cnpane(nnocri, nepnocri (oronopa: n npoune). Xmarpa (Xmarpa
Bapin) (:/.1/:.) (Bacri Aeannan, Laroe Uapcrnonanne), conocra-
nn:an c ]nion, onnernopner neecnyi nacri Axypa Naa(i, n ee ae:-
non .innnaenr, ioropin oecneunnaer cnoionnoe cymecrnonanne n
nponneranne omnni, conny:a. B:ecre c re:, Xmarpa coornocnrcn c
cy(enon nacrii: Axypa Naa(a nounraercn cnnri: npane(ni: cy(nen
na( nce:n (ea:n (Acna, 46.9), n conny:e e cy(encine ]yninnn
ninonnn npe(crannren :npcion nacrn (iannn (imarpnn), napn).
Anaor Hcrnni (fa) aopoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn n Pnrne(e nce-
encinn aaion rt, ioropin nnnercn o(nonpe:enno n omecrnenni:
.rnuecin: aaiono:. Bce nonnrnn, xapairepnayimne aaion xf., n nx
orpnnareino: anauennn ornocnrcn i oacrn nrta, i ro:y, uro nexo-
pomo n nenpane(no. Ho npn .ro: (n ne(nncioro coanannn noome
xapairepna cocpe(orouennocri nnn:annn na noonreinon c]epe. n
nepaapaorannocri orpnnareinon c]epi. Cni aa n Pnrne(e :ao (n]-
1
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 218226.
2
1c:1 N.L. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971. P. 82, 228.
8
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 27b276.
4
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. P. 109.
b
.nauca .1. Hranncian ]noco]nn. N., 197b. C. 161.
6
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. P. 109.
7
1c:1 A.1. The Orphic Poems. P. 110.
1
B1 DK (Sex:us .c+. n.1/, Simplicius cc c.c/a): He npa(enan cy(ia ornpanna
ren n nyremecrnne no .ro:y nyrn on (encrnnreino enr n cropone or i(-
nix rpon no aaion n npan(a. Tee (encrnnreino npe(cronr nayunri nce nemn, n
nenpeionnoe cep(ne xopomo-aaipyrenon ncrnni, n :nennn c:eprnix, n ioropix
ner nniaion (ocronepnon ncrnni. Ho, o(naio, nor .rn npe(cronr nayunri roe,
nocioiiy :nennn neco:nenno cymecrnyir, uepea nce nce nponnainan (1::k C.o.,
1.+cn J.1., oc/a::c/c A. The Presocra:ic Philosophers. P. 242248).
2
Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). C. 188. Kai npanno, n nepeno(ax
ncnoiayercn (na napnanra nanncannn: .u. nepe(aer rpa(nnnonnoe nponanome-
nne, .f. peioncrpynponannan ]op:a, conna(aiman c (pennenepcn(cion.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 190 1.4..a xf..xxckax x.acaxx. Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a ... 191
]epennnponani
1
. 3rn cona cnpane(nni, noayn, io ncen nn(oenpo-
nencion rpa(nnnn, aa nciiuenne: rex npe(cranennn, ioropie coxpa-
nnnci n Anecre. Ye n larax iiuenon n(een, no:n:o nocrnennn
ncrnni, nnnercn opia co ao:, npnro: uro ao n nonncrno 3a ne
roiio uerio crpyirypnponani n npncyrcrnyir iai na connaino:, rai
n na(:npno: (no ne na y:onocrnrae:o:') yponnnx, no n n:eir npn:oe
ornomenne i ioc:oronnn. ]na (yxa, (na nanena n nauae nponoara-
cnn or cen uncroe n neuncroe :icen, peuen n nocrynion. onn nomn
coa(anari n nani, n orcyrcrnne nann, n nce, ue: cronr naionen :np
(Acna, 80. 84). B rarnuecio: aopoacrpna:e Ame npornnocronr ]py(
(oi), nepnonpnunna ncex rpexon n nopoion. Y Hap:enn(a :nenne c:ep-
rnix, necoornercrnyimee (ocronepno:y cony n :icn o ncrnne,
naaraercn o:anunni:n, nni:n crnxa:n (B 8, b0b8 DK
2
).
Ecn Hpan(a n 3aion Hap:enn(a, ne(ymne na nyri noanannn Hcrn-
ni, anaornuni rarnuecin: Ame n Xmarpe, ioropie raie npnanani no-
:oui n nocrnennn ncrnni, ro .ra anaornn nce-rain (ocrarouno ycon-
na, iai :i nn(en, nonon coornecennocrn :e(y nn:n or:ernri nce-
rain ne y(aoci. Ho npornnonocranenne Hap:enn(o: ncrnnnoro ono-
:y n nne(enne n naoennn :nennn c:eprnix onpe(eennoro (yana:a
nonnrnn, noanonir nponecrn napaei c rarnuecin: aopoacrpna:o:, n
ioropo: n(en (yana:a, iai :i yiaainan, nnnercn xapairepnon n onpe-
(enimen uepron.
~1,f: +ncnxs. oi n npan(y iai (na acneira no.rnuecioro nciyc-
crna paanua lecno(, i ioropo:y Nyai oparnnci c rain:n cona:n:
~Ana:a ,+cc+ +a .x .cck...f: .. 4xcfcxu,k .a,,.
1c.x, a,n.ka, afx+, fa x .a,, .cck..aa.f: +ac+

.
]ae coramanci c re:n ncce(onaren:n, ioropie aa:euair cxo(-
crno ncrynennn i no.:e Hap:enn(a c Teoronnen lecno(a
4
, :i ni-
ny(eni oparnri nnn:anne na nx npnnnnnnainoe paanune n ornome-
nnn rex onenoi, ioropie onn, rai nn nnaue, ninocnr ncrnne n n.
lecno( n ornomennn .rnx nonnrnn nenrpaen, npnananan n ror n (pyron
napnanr rnopuecrna, on c aro(apnocrii npnnn:aer (ap oecrnen-
nix necen. ro iacaercn Hap:enn(a, ro on or(aer nennocrnoe npen:y-
mecrno ncrnne, xorn ne oriaainaercn n or nnoro naoennn :ne-
nnn c:eprnix. Hoce(nne (n nero n:eir onpe(eennyi anaun:ocri n
ron :epe, nocioiiy onn nponnainair nce, uro cymecrnyer, n neponrno,
roiio orrainnanci or nnx, :ono nonnri, ninrn na nyri Hcrnni.
O.N. 4pen(enepr noaraer, uro n ocnone anrnunon rpare(nn e-
nr neninn aron pacnpn (nyx nonpnix naua, cnepna ]nanuecinx,
aare: .rnuecinx. ]o ]nin n lnpnc :n] ana (nyx ]ni, (ne Hpan(i, (ne
]on, (nyx 3pocon, (ne 3pn(i: o(no cymecrno xopomee, (pyroe (yp-
noe
1
. Ca:a O.N. 4pen(enepr nniai ne io::enrnpyer .ro cnoe nicia-
ainanne n npnno(nr ero ea cciin na opnrnnainie ncrounnin. Ni c
neioropon (oen co:nennn ornocn:cn i npe(cranenni o cymecrnona-
nnn n rpeuecion rpa(nnnn (yana:a ncrnnnoro n onoro na yponne
:aipoioc:a (paay:eercn, .ro ne n:eer ornomennn i nnapni: onnoan-
nnn: noome). B (encrnnreinocrn, peui n(er o nenrpainocrn anrnu-
nix oecrn no ornomenni i ueoneiy, anaornunon nenrpainocrn
lecno(a n ornomennn i ncrnne n n, nni:n cona:n, oecrno ncninn
paa onennnaercn ca:n: ueoneio: cnryarnnno, ne necn n cee n iaue-
crne iainx-ro cymnocrnix xapairepncrni, nanpn:ep, acoirnon n
nn npan(nnocrn. B naoennn Hap:enn(o: nyrn :nennn c:eprnix
(yana: nocnr ne uacrnin xapairep, iai, nanpn:ep, y lecno(a, a nnn-
ercn nauao: ioc:oronnn n enr n ocnonannn irnn, c:eprnie npn-
nnn pemenne n:enonari (ne ]op:i, o(ny na ioropix n:enonari ne
ce(yer (B 8, b4bb, DK).
Kai io or:eueno nime, n ocnone npancion :n]oornn n penrnn
ear npe(cranennn o opie cn (opa n aa, cnera n ri:i, ioropie
npe(craneni nepnnuni:n npnnnnna:n Cnenra-Nanii n Anrpa-Na-
nii (Acna, 80, ]a(ecran-n :enor-n xpa(, c. 24
2
). Hciiunreino
nani: :o:enro: (n nonn:annn cocrnenno rarnuecioro aopoacrpna-
:a nnnercn ro, uro (na nepnonauaa Laro n 3o, a raie n A:ema
Cnenra npe(crannircn orneuenni:n neanrpono:op]ni:n opaaa-
:n. B larax Boxy Nana, Ama n Xmarpa ooanaueni nenrpaini:
rpa::arnuecin: po(o:
8
. Hap:enn(, naaran :nennn c:eprnix, paanua-
er (ne npornnonoonocrn no nnemne:y oniy, onn nopoani (pyr or
1
1.x..cnkaa. T.X. Nnp n(en apnen Pnrne(i ;; Pnrne(a. Nan(ai VVlll ;
Ha(. no(roronna T.A. Enaapeniona, orn. pe(airop H.A. lpnnnep. 2-e na(., ncnp.
N.: Hayia, 1999. C. 4b7.
2
Ecn ne oronapnnaercn cnennaino, ro pyccinn reicr ]par:enron Hap:enn(a
(aercn no na(anni: J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989.
8
Teoronnn, 2728, 1ccxa,. Honoe copanne reicron. N., 2001. C. 21.
4
C:.: 1cccx,x J.A. Or :n]a i orocy (Cranonenne rpeuecion ]noco]nn). N.,
1972. C. 28b.
1
Jcx,cnc: C.A. Nn] n nreparypa (pennocrn. 2-e na(., ncnpan. n (onon.
N.: Bocrounan nreparypa, 1998. C. 899.
2
accf. n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996). CH., 1997, Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri.
N., 1997.
8
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. N.: Hayia, 1991. C. 1249.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 192 1.4..a xf..xxckax x.acaxx. Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a ... 198
(pyra na:enn oroni neecnin nn cner, n neneecrnennan (ana-
nin nmennan) noui (B 8, bbb9 DK). Coracno Lyn(axnmny (c. 17
(9v, cri. 7)), Op:aa( npeinaer n oacrn cnera, a ncene(enne n (opo(e-
rei (ero) nocronnnie cnoncrna, Axpn:an no ri:e, neneecrne,
crpacrn paapymennn n ea(ne
1
. ]aime y Hap:enn(a unrae:: Bce na-
noneno n:ecre Cnero: n re:noi Houii, noponny re: n (pyrn:, nocioi-
iy nnuro ne npnuacrno nn ro:y, nn (pyro:y (B 9, 1b DK). Lyn(axnmn
(c. 18 (10r)) orncnner ioc:oornuecinn nponecc ce(yimn: opaao::
Ne(y nn:n |nauaa:n N.B.] ia nycrora,. noa(yx, n ioropo:
renepi c:emanci (pyr c (pyro: (na (yxonnix (nauaa), orpannuennoe n
earpannunoe. n o(no ne cnnaano c (pyrn:.
2
. 3(eci xopomo nn(no, uro
nepnonauaa n aopoacrpna:e n y Hap:enn(a n :nennnx c:eprnix nno-
ne cxo(ni no cnon: onncannn:: onn paanuni, nonpni, npornnocronr
(pyr (pyry, n ro: unce n n ornomennn oa(annn ananne:.
Coracno Hap:enn(y, :nennn c:eprnix ornocnreino :npoycrpoe-
nnn nn ioc:oronnn naaraircn nnone npan(ono(ono (B 8, 60 DK),
n, no ncen nn(n:ocrn, coornercrnyir noananni ncrnni nacroiio, na-
cioiio ono noome noa:ono na uyncrnenno nocnpnnn:ae:o: yponne.
H nce-rain na (nyx noa:onix nyren noanannn (B 2, 2 DK) e(nncrnenno
nepni: ocraercn o(nn nyri ncrnni, roiio o(nn :icennin nyri
(B 8, 1 DK). Hpn:epno rai e paccy(a 3aparymrpa, ior(a yrnep(a,
uro ne(aer nyri nocrnennn Axypa Naa(i
8
. 3ra e :ici n necioiio
nno: napnanre niciaainaercn n reicre Lyn(axnmn (c. 80 (41r)), ioro-
pin aanepmaercn cona:n: Bocxnani ncrnny. O(nn ecri nyri (nyri)
ncrnni, nce ocrainie ne nyrn
4
. Orncnenne raio:y conna(enni
ecri: npe(cranennn o ncrnnno: n ono: nyrnx (ymn, ciopee ncero,
nocxo(nr i (pennen nn(oenponencion :n]oore:e, ioropan coxpanena
raie (pennenn(nncin: ncrounnia: n Ynannma(ax, a n rpeuecion
rpa(nnnn :i ncrpeuae: ee y Hap:enn(a. B npancion rpa(nnnn, no ncen
nn(n:ocrn raie n cny rpa(nnnn, Bn(en(ar, XlX, iai n Hap:enn(,
naainaer onin nyri nanri:
b
. Dic:ionary o mos: common Aves:a
words
6
(n con vad, vadha (aer nepeno( :o know, knowledge,
inorma:ion, ne yiaainan na caipainin xapairep .roro anannn. O
.ro: :ono c(eari nino( na ocnonannn (pennenn(nncion rpa(nnnn,
r(e cono vda- oanauaer caipainoe ananne n cpannn:o c pyccin:
iopne: n conax ne(ari, ne(yn, ne(ynin
1
. Ny(pena:n n nocnren:n .ro-
ro cnnmennoro anannn cunranci no.ri-pnmn, nocpe(nnin :e(y :npo:
oron n :npo: i(en. Pnmn ne coa(ana ca: ncrnny, a noyua ee or
oecrna, ioropoe nia(inao ee n cep(ne pnmn (manas-, hrd-
2
)
8
. Taio-
non npe(crannn cee npnpo(y anannn ne(nncine apnn n, ouenn(no,
(pennne npanni, a cpe(n nnx n 3aparymrpa. Hap:enn(, iai iaercn,
noyuaer ananne anaornuni: opaao: ornnn, ]nia, yiaainaer e:y,
uro coaepnari y:o:, y:oapenne ecri cnoco nocrnennn Hcrnni. An-
ropcrno nap:enn(onon no.:i npnna(enr ]nie, Hap:enn( roiio cy-
maer n aano:nnaer
4
. Hec:orpn na nicoinn yponeni acrpainnn n nicia-
ainannnx ornocnreino oacrn ncrnnnoro n ee noanannn, nn Hap:enn(,
nn rarnuecinn aopoacrpna:, re: ne :enee, ne c:orn oriaaaricn or napn(-
non (on :n]oornaannn cnonx yuennn, n n nepnyi ouepe(i n cnnan c
npo]ernuecin: xapairepo: noyuae:oro anannn.
Ecn n 3a(e i VlV nn., iai :i aa:euan n npe(i(ymen rane,
nncrnryr noyuennn caipainoro anannn ne roiio n:e cocrnennyi
:noroneionyi ncropni, no n npo(oa nnrencnnno paannnaricn, a nc-
ce(onaren yiaainair na orpo:noe unco paanoro po(a opaiyon, npe(-
ciaaareen n npopoion, noyuaimnx oriponenne or paanunix oron, ro
nacioiio npano:epno (n .roro nooennn npone(enne npancinx na-
paeen Ni noarae:, uro nce-rain .ro noa:ono, nocioiiy nanecr-
nie na: npopoin, raine iai Kaccan(pa, Hn]nn, 3nn:enn(, n ornune or
nepnix ]noco]on, ne nperen(onan na ro, uro noyuennoe nocpe(crno:
oecrnennoro oriponennn ananne y(er ananne: Hcrnni, ananne: o
ycrponcrne ncero :npa n ero .ax.:na+ ]yninnonnponannn. B ocrai-
no: pannne rpeuecine ]noco]i aauacryi raie, iai n npopoin, yrnep-
(an, uro noyuan oriponenne ncrnni nenocpe(crnenno or oecrna,
ipo:e roro, onn nepennan cen iai oronnenreen, iai :eccnn (co-
repon), iai nacronmnx (e:nypron, n: noionnnci, n: yupe(an iyi-
ri
b
. H:enno .rn ]airi aacrannir nac conocrannri pannnx rpeuecinx
]noco]on ne croiio c npopoia:n (pennen 3a(i, cioiio n nepnyi
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 26b.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 26b.
8
Acna, 28.b: : vademn gtmc ahuri mazdi. Bce opnrnnainie reicri n
cocrane Axynananrn lari nnrnpyercn no: +c:1.: Yasna Ahunavai:i Ga:ha.
Ed. Karl l. Geldner, +c:1., 1/c o.c:cc 1aak: a: 1/c 1.::::, S:u::gar:, 1896.
4
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 812.
b
1.:xnckxx 1.C., .c.ckaa ... Hpancian :n]oornn ;; Nn]i napo(on :npa.
3nnnione(nn: B 2-x r. ; l. pe(. C.A. Toiapen. N., 1991. T. 1. A-K. C. b60b64.
6
1:c1:an.:, o mos: common Aves:a words. Ed. Joseph H. Pe:erson. 199b.
1
1.x..cnkaa. T.X. Nnp n(en apnen Pnrne(i ;; Pnrne(a. Nan(ai VVlll. N.,
1999. C. 46b.
2
Cp. anecr. n.n.n/ :ici, paay:, :.1u :y(pocri.
8
1.x..cnkaa. T.X. Nnp n(en apnen Pnrne(i ;; Pnrne(a. Nan(ai VVlll. N.,
1999. C. 466.
4
Jcx,cnc: C.A. Nn] n nreparypa (pennocrn. C. 880881.
b
Jcx,cnc: C.A. Nn] n nreparypa (pennocrn. C. 296.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 194 1.4..a xf..xxckax x.acaxx. Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a ... 19b
ouepe(i c npancin: npopoio: 3aparymrpon, ioropo:y n rpn(nari er
nnncn locno(i Ny(pin n nocpe(crno: oriponennn paarncnn Hcrnny.
Yuenne 3aparymrpi io orneprnyro cooreuecrnennnia:n, n on :noro
er npone n narnannn. Ho ye n nepno( Na(men Anecri, ioropin
ce(yer cpaay aa rarnuecin:, ero opaa :n]oornanpyercn, a ca: on
cranonnrcn oreiro: iyira
1
.
~1,f: xcfxna. Hpe(cranennie nime napaen nnrepecni, no
ne croi anaunreini, ecn ne aainari, uro Hap:enn( n nepnyi oue-
pe(i nnrepecen ncropnia: ]noco]nn iai :icnrei, airyananpo-
nanmnn paanune :e(y paay:ni: n uyncrnenni: noananne: n nnep-
nie coa(anmnn yuenne o irnn n ne-irnn. H nanoee anaun:i:n
in i napaen, n:eimne ornomenne n:enno i .ro:y paa(ey ero
yuennn. Hrai, ecri n iaian-nny(i omnocri :e(y re:, iai nonn:a
Hap:enn( :icennin nyri nocrnennn irnn n ca:o irne n npan-
cion rpa(nnnen
4.X. Keccn(n yrnep(aer: Ycranonenne iauecrnennoro paanunn
:e(y paay:o: n uyncrnennocrii, :imenne: n omymenne:, :e(y
ornuecin: n .:nnpnuecin: nnnoci nenuanmn: ]noco]cin: oripi-
rne:. H uecri .roro nenioro oripirnn npnna(enr Hap:enn(y na
3en. 3ro io oripirne: paay:a n ncropnn enponencion n :nponon
]noco]nn, n ncropnn reopernuecioro :imennn noome
2
. Ni ne cra-
ne: ocnapnnari .ry :ici, no n iauecrne cnoero po(a io::enrapnn i
nen npe(crann: eme pn( napaeen c yuenne: 3aparymrpi.
Hcce(onaren ye iacanci n iaion-ro :epe re:i paarpannue-
nnn oacrn paay:a n reecnoro n aopoacrpna:e
8
. Kai yiaainaer L.
Ban (ep Bap(en, n rpeuecion ]noco]cion rpa(nnnn na ionrpacr :e(y
:arepnaini:n, nn(n:i:n n ocnaae:i:n nema:n n oacrii paay:a,
aaiiuennon roiio n :icn oparnn nnn:anne Kceno]an n 3:ne-
(oi. Onn no(uepinnair, uro oecrnennoe npnna(enr nenio: n
nonocrii oacrn paay:a
4
. L. Ban (ep Bap(en npe(araer eme o(ny
napaei. Hannicmn: oro: nepcon, ronopnr on, coracno le-
po(ory, io neo n e(nnin or Kceno]ana i raie neo: n nceen-
non
b
. Hpnno(n cona Harona (Caxcf 242d), uro .encian mioa
cpe(n nac or Kceno]ana n (ae panime yrnep(aer, y(ro ro, uro
naainaercn Bce:, ecri E(nnoe, L. Ban (ep Bap(en nnr(e n .ron cnnan
ne yno:nnaer o yuennn Hap:enn(a.
Ni ye nncan o ro:, uro n nexennncion rpa(nnnn aopoacrpnn-
cion reoornn paanuenne uyncrnennoro (]nanuecioro) :npa ([1) n
:npa paay:a (n[n) aann:aer nanoe :ecro. Ho:n:o (eennn i-
rnn na (ne oacrn, ia(an na nnx raie uerio crpyirypnponana.
Crpyirypa (yxonnoro :npa rpexuacrna (paay: Axypa Naa(a, Apra Ba-
xnmra (Hanyuman ncrnna) n Boxy Nana (Laran Nici). 4nanuec-
inn (iocrnin) :np cocronr na ecrecrnennix crnxnn :eraa,
ae:n, no(i n pacrennn, ioropi: coornercrnyir axypi. Hnrepecno,
uro npnain Hap:enn(a orpocnri npnniuiy onnparicn n noanannn
na uyncrnennin onir n ncrari na :icennin nyri (B 7, 17 DK) n
neo: anaornuen ro:y, uro io xopomo nanecrno noce(onaren:
3aparymrpi iai nyri nocrnennn Hcrnni (Apri) n Laroro paay:a
(Boxy Nani), n re: ca:i: ca:oro Axypa Naa(i.
Honn:anne Axypa Naa(i n Anecre raie :oer iri neioropi:
opaao: conocraneno c yuenne: o irnn Hap:enn(a. Tai, Axypa Naa-
(a acconnnpyercn c nnemnen :eranuecion c]epon neo:, ioropan
orpannunnaer :npoa(anne, niiuan nnyrpi cen nce ocrainie ero co-
crannimne, nne naxo(nrcn c]epi Conna, yni, anea( n n nenrpe
:npoa(annn ae:n, nnyrpn ioropon aanepr 3on ]yx. Ce(i (pennnx
ioc:oronnuecinx :n]on o paannrnn nceennon na :nponoro nnna, co-
rnopennoro Axypa Naa(on, (ononnir npe(cranennn o c]epnunocrn
ioc:oca y npannen, n :ono yrnep(ari, uro :npoa(anne :icnoci n
npancion rpa(nnnn ecn ne iai conepmennoipyrin Lap Hap:e-
nn(a (B 8, 48 DK), ro, no ipannen :epe, iai c]epnunoe, ioneunoe
(rounee orpannuennoe) n nce n cen niiuaimee, nocioiiy aa ero
npe(ea:n ne ocranaoci uero-no. B reicrax Lyn(axnmna (c. 17(9v,
cri. 7), c. 41(21v)), Nenor-n Xpar (c.14) n pn(e (pyrnx oacri Axypa
Naa(i (uerneproe neo) .ro ecioneunin cner
1
. Ca: e Axypa
Naa(a nocronnen n earpannuen no npe:enn (Lyn(axnmn, c. 17), no
orpannuen n cee (Lyn(axnmn, c. 18)
2
.
Tain: opaao:, iai n n ]noco]nn Hap:enn(a, n npancion rpa(n-
nnn cymecrnyer npe(cranenne o paa(eennn :npa na (ne oacrn
oacri paay:a n oacri ]nanuecioro n ono (ocrarouno (pennee.
Ecn npnanari rouiy apennn, coracno ioropon anropcrno lar npnna(-
enr 3aparymrpe nn neion peuecion rpynne, ioropan cronr aa .rn:
1
1.k 1.1. Nn]i (pennero n pannecpe(neneionoro Hpana. C. 1926.
2
1cccx,x J.A. Or :n]a i orocy. C. 287.
8
Ac/1. 1.1. The Zara:hush:ra: :he :ranscenden:al vision. Longmead, Sha:sbury,
Dorse:, 198b, 1annc/ 1. Die Peligion Zara:hus:ras: Nach d. Awes:a darges:ell:.
Hildesheim, New York: Olms, 1971. |Tbingern, 1980].
4
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. C. 1b4.
b
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acrpono:nn. C. 1b4.
1
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 86, 277.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 26b.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 196 1.4..a xf..xxckax x.acaxx. Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a ... 197
n:ene:, ro yiaaannyi n(ei ce(yer yconno (arnponari oi. lXVll nn.
(o n... C (pyron croponi, neioropie npanncri, n uacrnocrn .A. ee-
ion
1
noarair, uro Axynananrn lara no( naompennoro (oirpn-
nepcrna n oimon yuenocrn
2
, n n:enno n cny ionnennnn paa(eennn
(yxonnon n :arepnainon c]epi, aa]nicnponannon n .ron lare, ee-
ion ycranannnaer ee nocenarononcioe n nporornocrnuecioe nponc-
xo(enne. Hpnue:, i raio:y nino(y on npnxo(nr na ro: ocnonannn, uro
paa(eenne c]epi :arepnainoro n (yxonnoro orcyrcrnyer n ]noco]c-
ion :icn 3a(i, no ipannen :epe, ono rep:nnoornuecin ne nipa-
eno y lepainra n orcyrcrnyer y Hap:enn(a
8
, xorn ero :ono cunrari
aa]nicnponanni: y Hn]aropa n op]nion
4
. Hyno aa:ernri, uro (pen-
nocri lar aa]nicnponana n :norouncennix cnn(ereicrnax (penne-
rpeuecinx anropon, yno:nnaimnx o ornnx 3opoacrpa. Co]ncr Hpo-
(ni, conpe:ennni Coipara, nperen(ona na nunoe oa(anne rain:n
ornn:n. Cpe(n cor(nncinx ]par:enron na ]ynixyana onapyen no-
a(nnn cnncoi anecrnncion :onrni Ame:-Boxy n nepeoennn na co-
r(nncinn naii, c(eanno:, no neioropi: npe(nooennn: oueni pano,
(o .noxn Aeican(pa Naie(oncioro. Kpo:e roro, na (pennocri npe(cran-
ennn o paa(eennn ]nanuecioro n (yxonnoro :npon yiaainaer ror ]air,
uro .rn npe(cranennn ne conna(air rep:nnoornuecin n n:eir cyme-
crnennie ionnenryainie pacxo(ennn n :enimyi creneni reopernuec-
ion orneuennocrn iai n cpannennn c nexennncion rpa(nnnen, rai n c
anrnunon ]noco]cion iaccnion. O(naio neian nonocrii nciiuari
n (anno: cyuae noa:onoro oparnoro nnnnnn rpeuecion ]noco]nn na
re npe(cranennn, ioropie aa]nicnponani n Axynananrn lare.
Hrai, Axypa Naa(a cymecrnyer n ne-reecno:, (yxonno: :npe n
nocrnrae: nocpe(crno: :icn, paay:a. Hap:enn( ronopnr o .ro: ce(y-
imn: opaao:: Ho nnior(a .ro npornn non ne no((epari: ro, uero
ner, ecri, no ri (oen (eparicn or .roro nyrn naiciannn, y(epnnai-
mero :ici, n ne noanoi npnniuie, po(aimen :nornn onir npnny(nri
ren cnepnyri na .ror nyri, ncnoiayn ecneinie raaa nn ymn n naii,
nonie neanauamnx anyion: cy(n paay:o: cnopnmee onponepenne, nic-
1
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. N., 1991.
2
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. C. 24.
8
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. C. 10.
4
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n cnnipern-
uecine iyiri. C. 10.
iaaannoe :non (B 8, 12 DK)
1
. Axypa Naa(a ne po(en n ne ynnuron:,
nocronnen no npe:enn (Lyn(axnmn, c. 17 (9v, cri. 7)
2
n orpannunnaer
coon :npoa(anne, uro nnone conocrann:o c re:, iai nn(nr irne Hap-
:enn(: ono |irne] eanauaino n nenpeiparn:o, rai iai po(enne n
rnei orpomeni npoui (B 8, 2728 DK), Anani. (epnr |ero] n oio-
nax npe(ea, ioropin ero aannpan-ore:er (B 8, 8081 DK).
Ce(yn Hap:enn(y, nyno npnanari, uro ipnrepne: ncrnni nnn-
ercn paay:, a uyncrna ne rouni
8
. Tor(a i ue:y Hap:enn(y nona(on-
oci nocnnmari nein paa(e no.:i onncanni :nennn c:eprnix
Ecn :i nocrapae:cn nponecrn napaei c npancion rpa(nnnen, n,
ncxo(n na nee ca:on, nonirae:cn orncnnri .ry npoe:y, ro onapy-
n:, uro (encrnnreino, uyncrnenno nocnpnnn:ae:in (]nanuecinn) :np
ne niaopen, no on ne nnnercn ncrnnon. Kocrnin :np ecri nanoo-
nnny peayirar coa(annn 3oro ]yxa, n on ne y(er ncrnnni: (o rex
nop, noia 3o npncyrcrnyer n :npe. Hoce nepno(a :nponoro noapa,
ior(a ao nonocrii ncueaner, ]nanuecinn :np, coa(annin Axypa Naa-
(on n n: e orpannuennin, (encrnnreino craner conepmenni: n ca:o-
(ocrarouni:. B ne: ne y(er po(ennn, nocioiiy i .ro:y nepno(y nce
]panamn (r.e. (ymn npane(nnion, unco ioropix panno uncy anea( na
nee, ioropoe orpannueno) ye in nonomeni, noyunn cnoe po(e-
nne n npomn uepea ounmenne orne: (cn:nonuecian c:epri). B .ro:
:npe ne y(er c:eprn, nocioiiy 3o iai ne-nani (apmem anghush
(Acna, 80.4)) y(er ynnuroeno. B raio:, n(eaino:, nn(e :np Axy-
pa Naa(i :oer iri conocranen c ncrnnni: npe(cranenne: o irnn
Hap:enn(a, necon:ecrn:i: c neirne:, c ron oronopion, uro na nep-
nin nan n aopoacrpnncion rpa(nnnn ni(nnraercn aicnoornuecioe, a
ne rnoceoornuecioe (iai y Hap:enn(a) npornnonocranenne.
He o(nn roiio Hap:enn(, no nce pannerpeuecine ]noco]i n
]op:ynponie cnonx ocnonnix reancon onnpanci na acrpairnie, y:oa-
pnreinie ioncrpyinnn, ioropie nenoa:ono io nn (oiaaari onir-
ni: nyre:, nn iain:-no opaao: ncnoiaonari n npairnuecinx ne-
nx. Ho(onan anennnn i paay:y crannr pannii rpeueciyi ]no-
co]ni n ca:in peainn ionrpacr c :icii (pennero Lnnero Bocro-
ia
4
. Ecn :i oparn:cn i (penneernnercion nn (pennemy:epcion
1
1::k C.o., 1.+cn J.1., oc/a::c/c A. The Presocra:ic Philosophers. P. 248.
2
Jaa.cfxxckxc reicri. N., 1997. C. 26b.
8
xa:cn ..fckxx, lll. 22.
4
J.nkaf 1., J.nkaf 1.., Jx.can ., Xkaccn T. B npe((nepnn ]noco-
]nn. ]yxonnie nciannn (pennero ueoneia. Hep. c anr. T.H. Tocron. N.: lan-
nan pe(ainnn nocrounon nreparypi na(areicrna Hayia, 1984. C. 221.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 198 Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a +c,ak.. x x caacf.a.cnxc c ... 199
2. OHTOOIHHECKHE B3IAI 3MHEOKA H HX
COHOCTABEHHE C HIAHCKOH TIAHHHEH
K yuenni 3:ne(oia :i xoren i no(onrn c ron croponi, ioro-
pan ne rai uacro oiaainaercn n noe apennn ncce(onareen, a n:enno,
coornecrn yuenne 3:ne(oia c npancion cxe:on (yancrnuecinx npe(-
cranennn, nocioiiy no narn(ax .roro ]noco]a na:euena uerian ren-
(ennnn i (yana:y. Bo-nropix, noa(neanrnunie anropi 4nocrpar n
Hnnnn yrnep(air, uro 3:ne(oi omacn c npancin:n :ara:n
nn yuncn :arnn, a no noanpamennn ee nponone(ona
1
. He noanpamanci
i (nciyccnn o noa:onocrn nyremecrnnn rpeion n, n uacrnocrn, 3:ne-
(oia na Bocroi aa :y(pocrii :aron, npocro aa]nicnpye: ca: ]air
npnanannn anrnuni:n anropa:n onpe(eennoro cxo(crna yuennn 3:ne-
(oia n npancion penrnoanon :icn. 3(eci nano or:ernri eme o(nn
:o:enr: norpa]nn (ocoiparnion in nanncani, iai npanno, cnyc-
rn necioiio coren er noce c:eprn ]noco]a n crponnci na ocnona-
nnn (ome(mero yuennn. Hcxo(n na .roro, :oe: npe(noonri, uro
iaine-ro cxe:i n yuennn 3:ne(oia noanonn ronopnri o ne: iai o
noce(onaree npancinx :aron. B io: cyuae, nce .ro (aer ocnonannn
(n coornecennn yuennn 3:ne(oia c npancion rpa(nnnen.
1
J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 887.
ionnennnn cona, naiia, nocpe(crno: ioropix oecrno nponano-
(nr, rnopnr :np, ro :i ne ynn(n: orneuennocrn, acrpairnocrn .rnx
nonnrnn, nanpornn, onn necyr no(uepinyro ionipernin ]nanuecinn, a
ciopee (ae ]nanoornuecinn c:ic. Nnp reecnin ne npornnonoc-
ranen :npy :icn, cono ne or(eeno or rea, onn cnri noe(nno,
nocioiiy cono .ro peayirar nponopaunnannn naiia no pry, aa
ioropoe, nanpn:ep, n ernnercion rpa(nnnn orneuaer or Tor (Txonr)
1
.
B larax 3aparymrpi raie ncrpeuaercn no(onoe ]nanoornuec-
ioe ynorpeenne naiia-cona: A Naa(a, anaimnn, ronopi naiio:
cnoero pra
2
. Coracno Dic:ionary o mos: common Aves:a words
8
cono hizv ynorpenercn n Anecre oioo 20 paa, ror(a iai cono
mthra oioo 108 paa. 3ro cnn(ereicrnyer o ro:, uro yinainoe
anauenne naiia n larax ycrynaer :ecro ero acrpairno:y nipae-
nni. Ocrananci na .rnx noannnnx, ro ecri, nonn:an ion cnoco
caipainoro noyuennn anannn (n npornnonec npo]anno:y) iai nyri
ncrnni, npe(cranennn o (nyx nyrnx (ymn :ono inan]nnnponari
ne croiio iai omenn(oenponenciyi :n]oore:y, a iai po(nunn
cier, ncrpeuaimnncn npairnuecin n ion :n]oornn, n n nepnyi
ouepe(i n :n]oornn napo(on, ne cnnaannix omn:n iopnn:n.
Ha ocnone ncero ciaaannoro nime :i (oni npornnonocrannri
(pennen nnenocrounon n (pennenn(nncion rpa(nnnn: ne roiio pan-
nii rpeueciyi ]noco]ni, no n rarnuecinn aopoacrpna:, nocioiiy (n
nnx nani ne crpancrnnn (ymn n nno: :npe c neii noyuennn oripone-
nnn, a n nnx c(eani nepnie marn n cropony paarpannuennn irnn na (ne
oacrn y:onocrnrae:yi n ]nanueciyi, :arepnainyi.
Hrai, conocrannn no.:y Hap:enn(a n lari 3aparymrpi, :i o-
napynn (ocrarounoe ionuecrno napaeinix :ecr. Coornocn:i cno-
coi n cpe(crna (ocrnennn ncrnnnoro anannn, npairnuecin (oconnoe
cxo(crno npncyrcrnyer n onncannn (yancrnuecioro :npoycrpoennn, n
oenx rpa(nnnnx npornnonoaraercn ]nanuecinn, uyncrnenno nocnpnnn-
:ae:in :np n :np, (ocrynnin roiio paay:y, noananae:in pannonai-
no, onncanne :npa paay:a (e:n]oornanponano, noa:onon (xorn n ne-
cioiio co:nnreinon) nn(nrcn peioncrpyinnn na ocnonannn aopoacr-
pnncinx reicron apxanuecinx npancinx npe(cranennn o mapoopaanoc-
rn n ioneunocrn :npoa(annn y npannen, cxo(crno npoc:arpnnaercn (ae
n ornomennn noa(nnx rpa(nnnn i ca:n: Hap:enn(y n 3aparymrpe.
1
1a.naa 1s4. 1c. ]o no npe:n noce ;; 4pani]opr l., 4pani]opr l.A.,
Yncon ]., Aiocen T. B npe((nepnn ]noco]nn. C. b.
2
tat n mazd vdvani vaoc hizv thwahy (J.:n., 81.8).
8
1:c1:an.:, o mos: common Aves:a words. Ed. Joseph H. Pe:erson. 199b.
Te: ne :enee, npoanananponan reicri 3aparymrpi (n neioropie
oee noa(nne rpanc]op:annn ero yuennn) n reicr Hap:enn(a :i ne
namn (a ciopee ncero, ne c:orn i nanrn) noce(onareinoro nepene-
cennn npancinx n(en na rpeueciyi nouny n cny :nornx oreirnnnix
npnunn. B nepnyi ouepe(i, .ro npoe:a ca:oro aopoacrpna:a. 3apa-
rymrpa ne ocrann na: cnnanoro reicra c naoenne: cnonx narn(on
na :np, :onrni-rari, na ioropix .ro yuenne peioncrpynpyercn n cnoe:
nanauaino: nn(e, ca:n aauacryi rpeyir peioncrpyinnn, a nx conpe-
:ennie nepeno(i aanpyircn na enponencion iyirypnon (n ]noco]c-
ion) rpa(nnnn. Hpee:nnin 3aparymrpi ne in noce(onareini n na-
oennn ero narn(on, n, naunnan c nepno(a Na(men Anecri, n aopoac-
rpna: in niiueni ionnennnn, nanauaino iareropnuecin orneprny-
rie npopoio: (nanpn:ep, iyir Xao:i), a orneuennie nepnnunie cym-
nocrn cnona in :n]oornanponani, nepnyn cee craryc oecrn. Ho
napaen :e(y (ny:n .rn:n rpa(nnnn:n, eayconno, cymecrnyir, n
nx nanune nenaeno crannr nonpoc o noa:onocrn npancinx nnnnnn
na ]noco]ni Hap:enn(a.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 200 Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a +c,ak.. x x caacf.a.cnxc c ... 201
B (anno: naparpa]e :i xorn: nonpoc o npancinx nnnnnnx pac-
c:orperi ne n rpa(nnnonno: iiue conocranennn napaeinix :ecr n
yiaaannix yuennnx, a ionipernanponari ero ce(yimn: opaao:: na-
cioiio conocrann:i ,,..xcfx4cckxc noaapennn rpeuecion ]noco]nn,
n (anno: cyuae 3:ne(oia, n npancion rpa(nnnn. Hpancine npe(cran-
ennn ryoio (yancrnuni n cnonx ocnonannnx, npnue: .ror (yana:
enr na nonepxnocrn, n nnior(a ne repn cnonx noannnn, nec:orpn na
(ocrarouno cninie :onncrnuecine ren(ennnn n :aa(ena:e n aypnanna-
:e
1
. Ho nacioiio :ono cunrari yuenne 3:ne(oia (yancrnuecin:, n
nacioiio nepni: nnnercn yrnep(enne o nropnunocrn npancioro (ya-
na:a no ornomenni i c]op:nponanmencn iaccnuecion anrnunon ]n-
oco]nn na .rn nonpoci na: npe(cronr (ari orner.
lpeuecine penrnn n ]noco]nn, xorn n n:eir c npancion rpa(n-
nnen omee nn(oenponencioe nponcxo(enne, ouenn(no, cymecrnenno
ornuaircn or npancinx (oirpnn, n ro: unce n no ]op:a: (yana:a
nn ren(ennnn: i ne:y. Ho ouenn(no, uro (ae n pa:iax o(non iyiryp-
non rpa(nnnn ner o(noanaunix npe(cranennn, a ecri conoiynnoe :no-
roopaane paanunix ren(ennnn, ne nciiuan (yancrnuecinx.
Honiria anrnunon ]noco]nn cnecrn iauecrnennoe :noroopaane
nnennn i e(nni: ocnonannn: ne ocranner :ecra (n nipana:a iai
nonrena:a, a npe(cranner coon nepnin napnanr :onna:a, n pa:iax
ioroporo, xorn n airyananpyercn cycrannnonainan ocnona irnn, re:
ne :enee nce (ocoiparoncine cncre:i ciopee inan]nnnpyircn ne roiio
iai onroornn, no n iai ioc:oronnn. Ha(o aa:ernri, uro cycrannno-
nainocri n (anno: cyuae :oer nonn:aricn ne roiio :onncrnuecin,
no n (yancrnuecin, n nipancrnuecin (ro:eo:epnn, aro:i, ueripe
iopnn nemen). Tain: opaao:, na yponne ]noco]nn ncxo(nie :n]o-
ornuecine npe(cranennn rpanc]op:npyircn n ni(nnraircn acrpair-
nie npnnnnni paanopo(nie nauaa nn crnxnn.
Yuenne 3:ne(oia aauacryi inan]nnnpyercn ncce(onaren:n
iai cnnrea rpeuecion penrnn, op]nio-nn]aropencinx noaapennn n ]n-
oco]cinx narn(on ero npe(mecrnennnion, ocoenno lepainra n Hap-
:enn(a. B uacrnocrn, l. Aiyannc npe(araer (ocrarouno mnpoioe oo-
menne rex ncrounnion, aro(apn ioropi: ]op:nponanci narn(i 3:-
ne(oia: 3:ne(oi ne ocracn uy( nn o(no:y na y:crnennix reuennn
cnoero npe:enn, oriy(a i ono ne ncxo(no
2
.
Tai nn nnaue, 3:ne(oi npo(oaer pemari onroornueciyi npo-
e:arniy, nocranennyi ero npe(mecrnennnia:n, n ocoennocrn
.encion mioon, n ero yuenne nepe(io conocrannir c npancin:, onn-
panci, npn .ro:, ciopee na anropnrer Apncroren, ue: na opnrnnainin
ionreicr yuennn 3:ne(oia. Hnrepecno or:ernri, uro N. Y.cr n cnoen
innre
1
, yrnep(an, uro nepno( airnnnix npancinx nnnnnn npnxo(nrcn
na nepno( c bb0 no 480 rr. (o n..., (n 3:ne(oia ne naxo(nr :o:enron
conocranennn ero yuennn c npancion rpa(nnnen, n noome nocrounon n
neo:, aa nciiuenne: npe(cranennn o noanninonennn paanonoix
cymecrn, ioropie Y.cr conocranner c naccae: na Ynannma(. Or:e-
rn:, uro napaen :e(y yuenne: 3:ne(oia n npancion rpa(nnnen
cymecrnyir, no :i conocrann: roiio re narn(i n yiaaannix yuennnx,
ioropie rai nn nnaue :oryr iri coorneceni c (yana:o:.
Hrai, n ocnone npancion (oirpnni onroornuecioro (yana:a e-
nr npe(cranenne o (nyx necno(n:ix n necona:epn:ix cycrannno-
nainix nauaax, ioropie raie :ono n:enonari n npnunna:n, a-
ro(apn ioropi: :np noyun cnoe cymecrnonanne. 3rn nauaa Cner
n Ti:a nn ]opo n 3o.
]yana: 3:ne(oia, n nepno: npnnennn, aaiiuaercn n npo-
rnnonocranennn (nyx npornnonoonix naua nn cn inn n
Pacnpn. Ho nacioiio .rn noaapennn conocrann:i c npancin: onroorn-
uecin: (yana:o: ]n 3:ne(oia nauaa, ioropie ear n ocnone ero
onroornn ioni (4o tq) n Henanncri (Nr xo ) .ro n nepnyi
ouepe(i airnnnie, (enreinie nauaa, npnunni ncero. 3ro ro, nc x. 4c:a,
. ..:a,.s 4c+, nce nponcxo(nr, n a(eci ninnnircn nepnie necoorner-
crnnn npancion n .:ne(oionon cxe:. Cycrannnonaini:n nauaa:n
3:ne(oi noaraer ueripe :arepnainix .e:enra ae:i, no(y, noa-
(yx n oroni. Co con Ceicra 3:nnpnia, oee npocroe ncroionanne
yuennn 3:ne(oia cno(nrcn i ro:y, uro on npe(noonn (na (enreinix
nauaa ncex nemen ioni n Henanncri n n ro e npe:n, yno:nnyn
o ueripex n iauecrne :arepnainix., on npnana nx ipnrepnn:n ncex
nemen
2
. Tain: opaao:, craryc cycrannnonainix naua npn(aercn
crnxnn: (.e:enra:), a ne inn n Pacnpe iai (nnymn: cna:.
1
Ha(o ciaaari, rpeuecine anropi npeipacno npe(crannn cee cyri .roro yue-
nnn. Ni ye npnno(nn nacca Hyrapxa (O Han(e n Ocnpnce, 47), ioropin
npeipacno nicrpnpyer no(ponoe anaio:crno .nnncrnuecinx rpeion c npan-
cion penrnen.
2
Xk,.nxc 1. 3:ne(oi: ]noco], npau n uapo(en. ]annie (n ero nonn:annn n
onenin. Knen, 1994. C. 81.
1
1c:1 A.1. Early Greek Philosophy and :he Orien:. Oxord, 1971.
2
4p. b (Bollack), J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 841.
Cnn(ereicrna n ]par:enri yuennn 3:ne(oia nnrnpyircn no (ny: ncrounn-
ia:. Bo-nepnix, J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989., nropan
nn]pa n cciie nopn(ionin no:ep ]par:enra no ny:epannn J. Bollack.
Bropon ncrounni nepeno( l. Aiyannca |Xk,.nxc 1. 3:ne(oi: ]noco],
npau n uapo(en. Knen, 1994], ninonennin no na(anni ]nica-Kpanna (DK) c
no(poni: io::enrapne:.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 202 Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a +c,ak.. x x caacf.a.cnxc c ... 208
Heioropoe coornercrnne npancin: npe(cranennn: o npornnonoc-
ranennix nauaax :ono io i yc:orperi n ce(yime: naccae na
]par:enron counnennn 3:ne(oia O npnpo(e: Bce onn panni |:e(y
coon] n ponecnnin no nponcxo(enni. Ho ia(in ncnonner cnoi
nouernyi (onocri, ia(o:y npncym cnoeoiunin npan (.roc), A roc-
no(crnyir onn no ouepe(n no ncreuennn onpe(eennoro cpoia
1
. Coa(a-
ercn nneuarenne, uro peui a(eci n(er o inn n Pacnpe, na uro yiaai-
naer io::enrapnn Cn:nninn i 1/::. Vll.1 Apncroren
2
, n raian nnrep-
nperannn n oimen crenenn yiaainaa i na (yancrnueciyi noannni
3:ne(oia. B (encrnnreinocrn, nce conpe:ennie nnrepnperaropi cxo-
(nrcn na ro:, uro peui n (anno: cyuae n(er n:enno o crnxnnx. Kor(a
e 3:ne(oi ronopnr o rocno(crne o(non cfxxx na( (pyron, on n:eer n
nn(y npeoa(anne nx n uacrnx :npoa(annn, a ne no nceennon n neo:
8
.
Hrai, :i :oe: npnanari, uro 3:ne(oi noara, uro n:enno .e-
:enri (crnxnn), a ne cni, panni |:e(y coon] n ponecnnin no po(e-
nni (o(nonpe:enni no nponcxo(enni n nepeno(e l. Aiyannca
4
).
]yancrnuecinn acneir n nonn:anne .e:enron nnocnrcn Apncroree:.
Coracno ero rpaironie, ueripe .e:enra cno(nrcn i (ny: ioc:oonpe(e-
nimn: nauaa: orni n ae:e, a (na (pyrnx nnnircn nepexo(ni:n
or noica nepxa i noicy nnaa, npnpo(a .e:enron n .ro: cyuae
nonn:aercn ne iai cycrannnonainan, a iai ]yninnonainan
b
. Ho (ae
ecn coracnricn c rain: narn(o:, ro n n .ro: cyuae (yana: (enrei-
noro, airnnnoro ornennoro nepxa n xoo(noro, nneprnoro, rneoro nnaa
(oen nonn:aricn ciopee iai ioc:oornuecinn, no ne onroornuecinn.
]aee, .e:enri y 3:ne(oia, rai e, iai n n npancion rpa(n-
nnn, nepconn]nnnponani. Tai, npe(e ncero, yanan, uro ueripe iop-
nn ncero cymecrnyimero: ncraimnn 3enc n nane(areinan lepa, a
raie An(onen n Hecrnc, ioropan ceaa:n opomaer c:eprnin ncrou-
nni (B 6 DK)
6
. Hx :ono io i conocrannri c A:ema Cnenra
(Lecc:eprni:n Cnnri:n) npancion rpa(nnnn, ecn i ne cninie
pacxo(ennn :e(y nn:n.
Hpancian rpa(nnnn npnanaer ce:i A:ema Cnenra, n unco ioropix
niiuen Axypa Naa(a. 4yninnonaino onn nepepacnpe(eeni no yponnn:
irnn. Crpyirypa :enrainoro :npa n[n rpexuacrna: Axypa Naa(a (:e-
ra) Boxy Nana (cior, omnna) Apra Baxnmra (oroni), crpyirypa
]nanuecioro :npa [1 ueripexuacrna: :era (Kmarpa Bapin) ae:n
(Cnenra Ap:anrn) no(a (Xaypnarar) pacrennn (A:eprar).
C:emenne rpex n ueripexuacrnon crpyiryp yiaainaer na cnnipe-
rnunin xapairep .rnx npe(cranennn, n, noa:ono, oro(ecrnenne A:e-
ma Cnenra c nepno.e:enra:n nponaomo no( nnnnne: anrnunon ]n-
oco]nn, nocioiiy paapaorannie npe(cranennn o nepno.e:enrax ]n-
anuecioro :npa aacnn(ereicrnonani roiio n noa(nnx, cacann(cinx,
reicrax (oi. XlXlV nn. n...), rai e, iai, nanpn:ep, oro(ecrnenne n
D[nkar: xoo(noro n cyxoro c Axpn:ano:, renoro n nanoro c Op-
:aa(o:. Tpy(no npe(crannri, uroi .rn npe(cranennn cymecrnonan
ye n V n. (o n...: cxe:a, coornercrnyiman pannn: npancin: noaapenn-
n:, peioncrpynpye:an na reicron, coornocn:ix c .rn: nepno(o:,
rpna(nunan neo, noa(yx, ae:n
1
.
3:ne(oi oueni no(pono onncinaer naan:o(encrnne cn c .e-
:enra:n, .ro ocnonnan ionnennnn, aro(apn ioropon :ono inan-
]nnnponari 3:ne(oia iai nipancra. Heioropie anropi ynepnir,
uro nopn(oi .e:enron n rpeuecion n n npancion rpa(nnnn conna(a-
er, no (n pannero nepno(a rpeio-nepcn(cinx ornomennn cnn(ereicrn
o cfxxs n npancion rpa(nnnn ne rai :noro, uame ncero, iai :i
yiaainan n npe(i(ymnx ranax, n iauecrne nanoee pannero cnn(e-
reicrna, nnrnpyercn lepo(or (Hcropnn, l.181). On yno:nnaer, uro
nepci ne cunrair oron ueoneiono(oni:n cymecrna:n n npnnocnr
eprni conny, yne, orni, no(e n nerpa: (ae:n n: ne yno:nnaer-
cn). B cocrnenno anecrnncinx reicrax cpannn:oro c rpeuecin: npe(-
cranennn o cfxxs iai o .c+cnf. :i, noayn, ne nan(e:, no
aaro nx :noro n cpe(nenepcn(cinn nepno( Shkand-Gumnik Vichr,
1.1b, Lanacr-na-manacr, XV).
Coracno yuenni 3:ne(oia, crnxnn cymecrnyir or neia, no ne-
nonnrno, iai on npe(crann cee nx po(enne nn nponcxo(enne,
iai n po(enne nepnonpnunn. O(nn na napnanron peioncrpyinnn nx
nponcxo(enne or Ananin (Heoxo(n:ocrn). Cn:nninn n io::enra-
pnn i 1/::. TTB4.a c.. nnmer: .On yrnep(aer, uro ia(an na (nyx cn
rocno(crnyer nonepe:enno nce(crnne Heoxo(n:ocrn n .rnx inrn, n
npnno(nr ce(yimnn ]par:enr:
1
T.2628. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 84b.
2
.ioni n nenanncri npeoa(air nonepe:enno. To, uro nn o(na na .rnx
(nyx |cn] ne ncueaaer conepmenno, nncrnyer na con: Bce onn panni |:e(y
coon] n ponecnnin no nponcxo(enni |U. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]n-
oco]on. N., 1989. C. 844].
8
Xk,.nxc 1. 3:ne(oi... C. 96.
4
Xk,.nxc 1. 3:ne(oi... C. 98.
b
Cc+,ukxn .1. 3:ne(oi. N., 198b. C. 9192.
6
Xk,.nxc 1. 3:ne(oi... C. 90.
1
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdens ll ;; Journal
Asia:ique. Oc:obre-dcembre, 1981. P. 207208.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 204 Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a +c,ak.. x x caacf.a.cnxc c ... 20b
~1cf: 1caa,x+acf:, a.k,. a:aa, ,cancc acf.naa.cnxc,
..accnnac c4.f:k,
1c4nac, ckc.cnnac acf.nna+x k.sfa.+x.
/Cx+.xkxx, 1/::. TTB4.9'
1
.
C nn: conocrann: no neioropi: noannnn: ce(yimnn ]par:enr:
~C,n.ka ka:,. ac.xk.s 1.cs ccaccx.. a 4.cn. /C.xac./
1 a,cka4x.. k a4ccfs+, a xca.ncnxx cak.,
1a.,ax:n,fa:a ,.s nx acc+cnna kckax k.sfaax
/xcfafc.:, ~Acf.x.xk., 1 4 TUUUuT4 c..'
2
.
Bano or:ernri, uro n yuennn 3:ne(oia nepnonpnunni no(unnn-
ircn ycranonenni:, ]nicnponanni: cpoia: cnoero rocno(crna, npan(a
3:ne(oi ne yiaainaer, nacioiio (orn:n nnnircn .rn npe:ennie
nepno(i. B io: cyuae, n:enno n raio: iiue n yuennn 3:ne(oia
naxo(nrcn neioropoe ionuecrno ]airon, conocrann:ix c onroornuec-
in: (yana:o: aypnannrcioro nanpanennn npancion rpa(nnnn. Anan-
ia, perynpyiman nepno(i nacrn inn n Pacnpn, :oer iri conoc-
ranena c 3ypnano:. 3ypnan n npancion rpa(nnnn oro(ecrnnercn co
npe:ene: n cy(ion, or nero nponcxo(nr (ne npornno(encrnyimne cni
:npoa(annn, n: e naanauen cpoi, n reuenne ioroporo cni noce(ona-
reino (o:nnnpyir n :npe. Hoayn, na .ro: cxo(crno (nyx rpa(nnnn
opinaercn. ]oann: roiio, uro rpeuecine npe(cranennn o cy(ie,
ouenn(no, ne 3:ne(oiy, ue: npancine. Hpe(cranenne o Ananie
iai neoxo(n:ocrn nn ]arainon cy(ie n:nnnnrno co(epaoci eme
n ro:eponcio: .noce, op]nuecinx noaapennnx. Hpee:crnennocri :e(y
yuenne: 3:ne(oia n npe(mecrnyimen e:y rpeuecion rpa(nnnen oue-
nn(na n cny xorn i ncnoiaye:on rep:nnoornn.
Conepmenno uerio :ono aa]nicnponari npnnnnnnainoe paan-
une npnne(ennix cxe:. Cxe:a 3:ne(oia n ocnone cnoen nninuna. 3a-
:ern:, icrarn, uro n nonn:anne Apncroree: naan:o(encrnnn :e(y
.e:enra:n, pacc:orpennoe nime, yiaainaer na nninunocri ero xapai-
repa. B npancion rpa(nnnn (ocrarouno pano c]op:nponanci npe(cran-
ennn o nnenno: xapairepe npe:enn (no ncnio: cyuae, uerio npoce-
nnaercn rouia nauaa no npe:enn n rouia ionna). Hpnro:, uro na
nepnin narn( .rn cxe:i conocrann:i, onn ]yn(a:enraino paanuni
no co(epanni.
Hpancine npe(cranennn o :nponon ncropnn :oryr iri oomeni
n ce(yimen cxe:e: Op:aa( n (yxonno: cocronnnn cymecrnyer iai ea-
rpannunin cner, e:y npornnonocranena earpannunan ri:a, noanniaer
(rnopnrcn) :arepnainin :np, nponcxo(nr c:emenne re:noro n cneroro
naua n :arepnaino: :npe, re:noe n cneroe paa(enircn, re:noe naua-
o ynnuroaercn. Koc:oronnuecinn nni n yuennn 3:ne(oia niiuaer
n cen ueripe cocrannimne: rocno(crno inn nce .e:enri cnri
noe(nno, opaayn O(no, neno(nnnin, e(nnin map, C.xac, no( (en-
crnne: Pacnpn .e:enri paare(nnnircn, opaayercn ioc:oc Pacnpn n
nce .e:enri cymecrnyir paa(eino, ioni conpaer nemn n o(no n
rnopnr C]anpoc. Coracno cnn(ereicrny Cn:nninn 3:ne(oi noara-
er noouepe(noe rocno(crno inn n Pacnpn: nepnan conpaer nemn n
O(no n ynnuroaer ioc:oc Pacnpn n rnopnr na nero C]anpoc, a Pacnpn
cnona paa(ener .e:enri n rnopnr .ror ioc:oc
1
. Lirne-C]anpoc n ero
n(eaino:, mapoopaano: cocronnnn, n cocronnnn nonon rap:onnn n
e(nncrna, nmennoe (nnennn n nnnix ]nanuecinx npnanaion (cfxxx),
iai (yxonnoe, :enrainoe npocrpancrno conocrann:o c yponne: m[ng
nn nanauainoro cocronnnn :npa Op:aa(a (o nepno(a :arepnainoro
rnopennn n npancion rpa(nnnn. Cra(nn nepexo(a i ioc:ocy Pacnpn rai-
e nnone coornercrnyir cra(nn: cornopennn ]nanuecioro :npa g[:g.
Conocrann:o c niuenenne: .e:enron na C]anpoca npn noa(encrnnn
Pacnpn ni(eenne Op:aa(o: na cocrnennoro cnera A:ema Cnenra iai
Loron na npo:eyrouno: yponne, ioropi: na ]nanuecio: yponne coor-
nercrnyir .e:enri. Ho raian cxe:a n npancion rpa(nnnn, iai :i noia-
aan nime, nnnercn (ocrarouno noa(nen.
Hcropnuecinn nponecc, ro ecri nponecc po(ennn n rnen ioc-
:oca y 3:ne(oia, ce(yn peioncrpyinnn pannen rpeuecion ]noco-
]nn l. ]nico:, nonn:aercn iai nninuecinn. nnennan npancian cxe-
:a no(unnena e(nncrnennon ioneunon nen nonocrii ynnuronri
ao. Hcropnia:n ]noco]nn yuenne 3:ne(oia ne rpaironaoci o(no-
anauno, n no:n:o peioncrpyinnn ]nica cymecrnonaa eme o(na rpa(n-
nnn, npe(cranennan ne-nninuecion nnrepnperannen yuennn 3:ne(oi-
a, nonynpnon n XlX neie, .ra e n(en airnnno paannnaaci no nropon
noonnne XX neia
2
. Taiyi nnrepnperanni noanninonennn n paapymennn
ioc:oca 3:ne(oia D.O`Brien noaraer omnounon
8
. Ni ne crann: cee
aa(auy no(pono paanpari .ry rpaironiy n apry:enri ee npornnnnion,
1
TTU. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 8b8.
2
T2u. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 8b4.
1
TT7. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 8b8.
2
Hcropnuecine noica .ron ionnennnn D.Tiedemann (1791) n U.Holscher
(196b). Ho(ponee o .ro: c:. C1::cn 1. Hermann Diels on :he Presocra:ics:
Empedocles` double des:ruc:ion o :he cosmos (Ae:ius ii 4.8) ;; Phronesis. V. 4b.
2000. N 1. P. 118.
8
C1::cn 1. Hermann Diels on :he Presocra:ics: Empedocles` double des:ruc:ion o
:he cosmos (Ae:ius ii 4.8) ;; Phronesis. V. 4b. 2000. N 1. P. 18.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 206 Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a +c,ak.. x x caacf.a.cnxc c ... 207
aa:ern: roiio, uro ona oiaainaercn (ocrarouno nnrepecnon (n nonn:a-
nnn n yuennn 3:ne(oia n ca:oro no cee, n ocoenno n conocranennn c
npancion rpa(nnnen.
C (pyron croponi, oee npncrainoe nayuenne npe(cranennn 3:-
ne(oia ne noanoner c(eari npn:ix conocranennn yiaaannix rpa(n-
nnn. 3:ne(oi oriaainaercn or rpa(nnnonnoro (n rpeuecinx reoioc:o-
ronnn nponecca nopo(ennn: aauacryi nonnrne po(enne y nero aa:e-
nnercn nonnrne: npnpo(a, nn no npnpo(e: .Ha ncero rennoro nn y
uero ner nn po(ennn (u o), nn iaiorono npe(ea rynreinon c:eprn,
no ecri nmi c:emenne n paanuenne c:emannoro, y i(en e (ana)
naainaercn po(enne: (u o). Hpn .ro: 3:ne(oi npn:o yiaainaer,
uro on raie ce(yer ro:y, uro npnnnro y i(en: c:emenne npnnnro
naainari .ro po(noci, paa(eenne aocuacrnon c:eprii
1
. B (en-
crnnreinocrn, n ocnone ncero ear :exanncrnuecine nponecci c:eme-
nnn ueripex crnxnn, uro raie iap(nnaino ornuno or npancion rpa(n-
nnn, r(e .ro yponeni npornnonocranennn cycrannnn cnera n ri:i.
Honropn:cn, uro ncxo(ni: (n npancioro (yana:a npe(crannercn
npornnonocranenne cycrannnn cnera n ri:i, arpnyra:n ioropix nnn-
ircn (opo n ao, .ro nanoee pannnn (yancrnuecian cxe:a n npancion
rpa(nnnn. Bo ]par:enrax no.: 3:ne(oia O npnpo(e n Ounmennn
nnnoro npornnonocranennn cnera n ri:i ne ncrpeuaercn noome. Nono
npe(noonri, uro 3:ne(oi nce-rain npornnonocranner cneroe nauao
re:no:y na yponne npornnonocranennn neecnon cycrannnn ornn iai
renoro n cneroro nauaa cycrannnn ae:n, re:non n xoo(non n na-
in: en no cnoncrna: (pyrn: crnxnn: na ocnonannn yno:nnyron nime nn-
repnperannn Apncroren, no c raion nnrepnperannen rpy(no coracnricn.
Nono or:ernri n nanune n yuennn .rnuecion :o(ainocrn, io-
ropan nponnnercn iai oro(ecrnenne inn c (opo:, a Pacnpn co
ao:. 3roro io i (ocrarouno, uroi npnnncari yuenni 3:ne(oia
ecn ne ca: .rnuecinn (yana:, ro, no ncnio: cyuae, ren(ennni i
ne:y, npn yconnn, uro raion nino( (eacn i na ocnonannn opnrn-
nainix ]par:enron, a ne io::enraropcion nreparypi. Ho oimo:y
cuery, :i :oe: or:ernri roiio o(nn ]par:enr, n ioropo: npornnono-
crannircn n:enno (opo n ao: He :oer :y(pin ueonei npe(noa-
rari n cnoe: y:e nnuero no(onoro, y(ro, noia c:eprnie nnyr, uro
onn, (encrnnreino, n naainair nanii, (o rex roiio nop onn n
cymecrnyir n naxo(nrcn n oa(annn aa n (opa, no uro (o coa(annn n
noce paapymennn onn npe(crannir na cen nonoe nnuro (B 1b DK)
2
.
Ouenn(no, uro (opo n ao n .ro: ionreicre ne ro(ecrnenni inn n
Pacnpe, n ne nocnr onroornuecioro nn ioc:oornuecioro xapairepa.
Ha io::enraropcion nreparypi nanoee anropnrerni: ornocn-
reino npornnonocranennn (opa n aa nnnercn cnn(ereicrno Apnc-
roren. Hoanon: cee npnnecrn o(nn nacca: B ca:o: (ee, ecn
noce(onari aa 3:ne(oio: n nanri ero <cona> no c:icy, a ne no
ro:y, uro on eneuer n cnonx peuax, :ono y(er nanrn, uro (pya
ecri npnunna xopomero, a npa(a npnunna (ypnoro. H noro:y, ecn
ciaaari, uro n nanecrno: c:ice 3:ne(oi npnanaer n <npnro:>
nepnin npnanaer ao n (opo aa nauaa, ro .ro, noayn, y(er
ciaaano xopomo, nocioiiy npnunnon ncex ar nnnercn <y nero>
ca:o aro, a npnunnoi ao ao (A 4, 98ba.49)
1
. Ha raion rpai-
ronin nnno ce(yer nonn:anne yuennn 3:ne(oia n (yxe .rnuecioro
(yana:a, xorn n ouenn(no, uro Apncrorei ne npe(araer yinainoro
npourennn opnrnnaa, n (onoino cnoo(no ncroioninaer c:ic ncxo(-
noro reicra. Kpo:e roro, c rouin apennn o(noro na napnanron nninuec-
ion nnrepnperannn yuennn 3:ne(oia n ioni, n Pacnpn :oryr iri,
ia(an n cnoi ouepe(i, iai npnunnon nopo(ennn :npa, rai n npnun-
non paapymennn
2
. B raio: cyuae nenoa:ono arpnyrnponari ia(on
na cn, npnunn (opo nn ao: onn noouepe(no oa(air n re:, n (pyrn:
n onpe(eennie ioc:oronnuecine ]aai.
]pyron io::enrarop, yno:nnanmnn o npornnonocranennn 3:-
ne(oio: (opa n aa Hyrapx, Hpornn Koora
8
. ]opo n ao
(r o0o ro ) yno:nnaircn n: n cnnan c nnrnponanni: nime ]par-
:enro: (B 1b DK) iai neuro, npncymee ia(o:y cymecrny n (o po-
(ennn, n noce c:eprn.
Ouenn(no, uro ]par:enri, ioropi:n :i pacnoarae:, ne noanon-
ir npnnncari yuenni 3:ne(oia .rnuecioro (yana:a, xorn n :ono
aa]nicnponari ero na yponne ren(ennnn. B io: cyuae, .ra ren(en-
nnn n yuennn 3:ne(oia npe(crannercn ciopee ncno:orareinon, ue:
ncxo(non (n nocrpoennn ocnonnon (oirpnni, uro ne noanoner rono-
pnri o ee aanncn:ocrn or npancioro (yana:a, nn rpaironari ee iai
(yancrnueciyi.
Hrai, nonirin conocrannri noaapennn 3:ne(oia n npancion rpa-
(nnnn na yponne onroornuecioro n .rnuecioro (yana:a ne (air ye(n-
reinix peayiraron. Orcyrcrnyer rannoe aneno, no ioropo:y :i :or-
1
b6. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 847.
2
Xk,.nxc 1. 3:ne(oi... C. 92.
1
xcfafc.:. Nera]nania. Hep. A.B. Kynnioro. CH., Knen, 2002. C. 42.
2
C1::cn 1. Hermann Diels on :he Presocra:ics. ;; Phronesis. V. 4b. 2000.
N 1. P. 12.
8
aa. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 846847.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 208 Cnfa.a:x4cckxc a.:.s,a +c,ak.. x x caacf.a.cnxc c ... 209
n i n nonon :epe coornecrn .rn yuennn: ner cycrannnonainon
(n]]epennnannn inn n Pacnpn 3:ne(oia .ro nepnonpnunni, no
ne cycrannnn. Ni yrnep(ae:, uro orcyrcrnyer raie nx .rnuecian n
aicnoornuecian narpyennocri. 3:ne(oi paccy(aer ne n rep:nnax
xopomo nn noxo no ornomenni i cx..+, a noaraer, uro nx naan-
:o(encrnne no npnpo(e. 3(eci on n(er ropaa(o (aime cnonx npe(-
mecrnennnion, oriaainanci or nonropennn cxe:i Anaicn:an(pa nn
lepainra, n yuennnx ioropix aicnoornn ia (ocrarouno nipaen-
non. 3:ne(oi e (iai nnpoue:, n lepainr) noaraer, uro ueonei ne
nnone uncr or cinepni necnpane(nnocrn. rai iai ecc:eprnoe coue-
raercn co c:eprni:
1
. Kaercn, .ro nooenne nemen ne pacnpocrpann-
ercn na yponeni onroornn, ocrananci anrponoornuecion npoe:on,
ioropan pemaercn nocpe(crno: ionnennnn :ere:ncnxoaa.
B yuennn 3:ne(oia npncyrcrnyer eme o(nn yponeni npornnonoc-
ranennn, a n:enno y:oapnreinoro, y:onocrnrae:oro n uyncrnenno noc-
npnnn:ae:oro, ]nanuecioro. Hpnunnon, rnopnmen y:onocrnrae:in :np,
3:ne(oi noaraer ioni (Coaepnan ee y:o:
2
), a npnunnon uyncrnen-
noro :npa nnnercn nenanncri
8
. B .noxy rocno(crna inn nce .e:en-
ri nyre: e(nnennn opaayir C]anpoc c]epy.
Bani: aneno: n neocrno: nonn:annn yuennn 3:ne(oia n, n
uacrnocrn, ero ioc:oornuecioro (yana:a nnnercn npornnonocrane-
nne n: (ymn n rea iai yuennn o :ere:ncnxoae, ioropoe paannnaoci
raie n op]nio-nn]aropencio: yuennn n aacnn(ereicrnonano y Kce-
no]ana, a n (ainenme: n:enno .rn npe(cranennn nocynn (n
]op:nponannn xapairepnoro (n aana(noenponencion rpa(nnnn (ya-
na:a rea n coanannn.
Op]nuecian anrponoornn :oer iri peioncrpynponana ce(yi-
mn: opaao:. ]yma cymecrnyer (o nceennn n reo n aenno: :ecre.
]ymn ncenircn n rea, ioropie nnnircn (n nnx re:nnna:n n crpe-
:nrcn nipnaricn na .roro :npa. Ho c:epri rea ne oanauaer ocnoo(e-
nnn, n (yma ryr e noce c:eprn ncenercn n (pyroe reo. ]yma noy-
uaer noa:onocri ocnoo(nricn or crpa(annn, nonocrii ouncrnnmnci
or aa n cee. 3(eci ncno nipaeni npe(cranennn o noc:eprno: noa(a-
nnnn aa nocrynin, n(en ounmennn or rpexa. He conce: ncno, iai anrpo-
noornn 3:ne(oia coornocnrcn c yuenne: o :ere:ncnxoae. 3rn :o:en-
ri, nanoee uerio npe(cranennie n Ounmennnx, coornocnrcn c no-
cronnni: na:enenne: ynnnepcy:a n nepexo(a:n ioc:oca Pacnpn n C]an-
1
TU. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 8b2.
2
T.20. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 844.
8
B2. J.:+cnfa pannnx rpeuecinx ]noco]on. N., 1989. C. 8b0.
poc n oparno. Taie ne conce: ncno, iaion n:enno .ran .roro nepexo-
(a, iaiyi ioc:oronnueciyi ]aay cunrari aenni: :ecro: nn cua-
crnni: npeinanne: n npornnonec reecno:y cymecrnonanni, n r(e
n:enno npeinair (ymn (o nauaa ipyra nonomennn. H iaercn, n:enno
n cny .roro nenoa:ono npnnncari 3:ne(oiy xapairepnoe (n nn]a-
ropencinx noaapennn (eenne :npa na caipainin n npo]annin
1
.
B npancion rpa(nnnn n peaino: nane ueoneiy iai reecno:y
cyreiry, na(eenno:y (ymon, coornercrnyer :era]nanuecinn (non-
nni .a.ux. Hanoee e:io npe(cranennn o ecc:eprnn (ymn
nipaeni n ce(yime: naccae. Op:aa( coa(a ueoneia cocronmn:
na nnrn uacren (cn): rea (1.n), (ymn (Jn), (yxa (:u+n), nn(nnn(yai-
nocrn (.o+[n.k) n ]panamn (::.+./:). Teo ecri reo ae:noe, (yma ecri
n(ox n ni(ox, ioropie acconnnpyircn c nerpo:, (yx, ioropin ecri cyx,
nn(enne, peui, noananne, ro ecri ro, uro cnnaano c nocnpnnrnn:n n ree,
]panamn, ioropan nepe( Op:aa(o:, locno(o:. eonei i coa(an ra-
in: no ce(yimen npnunne: ecn ueonei y:npaer or nana(ennn aa,
reo ero noccoe(nnnercn c ae:en, (yma c nerpo:, nn(nnn(yainocri c
conne:, (yx c ]panamn, n noro:y (e:oni ne :oryr paapymnri (yx
(Lyn(axnmn, lll, A 84)
2
. Bano no(uepinyri, uro n npancion rpa(nnnn
(yma ecc:eprna, no :oer no(nepraricn noa(encrnni aoro nauaa.
Bonomenne (yma noyuaer roiio o(na(i, neci nepno( (o po(ennn
n noce c:eprn, (o ioneunoro nonomennn ona npeinaer n iauecrne
]panamn n c]epe n[n. Kaioni xponoornuecine pa:in .rnx noaape-
nnn Hpe(cranennn o ]panamn n (yxe, noayn, nanoee (pennne na
npe(cranennix n nnrnponanno: naccae. O(naio nnrepnperannn (yxa-
:u+.n nnno no(nepraci nepec:orpy no( nnnnne: anrnunon ]noco]nn.
Hpe(cranennn o .o+[n.k iai nporornne, noanpamaime:cn noce c:eprn
na conne, raie :oryr iri pacc:orpeni iai ncionno npancine. Onn
nnone coraconani c npe(cranennn:n o noanpamennn (ymn n oacri
..,x.. cnera-Op:aa(a, nocpe(crno: ocranonoi na npe(mecrnyi-
mnx cronniax (ymn yne, Conne, anea(ax noia ne (ocrnraercn
oacri earpannunoro cnera. Coracno npe(nooenni N. Y.cra .rn
npe(cranennn (ocrarouno (pennne, n :orn cymecrnonari eme n nepno(
napcrnonannn ]apnn
8
.
Ha ciaaannoro nn(ni npnnnnnnainie ornunn rpeuecinx npe(-
cranennn o (yme n npancinx. B npancion rpa(nnnn reo n (yma ne
1
Cc+,ukxn .1. 3:ne(oi. N., 198b. C. 181.
2
^,uc: 1.o. Ques:ions de cosmogonie e: de cosmologie mazdens l ;; Journal
Asia:ique. Avril-juine, 1929. P. 282288.
8
1c:1 A.1. Darius` ascen: :o paradise ;; lndo-lranian Journal. V. 4b, 2002. P. b1b7.
Jx.acaa xf..xxcka:a n..a.cnxs x x.nck.s f.,xuxs 210
OCHOBHIE HCTOHHHKH H IHIHOIIA4HA
Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (18611996) ; Cocr., om. pe(., npn-
:eu., cnpan. paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., Aypna Hena PXlH, 1997.
accf.: Hapannie rn:ni ; Hep. c anecr. n io::enr. npo]. H.N.
Crenn-Ka:encioro, npe(nc. npo]. B.A. nnmnna. ]ymane: A(n,
1990.
n,cca 1.1. Apxanuecian lpennn ;; Hcropnn Enponi. T.1. ]pen-
nnn Enpona. N.: Hayia, 1988. C. 2172b8.
Anrnunie rn:ni ; Cocranenne n oman pe(ainnn A.A. Taxo-lo(n.
N.: Ha(areicrno Nocioncioro ynnnepcnrera, 1988.
+cfan: .A. Hcroin xpncrnancioro oroconnn. CH., 2008.
Acc:an An. Ernner: reoornn n arouecrne pannen nnnnnaannn.
N.: Hpncneic, 1999.
1., . . J. Ernnercian penrnn, Ernnercian :arnn: |Hep. c anr.].
N.: Honin aiponoi, 1996.
1a:a+a.aa .C. ]naeirnuecinn oroc. Cranonenne anrnunon (n-
aeirnin. N.: Nici, 1982.
1xa. ..A. Haron n :nrpana: ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn,
1998. N 2. C. 817.
1..a.fck.s T.1. lpennn n nepno( ]op:nponannn panneiacconoro
omecrna (XXXXll nn. (o n...) ;; Hcropnn Enponi. T.1. ]pennnn En-
pona. N.: Hayia, 1988. C. 188178.
1axc A. 3opoacrpnnni. Beponannn n oiuan ; Hep. c anr. n
npn:. H.N. Crenn-Ka:encioro. 8-e na(anne, nonocrii nepepaoran-
noe. CH.: Uenrp Herepyprcioe Bocroione(enne, 1994.
1an:.,-.caxn 1.A., 1,.xn A.., 1x:.cxn .. Hn(nn n anrnu-
nin :np. N.: Bocr. nr., 2002.
1an:.,-.caxn 1. A., 1.nfaackxx . . Or Cin]nn (o Hn(nn.
]pennne apnn: :n]i n ncropnn. N., 1988.
1a,aax4 1.1. Apxanuecinn Nner (npoe:a connaino-nonrn-
uecion ncropnn) ;; Hpoe:i nonrnuecion ncropnn anrnunoro ome-
crna. Nenyaoncinn copnni. .: Ha(-no ennnrp. yn-ra, 198b. C. 918.
npornnonocrannircn, :arepnn nnnercn coa(anne: Op:aa(a, no no(-
nepena reny nce(crnne n:emareicrna n :np aoro (yxa. ]yana:
(ymn n rea npncyrcrnyer na yponne ioc:oornn ecn reo ocraercn
n ro: :npe, (n ioroporo coa(anaoci, ro (yma no(nn:aercn nnepx, n ry
oacri, n ioropon cymecrnonaa nanauaino. H(en :ere:ncnxoaa ne
cnenn]nuna (n npancinx noaapennn, ia(in ueonei nponnaer roi-
io o(ny ae:nyi nani n y(er npnanan i ornery aa conepmennie npn
nann (ennnn, aa npnnepennocri (opy nn ay.
Hrai, :i onapynn (ocrarounoe ionuecrno cxo(ennn :e(y
npancion rpa(nnnen n yuenne: 3:ne(oia. Hec:orpn na .ro, re npnnnn-
nnainie cxe:i (yana:a, ioropie xapairepnayir npanciyi onroo-
rni, ]yn(a:enraino pacxo(nrcn n no co(epanni, n no ioneuni: ni-
no(a: c (yancrnuecin:n narn(a:n 3:ne(oia. Tain: opaao:, na:
y(aoci no(rnep(nri ciopee aanncn:ocri yuennn 3:ne(oia or cnonx
rpeuecinx npe(mecrnennnion, ue: or iainxno nnemnnx nnnnnn.
Hanpornn, (n neioropix opaanon npancion :icn npn conocranennn
c noaapennn:n 3:ne(oia ciopee ce(yer npnanari n iauecrne ncrounn-
ia (n nnx (pennerpeueciyi ]noco]ni. Ho, ipo:e roro, :i :oe:
no(rnep(nri, ncxo(n na conocranennn c yuenne: 3:ne(oia, ror ]air,
uro onroornuecinn n .rnuecinn (yana: n npancion rpa(nnnn n:eer
opnrnnainoe anroxronnoe nponcxo(enne, ioc:oornuecinn (yana:
]op:nponacn ne ea nnnnnn anrnunon ]noco]nn. Hpnanari ]no-
co]ciyi cncre:y 3:ne(oia n nonon :epe (yancrnuecion ne npe(-
crannercn noa:oni:.
3a:ern:, naionen, uro noa(neanrnunie anropi nce-rain naxo(nn
:o:enri n yuennn 3:ne(oia, na ocnonannn ioropix ornecn ero i
anaroia: npancion :arnn. Ha: npe(crannercn, uro peui ma ne o ero
]noco]cinx noaapennnx (iai, :i (y:ae:, na: y(aoci .ro noiaaari), a
o ero pon iai corepa, ouncrnren n nponn(na n, re: ca:i:, anaroia
ouncrnreinix npairni npancinx :aron. Hponn(ni, ornpannnmne oun-
crnreinie npairnin, n:en npn:oe ornomenne i npauenanni, iai npa-
nno, con:eman nn ne paa(enn .rn cnennainocrn, ncnenn o(no-
npe:enno n reo, n oeann (yxa. Beponrno, n:enno .ra cropona (en-
reinocrn 3:ne(oia nopo(na no(onie cy(ennn.
Hrai, :i onapynn (ocrarounoe ionuecrno cxo(ennn :e(y
npancion rpa(nnnen n yuenne: 3:ne(oia. Hec:orpn na .ro, re npnnnn-
nnainie cxe:i (yana:a, ioropie xapairepnayir npanciyi onroo-
rni, ]yn(a:enraino pacxo(nrcn n no co(epanni, n no ioneuni: ni-
no(a: c (yancrnuecin:n narn(a:n 3:ne(oia, ioropie n ero yuennn
npe(craneni roiio n iauecrne ren(ennnn. Tain: opaao:, na: y(a-
oci no(rnep(nri ciopee aanncn:ocri yuennn 3:ne(oia or cnonx rpe-
uecinx npe(mecrnennnion, ue: or iainx-no nnemnnx nnnnnn.
Ccnaanac xcfa4nxkx x x.xa:.xs 212 Ccnaanac xcfa4nxkx x x.xa:.xs 218
a,,c .1. lpein n nppannonainoe. Hep., io::. n yiaaarei
C.B. Haxo:ona. CH., 2000.
,,ka .A. Lein ocrpon Axna n nn(onpancian :n]oornn ;;
BocroiOriens. 1998. N 1. C. 1b20.
:skanaa 1.A. Apxanuecine :n]i Bocroia n 3ana(a. N.: Ha-
yia, l. pe(. nocr. nr., 1990.
:skanaa 1.A. Hcropnn Nn(nn or (pennenmnx npe:en (o ionna lV
n. (o n... N..: Ha(-no Aia(e:nn nayi CCCP, 19b6.
k+c.x.: 2. Bepxonnie orn nn(oenponennen. Hep. c ]p. T.B. Un-
ninn. N.: Hayia, 1986.
1.x..cnkaa. T.X. Nnp n(en apnen Pnrne(i ;; Pnrne(a. Nan(a-
i VVlll ; Ha(. no(roronna T.A. Enaapeniona, orn. pe(airop H.A.
lpnnnep. 2-e na(., ncnp. N.: Hayia, 1999. C. 4b2487.
2c.faa. 1.1. Anrnunan rpa(nnnn o nepcn(cinx :arax 3opoacrpe,
Ocrane n lncracne. CH., 199b.
2+,,: .. Hn]arop n pannen rpa(nnnn ;; Becrnni (pennen ncro-
pnn. 198b. N 2. C. 121142.
2+,,: .. Hn]arop n ero mioa (oi. b80 oi. 480 rr. (o n...) ; AH
CCCP. .: Hayia, ennnrp. or(-e, 1990.
2+,,: ..X. Bce ecri unco K nnrepnperannn ocnonnon (oirpn-
ni nn]aropena:a ;; Na:hesis. Ha ncropnn anrnunon nayin n ]noco-
]nn ; Orn. pe(. H.]. Poancinn. N.: Hayia, 1991. C. bb74.
J.xuca .1. Kyirypnin nepenopor n ]pennen lpennn VlllV nn.
(o n... .: lY n:. A.A. A(anona, 198b.
J.xuca .1. Hpann(oenponencine ncroin (pennerpeuecioro .noca ;;
Hpoe:i anrnunoro ncrounnione(ennn. C. nayu. rp. N..: Hncrnryr
ncropnn CCCP AH CCCP, 1986. C. 96107.
J.xuca .1. 4noco]cian no.:a rpeuecioro 3ana(a ;; ]pennnn
Bocroi n anrnunan nnnnnaannn. .: locy(apcrnennin 3p:nra,
1982. C. 48b4.
Ja.af.ca .A. Po(onon crpon n nepnoirnan :n]oornn. N.: Ha-
yia, 1964.
3opoacrpnncine reicri. Cy(ennn ]yxa Paay:a (]a(ecran-n :e-
nor-n xpa(). Cornopenne ocnoni (Lyn(axnmn) n (pyrne reicri. ; Ha(.
no(roroneno O.N.ynaionon. N.: Ha(areician ]np:a Bocrounan n-
reparypa PAH, 1997.
1a.naa 1s4. 1c. Anrnunoe nepeoc:icenne (pennenocrounix :n-
]on ;; Laiani n ionreicre Cpe(nae:no:opin. Hpoe:i peioncrpyi-
nnn naiia n iyirypi. N., 1986. C. 212b.
1a.naa 1s4. 1c. ]nonnc n npa(nonncnncrno. CH.: Aerenn, 1994.
1a.naa 1s4. 1c. ]o no npe:n noce ;; 4pani]opr l.,
4pani]opr l.A., Yncon ]., Aiocen T. B npe((nepnn ]noco]nn.
1.:xnckxx 1.C. Anecra ;; Anecra n pyccinx nepeno(ax (1861
1996); Cocr., om. pe(., npn:eu., cnpan. paa(. H.B. Paia. CH., Aypna
Hena PXlH, 1997. C. 2266.
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayia: Nare:arnia ]pennero
Ernnra, Bannonnn n lpennn. |Hn]aropencioe yuenne o rap:onnn]. Hep.
c ro. H.H. Beceoncioro. N.: 4na:arrna, 19b9 r.
1.n ,c 1.,cn 1. Hpoy(aimancn nayiall. Po(enne acr-
pono:nn. Hep. c anr. l.E. Kyprnna, no( pe(. A.A. lypmrenna. N.:
Hayia, 1991.
1cxc+.n .. lpeuecio-pyccinn conapi. Hpenpnnr V-ro na(annn
1899 r. N.: lpeio-arnncinn ianner K.A. Lnuanna, 1991.
1x,cn:cn 1. Nann n :annxencrno. Hep. c ne:. Hnanona C.B. CH.:
Enpaann, 2001.
1ca,af. Hcropnn: n 9-rn innrax. Hep. l.A. Crparanoncioro. N.:
a(o:np, OOO 4np:a Ha(areicrno ACT, 1999.
1ccxa,. Honoe copanne reicron ; Bcrynnreinan crarin B.H.
Apxo, Ko::enr. O.H. Uienio n B.H. Apxo. N.: anpnnr, 2001.
1a+cu T. lpeuecine :icnren Nn.: Xapnecr, 1999.
1a.n 1.1. ]pennerpeuecian :n]oore:a cy(ii. Honocnnpci: Ha-
yia, Cnnpcioe or(eenne, 1990.
1.nfaackxx .. Hpan n npanni (o Axe:enn(on. Ocnonnie npo-
e:i. Bonpoci xponoornn. N.: Ha(areician ]np:a Bocrounan nre-
parypa PAH, 1998.
1.nfaackxx .. Pannnn ncropnn npancinx ne:en Hepe(nen Aann.
N.: Hayia, 1970.
1xnuc 1.. Tannin naii Pnrne(i. N.: Poccnnci. roc. ry:annr.
yn-r, 1998.
.n,.+.ca A.. Hpan npn nepnix Axe:enn(ax (Vl n. (o n...). N.:
Hayia, Ha(-no nocr. nr, 1968.
.n,.+.ca A.. Honrnuecian ncropnn Axe:enn(cion (epani.
N.: Hayia, l. pe(. nocr. nr, 198b.
.n,.+.ca A.., yionnn B.l. Kyirypa n .iono:nia ]pennero
Hpana. N.: Hayia, l. pe(. nocr. nr, 1980.
.n,.+.ca. A.A. Kor(a xa(en cran npopnnaren:n ;; Becr-
nni (pennen ncropnn. 1998. N 1. C. b660.
x..an . Cpe(nne naronnin. Hep. c anr. E.B. A]onacnna.
CH., 2002.
xa:cn ..fckxx. O nann, yuennnx n napeuennnx ana:ennrix
]noco]on ; Pe(. n anrop ncryn. crarin A.4. ocen, Hep. c (pennerpeu.
N.. lacnapona. N.: Nici, 1998.
aaafaa ... Yuenne (ocoiparnion o irnn. N., Ha(-no Noci.
yn-ra, 1980.
Ccnaanac xcfa4nxkx x x.xa:.xs 214 Ccnaanac xcfa4nxkx x x.xa:.xs 21b
.cc,ca .1. Aronainan :o(ei ioc:oca y lepainra ;; Hcropn-
io-]noco]cinn eero(nni. N.: Hayia, 1987. C. 2946.
.cc,ca .1. leo:erpnuecinn crni n ioc:oornn Anaicn:an(-
pa ;; Kyirypa n nciyccrno anrnunoro :npa. Narepnai nayunon ion-
]epennnn. 1979. N., 1980. C. 104118.
.cc,ca .1. ]e:nypr y 4aeca (K peioncrpyinnn ioc:oronnn
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1988. C. b166.
.cc,ca .1. 1YXB2 HEIPATA (O (enorare rep:nna uq n ioc:o-
ornuecinx ]par:enrax lepainra 6667 Nch ;; Crpyirypa reicra.
N., 1980. C. 118147.
.c.ckaa ... Anecra n conpe:ennon nayie. N., 1992.
.c.ckaa ... 3opoacrpna:: nnenne n npoe:i ;; oiainie n
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.c.ckaa ... Conpe:ennoe cocronnne n ren(ennnn aapyenon
anecroornn ;; Hapo(i Aann n A]pnin. 1978. N 2. C. 189207.
.acca .J. Teoronnn n ioc:oronnn ;; Nn]oornn rpeion n pn:nn
; Cocr. A.A. Taxo-lo(n, orn. pe(. H.H. Naxaniiona. N.: Nici,
1996. C. 681909.
.,kanxn 1. 1. Haim-n Pa(a, Hpan (pannecacann(cine peie]i
n na(nncn) ;; Kyirypa Bocroia: ]pennocri n pannee Cpe(neneionie:
Copnni craren. ., 1978.
Narepnancri (pennen lpennn. Copanne reicron lepainra, ]e-
:oipnra n 3nniypa ; Om. pe(. n ncryn. cr. npo]. N.A. ]innni. N.:
locnonrna(ar, 19bb.
A.f:c A.. Hapannie rpy(i no :n]oornn n n(eoornn (pennero
Ernnra. N.: Ha(areician ]np:a Bocrounan nreparypa PAH, 1996.
Acxf.4xsn A.1. Horpeainie opn(i aopoacrpnnnen. N., CH.,
Hncrnryr nocroione(ennn PAH: ernnn ca(, 2001.
Cnx.nc 1. Ha ioennx oron. Hcroin enponencion :icn o (yme,
paay:e, ree, npe:enn, :npe n cy(ie. N., Hporpecc-Tpa(nnnn, 1999.
1.ac.nxx. Onncanne 3a(i.: B 2 r. ; Hep. n ncryn. cr. C.H.
Kon(pariena. T. 1. |Penpnnr. nocnponane(enne reicra na(. 1988 r.] 864
c., T. 2. |Penpnnr. nocnponane(enne reicra na(. 1940 r.] b91 c. N.: Hayu-
no-na(areicinn nenrp a(o:np, 1994.
Hexennncian oecrnennan io:en(nn. Knnra o npane(no: Bnpaae
(Ap(a Bnpaa na:ar) n (pyrne reicri. Bne(., rpancnrepannn nexennnc-
inx reicron, nep. n io::enr. O.N. ynaionon. N., Ha(areician ]np:a
Bocrounan nreparypa PAH, 2001.
1.,f.. O Han(e n Ocnpnce ; Hyrapx. Nopann. Plu:archi
chaeronensis. Scrip:a Noralia. Hep. no( pe(. .A. 4penepr, N.. lac-
]yxonnie nciannn (pennero ueoneia. Hep. c anr. T.H. Tocron. N.:
lannan pe(ainnn nocrounon nreparypi na(areicrna Hayia, 1984.
Hane(ari (oporn n nyrn npane(nix. Hexennncine naan(areinie
reicri. ; Bne(enne, rpancipnnnnn reicron, nep., io::., roccapnn n
yiaaaren O.N. ynaionon. N.: Hayia, l. pe(. nocr. nr., 1991.
1.:xn 1.J., :skanaa 1.A. Hn(nn, Cpe(nnn Aann n Hpan n nepnon
noonnne l ricnueernn (o n... ;; Hcropnn (pennero :npa ; Ho( pe(.
H.N. ]inionona, B.]. Hepononon, H.C. Cnennnnion. 2-e na(., ncnp. Kn.
1. Pannnn (pennocri ; Orn. pe(. H.N. ]inionon. N.: l. pe(. nocr. nr.
na(areicrna Hayia, 1988.
1cff+. 1. Penrnn lnn(yiyma. ; Hep. c. ne:. K.]. Unnnnon. N.:
Hayia, 1986.
1cccx,x J.A. lepainr. N.: Nici, 1982.
1cccx,x J.A. Kon(aeia B.B. lepainr n ]pennnn Bocroi (ipnrn-
uecine aa:erin) ;; Hayunie (oia(i nicmen mioi. 4noco]cine
nayin. 1981. N b. N.: Bicman mioa, 1981. C. 94100.
1cccx,x J.A. Or :n]a i orocy (Cranonenne rpeuecion ]noco-
]nn). N.: Nici, 1972.
1.cxn ..C. ]pennenmne necnn Hna(i ;; Becrnni (pennen
ncropnn. 1992. N 2. C. 1b82.
1ankxn A.1. Hpoe:a ]op:nponannn n paannrnn ]noco]cinx
iareropnn. N., Bicman mioa, 1980.
1auc.cnka 1.., Capnann(n B.H. (Pen. na innry) D.K.
Brooopo ouo. Eqvr xo Ivo . B ouvo vtqoq u o xo ov. T.
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1,..kaackxx 1.. 3cxaroornn n .nniypena: n anrnuno: :npe:
Hapannie paori ; Bcryn. crarin, no(roronia reicra n io::enra-
pnn A.A. Hyuiona. CH.: Aerenn, 2002.
1,.xuaa. C.1. ]ei]nncinn opaiy n cncre:e anrnunix :ero-
cy(apcrnennix ornomennn (VllV nn. (o n...). CH.: ly:annrapnan aia-
(e:nn, 2001.
1k+an J. Nncrepnn Nnrpi. Hep. c ]p. C.O. Unerionon. CH.:
Enpaann, 2000.
.cc,ca .1. APXB n TO HEPIEXON y (ocoiparnion ;; Anrnunan
aianncrnia 8. Aaiionie (annie n .rnoiyirypnin ionreicr Cpe(n-
ae:no:opin. Hpe(napnreinie :arepnai. N.: Hn-r cannnone(ennn n
aianncrnin AH CCCP, 1978. C. 888b.
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncro-
rei ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 1. C. 89b8.
.cc,ca .1. TO AHEIPON: ne Anaicn:an(p, a Haron n Apncro-
rei ;; Becrnni (pennen ncropnn. 1978. N 2. C. 48b8.
Ccnaanac xcfa4nxkx x x.xa:.xs 216 Ccnaanac xcfa4nxkx x x.xa:.xs 217
Cf.an. leorpa]nn: B 17 in. ; Hep., cr. n io::enr. l.A. Crpara-
noncioro, no( om. pe(. C.. Yruenio, pe(. nep. O.O. Kpirep. Penpnnr.
nocnponane(enne reicra na(. 1964 r. N.: Hayuno-na(areicinn nenrp
a(o:np, 1994.
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BBE]EHHE ............................................................................................ b
lABA l. HPAHCKAA NH4O-PEHlHO3HAA TPA]HUHA ............ 28
1. Heioropie nanpanennn npancion :n]o-penrnoanon rpa(nnnn 28
2. Peioncrpyinnn npancinx (onca:cinx onroornuecinx
npe(cranennn ......................................................................... 48
lABA ll. HPAHCKHE HAPAEH B lPEECKOH
HPE]4HOCO4HH ............................................................ 66
1. lpeuecian rpa(nnnn o iyperax n iopnanrax
n npancine napaen ............................................................. 66
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3nn:enn(, Teoronnn Heponn:a n leannia,
Panco(nuecian reoronnn ....................................................... 74
lABA lll. HOHHHCKAA 4HOCO4HA H HAPAEH
C HPAHCKOH TPA]HUHEH. NHETCKAA LKOA ....... 9b
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c npancin: :npo:. ................................................................... 9b
2. Hepnin .ran ]op:nponannn onroornuecinx n
ioc:oornuecinx noaapennn pannerpeuecion ]noco]nn.
Nnercian ]noco]nn .......................................................... 109
lABA lV. lEPAKHT H HPAHCKAA TPA]HUHA ........................ 188
1. Konnennnn :y(poro cymecrna n ee
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2. Bpe:n, cy(ia n (yma n yuennn lepainra n conocranennn
c npancion rpa(nnnen............................................................ 160
8. Yuenne lepainra o npornnonoonocrnx ................................. 17b
lABA V. 4HOCO4L HTAHHCKOlO HAHPABEHHA H
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1. Hauao nranncion ]noco]nn. Onroornuecine narn(i
Hap:enn(a n nx conocranenne c npancion rpa(nnnen ........ 18b
2. Onroornuecine narn(i 3:ne(oia n nx conocranenne c
npancion rpa(nnnen............................................................... 199
OCHOBHLE HCTOHHKH H LHLHOlPA4HA ........................... 211