Genetics & Heredity Unit Calendar

Monday 1.1 (Wk 1 Day 1) Engage:  Traits Inventory Explain:  Intro to Heredity Tuesday 1.2 Explore:  Variations of characteristics Explain:  Human characteristics lab Wednesday 1.3 Explore:  Mendel‟s work  Factors that control the inheritance of traits in organisms Thursday 1.4 Explain:  More Mendel‟s work Explore:  Dominant and Recessive Alleles Friday 1.5 Explain:  How geneticists use symbols to represent alleles Evaluate:  Weekly Quiz

2.1 (Wk 2 Day 1) Engage/Explore:  Principles of Probability  Punnett Squares

2.2 Elaborate:  Punnett Squares Explain:  Hetero and Homozygous  Phenotype and Genotype  Incomplete dominance,  co-dominance 3.2 Explore:  Genetic and chromosomal mutations

2.3 Explore/Explain:  Cells and Inheritance  Chromosomes Elaborate:  Meiosis & Punnett Squares

2.1 Elaborate:  More chromosomes and inheritance

2.5 Explore:  Genetic coding Evaluate:  Weekly Quiz

3.1 (Wk 3 Day 1) Explore:  DNA structure  DNA replication

3.3 Explain:  More genetic and chromosomal mutations

3.4 Explain:  Genetic disorders

3.5 Elaborate:  Genetic disorders Evaluate:  Weekly Quiz

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Day 1 Engage – Anticipatory set: Students will discuss how they would describe themselves to someone who had never met them before, followed by an inventory of their traits. Student will then participate in a class activity to identify similarities and different among students. Explore – Students will look at right- and left-handedness and the preference of using one hand over the other for certain tasks, and will calculate the percentage of hand-preference for each task based on class responses. Day 2 Explain – PowerPoint presentation. Discussion of what heredity is, how we obtain traits from our parents and which version of the trait will be passed on. Along the way, students will discover answers to the questions: What are genes? How are genes passed on? Why don‟t siblings look alike? Day 3/4 Explore – Target reading of Gregor Mendel as Father of Genetics and the significance of his contributions. Students will work in pairs to complete concept circles from targeted reading in the text and will use context clues from surrounding sentences, personal definitions based on context clues and linguistic and nonlinguistic representations of vocabulary. Explain – PowerPoint presentation – P, F1 and F2 generations. Students will complete a guided note-taker and concept map on factors that control the inheritance of traits in organisms. Students will use reading skills and the text to complete an outline of Mendel‟s experiments and how traits are passed from the parent to successive generations. Day 5 Explain – PowerPoint presentation – dominant and recessive traits. Students will record their own traits on a data table and will work with their group mates to determine which traits (cleft chin, dimples, straight hair, etc.) other classmates possess. Teacher will explain how geneticists use symbols to represent alleles.
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Explore – PowerPoint presentation – Mendel‟s principles of probability. Students will engage in a coin-toss activity to predict probability. Teacher will provide guided practice for completion of Punnett Square with various combinations of alleles. Evaluate – Weekly quiz. Day 6 Explain – PowerPoint presentation – dominant and recessive genes. Lab activity simulates how Mendel made his discoveries of how traits get inherited through studying first through third generations. Students will devise Punnett Squares for long-haired and shorthaired guinea pigs. Day 7 Elaborate – Punnett Squares. „Similar but Different‟ class activity. Given a worksheet of specific traits, students will form a hypothesis of whether traits controlled by dominant alleles are more or less common than recessive traits and will record classmates‟ traits in their data table. Students can work in groups to graph their findings. Day 8 Explore – Students will be asked to recall what they know about cells and cell structure. PowerPoint presentation – the cell and inheritance. Students will explore the events that occur during meiosis and will work in groups to „jigsaw‟ a guided reading activity and complete concept circles. Day 9 Explore/Explain – PowerPoint presentation – cells and inheritance; chromosomes. Using what they have learned about dominant and recessive alleles, students will work in pairs to create a “paper pet” to help them understand specific concepts and principles of genetics. Concepts of probability and genetics, phenotypes, genotypes, and co-dominance will be covered. Day 10 Elaborate – Alien Alleles Pair check. More Punnett square practice. Students will draw the correct offspring for the cross of the two „alien‟ parents. If there is more than one combination, they must draw examples of both possible offspring and include genotypes for their drawings.
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Evaluate – Weekly quiz Day 11/12 Explore – PowerPoint presentation – DNA structure and replication. Teacher will provided guided note-taker to explain concept of “genetic code”, supplemented by video clip on cell by “Bill Nye the Science Guy”. Sex-linked traits (color-blindness). Day 13/14 Explore/Explain – PowerPoint presentation -- Harmful, helpful, and neutral mutations. Guided note-taker – genetic mutations and disorders (cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, hemophilia, Down syndrome). Evaluate – After a brief introduction on how to create a pedigree, students will draw a pedigree showing the inheritance of a single recessive allele, starting with first generation genotypes of Aa X Ax and continuing for three generations. Day 15 Elaborate – PowerPoint presentation; note-taker -- genetic disorders. Evaluate – Weekly quiz

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Unit – Cells and Heredity Background – This unit is designed for middle school general education science (8th grade). Students will have completed a unit on cell division prior to this unit. The next unit to follow will be modern genetics. Standards – Arizona State Standards (http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2011/09/sciencegrade8.pdf)  Strand 4: Life Science for Grade 8 o Concept 2 PO1 – Explain the purpose of cell division (reproduction) o Concept 2 PO2 – Explain the basic principles of heredity using the human examples of eye color, widow‟s peak, and blood type o Concept 2 PO3 – Distinguish between the nature of dominant and recessive traits in humans

Next Generation Science Standards (www.nextgenscience.org/msls-gdro-growth-development-reproduction-organisms)  MS-LS1- 4: Use arguments based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively. MS-LS1-5: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms. MS-LS31-1: Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.

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Common Core State Standards (http://www.corestandards.org/assets)    Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text or with a version of that information expressed visually.

Objectives -         Students will be able to describe Mendel‟s genetics experiments. Students will be able to identify the factors that control the inheritance of traits in organisms. Students will be able to explain how geneticists use symbols to represent alleles. Students will be able to describe the principles of probability and how Mendel applied them to inheritance. Students will be able to describe how geneticists use the Punnett square as a tool to predict dominant or recessive traits. Students will be able to explain the meanings of the terms phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, and codominance. Students will be able to predict the offspring of a genetic cross. Students will be able to describe the role of chromosomes in inheritance. Students will be able to identify and describe the events that occur during meiosis.

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