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gui de pdagogi que

proj ects
doi ng thi ngs wi th words
Coordination pdagogique
Juliette Ban-Larrosa et Jean-Louis Picot
Agrgs de luniversit
Inspecteurs dAcadmie
Inspecteurs Pdagogiques Rgionaux
Auteurs
Benjamin Baudin
Professeur agrg
Lyce Andr Boulloche, Livry-Gargan (93)
Claudine Lennevi
Professeur agrg
Lyce Marie Curie, Vire (14)
Jeremy Reyburn
Inspecteur dAcadmie
Inspecteur Pdagogique Rgional
13, rue de lOdon, 75006 Paris
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Illustrations : Loc Mhe
Conception maquette : Marc & Yvette
Couverture : Agence Mercure
Mise en page : IGS
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Largement rpandu dans les tablissements denseignement, le photocopillage menace lavenir du livre, car il met en danger
son quilibre conomique. Il prive les auteurs dune juste rmunration.
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La loi du 11 mars 1957 nautorisant, au terme des alinas 2 et 3 de larticle 41, dune part, que les copies ou reproductions
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faite sans le consentement de lauteur ou de ses ayants droit ou ayants cause, est illicite. (alina 1
er
de larticle 40) - Cette
reprsentation ou reproduction, par quelque procd que ce soit, constituerait donc une contrefaon sanctionne par les
articles 425 et suivants du Code pnal.
Les ditions Didier, Paris 2007 - ISBN : 978-2-278-05993-5 - Achev dimprimer par Jouve en octobre 2007
Dpot lgal : 5993/01
2
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SOMMAIRE SOMMAIRE
Introduction ............................................................................................................... p. 5
Project 1 Boarding now .................................................................................... p. 21
Project 2 Together for a time ........................................................................ p. 42
Project 3 Its Superman! ............................................................................. p. 59
Project 4 Eureka! ................................................................................................. p. 82
Project 5 Whats on? .......................................................................................... p. 109
Project 6 Native America ................................................................................ p. 128
Project 7 So sorry ............................................................................................... p. 159
Project 8 Schools Inc.

..................................................................................... p. 182
Project 9 Guided tour ........................................................................................ p. 204
Project 10 Whodunnit? ..................................................................................... p. 221
Project 11 One upon a time ........................................................................ p. 239
Project 12 Culture Combos ............................................................................ p. 260
Annexes ........................................................................................................................ p. 277
Entranement la comprhension orale ........................................ p. 279
Illustrations ................................................................................................... p. 281
valuation de la comprhension ......................................................... p. 283
3
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Introduction
Entretien avec les coordinateurs J. Ban-Larrosa et J.-L. Picot
Pourquoi un nouveau manuel de seconde ?
Pour rpondre de fortes attentes, et proposer un outil permettant de donner du sens la commu-
nication en classe danglais.
Conu dans le respect des programmes de seconde (2002), dans la continuit des programmes du
collge, et des orientations du CECRL auxquels ceux-ci sont adosss (Plan pour une meilleure ma-
trise des langues vivantes 2005), ce nouveau manuel est aussi fond sur la conviction essentielle,
par ailleurs prexistante aux textes mentionns ci-dessus, quon apprend une langue vivante pour
communiquer. Communiquer, cest changer, couter, lire, raconter, expliquer, discuter, argumen-
ter, questionner, rpondre, convaincre, sduire, lcrit comme loral. Dire, cest donc faire, do
le sous-titre de ce manuel : Doing things with words.
Comment Projects aide-t-il les lves communiquer ?
De multiples faons ! En leur en donnant loccasion, lenvie et le besoin, en fondant la communication
sur des changes rels, en leur proposant un vritable entranement, en les aidant se construire
des comptences et devenir de plus en plus autonomes
En quoi Projects propose-t-il des situations de communication ?
Toute communication suppose une intention, un destinataire, un contenu, un contexte. Inscrits dans
une dmarche actionnelle, les douze projets de Projects contextualisent et ancrent la parole dans
des situations-scnari qui permettent aux lves dtre auteurs de leurs actes de langage, lcrit
comme loral. Tout au long des douze parcours proposs, les lves sont en action quand ils utili-
sent la langue.
Une fois les lves mis en situation , comment assurer leur participation active ?
En proposant un appareil pdagogique qui guide sans tlguider :
- il fait conance aux lves et part de ce quils savent et ont appris en cours danglais, dans
dautres disciplines ou en dehors de lcole ;
- il aide les lves les moins laise et valorise les plus laise en favorisant les changes dides
et de comptences en travail en groupe ;
- il encourage la circulation de la parole dlve lve (share with the class / exchange within
your group, report to the other groups) ;
- il soutient les efforts dattention et dcoute (coute active et participation sont favorises par des
appels ractions, une incitation la prise de notes et par des pauses rcapitulatives intervalles
rguliers).
La communication est donc fonde sur des changes rels au sein de la classe.
Travail en groupe ; change avec la classe : quelle est la part de lindividuel et du
collectif dans la construction des comptences ?
Les comptences se construisent dans le groupe classe ; la construction collective se fait par chan-
ges et mutualisation. Le manuel fait part gale la construction de comptences individuelles et
collectives, et lindividuel est laboutissement de tout un travail collectif.
La mise en uvre propose suggre des formes de travail et des modalits de prise de parole (travail
et changes en groupe avant mise en commun) visant ddramatiser la pratique de la langue pour
les lves : laide dont on peut avoir besoin vient dabord des camarades. Les erreurs , corriges
entre pairs et avec le professeur, sont des tapes de lapprentissage.

I. LES CHOIX DIDACTIQUES


ET PDAGOGIQUES DE PROJECTS
I. LES CHOIX DIDACTIQUES
ET PDAGOGIQUES DE PROJECTS
5 Introduction
introduction.indd 5 5/10/07 11:37:14
6
Cette dmarche ne suppose-t-elle pas un certain degr dautonomie de la part des lves ?
Lautonomie sapprend, comme toutes les comptences humaines.
Les douze chapitres sont btis pour accompagner les lves dans lacquisition dune autonomie
langagire. Le guidage sassouplit de chapitre en chapitre pour tenir compte des acquis mthodo-
logiques raliss au fur et mesure de lanne. Il sassouplit aussi dtape en tape lintrieur de
chaque chapitre.
Les rubriques Plan, Do, Check des pages Your Project sont l pour proposer aux lves les rpertoires
de stratgies ncessaires la conduite de la tche nale.
Dans le Logbook, les pages Debrieng leur proposent des critres pour sauto-valuer et un support
de rexion sur leurs marges de progrs.
Enn, la rubrique More About leur suggre des pistes de travail en autonomie pour aller plus loin
dans la dcouverte des thmes et notions abords dans le chapitre.
Comment assurez-vous, dans Projects, la construction des comptences de communication ?
En langue seconde tout autant quen langue maternelle, les comptences de communication se
construisent progressivement. Les programmes du Palier II du collge prvoient le niveau B1
comme objectif atteindre la n de la classe de troisime et les programmes du cycle terminal
prcisent que le niveau attendu la n du lyce dans la plupart des activits de communication est
B2. Les lves entrant en seconde ont trois ans pour passer de B1 B2. Cest pourquoi les projets
proposent des tches de difcult croissante, allant de A2+ B1+. Nous proposons bien sr par
ailleurs des descripteurs qui permettent de positionner les lves des niveaux de comptence
suprieurs.
Les comptences se construisent aussi de faon rigoureuse, et le manuel propose aux lves de
procder par tapes. Le projet nal est mthodiquement prpar par le travail de rception et de
production men dans les Steps 1 et 2, o les lves ont la possibilit de sentraner (Over to you) sur
des segments de la tche nale. Ce projet est toujours, ncessairement, une tche de production
orale ou crite, et les tapes intermdiaires tiennent compte de cette orientation ; mais les activits
de rception font lobjet dun entranement rigoureux en amont pour doter les lves des outils
conceptuels, langagiers, linguistiques et mthodologiques ncessaires la ralisation de la tche
nale.
Les cinq activits langagires sont travailles dans chaque chapitre, car nous partons du principe
que production et rception sont lies. En situation dinteraction, orale ou crite, on ne peut adresser
un message lautre sans comprendre le message que celui-ci nous adresse.
Vous distinguez donc lentranement propos dans les Steps 1 et 2 du travail men dans la
tche nale ?
Oui, et cest un point important ! Projects distingue trs clairement activits dentranement (dans les
Steps 1 et 2) et activits dvaluation (dans les pages Your project).
Une dmarche dentranement est systmatiquement propose lors de la dcouverte des documents.
Il sagit, pour llve, non pas de rpondre des questions qui risqueraient de pr-construire le sens,
mais de se confronter au support pour en construire le sens avec le groupe ; des aides laccs au
sens (et non uniquement la comprhension de formes) sont donnes. Le manuel ne propose pas
de questionnement exhaustif mais un guidage par le sens et des outils pour y accder et en rendre
compte (Logpage, Strategies, Language skills, Words, prcis phonologique et grammatical).
Quentendez-vous par Logpage ?
Il sagit dun outil mthodologique propos dans le cahier dactivits. Deux mots dabord sur ce
cahier : nous avons choisi de lappeler Logbook , car il est conu comme le journal de bord du
parcours dapprentissage des lves. Pour chaque projet du manuel, la Logpage sert de l
conducteur la dcouverte des documents. Il sagit dune grille que llve construit et remplit pro-
gressivement dans son Logbook, et qui synthtise tous les lments caractristiques du genre ou du
thme abord dans le chapitre. Elle permet aux lves de rchir leur dmarche dapprentissage,
de lajuster progressivement pour la rendre plus efcace, et den tirer parti au moment de raliser
leur projet.

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7 Introduction
propos des documents, comment les avez-vous slectionns ?
Nous avons choisi des supports adapts au type de discours mobilis dans le projet nal (informatif,
narratif, injonctif, argumentatif, etc.), en partant du principe que la production doit faire lobjet dun
apprentissage mthodique, et tre prpare en amont.
Dans le manuel, la production dun rcit est ainsi prcde de ltude de contes, la production dun
discours informatif et explicatif fait suite ltude de divers documents sur les inventions, la produc-
tion dun dbat vient aprs ltude de textes argumentatifs
Un mot plus particulirement sur les supports de comprhension de loral : il sagit toujours de
documents authentiques, ou enregistrs/improviss sur un thme donn mais sans script pralable,
de faon garantir la production dune langue qui vhicule rellement du sens par le son.
Quelle place ces documents, et plus largement les douze projets proposs, font-ils aux
aspects culturels ?
Projects repose sur une conception large de la culture, dans les supports (de la BD aux textes lit-
traires en passant par les guides de voyage, les documents anthropologiques et les pages web) et
dans les sujets traits (de la culture dite populaire lhistoire du monde anglophone).
La notion du vivre ensemble en socit est dcline dans les projets travers les thmes choisis
pour llaboration des situations-scnari. Celles-ci ont t conues pour permettre aux lves duti-
liser les apprentissages raliss dans dautres disciplines (sur les ingrdients dun genre ; les types
de textes et de discours ; la comparaison inter-culturelle, y compris avec sa propre culture).
Le guidage par le sens dans la mise en uvre a pour effet de mettre en relief les contenus culturels
des documents, do labsence de longs dveloppements sur des faits ou priodes de lhistoire du
monde anglophone.
En n de chapitre, la rubrique More about permet de guider les lves dans lapprofondissement
des notions et thmes abords en classe.
Les reprages culturels effectus dans les chapitres trouveront un cho en n de manuel, grce aux
lectures proposes dans les pages Good reads.
Avant daller plus loin dans sa dcouverte du thme, llve a-t-il la possibilit de sauto-
valuer ? Que propose par ailleurs Projects en matire dvaluation ?
Pour ce qui est de lauto-valuation, la page Debrieng permet llve dtablir, dans son Logbook,
un bilan de ce qui a t fait et appris, la fois lors de ltude des documents des Steps 1 et 2 et lors de
la ralisation de la tche nale. Pour cette dernire, les descripteurs de comptence fournis lui per-
mettent de se positionner et de constater ses marges de progrs. Un entranement supplmentaire
(What I need to work on) est prvu pour les deux ou trois comptences cls en jeu dans le projet.
Pour ce qui est de lvaluation, Projects apporte les rponses suivantes :
1. valuation des comptences de production (orale ou crite) :
Les activits proposes en Over to you et Recap sont loccasion pour llve dune valuation forma-
tive ou une valuation sommative intermdiaire.
Le projet propos aux lves en n de chapitre est loccasion dune valuation sommative.
Dans la perspective actionnelle et dans le cadre dun travail ax sur les savoir-faire, cette tche
nale est une valuation des savoirs et savoir-faire travaills en amont. On y value les comptences
mises en uvre dans les activits de production. Les objectifs sont xs en dbut de chapitre (tar-
gets) et ont t slectionns pour permettre une valuation positive.
2. valuation des comptences de rception : comprhension de loral
Des supports sonores complmentaires, toujours en lien avec les thmes des projets, sont proposs
dans le CD classe. Pour chacun de ces documents, le guide pdagogique fournit un appareil dvaluation,
des critres et un barme toujours tablis dans un souci de valorisation de ce que llve sait faire.
3. valuation des comptences de rception : comprhension de lcrit
partir de textes en lien avec les thmes des chapitres (textes issus de la partie Good reads du
manuel, ou nouveaux documents), nous proposons dans le guide pdagogique un appareil dvalua-
tion, des critres et un barme pour une valuation positive.

introduction.indd 7 5/10/07 11:37:18


8
De quels outils dispose llve pour amliorer sa comptence linguistique ?
Prcisons dabord que la grammaire de Projects est une grammaire pour dire et faire : loral comme
lcrit, un point de langue est abord dans la mesure o llve en a besoin pour comprendre ou
pour sexprimer. Cette grammaire fait part gale loral et lcrit ; des activits dentranement et
des apports thoriques sont fournis dans ces deux domaines :
- Pour complter lapprentissage par la pratique, les outils linguistiques sont travaills dans cha-
que projet travers des tches communicatives contextualises (Language skills), spciques
chacune des cinq activits langagires. Certains de ces outils font lobjet dune rexion sur la
langue dans le Logbook. Pour la langue orale, des entranements au reprage et la reproduction
des rgularits de langlais sont proposs dans les rubriques Listening et Speaking des pages
Language skills.
- Deux outils de rfrence en n de manuel permettent llve de trouver une explication sur un
point de prononciation ou de grammaire. Le prcis de prononciation offre systmatiquement
llve la possibilit dentendre sur son CD audio les exemples cits, et de sentraner en autono-
mie partir de courts enregistrements.
La dmarche actionnelle inscrite dans le cadre communicationnel donne llve des responsabili-
ts accrues. Il sagit pour lui de participer laction et de dire et faire le plus possible.
Le professeur reste videmment le matre, ne serait-ce que parce que ses savoirs et ses savoir-faire
excdent de loin ceux des lves. Les responsabilits accrues des lves nenlvent pas au profes-
seur son autorit. Cest encore lui qui choisit, labore, dcide, tranche. Et cest encore lui qui value
et note.
Mais son positionnement ne peut tre celui de la personne qui dlivre magistralement un cours un
public dont le rle unique est de recevoir et de restituer dlement. Son positionnement ne peut non
plus tre celui de la personne qui pose des questions dans le but essentiel dobtenir des rponses
auxquelles lui seul a pens.
Si ce sont les lves qui font, le professeur est ncessaire pour que ce faire des lves se fasse de
manire structure, progressive, ordonne, explique et accepte. Llve ne peut atteindre un degr
dautonomie que si des outils, moyens et techniques lui sont donns et que sil peut, en classe et au
cours de travaux raliser, tre confront des situations o le guidage magistral sestompera au
prot de son initiative et de son libre arbitre.
La gestion du groupe classe est modie : des travaux peuvent ncessiter que les lves travaillent
en groupes de tailles diverses (par deux, par trois ou quatre ; par quart, tiers ou moiti de classe).
La gestion de la parole de llve est aussi modie :
- Ce nest plus le professeur qui pose toutes les questions, ce sont les lves qui prennent la parole
et lchangent, selon des principes dinteractivit quil convient de mettre en place ds le dbut de
lanne.
- Ce nest pas non plus le professeur qui force les formes employer, lorsque les lves
sont en situation de production. Cest bien sr lui qui dcide des objectifs linguistiques lors de la

II. DANS LA CLASSE


AVEC PROJECTS
II. DANS LA CLASSE
AVEC PROJECTS
1. Positionnement du professeur et rle de llve 1. Positionnement du professeur et rle de llve
introduction.indd 8 5/10/07 11:37:18
9 Introduction
prparation de son cours, mais ce choix doit se faire dans le souci de lutilisation dune langue
naturelle (que dirait un locuteur natif ?). Des tapes de sens logiques sont mnager pour parve-
nir aux structures cibles, qui ne sont pas ncessairement dans les documents.
Par exemple, pour parvenir WISH, au dbut du chapitre 4 Eureka, (lors de ltape Start from what
you know, p. 48 du manuel) on peut partir de : Making up in the morning takes me a lot of time / but I
dont want to go to school without make up on / If I had a make up machine, it would solve my problem
pour ventuellement donner ou faire produire I wish somebody would invent a make up machine / I
wish I had one at home, I would never be late
Sil lui faut se mettre en retrait pour laisser la place llve, le professeur est loin dtre en marge.
Ainsi, il intervient :
- toujours pour donner le modle phonologique correct dun nonc et revenir systmatiquement
llve qui a propos un nonc pour le lui faire redire et mesurer ainsi lcart entre la proposi-
tion de dpart et la version recevable ;
- rgulirement pour valoriser ce qui se dit, tenir compte des productions des uns et des autres,
conrmer la classe quelle est en bonne voie ;
- rgulirement aussi pour faire tablir des liens entre tout ce qui se dit et poser les questions qui
permettront aux lves de donner des suites logiques ce qui est dit ;
- si besoin est pour guider la parole dans un sens si il estime que la direction vers laquelle on se
dirige est une digression ou nest pas exploitable ;
- en dernier recours lorsquun nonc est difcilement construit ou quun manque linguistique
nest pas combl par le groupe.
Lapprentissage dune langue vivante ncessite une exposition maximale cette langue. Cette expo-
sition se fait par le biais des supports audio, vido et crits proposs mais aussi par la parole du
groupe, par tout ce qui se dit en classe. Do la ncessit du tout anglais.
Le franais peut tre utilis en n dheure pour le bilan rcapitulatif, qui inclut la rexion linguisti-
que lutilisation des structures est la consquence, non la n de ce que lon veut exprimer.
Il est important de viser une pratique intensive, la plus abondante possible, de la langue trangre.
Cette pratique ne peut qutre collective : les lves parlent aux lves.
La parole doit circuler dlve lve. Linteractivit concourt limplication de tous dans le travail
collectif et permet chacun de contribuer la hauteur de ses moyens, aussi modestes soient-ils.
Le professeur doit sattacher ne pas se rendre verbalement omniprsent pour laisser aux lves la
possibilit de faire le travail qui est le leur. eux de sauto ou sinter-corriger sur la forme (syntaxe,
lexique, prononciation) et sur le fond (commentaires de toutes sortes), de sentraider pour laborer
les noncs, de rpter, expliquer, conrmer ou contredire ce qui se dit.
Lapprentissage est fond sur un rebrassage ou une ractivation permanente du connu,
auquel on intgre une ou deux nouveauts. Le principe selon lequel le cours est fond sur linterac-
tivit dans la classe rejoint le principe didactique de base selon lequel toute nouveaut ne peut tre
saisie que si elle est ancre dans un connu rendu accessible tous. Utiliser la langue cest mobiliser
ses acquis pour rutiliser ce que lon sait dj.
L inconnu pour les lves est reprsent par les faits de langue ou de culture mais aussi par ce
quoi ils peuvent sattendre et donc ce que lon attend deux pendant le cours. Rien de plus dstabili-
sant et paralysant que de ne pas saisir ce qui est attendu.
2. Tout anglais et interactivit 2. Tout anglais et interactivit
3. Connu / inconnu 3. Connu / inconnu
introduction.indd 9 5/10/07 11:37:21
10
La part dinconnu peut tre rduite par :
- lacquisition dhabitudes
Il est ncessaire dinculquer des habitudes en classe danglais : habitudes de comportement, qui
sont celles exiges des lves quelle que soit la discipline, mais aussi habitudes quils nont peut-
tre pas dans dautres cours. Apprendre une langue trangre est une entreprise particulire
dans la mesure o lobjet de lapprentissage est aussi son outil. Plus on utilise la langue que lon
ne matrise pas, plus on a de chances den acqurir une matrise.
Donc, habitudes de prise de parole et dinteractivit, habitudes de rptition pour la phonologie
(voir 5. Phonologie ), habitudes face un document que lon dcouvre (voir 9. Dmarche den-
tranement / dmarche dvaluation ).
- un droulement non surprenant de la sance (voir 4. Les diffrentes phases dun cours ).
Si le cours type nexiste pas, il est nanmoins important que les lves apprhendent rapide-
ment le droulement dun cours et sa logique. Cette comprhension se fera naturellement si le
droulement est rcurrent ce qui nexclut aucunement que pour certaines sances, le professeur
choisisse, selon ses objectifs, de prvoir un droulement diffrent (bilan / rvision avant valuation
et compte-rendu dvaluation par exemple).
- lintgration par le professeur, dans sa prparation, de lobjectif dacquisition dans de multiples
phases de rebrassage. Il ne sagit pas de noyer la nouveaut mais de faire en sorte quelle
napparaisse pas comme un obstacle sur lequel on porterait toute lattention, et de veiller ce que
sa prsence soit porte par le sens de ce qui est exprim.
Les diffrentes phases dun cours dcoulent de leurs fonctions :
Le rituel du dbut de cours
Le rituel du dbut de cours comprend :
- lentre en classe qui est loccasion de renouer la relation de communication ;
- lchauffement qui permet de rentrer dans la LVE de manire libre (le contenu nest pas
ncessairement li la leon ou un document tudi ou en cours dtude). Cette tape peut
prendre plusieurs formes (voir 6. Phase dchauffement ).
Le rappel oral des acquis en dbut dheure
Il sert rendre le connu disponible et accessible tous et mettre en conance ; il prend appui sur
tout ce qui a t ralis antrieurement et sert de socle la leon venir. Cest souvent la restitution,
sous diverses formes, de la trace crite qui a t donne apprendre la maison.
La phase de dcouverte
Par dcouverte nous entendons dcouverte du thme (Start from what you know) ou dcouverte
du document et construction de son sens (Make sense).
La dcouverte, toujours selon le principe que le connu doit lemporter de loin sur linconnu, part de
ce que les lves peuvent proposer.
Lorsquil sagit dun thme que lon aborde pour une premire fois, il est important, pour aider les
lves se sentir partie prenante et faire leur ce thme, de sonder leurs connaissances ventuelles
et daccepter leurs mconnaissances. Ce qui vient par la suite leur apparatra plus logiquement
comme un apport et un enrichissement qui leur sont personnellement destins.
La dcouverte dun document a pour but de confronter les lves un anglais authentique et de les
entraner (voir 9. Dmarche dentranement / dmarche dvaluation ), faire sens dudit docu-
ment et restituer cette comprhension, cest--dire rendre compte de ce quils pensent avoir
compris avec leurs propres mots et de manire intelligible et recevable (voir 1. Positionnement du
professeur et rle de llve ).

4. Les diffrentes phases dun cours avec Projects 4. Les diffrentes phases dun cours avec Projects
introduction.indd 10 5/10/07 11:37:24
11 Introduction
La transcription dans les cahiers
Les noncs produits par les lves pendant la phase prcdente sont transcrits dans les cahiers ;
cest partir de ces noncs que pourra tre mene la rexion sur la langue.
Ce qui gure dans cette transcription relve du seul choix du professeur : tout ce qui est dit ne peut
videmment tre transcrit.
Le moment de la transcription peut aussi tre modul par le professeur. Selon la classe et les lves,
on peut envisager de transcrire les noncs intressants en deux fois, une premire partie lors dune
pause rcapitulative mnage pendant la sance, une deuxime et dernire partie en n de sance.
Les exemples de productions dlve fournis dans ce guide sont, dans la grande majorit des cas,
issus dun test des activits en classe ; les productions possibles sont donc majoritairement des
productions relles. Quand il ne nous a pas t possible de tester lactivit en classe, les productions
possibles sont des productions estimes raisonnables par les auteurs.
La rexion sur la langue
La phase de rexion sur la langue peut tre vue comme une pause rcapitulative sur des faits de
langue - phonologiques, lexicaux ou syntaxiques. Il importe que les structures cibles aient en cons-
quence t abondamment manipules dans des contextes les investissant de sens.
Cette phase peut donc ne pas tre systmatique la n de chaque sance, si le professeur estime
que le corpus - les noncs choisis pour gurer dans la trace crite - partir duquel conduire la
rexion sur la langue nest pas sufsant. La classe doit tre en mesure de conduire elle-mme
cette rexion, en partant du sens de ce qui aura t exprim et de ce quelle sait dj sur tel ou tel
fait li au nouveau fait de langue.
Do limportance de la contextualisation, la ncessit dobtenir des productions qui ne convergent
pas sur un point de langue unique que lon expliquera par son quivalent en franais et lutilit de
prvoir, lors des moments de production orale, des gloses qui aideront saisir la valeur des faits
de langues cibls.
Par exemple, si lon a choisi comme objectif linguistique wish et le prtrit modal , il sera utile de
se souvenir que le verbe wish peut tre connu des lves dans lexpression I wish you a happy
birthday / a merry Christmas, expression qui parle dun futur assurment plaisant, alors que I wish
you were here ou I wish my teacher stopped speaking English all the time soulignent un prsent et
une ralit que lon voudrait autres.
En consquence, faire aborder ce point en le nommant expression du souhait peut ne pas tre
une aide aux lves.
La rexion sera en revanche facilite si lon a pris le soin, lorsque lon aura revu, dans une sance
antrieure, le prtrit temporel, de souligner la valeur de coupure de ce temps avec la ralit
du prsent et si lon a, lors de la sance en cours, obtenu des explicitations apportant du sens la
structure : My teacher speaks English all the time , I dont understand what my teachers says, It
makes me feel , Thats why I dont, I wish my teacher
La correction phonologique, indissociable de lintelligibilit, est aussi importante, si ce nest plus dans
le cas de langlais, que la correction syntaxique. Il sagit bien sr de faire acqurir une prononciation
recevable des phonmes mais il sagit aussi daider les lves comprendre et des les entraner res-
pecter les caractristiques suprasegmentales. Celles-ci seront galement primordiales en rception.
Si les lves peuvent parvenir collectivement des noncs dont la forme et le fond sont recevables,
le professeur reste, sauf exception (prsence danglophones dans la classe), la seule personne, dans
la classe, capable de donner un modle phonologique correct.
Langlais oral constitue un ensemble qui obit des rgles et des rgularits que llve de 2
de
doit
reconnatre pour mieux comprendre, et mettre progressivement en musique pour mieux se faire

5. Phonologie 5. Phonologie
introduction.indd 11 5/10/07 11:37:25
12
comprendre. Il a depuis longtemps dpass le stade de trs jeune enfant et lge auquel une pho-
nologie sacquiert par un processus dimprgnation. Les moments de rexion sur la langue dans
Projects portent autant sur la phonologie que sur la syntaxe, car on ne peut construire des noncs
sans comprendre la logique et le fonctionnement des formes ncessaires la construction du sens.
Lefcacit de cet apprentissage repose donc sur trois stratgies incontournables :
1) la mise en place dhabitudes langagires ;
2) des activits rexives rgulires visant une prise de conscience ;
3) le recours aux entranements intensifs.
Les habitudes langagires amorces depuis lcole primaire se poursuivent et sintensient tout
au long du parcours langue vivante . Les approximations sattnuent et les formes correctes, et
donc intelligibles, se stabilisent progressivement car le professeur et toute la classe signalent et rec-
tient les carts. force dentendre et de rutiliser Education makes us learn, par exemple, llve
nit par shabituer aux schmas phonologiques (et syntaxiques) qui caractrisent cet nonc.
La prise de conscience est tout aussi importante car elle est la cl qui ouvre la porte une plus
grande autonomie. Savoir que ion est une terminaison qui place laccentuation sur la syllabe
prcdente et que lintonation descendante renforce une afrmation permettra plus facilement la
transposition de Education makes us learn vers Yes, and vacation helps us forget!
Les entranements, cest--dire la mise en bouche , sont dautant plus indispensables quand
on ne passe que quelques heures par semaine parler et pratiquer une langue trangre. La
prosodie de la langue anglaise est surtout trs loigne de larticulation syllabique du franais, et
cest par les rptitions que lon peut aider nos lves grer les spcicits de ces deux ralits
linguistiques.
Des rptitions collectives et individuelles dnoncs achevs et dont le sens a t clairement saisi
de tous, doivent tre orchestres tout au long du cours rptitions dont le professeur donnera le
modle, quil faudra au besoin redonner, entre deux lves, pour viter les dperditions naturelles.
Ces rptitions ne sont pas du psittacisme : seuls peuvent tre rpts les noncs dont le sens le
fond et la forme a t saisi de tous. Elles sapparentent au travail du comdien qui, pour apprendre
son texte, et le dire de manire convaincante, cest--dire le faire vivre, lui donne dabord du sens,
linterprte puis verbalise cette interprtation. On est ici dans le rehearsing.
Ces rptitions ont pour but de :
- travailler systmatiquement la correction phonologique : prononciation, intonation, rythme.
Sans rptition, llve ne peut mesurer lcart entre ce quil produit et ce quil lui faut viser ; sans
rptition, lon ne peut esprer quil parvienne produire un anglais phonologiquement recevable,
donc intelligible.
- aider la mmorisation, notamment des noncs qui seront transcrits dans les cahiers. Ceci
rejoint les consignes que lon donne pour apprendre sa leon : lorsque lon dit revoyez la leon ,
on ne croit pas si bien dire. Les lves la revoient , cest--dire quils regardent ce quils ont
transcrit dans leurs cahiers comme des formes inanimes, faute dtre capables de faire vivre ces
formes en les disant. Il est plus utile de demander : Vous devez tre capables de redire tout ce
que nous avons dit aujourdhui, et de vous faire comprendre.
Ces rptitions peuvent prendre plusieurs formes :
- la rptition collective ou chorale peut ne pas impliquer tout le groupe : le professeur peut choi-
sir une moiti de la classe, choisir des ranges, dire only the boys / only the girls / voire only
those with glasses ou only those who have / dont have lunch at school. Lexprience montre que
les lves se prennent trs rapidement au jeu.
- la rptition individuelle est importante pour tous, et les lves les moins laise en particulier.
Les rptitions collectives aident ces derniers rpter, labri du groupe, avant de se lancer dans
les rptitions individuelles.
Le recours la segmentation par groupes de sens / de soufe avant de redire lnonc dans son int-
gralit, au backward building (segmenter et commencer par la n avant de reprendre tout lnonc)
est une aide lorsque les noncs sont complexes.
Il est aussi utile dajouter dans la trace crite quelques indications phonologiques pour rappeler la
prononciation de certains phonmes (par exemple, faire crire [ei] sous le A de native), la non rali-
introduction.indd 12 5/10/07 11:37:25
13 Introduction
sation de certaines consonnes (par exemple, faire barrer au crayon noir le K de know) et matrialiser
les accents de mots ou les phnomnes suprasegmentaux (notamment liaisons, groupes de soufe,
intonation montante ou descendante, etc.) par des signes que le professeur choisira et expliquera
aux lves.
Elle est inclure dans le rituel de dbut de cours ds le dbut de lanne.
Rgle : tout ce qui se dit sera rcapitul la n de cette phase (donc rester trs attentif + repres au
tableau possibles).
2
e
sance de la squence, et suivantes
Cette phase dchauffement est ncessairement limite dans le temps lorsquil sagit de la deuxime
sance dune squence ou des suivantes. Elle ne peut empiter sur la phase de rappel des acquis,
qui mesure do lon repart pour continuer dans la squence.
Elle peut prendre plusieurs formes :
- questionnement inter-lves (what did you do yesterday?, etc.) + prvoir toujours au moins une
question au professeur ;
- in the news : parler dun fait de lactualit (dun tsunami aux rsultats sportifs en passant par
les sorties de lm, etc.) ; le professeur pourra apporter un journal du jour ou un hebdomadaire (si
presse en langue anglaise, encore mieux) ;
- prise de parole en continu prpare sur un sujet, suivie de questions ou commentaires (today I
would like to talk about / I am going to tell you about) ;
- prise de parole interactive partir dun document fonde sur le dcit dinformation ; ce docu-
ment est choisi par un ou deux lves, avec ou sans laide du professeur, mais est inconnu du reste
du groupe. Questions pour deviner de quoi il sagit (What have you got for us today? Is it about a
lm? About music?, etc.).
1
re
sance de la squence
Lorsquil sagit de la premire sance dune squence, o il ny a en principe pas de phase de rappel
des acquis (pas de trace crite restituer ou de mise en commun dactivits prpares la maison),
cette phase dchauffement peut bncier en plus du temps qui aurait t imparti au rappel des
acquis.
Le professeur pourra alors intervenir pour guider la parole vers la thmatique de la squence
venir.
Exemples pour une premire sance sur les inventions :
- formule questionnement : le professeur peut rpondre yesterday I went shopping needed a new
vacuum cleaner was told about a new type, etc.
- formule document inconnu, que le professeur aura propos un ou deux lves (photo dune
invention loufoque ) : obtenir an incredible invention par le biais dun jeu de devinettes par
exemple / faire produire des hypothses quant la nature de cette invention / rtroprojeter le
document / recueillir lavis du groupe.
NB : Pour les sances suivantes, on pourra galement, pour varier du what did you do yesterday?,
choisir le thme du chapitre pour cette phase dchauffement ( prparer la maison : warming
up next time : get ready to talk about inventions / bring the drawing / plans for / photo of an invention,
etc.)

6. Phase dchauffement 6. Phase dchauffement


introduction.indd 13 5/10/07 11:37:26
14
La phase dchauffement est une partie du cours, Start from what you know est une partie de la
squence. Cest une partie essentielle puisquelle permet llve dentrer dans le nouveau chapitre
en sappuyant sur son connu quant au thme. Une sance entire peut donc tre consacre ltape
Start from what you know, par laquelle commencent tous les chapitres du manuel.
La trace crite
La trace crite est une slection dnoncs produits pendant la sance, slection qui a pour vocation
dtre le reet essentiel du travail collectif. Elle est dautant plus importante quelle est la preuve
tangible de ce travail.
Elle est la fois tmoin et mmoire de ce que le groupe a produit et doit tre de nature discursive ;
elle permet une mise en forme lcrit de lexpression orale. Il importe en consquence quon
y trouve, comme dans toute expression discursive, cohsion et cohrence. Par exemple, on ne
peut avoir dans une trace crite que des pronoms dont les rfrents sont sous-entendus ;
certes, on peut esprer que les lves sachent de qui ou de quoi il sagit, mais il est ncessaire de
reposer explicitement les sujets et les objets. De mme, pour viter quelle ne se transforme en
une juxtaposition dnoncs, il est ncessaire de faire apparatre des liens logiques de sens. Ces
liens sont distinguer des mots de liaison , ncessaires eux, la complexication formelle des
noncs.
Par exemple dans les noncs ci-dessous constituant une trace crite, il manque visiblement des
liens de sens :
Inventions
He invented blue jeans in California.
But the prospectors did not want to wear pants made of tent canvas.
So he added rivets to the pockets to make them stronger.
Lors du rappel des acquis, le professeur pourra bien sr faire revenir tout ce qui manque pour don-
ner un sens lhistoire, mais il est tout aussi important que llve qui apprend sa leon puisse lui
aussi verbaliser ce sens. On le sait, on retient mieux une histoire dont on saisit la cohrence quune
suite de mots ou de phrases plac(e)s les un(e)s ct des autres.
De nombreux exemples de productions possibles sont donns dans ce guide. Ces productions pour-
ront tre reprises dans la trace crite, mais elles ne constituent en aucun cas un modle g de
cette trace crite, laquelle relve de ce qui sest effectivement dit dans la classe et du choix du pro-
fesseur.
La logpage
La logpage est la trace individuelle des apprentissages en cours. Elle est un outil de structuration du
discours en rception (classement, mise en rseau) et en production (pour raliser le projet) ; en cela
elle est un outil transversal concourant une meilleure matrise de la langue.
Dans la majorit des cas, la logpage pourra servir de support aux phases de rcapitulation ; llve
doit alors se trouver en situation de production orale partir de notes et non en activit de lecture.
Lors de ces phases de rcapitulation pourront tre produits les noncs susceptibles de faire partie
de la trace crite.
Le cas chant, la logpage pourra aussi servir de support une activit de production crite.

7. Start from what you know 7. Start from what you know
8. Logpage et trace crite 8. Logpage et trace crite
introduction.indd 14 5/10/07 11:37:27
15 Introduction
Deux dmarches fondamentalement diffrentes
On peut rsumer ce qui fait la diffrence entre lune et lautre en posant que relve dune dmarche
dentranement ce qui part de llve, alors que ce qui part du professeur relve dune dmarche
dvaluation.
Il est entendu que dans les deux cas, cest bien le professeur qui met en uvre en sappuyant sur ce
quil connat du groupe et des acquis et besoins de ce groupe.
Partir des lves signie leur donner la main , la fois dans le sens de leur laisser linitiative
dans la prise de parole puis de les accompagner partir de cette prise de parole. Les laisser sin-
terroger eux-mmes sur les reprages quil faudra faire, les laisser dabord libres de ragir et de
sexprimer lors de la dcouverte dun support, les laisser confronter leurs avis, prendre en compte et
exploiter ce quils ont dire, questionner ensuite, si besoin est, de manire plus cible.
Cest la raison pour laquelle lappareil pdagogique du manuel Projects 2
de
limite les questions, les
ractions premires des lves relevant souvent du prvisible mais non de la certitude.
Une dmarche dvaluation se caractrise gnralement par un questionnement directif. Ce type de
questionnement peut avoir son utilit, mais le privilgier pour solliciter la parole a des inconvnients
majeurs :
- il donne la communication le schma articiel des questions-rponses et donne ainsi aux l-
ves limpression que prendre la parole, cest dabord rpondre des questions que lon ne se pose
pas ncessairement demble ;
- il ne permet pas ceux qui nont pas bien saisi la question dintervenir ;
- il force llve un cheminement qui nest pas ncessairement le sien un moment donn et
contraint sa parole : llve doit rendre compte du sens dans lordre des questions, ordre qui peut
ne pas lui tre vident ;
- il limite lexpression discursive : une question ferme , on peut souvent rpondre par des
mots isols.
On peut utiliser le questionnement directif pour aider structurer la pense et la parole, mais il
convient de se souvenir que lon ne peut ordonner que lorsque lon a assez dlments ordonner.
On ne peut pas ordonner si lon ne sait pas ce que lon ordonne et dans quel but.
Par exemple, on demande souvent, lors de la premire dcouverte dun texte who? what?
where?. Or, les rponses ces questions peuvent parfois ntre donnes que lorsque lon a lu, que
lon sest interrog et que lon a construit, ou amorc la construction, du sens du texte.
De mme, lorsque lon donne une consigne du type : relevez dans le passage les mots qui mon-
trent que le personnage est en colre , on prend pour acquis le fait que la colre du personnage en
question est une vrit tablie. Une dmarche dentranement implique que les lves soient dabord
amens faire ressortir, par eux-mmes et par un guidage par le sens, ltat desprit du person-
nage, pour ensuite justier leur opinion, en se servant de ce quils connaissent de la situation et des
formes quils auraient pu saisir dans le texte.
La dmarche dentranement
Pour tous les textes, la dmarche dentranement implique que :
1. lors de sa prparation, le professeur
- parte effectivement du sens du document et de sa spcicit (quy a-t-il comprendre ? com-
ment est-ce transmis ?) ;
- fasse la part du factuel (quelle est lhistoire ?) et du moins factuel (quel est limplicite / quelles
sont les rfrences culturelles ou autres ?) ;
- fasse abstraction de ce que lui, professeur sait et a compris, pour mieux se mettre la place de
llve lorsquil dcouvre le document.
Dans chaque chapitre de ce guide, les rubriques Analyse du document donnent des indications
quant ces lments.

9. Dmarche dentranement / dmarche dvaluation 9. Dmarche dentranement / dmarche dvaluation


introduction.indd 15 5/10/07 11:37:28
16
2. en classe
- les lves aient linitiative de la prise de parole ;
- les avis de chacun soient confronts puis conrms ou inrms par retours au document ;
- le questionnement du professeur soit dabord le plus large possible pour pouvoir recueillir le
maximum davis.
Les dmarches suivies dans les rubriques Make sense du manuel Projects 2
de
sont caractrises par
un guidage par le sens et non par la forme, lobjectif tant daider les lves produire et restituer du
sens et non reproduire des formes (cette reproduction nimpliquant nullement que lon a compris
ce dont il sagit).
Comprhension du contexte et de la situation
Un message ne peut tre saisi que si lon connat le contexte et dans ce contexte, la situation particu-
lire dans laquelle sexpriment les personnes qui parlent. Pour la comprhension de lcrit comme
pour celle de loral, il est important de rendre clairs et accessibles tous le contexte et la situation
de dpart.
Les tapes anticipatives de before listening ou before reading servent examiner cette situa-
tion de dpart pour permettre aux lves de se mettre en condition , de mobiliser des hypothses
de sens en accord avec ce quils savent de ladite situation, ou du genre.
Les lves, en particulier ceux qui sont le moins laise, ont toujours du sens dans la tte mais les
formes leur manquent pour exprimer ce sens.
Do la ncessit de procder du sens vers la forme, puis de la forme vers le sens.
Pour la comprhension de lcrit comme pour celle de loral, un guidage par le sens habitue les l-
ves ne pas percevoir les formes comme des obstacles franchir : ils doivent tre entrans partir
du thme, de la situation, du connu, anticiper et prdire un contenu.
Identication du genre
Le genre auquel appartient le document peut aussi servir de base aux reprages ncessaires. Ainsi,
si lon sait que lon va lire, ou couter, un texte relevant dune enqute policire, on peut prvoir quels
reprages pourront tre importants.
Nature du document
Le guidage par le sens repose aussi sur le respect de la nature et de la spcicit des documents.
Un texte destin tre lu ne studie pas comme un texte destin tre entendu, un texte destin
tre entendu ne peut pas studier partir de son script, une vido ne studie pas comme un support
oral sans images.
Un texte tir de la presse ne studie pas comme un extrait duvre littraire ; un extrait de lm de
ction ne se regarde pas comme un documentaire but prcis.
On peut faire couter un texte crit, aprs son tude et quand son sens a t construit et saisi,
dans le but spcique de mettre en relief les liens entre sens et phonologie ; mais la lecture tant
une activit individuelle qui ncessite que lon puisse lire son rythme, on laissera dans un premier
temps les lves dcouvrir lcrit par eux-mmes.
tudier un texte oral avec le script sous les yeux ne peut en aucun cas favoriser lacquisition de
stratgies permettant la confrontation avec un ux sonore.
Un document vido a la particularit dassocier limage et le son. En consquence, pour en conduire
lexploitation, il faut dterminer o et comment lune et lautre :
- se compltent : limage aide alors gnralement comprendre le son ;
- sont redondants : on peut alors se passer du son pour comprendre ;

10. Guidage par le sens 10. Guidage par le sens


introduction.indd 16 5/10/07 11:37:29
17 Introduction
- sont dissocis : on doit prter attention au son, limage napportant que peu daide.
Ainsi le document Cell phones for kids p. 53 du manuel a la particularit de pouvoir tre saisi sans que la
reconnaissance exacte des formes, et les difcults quelles pourraient prsenter, constituent des obs-
tacles. Pour la construction du sens, nous avons donc choisi de diriger lattention des lves sur ce que
lon voit et sur lintonation des personnes, qui manifestement ragissent un objet qui leur est montr.
Un extrait de bande dessine a la particularit dassocier images parlantes (les actions, gestes,
mimiques et expressions des personnages sont explicites) et texte (qui a des fonctions diverses : ce
que disent les personnages, rsum dactions antrieures, explication dactions simultanes, etc.).
Il est en consquence ncessaire de dterminer jusquo les images sont parlantes et peuvent
se passer du texte pour transmettre le message, et en quoi les textes apportent ce que les images
ne montrent pas.
Le Make sense des trois bandes dessines p. 48 et p. 52 du manuel suit lanalyse des vignettes faite
en adquation avec leur spcicit (analyse prsente dans ce chier).
Type de textes
Ltude des textes selon leur type (narratif, informatif, argumentatif, etc. ) est aussi prendre en
compte. Il sera utile, sur ce point, de sintresser ce que les lves font en classe de franais o
types de textes, registres et genres sont abords ds le collge. Lentre par les types de textes fait
appel en rception des stratgies que les lves utilisent aussi en classe de franais et permet, en
production, de sappuyer sur des modles ables de construction du discours.
La place de lanalyse des formes
Le guidage par le sens nexclut pas lattention qui doit tre porte aux formes, pourvu que lon ne sen
serve pas comme entre royale dans le document. Les formes ne sont pas ngliger mais il est impor-
tant de ne pas en faire des entres privilgies dans le texte ; le prlvement de formes et leur restitu-
tion telles quelles par les lves nimpliquent pas ncessairement leur comprhension. Il est toujours
ncessaire de demander reformulations et explicitations.
Dans un texte crit
Les termes qui peuvent tre incompris sont soit :
- ncessaires ou une aide prcieuse au sens de lensemble mais difcilement infrables : dans ce
cas, il convient de les lucider avant lecture, et de ne pas hsiter, si le cas lexige, donner lqui-
valent en franais ;
- infrables : dans ce cas, on pourra demander une reformulation en anglais (la traduction, cest--
dire lquivalent formel en franais, pourra accessoirement tre demande en n dheure, comme
conrmation de ce qui a t compris) ;
- pas ncessaires au sens de lensemble et difcilement infrables : dans ce cas, on pourra les
ignorer ou rpondre aux demandes sil y en a. Une vrication la maison pourra tre requise, qui
devra toujours tre suivie dun retour notamment pendant la phase de travail lexical.
Partant de ces principes, par exemple, dans les trois textes p. 49 et 50 du manuel et aprs analyse
des textes, trs peu de vocables ncessitent un travail lexical en amont. Cest la raison pour laquelle
trs peu de notes de lexique sont donnes dans le manuel, quels que soient les textes crits.
Ceci rejoint aussi le principe partir du connu de llve : les supports ont t choisis de manire ce
que llve y reconnaisse toujours assez dlments sur lesquels sappuyer dans sa dcouverte. Pour
laider visualiser ces lments connus, qui sont souvent plus nombreux que ce quil peut simaginer,
un travail de surlignage est souvent demand llve. Ce travail, rendu possible par la reproduction
de certains documents dans le Logbook, permet ainsi de mettre en vidence ce qui est immdiate-
ment accessible aux lves. Dans la mesure o les rsultats de ce surlignage peuvent grandement
varier, nest propos dans le Logbook que le surlignage minimum que lon peut attendre.
Pour le professeur, lors de sa prparation, ce surlignage minimum montre quels termes ncessaires
au sens peuvent ne pas tre reconnus. Ils doivent en consquence tre lucids :
- soit directement (par exemple gold, texte 1, p. 49) ;
- soit par guidage pralable en rendant la situation de dpart accessible (par exemple gold rush,
texte 3, p. 50).
Dautres termes peuvent ne pas tre reconnus, mais sont retenir pour lexpression : dans ce cas, il

introduction.indd 17 5/10/07 11:37:30


18
convient dattirer lattention des lves sur ces termes sils peuvent tre infrs une fois le sens du
document construit (par exemple, by-product, texte 2, p. 49).
Comprhension de loral
La comprhension de loral est un entranement faire sens dun ux sonore. Ce sens est transmis
la fois par les formes et les indices suprasegmentaux. Les lves doivent pouvoir, aprs mise au clair
de la situation de dpart, reprer des intonations, accentuations, segmentations et des formes quils
pourront lier pour construire un sens logique et en accord avec cette situation de dpart.
Il ne sagit pas dtre immdiatement capable de rpter lidentique ce que lon a entendu mais de
dire ce que lon pense avoir compris. Do limportance de ne pas fragmenter lcoute phrase par
phrase mais plutt par bloc de sens ; et limportance dhabituer les lves utiliser leurs propres
mots pour restituer ce quils ont saisi.
Les obstacles que peuvent gnrer la saisie et lidentication de formes ne sont nanmoins pas
ngliger. Lon ne peut REconnatre, et donc identier, que ce que lon connat dj.
Des formes peuvent ne pas tre saisies parce quelles sont parfaitement inconnues, lcrit et donc
loral, parce quelles sont connues lcrit mais mconnaissables loral (theatre, par exem-
ple), parce quelles ne peuvent tre vraiment entendues , disparaissant pour des raisons relevant
de phnomnes phonologiques (cest le cas, par exemple, des auxiliaires ou autres mots gram-
maticaux ). Il sera utile pour le professeur de discerner au pralable quelles formes absolument
ncessaires au sens du message sont susceptibles de causer des problmes, et de proposer ces
formes - lcrit et loral - en jalon, lors de sances prcdant celle o le document sera tudi, ou
ventuellement lors de la phase dchauffement au dbut de la sance o le document sonore sera
abord, ou lors de la phase anticipative ltude de ce document.
Les scripts des enregistrements ne sont pas donns dans le manuel an que le professeur puisse
effectivement mener son travail danalyse du support sonore en coutant le document et se rendre
directement compte des particularits de chacun de ces supports.
Lactivit de comprhension orale est souvent peu aime des lves, qui lestiment difcile.
Cette attitude dcourage parfois les professeurs ou les incite, dans le but daider, poser nombre
de questions, qui ont souvent leffet inverse de leffet escompt. Ceci rend difcile lactivit pour
llve comme pour le professeur : poser une question juste aprs une coute peut court-circuiter la
mmoire immdiate et arrter les lves qui seraient capables de sexprimer sur ce quils viennent
dentendre (souvent les dernires rpliques) mais pas dans lordre choisi par le professeur (qui dans
sa logique personnelle commencera par le commencement). Ce point rejoint les remarques dj
faites sur entranement et valuation et explique labsence de questionnement dirigiste dans les
mises en uvre suggres dans le manuel Projects 2
de
.
Il est important de faire savoir aux lves que cette activit nest effectivement pas aise, et que
nous-mmes, professeurs, avons rencontr leurs difcults, mme pendant et aprs nos annes
dtudes universitaires : le son, la diffrence de lcrit, disparat aussi vite quil apparat, il na pas
dexistence tangible, les ux oraux sont ceux auxquels on est le moins expos. En situation authenti-
que, le sens est toujours ngociable, soit par des gestes et des mimiques, soit par interaction ngo-
ciation impossible lorsque lon coute la voix dsincarne qui vient dune machine.
Mais il est tout aussi important de ddramatiser cette activit : comprendre un ux sonore, ce
nest pas saisir le moindre mot, et la ngociation est possible, ceci prs quelle se fait en recueillant
et confrontant ce que les autres dans le groupe ont pu saisir et en retournant aux fragments impor-
tants qui restent incompris. Do, encore une fois, lextrme importance de donner aux lves lini-
tiative de la parole ainsi que des habitudes dinteractivit.
tape essentielle o llve (dans le Logbook, en n de chapitre) fait le point sur les tches quil a
ralises et les comptences quil a dveloppes tout au long du chapitre.
La partie What I have done peut tre renseigne la n du Step 2, mais il est peut-tre prfrable
que llve soit amen faire le point diffrents moments de lexploitation du chapitre, procder
11. Debrieng 11. Debrieng
introduction.indd 18 5/10/07 11:37:30
19 Introduction
par tapes. Un premier bilan peut tre fait la n du Step 1 puis un second la n du Step 2.
Llve est ensuite invit comparer ses rponses avec celles de ses camarades car, de mme quil
naura pas forcment renseign la logpage de faon identique, il naura pas ncessairement appris
les mmes choses que ses camarades au fur et mesure de lexploitation du chapitre. Par exemple,
un lve aura appris quelque chose sur la prononciation de tel ou tel mot, tandis quun autre aura
compris sa drivation, un autre ses synonymes possibles, etc.
La partie Where I stand est renseigner aprs la ralisation du projet nal. Llve est invit
se positionner relativement des descripteurs de comptence adapts du Cadre Europen, puis
reporter ses rsultats dans le Progress Booklet gurant p. 140 du Logbook, an de constater son
volution dans les diverses comptences tout au long de lanne.
La partie What I need to work on est une phase dactivits en autonomie, que llve dcide de faire
chez lui. Cette phase lui permet un entranement supplmentaire sur des savoir-faire cls du chapi-
tre. Il est important que lenseignant lui transmette un corrig des activits. Ces activits renvoient
aux descripteurs mentionns dans les parties What I have done et/ou Where I stand, parfois aussi
des stratgies donnes dans le manuel pour lexploitation de certains documents (par exemple, ici,
Identifying characters or understanding the plot). Elles ont t conues pour renforcer des savoir-
faire qui se seraient rvls consolider lors de la ralisation du projet nal. Nanmoins, en fonction
de leurs besoins et du dialogue pdagogique tabli avec lenseignant, les lves pourront effectuer
ces activits en cours de chapitre, aprs les valuations formatives des Over to you.
Quatre chapitres font lobjet dun entranement supplmentaire la comprhension orale (voir p. 279
de ce guide).
valuation des activits langagires de production
La rubrique Over to you peut tre utilise comme support dune valuation formative des activits
de production.
Le projet propos aux lves en n de chapitre est loccasion dune valuation sommative. Dans la
perspective actionnelle et dans le cadre dun travail ax sur les comptences, cette tche nale est
une valuation des savoirs et savoir-faire travaills en amont. Ce projet est toujours dans le manuel
une tche de production ; mais les activits de rception sont galement values.
valuation des activits langagires de rception
Des supports sonores et des textes complmentaires, en lien avec les thmes des projets, sont
proposs respectivement dans le CD audio pour la classe et dans ce chier. Pour chacun des docu-
ments, un appareil dvaluation et un barme sont galement fournis dans ce chier. Ils ont t
labors dans le souci de valoriser ce que llve sait faire.
Lvaluation de la comprhension soulve quelques questions :
Puisque lon value la comprhension et non la production, faut-il demander llve de restituer
ce quil a compris en anglais ou en franais ? Nous avons opt pour des consignes et des rponses
en anglais.
Dans ce cas de gure, faut-il valuer la correction de la langue ? Nous pensons que non. En consquence,
nous prconisons de ne pas pnaliser les erreurs linguistiques (morpho-syntaxe, orthographe).
Dans le cas particulier de la comprhension de loral, on peut donner la possibilit llve davoir
recours au franais pour manifester sa comprhension de formes quil ne sait pas orthographier.
valuation de la comprhension de loral
Modalits de passation :
Il est trs important quune phase danticipation prcde la premire coute. Laisser une ou deux
minutes pour cette phase danticipation. Cette phase doit tre individuelle et ne fait pas lobjet dune
mise en commun. Chaque che dvaluation distribuer aux lves et fournie dans ce guide doit

12. valuation 12. valuation


introduction.indd 19 5/10/07 11:37:31
donc comporter la consigne suivante : You are going to listen to... What do you expect to hear? Take
notes on a piece of paper. Sur une feuille de brouillon distincte de la che dvaluation, les lves
pourront rassembler leurs hypothses avant la premire coute et prendre des notes lors des cou-
tes successives. Nous conseillons de procder trois coutes et de laisser sufsamment de temps
aux lves entre chaque coute pour complter les informations quils ont prleves et les mettre en
relation. Une quatrime coute peut tre ncessaire selon le document.
Mtabarme
valuer la comprhension, cest mesurer la capacit faire du sens en liant et synthtisant des
lments pars prlevs dans un contexte donn. Le mtabarme valorise en consquence la mise
en relation des lments prlevs.
Le barme (sur 10, multiplier par deux pour obtenir une note sur 20 avant dy ajouter ventuelle-
ment le bonus) peut tre explicit au groupe :
- chaque ligne rend compte dun palier, cest--dire dun niveau de comptence ;
- ces paliers ne sont pas cumulatifs ;
- le professeur jugera quel palier se situe llve selon ses rponses et donnera la note qui lui
correspond, module ventuellement en fonction de la quantit de rponses donnes.
Il conviendra bien sr dexpliquer le fonctionnement de ce mtabarme aux lves.
Paliers de comprhension Points attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
1 2
selon quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte, conduisant
une comprhension lacunaire.
3 4
selon quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation.
Lessentiel est compris.
Des informations du palier ci-dessous peuvent dj gurer ici
5 8
Palier 4
Tout le contenu informatif est compris. Certains dtails signicatifs
du document sont relevs.
10
Note de llve = ./ 10
x 2 = ../ 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens 2
valuation de la comprhension de lcrit
Comme le recommande le Cadre Europen Commun de Rfrence pour les Langues, nous avons
pris le parti de ne pas valuer la comprhension par le truchement de lexpression. Lire, cest faire
du sens partir de formes prleves et mises en relation dans un contexte donn. Les barmes pro-
poss valorisent la mise en relation.
Pour le chapitre 10, deux types de grilles sont proposs, dont lune sappuie sur les principes qui
rgissent celles de la comprhension de loral. Pour le dernier chapitre (12), seul ce deuxime type
de grille est propos.
20
introduction.indd 20 5/10/07 11:37:32
PROJECT
1
Boarding now
Sommaire du chapitre Boarding now
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 22
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 12)
Make sense: Jamaica: a few facts (book, p. 13)
Over to you (book, p. 13)
Make sense: About South Africa (book, p. 15)
Over to you (book, p. 15)
Recap (book, p. 15)
p. 23
p. 25
p. 26
p. 27
p. 28
p. 28
S
t
e
p

2Make sense: A Kenyan Diary (book, p. 17)
Over to you (book, p. 17)
Recap (book, p. 17)
p. 29
p. 30
p. 30
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
sWords (book, p. 18 / logbook, p. 4)
Listening (book, p. 18)
Speaking (book, p. 18)
p. 30
p. 32
p. 32
Your project (book, p. 20)
Debrieng (book, p. 22 / logbook, p. 13)
valuation de la comprhension
/
Logpage (logbook, p. 3)
p. 34
p. 37
p. 37
p. 39
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 23
1 sance

Make sense: Jamaica: a few facts p. 25
Over to you p. 26
2 sances dont une en demi-groupes

Make sense: About South Africa p. 27
1 sance

Over to you p. 28

Recap p. 28
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
(CDI - Salle multimdia)
Recap possible en valuation
STEP 2

Make sense: A Kenyan diary p. 29
1 sance
Over to you p. 30
Recap p. 30
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
ou bien classe entire avec laide de
lassistant
Recap possible en valuation
YOUR PROJECT p. 34
VALUATION : 1 sance, voire 2
Possible en demi-groupes
- soit prise de parole devant un
auditoire
- soit prise de parole pour enregistre-
ment (audacity labo de langues)
- soit enregistrement effectuer par
llve en dehors de la classe

21 Project 1 - Boarding now


project1.indd 21 5/10/07 11:47:39
Ce chapitre douverture vise assurer la liaison
entre le collge et le lyce.
Pour permettre tous les lves de prendre place
bord du cours danglais, les tches proposes dans
ce chapitre sont de niveau A2+ / B1, et le projet
est ax sur la production orale, activit langagire
dominante pratique au collge.
Au terme de lexploitation du projet Boarding now,
llve sera invit choisir un pays du monde anglo-
phone comme destination de voyage et expliquer
les raisons de son choix. Il sagira donc dune prise
de parole en continu dont les modalits peuvent tre
multiples, selon les choix pdagogiques de lensei-
gnant et le matriel dont il dispose. Il conviendra sans
doute pour cette entre dans le manuel de prendre
le temps den faire dcouvrir le fonctionnement aux
lves et de mettre en place des modalits de tra-
vail auxquelles ils ne sont peut-tre pas habitus. La
charge des activits et des documents proposs est
de ce fait mesure pour viter tout enlisement.
Ce projet renvoie la notion dnie par le pro-
gramme du vivre ensemble en socit et plus
spciquement au thme des changes.
Le chapitre se droule en deux tapes qui vont per-
mettre llve de raliser le projet nal : Step 1
consiste collecter un ensemble dinformations
objectives sur diffrents pays anglophones, par-
tir dune che de synthse (Logpage) labore col-
lectivement grce aux connaissances pralables
des lves ; Step 2 consiste aborder un pays de
manire plus subjective travers un rcit de voyage
intgrant des commentaires personnels.
Types de texte
En n de parcours, il est demand aux lves din-
former, de dcrire et dexpliquer leurs choix. En

consquence, si les supports proposs sont de


sources et de natures diffrentes, les textes tudis
sont de type informatif, descriptif et apprciatif.
Cur de sens
Le cur de sens du chapitre repose sur les notions de
gnral/particulier. On retrouvera ces deux notions
la fois dans les activits de recherche et de classement
et dans les faits de langue, tels que la dtermination,
lemploi du prsent simple pour les faits gnraux, ou
encore les phnomnes daccentuation.
Comptences gnrales et individuelles
- largir ses connaissances du monde anglophone.
Rechercher des informations, les trier, les classer
et les organiser.
- Expliciter et motiver ses choix face un public.
Activits langagires
-

: Reprer dans la chane sonore les informa-
tions les plus importantes : faits, dates et chiffres.
-

: Reprer les informations importantes en
saidant de la mise en page et des titres.
- : Parler partir de notes, reformuler, ajouter
des informations, marquer des emphases.
- : Prendre des notes les organiser.
Outils linguistiques
- Prsent simple, dtermination du nom, quanti-
eurs, relatives, interrogatives.
- Sons voyelles (}I}, }i:}, }aI} en particulier) ; accen-
tuation des mots termins par -ogy, -aphy, -omy,
-ity, et -ion ; rapport graphie-phonie : <ee> et <ea>.
- Lexique li la gographie, lconomie, la population,
lhistoire et lhritage culturel, la faune et la ore.
- Dialecte et accent (Jamaque).

22
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE
p Voir introduction, p. 14 de ce guide.
Dans le step 1, on constituera les diffrentes rubri-
ques de la logpage partir des productions dl-
ves et de leurs suggestions de classement. La
logpage pourra donc tre organise de manire un
peu diffrente de celle que nous proposons ici et
lon ne visera pas lexhaustivit des rubriques. Elle
sera ensuite utilise tout au long de lunit pour
les trois pays cibls (Jamaica, South Africa, Kenya)
ainsi que pour New Zealand, pays abord dans les
Language skills. Elle sera utilise lors des phases
de rcapitulation, en rception, mais aussi et lors
des phases de production (recherche dinforma-
tions, organisation, restitution) en particulier lors
des Over to you et du projet nal.
diffrents points du chapitre, lenseignant pourra
dcider de coner une logpage sur transparent
certains lves secrtaires puis rtro-projettera
celle-ci lensemble de la classe qui pourra ragir
sur la prise de notes : sagit-il bien dune prise de
notes ? Certaines informations sont-elles inexac-
tes ? Certaines formulations revoir ? Certaines
informations importantes sont-elles absentes ?
p Voir logpage renseigne, p. 39 de ce guide.
project1.indd 22 5/10/07 11:47:40
Book p. 12 Transparent n 3
STEP 1
Book p. 12 Transparent n 3
STEP 1
Phase dchauffement
p Voir introduction, p. 13 de ce guide.
Cette phase constitue une aide pour entrer dans la
thmatique et comprendre la structure du projet.
Par exemple :
a. Formule document inconnu : image douverture
p. 11 (ou projection du transparent n4). Con-
signes possibles :
- Look at the picture p. 11 and tell the class what
you can see and what you can guess. Be ready to
justify.
- These are photos I took during my holidays. Where
do you think Ive been?
- I got some postcards from my friends. Guess
where they have been.
b. Formule questionnement professeur :
Ive travelled to different countries / Ive been
abroad. Guess where I have been.
Lancer au besoin et faire rpter : Have you been
to ? Lorsque les lves auront dcouvert quatre
ou cinq pays, on peut relancer le questionnement :
Ask me questions about these different countries.
c. Formule questionnement inter-lves : In pairs,
interview your class-mate about one of his / her
trips in France / abroad, then report to the class.
Pour les sances suivantes :
Choisir le thme du chapitre pour la phase dchauf-
fement prparer la maison :
- Warming up next time: get ready to talk about an
English-speaking country you have been to / bring
photos of (a trip to) an English-speaking country
/ talk about a lm, or about music from a country
where English is spoken, etc.
Les noncs des lves seront valoriss par le pro-
fesseur qui pourra demander de rpter, de refor-
muler avant de passer la trace crite. Celle-ci
xera lessentiel du travail ralis en classe et sera
un panachage des noncs produits par les lves
ou la transcription dune prise de parole dun lve.
Le professeur pourra bien sr enrichir lexpression.
En trace crite on pourra par exemple trouver, si on
a adopt la premire formule :
This is the Statue of Liberty in New York City and
the American flag/star-spangled banner. The Statue
of Liberty was given to the US by France at the end of
the 19th century.
We dont really know where the photo in the top right
hand corner was taken, perhaps in India, or in Paki-
stan.
Its difcult to say where the photo in the bottom
right-hand corner was taken because we dont recog-
nize the ag. Maybe in . Well have to look it up.
3
Nous suggrons, ce stade du chapitre, de ne pas
donner toutes les solutions pour mettre aussi les
lves en apptit de recherche ; les activits suivan-
tes permettront de rpondre leurs questions.
Suggestions pour amener les lves compren-
dre la structure du chapitre :
Lenseignant peut alors choisir de prsenter le pro-
jet nal et les deux tapes qui permettront llve
de raliser ce projet. Dans ce premier chapitre, il
parat en effet essentiel dexpliquer la dmarche qui
sous-tend le manuel. On peut choisir de question-
ner les lves : what do you have to know and what
do you have to practise on to be able to carry out
the project? On pourra galement faire expliciter
la signication des pictogrammes correspondant
chaque activit langagire.
Start from what you know
tat des lieux des connaissances des lves (non
seulement en anglais mais aussi gnrales) et orga-
nisation de celles-ci pour constituer un l conduc-
teur qui servira tout au long du projet : the country
fact le (= la logpage de ce chapitre, logbook p. 3).
On dveloppera ainsi les aptitudes des lves faire
des liens entre les diffrentes matires, classer et
mettre en rseau leurs connaissances.
Il sagit ici :
- dune ractivation des acquis ;
- dune mobilisation des connaissances disciplinai-
res et transversales ;
- dun classement et mise en rseau. Entranement
repris dans la deuxime partie du Step 1.
1 Focalisation sur les pays anglophones et bref
rappel de leur histoire.
Le professeur pourra demander aux lves de se
souvenir de tous les pays cits et didentier ceux
o lon parle anglais.
English is spoken in India because it was a British
colony / it was part of the British Empire.
English is spoken all over the world because Britain
had / used to have many colonies.
Pour complter la liste des pays anglophones, on
peut inviter les lves utiliser la carte p. IV-V en n
de manuel ou projeter le transparent n 3.
On veillera mettre en place la prononciation et
dj la dtermination des noms de pays, dans une
activit de rcapitulation orale au rythme soutenu.
2 Activit en trois temps :
a. Activit de reprage :
partir des titres, des photos et de leurs lgendes.
La localisation des pays sur une carte peut-tre
3
23 Project 1 - Boarding now
project1.indd 23 5/10/07 11:47:44
24
plus problmatique ; on peut mettre en place north,
south, west, east avant de lancer lactivit.
Productions possibles :
Jamaica is located / lies south of Cuba. It is part of
the West Indies.
- South Africa is at the southern tip of Africa, where
the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean meet / is the
southernmost country of Africa.
- Kenya is also a country of the African continent. It lies
on the eastern coast of Africa. It is north of Tanzania,
south of Ethiopia and Somalia, and east of Uganda.
b. Mutualisation et questionnement :
La phase dchauffement, de prparation au thme,
aura sans doute donn loccasion de rebrasser
quelques questions. Toutefois, il semble ncessaire
de laisser un temps de rexion aux lves pour
rchir dautres questions. Cette phase de pr-
paration peut tre faite en binmes pour favoriser
la mise en conance ; il semblerait excessif de lui
consacrer plus de cinq minutes.
Partage des informations : celui-ci peut se faire
selon plusieurs modalits. On peut coner un
transparent vierge deux secrtaires (qui noteront
au fur et mesure des changes les questions pro-
duites par la classe) ou demander deux/trois l-
ves en mme temps de venir au tableau et dcrire
les questions tour de rle pour gagner du temps.
Les questions produites par les lves devront faire
lobjet dauto ou dinter-correction ainsi que dune
lucidation avant le passage lcrit.
Demander tous les lves de complter leur liste
de questions. lissue de cette tape, il faudra
sassurer que toutes les questions sont comprises
(demander des reformulations au besoin).
c. Rcapitulation rapide des diffrents thmes
mentionns, avec toujours un souci de mise en place
de la prononciation. On peut procder un travail en
chane, chaque lve apportant une rponse avec ses
notes sous les yeux. Possibilit de ritrer lexercice,
cette fois cahier ferm pour obliger au geste datten-
tion et assurer un dbut de mmorisation.
3 Notons quen fonction du temps consacr aux
premires activits, il est possible pour le profes-
seur de demander aux lves de prparer les ques-
tions 3a et 3b la maison.
a. Premire activit de classement, du particulier
au gnral ou du gnral au particulier. Le dvelop-
pement de ce savoir-faire est essentiel pour organi-
ser ses recherches et son discours.
Diverses techniques, dont :
- Travail en binmes sur un temps limit : Group the
topics under general headings.
- Proposer des headings (geography, economy, his-
tory, population) et demander un classement
3
rapide : diffrents groupes prennent en charge
une rubrique et proposent les topics qui pourraient
constituer cette rubrique.
Geography: landscape, climate, location, rivers and
mountains, area, capital city, natural resources
Economy: resources, agriculture, industry, currency
History: ag , political system
Culture: music, food, language, clothes, crafts, arts
Population: name of the inhabitants, standard of
living, famous people
La mise en commun peut donner lieu des pha-
ses dinteraction dans la mesure o certains topics
relvent de diffrentes catgories.
natural resources : I think its part of geography.
- I dont agree with you X, I think we can also place
it under economy.
b. Il conviendra daccorder une attention toute
particulire la mise en commun qui suivra,
puisquil sagira de mettre en place linteraction
et la prise de notes pour complter la logpage.
Pour stimuler cette interaction, quelques stratgies
possibles :
- Expliquer les rgles du jeu avant de commencer :
faire lire et mmoriser les questions qui se trouvent
dans le manuel (Can you explain: rephrase?).
Obligation pour les lves dintervenir au moins
deux fois pendant la prise de parole de leurs cama-
rades et dutiliser certaines de ces questions. Pour
rendre llve conscient de ses productions, on peut
lui demander de matrialiser ses interventions par
une croix en marge de sa logpage.
- Coner deux ou trois lves-secrtaires un
transparent vierge, sur lequel ils transcriront la
logpage telle qutablie en a pour la mise en com-
mun de lactivit 3b : ils seront responsabiliss et
demanderont de laide. Sils se tournent vers leur
voisin pour obtenir les informations de manire
silencieuse, proter de loccasion pour leur faire
formuler leurs questions en anglais.
- Faire ragir les lves partir du transparent
complt par les secrtaires, que lon projettera.
Lenseignant pourra proter de ces changes pour
mettre en place une interaction directe, en deman-
dant aux lves de se regarder et de sappeler par
leur prnom : il sagit en effet de faire prendre
conscience aux lves que toute communication ne
doit pas passer par le professeur, et de dsactiver
les rexes qui consistent toujours passer par son
intermdiaire. Pour aider le passage de cette com-
munication triangulaire une communication
duelle lenseignant peut aussi se placer derrire
llve qui parle.
3
3
project1.indd 24 5/10/07 11:47:47
25 Project 1 - Boarding now
Jamaica: a few facts
Book p. 13
Jamaica: a few facts
Book p. 13
Analyse du document
Ce premier document vido est un documentaire
ralis par lofce du tourisme de la Jamaque ; il
fait donc la promotion du pays, mais comporte aussi
bon nombre dinformations factuelles.
Il ne prsente pas de relle difcult de compr-
hension, dans la mesure o limage et le son sont
redondants.
Toutefois, llve sera amen reprer des infor-
mations trs prcises des dates et des chiffres en
particulier.
Mise en uvre
Il nous semble utile, avant mme daborder le docu-
ment vido, de sensibiliser les lves au phnomne
de ralentissement du dbit lorsque les informations
donnes sont importantes. Nous suggrons donc
de commencer par dvelopper cette stratgie de
reprage partir de lactivit 1 de Language skills,
p. 18 du manuel. Lors de ce chapitre douverture,
il est probable que les lves auront besoin du
guidage de lenseignant ; il semble ncessaire de
mener cette activit prparatoire en classe, alors
quen cours danne elle pourra faire lobjet dun
travail pralable en autonomie. Il est souhaitable,
comme souvent, de sappuyer sur la comparaison
avec la langue franaise en faisant dcrire ce qui
se passe en termes de dbit quand des informa-
tions plus importantes que dautres sont transmi-
ses (During a conversation, what do you do when
you want to transmit important information?)
On pourra galement demander aux lves de
redire en franais ce quils ont compris de lenregis-
trement sur Jersey (Language skills, activit 1 p. 18
et CD lve, piste n 2) en attirant leur attention sur
le ralentissement du dbit lors de la transmission
dinformations factuelles essentielles. (Voir corrig
de cette activit, p. 32 de ce guide.)
Make sense
4 Phase dmission dhypothses, en grand
groupe, rythme soutenu car il sagit dun nouveau
rebrassage des lments du country fact le dans le
contexte de la Jamaque (+ exploitation des photos
p. 13).
5 Dissociation image et son pour permettre
llve de mieux comprendre et de mettre en uvre
une stratgie dcoute. Couper le son lors du 1
er
vi-
sionnage.
Productions possibles (qui pourront donner lieu
une trace crite) :
We have seen mountains, forests, water-falls, and
the sea, so Id say well learn something about the
landscapes.

3
- There will probably be information about the history
of the country: we saw an old man, ships and battles,
different ags. I didnt have time to identify them.
- There was something about slaves, I think, but I
dont know what that means.
- At the end, there are pictures of a festival I think. A
carnival? So something about culture.
- We can see a lot of people: they all look happy. It
must be about people in Jamaica and maybe their ori-
gins, because they all look different.
ce stade, le groupe pourra dj fournir des l-
ments dlucidation : slaves, ags, the old man, par
exemple.
Le visionnage de la vido avec le son permettra de
valider ou non les hypothses et dobtenir des infor-
mations complmentaires.
6 Mise en uvre des stratgies dcoute explici-
tes en amont.
Quelques suggestions :
- Possibilit de rpartir les tches : chaque groupe
sera charg dun topic de manire plus prcise.
- Prendre telles quelles, au tableau, toutes les pro-
positions des lves : les dates et les chiffres seront
probablement reprs et interprts de mani-
res diffrentes : en proter pour renforcer la mise
en place de linteraction : I dont agree with you X,
I think ..
- Prendre en note les problmes de comprhen-
sion sous forme de questions qui constitueront les
objectifs dune nouvelle coute.
landscapes land of wood and water
history
Ameridians
1494: Columbus
1565: Spanish / British
1655:
1838:
1962: independence
Nowadays:
culture
carnival time: colourful,
rhythm, happy
African inuence
+ British traditions
people
multi-cultural society
people with different
nationalities
motto???????
many / one?????
Nouveau visionnage : on peut cette fois cacher
limage pour que les lves se concentrent sur le
son an de lever les dernires interrogations.
project1.indd 25 5/10/07 11:47:49
26
landscapes
land of wood and water
the land I have ever seen?
(stratgie de compensation :
most beautiful donner fairest)
history
Amerindians
1494: Columbus
Spanish colony
+ African slaves on sugarcane
and banana plantation
1655: battle Spain / Britain
Jamaica under British rule.
1838: end of slavery
1962: independence
culture
carnival time: colourful /
rhythm/happy
African inuence
+ British traditions
people
multi-cultural society
people with different nationalities
many people make one country
= out of many, one people = a
motto
Vraisemblablement motto posera problme aux
lves ; si tel est le cas on pourra leur donner le
mot devise en franais.
Rcapitulation des informations : procder par
topic pour habituer les lves organiser leur prise
de parole.
Productions possibles :
Concerning the landscapes, we have seen lots of
forests and water-falls and it is probably the reason
why Amerindians / the first inhabitants called it the
land of wood and water. Anyway, it is a very beautiful
island, the most beautiful Christopher Columbus had
ever seen.
- Regarding Jamaican history, we have learnt that
it was inhabited by Amerindians before Christopher
Columbus discovered it in 1492. After his discovery, a
lot of Spanish colonizers came to the island and they
brought African slaves to work on sugarcane and
banana plantations.
In 1655 there was a battle between the Spanish and
the British : the British won and Jamaica became a
British colony.
- Concerning the people
lissue de la trace crite, qui relve dune autre
phase du cours et dont on nattend pas bien sr
quelle reprenne mot pour mot les productions pos-
sibles ci-dessus, on pourra demander aux lves
de souligner les verbes et de diffrencier les infor-
mations dordre gnral, qui concernent encore le
prsent, de celles plus particulires qui renvoient
des vnements passs.
On peut galement entraner la lecture haute
voix en dcoupant les groupes de soufe, ou bien
3
choisir dinsister sur la mise en place dun phonme
particulier qui pose problme au groupe.
Enn, on pourra pousser un peu lexploitation du
document :
- Do you think the information is presented in a neu-
tral way? Argue your point.
7 Dernier visionnage : avant daborder les acti-
vits a et b, demander aux lves de quelle faon
son et images sont lis dans ce documentaire pour
faire verbaliser la stratgie de comprhension don-
ne p. 13.
On pourra enn conseiller aux lves, la maison :
- de rcouter lenregistrement de lactivit 1 p. 18
(piste 2 du CD lve) pour dvelopper lacuit auditive,
- de sentraner prononcer les sons voyelles (page
II du manuel et piste 1 du CD lve).
Over to you
8 Nouvelle occasion dutiliser, et ventuelle-
ment de complter ou corriger, les informations
gurant sur la logpage.
Suggestions :
Rebrassage du questionnement. On en protera pour
sensibiliser les lves lintonation des questions.
On pourra galement entraner la production de
gap-llers : well, er / I mean
De mme on incitera les lves dvelopper leurs
rponses en utilisant leur logpage : quelles infor-
mations peuvent tre des lments de rponse
la question ? En ce dbut danne, il est important
dentraner les lves dvelopper leurs rponses.
Lactivit de production orale donnera lieu une
trace crite, retant les changes.
Productions possibles :
3 - Is London the capital city of Jamaica? (intona-
tion montante)
- No, its Kingston. It is located on the countrys south-
eastern coast.
- Whats the area of Jamaica? (intonation descend-
ante)
- Well, er I think it has a total area of 10,990 sq km
(4,243 sq miles); its 235 km (146 miles) NS and 82
km (51 miles) EW. Compared to France it is much
smaller.
- Is Jamaica situated in the Pacic Ocean?
- No, it is in the Caribbean Sea. It is about 500 miles
south of Florida.
- Can you describe the Jamaican ag?
- Well its a bit difcult lets see it has a diago-
nal gold cross, and four triangles: the top and bot-
tom triangles are green, the other two are black. I
think the gold colour symbolizes sunshine and natu-
ral resources; black represents hardships, I mean
project1.indd 26 5/10/07 11:47:51
27 Project 1 - Boarding now
problems people have or had; green, agriculture and
hope for the future.
- Yes, one thing Id like to add the ag came into use
in 1962 when Jamaica became independent.
Les traces crites pourront galement servir de
support des entranements de prononciation,
reprenant ce qui a t observ lors de lcoute :
accentuation lintrieur de lnonc. On matriali-
sera alors dans la trace crite les lments accen-
tus, par exemple en les soulignant.
On pourra galement choisir de matrialiser dans
la trace crite les gap-llers qui seront mis en
place.
Enn, selon les besoins des lves, le professeur
pourra choisir de faire mmoriser certains des
noncs produits.
Analyse du document
Adaptation dune page web. Lobjectif de ce document
est de faire prlever rapidement, dans un texte infor-
matif, des informations importantes. Il sagit den-
traner les lves balayer une page des yeux pour
savoir si elle contient des lments dignes dintrt
pour la recherche en cours. Au-del de la mise en
place de ces stratgies de lecture, lambition est de
doter les lves de techniques de recherche en vue
dutiliser des encyclopdies de manire plus efcace,
ou de pouvoir naviguer de manire plus autonome
sur Internet. Il conviendra galement dattirer leur
attention sur le degr de abilit des sources.
Make sense
1 Cette premire activit consiste prcisment
faire prendre conscience aux lves des stratgies
utilises pour trouver rapidement des informations.
Laisser un temps trs court pour parcourir la page
des yeux. Il sera ainsi possible dobtenir des non-
cs divergents, qui pourront tre sources dinterac-
tion. Il est essentiel de faire justier les rponses.
I think well find information about the climate of
South Africa, because there is a paragraph called
Geography and climate.
- Maybe well read something about animals and plants,
as it is announced under essential information.
- I dont think so. Its not on the page itself but we can
read it on the website.
2 a. On attirera lattention des lves sur la
consigne : Note down key words only. Il est en effet
trs important, lors de cette activit de prlvement
dindices, de limiter la prise de notes des mots-cls
pour mettre en place par la suite la reformulation et
viter le copi/coll , qui ne permettra pas aux
lves de se faire comprendre de leurs camarades.
b. La deuxime tape de lactivit consistera pr-
cisment sentraner en groupes la reformu-

3
lation partir des mots-cls. Lenseignant pourra
tre amen, dans les groupes, donner un exemple
de ce quil attend : les lves doivent tre compris
par leurs camarades, donc tre prts expliquer ce
quils veulent dire.
considerable variation in climate as well as topo-
graphy: I understand that the climate is very different
in different areas of South Africa. Well, er I mean in
some areas it rains quite often and sometimes it can
be very dry.
- the rainbow nation: South Africa is called the
rainbow nation: what is a rainbow?
- Well, you can see a rainbow in the sky when the sun
shines through the rain, its a half circle with seven
colours.
- I think South Africa is called the rainbow nation
because it is a country where people have different
origins, different cultures, different colours.
c. On protera de cette troisime tape, pour stimu-
ler linteraction (cf. Question 3b du Start from what
you know p. 24 de ce guide)
3 Synthse du travail de comprhension partir
de la lecture de lensemble du document + illustra-
tions. Rcapitulation collective.
On pourra obtenir par exemple des noncs du type :
We have learnt quite a lot about South Africa.
- Regarding the geography of South Africa, we have
learnt that the country lies at the southern tip of
Africa and it is a big country: it has an area of 1.22
million square km.
- It is bigger than France / more than twice as big as
France.
- Concerning landscapes and climate, we can say that
they vary a lot, depending on the area you are in. The
southern and eastern regions are mountainous, the cen-
tral part of the country is a plateau. In general, South
Africa has a temperate climate and plenty of sunshine.
- The capital city is Pretoria and it is located in the
northeastern part of South Africa, not very far from
3
3
About South Africa
Book p. 14
project1.indd 27 5/10/07 11:47:52
28
Johannesburg, which is the largest and richest city in
the country.
- Talking about the economy of the country
- Concerning history, its interesting to notice that the
Dutch settled there in the middle of the 17th century
and the British settled down there too in the early 19th
century.
I think both the British and the Dutch wanted to
rule the country and this led to a war: the Boer War
between 1899 and 1902. The British won and ruled the
whole country. It became independent in 1934, and, in
1961, it became a republic. At that time the Apartheid
system prevailed. It was a racial constitution.
Non-Whites were not allowed to live in the same areas
as whites, I mean they were separated and they didnt
have the same rights. This system was brought to an
end in 1990; then Non Whites could vote and Nelson
Mandela was elected president.
- Regarding architecture, we can see different types of
houses: in Cape Town (photo in the bottom right-hand
corner) there are modern buildings but also old hou-
ses, like European houses but p. 15, in the top right-
hand corner, we can see a typical South African home
with walls painted in bright colours, with geometrical
patterns.
Over to you
4 Les lves vont tre invits mettre en pratique
leurs nouveaux acquis mthodologiques pour effec-
tuer des recherches complmentaires et dvelopper
leur savoir faire en termes de production orale.
Il sera souhaitable pour cette sance de retenir le
CDI ou la salle multimdia. Il est galement envisa-
geable de retenir les deux si le documentaliste de
ltablissement peut participer la sance en pre-
nant en charge, sur une demi-sance du module, la
moiti des lves pour les guider dans lutilisation
des ressources dont dispose le CDI.
Activit en trois temps :
a. Les lves effectuent leurs recherches et com-
pltent donc leur logpage, laide de mots-cls,
pour les deux pays concerns.
b. Lactivit de prparation la prise de parole consis-
tera sentraner reformuler partir des mots-cls
et aussi rpter voix basse pour permettre une
mise en bouche, rvlant les ventuelles difcults
de prononciation et la ncessit de demander de
laide (professeur pairs dictionnaire).
c. Lors des changes dinformations, on insistera
sur linteraction en utilisant, entre autres techni-
ques, celles dj mentionnes plus haut.
Notons que les activits Language Skills pourront
tre faites en amont du Over to you.
Recap
Premire tape o les lves font le bilan de ce
quils ont appris. Cette activit peut faire lobjet
dune valuation individuelle du lexique, loral
puisquil sagit de prparer au projet de prise de
parole. Les critres qui auront t communiqus
la classe pourront prcisment tre des critres
de prononciation (sons vocaliques, accentuation) et
dorganisation du lexique.
Les lves qui ne sont pas interrogs auront pour
tche de complter ou corriger ce qui a t dit par
leurs camarades, ou bien encore dillustrer un mot
en se rfrant un pays particulier.
Productions possibles :
music: Reggae is one of the most popular types
of music in Jamaica. Bob Marley is one of the most
famous Jamaican singers
3
Book p. 16
STEP 2
Book p. 16
STEP 2
Lobjectif de la seconde tape est damener les l-
ves exprimer des lments dapprciation per-
sonnels sur les diffrents pays anglophones, en
sappuyant sur ltude dun journal de voyage au
Kenya.
Phase dchauffement
On pourra inviter les lves ragir sur les connais-
sances quils viennent dacqurir :
- What did you nd surprising / interesting / shock-
ing about South Africa?
Well, er what I found surprising is that Black Afri-
cans did not have the right to vote until the 1990s.
3
project1.indd 28 5/10/07 11:47:53
29 Project 1 - Boarding now
A Kenyan diary
Book p. 16
A Kenyan diary
Book p. 16
Analyse des documents
La lecture de ces extraits dun mme journal de
voyage doit permettre aux lves de dcouvrir
diffrentes facettes du Kenya travers les com-
mentaires de lauteur et, ce faisant, de leur donner
des outils langagiers pour non seulement infor-
mer, mais aussi donner des lments dapprcia-
tion.
Les quatre textes proposs sont reproduits dans le
logbook an que les lves puissent y surligner ce
quils comprennent, annoter les textes, etc. Il peut
tre utile ce stade de leur montrer (via un rtro-
projecteur par exemple) comment le surlignage et
les annotations peuvent les aider la comprhen-
sion.
Make sense
1 Cette tape Before reading doit faire lobjet
dune prise de parole collective.
Lors de cette phase d anticipation , demander aux
lves sils savent dj quelque chose de ce pays, et
ce que les images peuvent leur permettre den devi-
ner : ceci pourra faire produire du lexique et des
structures utiles (wildlife safari, poor areas, slums,
dirty, tribes, sticks, red cloth, shield, food, vegetables,
variety).
Mettre au tableau ce qui sera propos : ces repres
pourront aider la comprhension et faciliter las-
sociation texte/photo qui fait lobjet de ltape sui-
vante.
2 Plusieurs tapes dans cette question, aprs
rpartition des lves par groupes (changement
rapide de la disposition de la classe : groupes de 4 :
on retourne les chaises).
a. Nouvel entranement la prise dindices rapide
et association texte/photo.
b. Il peut tre ncessaire, avant de passer au sur-
lignage :
- de faire relire le passage en entier ;
- davoir une mise en commun orale au sein de cha-
que groupe : Say what you have understood.
Puis, phase de reprage prcis matrialis par le
surlignage. Utilisation de couleurs diffrentes pour
procder au tri des informations. Stratgies trans-
frables, sur lesquelles on pourra revenir avec les
lves aprs ltape daccs au sens.
Trois rubriques renseigner (place, description,
narrators opinion), donc trois couleurs diffrentes
pour surligner le texte. De plus, les lves ne doi-
vent reprer que les lments essentiels, et non les
dtails.
Exemple pour le premier extrait (transfrable aux
extraits suivants) :
Jubilee Market is an extraordinary place
crowded, noisy, extremely colourful with
large halls specializing in wet sh, dried
sh, vegetables, nuts and other farm
commodities. Every stall was more
neatly arranged and more richly coloured than
any I had seen before anywhere. It seemed
impossible that people so poor could enjoy
such plenty.
I asked Adam if it was as good as it
looked.
Oh, yeah, he said. Kenyans havent
got much money, but they are very particular
about their food.
Bill Bryson, Bill Brysons African Diary (2002)
crowded, noisy, extremely colourful
large halls
sh, vegetables, nuts
arranged
Puis phase de prise de notes/mots-cls : essentiel
de dissocier la prise de notes des textes surligns si
lon veut viter la simple lecture oralise de ce que
les lves ont repr :
noisy, crowded
market
narrator:
surprised
poor people /
a lot of good
food
extraordinary,
colourful,
neatly
arranged,
clean
food, vegetables, dry fish
wet fish, farm commodities:
(eggs, milk, chicken)
ventuellement, en fonction des lves, on peut
ici procder un temps de prparation la prise
de parole.
Encourager le recours aux gap-llers.
c.-d. Prise de parole partir de la prise de notes et
partage des informations avec la classe. On insistera
une fois encore sur les tches dcoute et la mise en
place de linteraction : on peut, lors de ce chapitre
douverture, forcer un peu les interventions en sas-
surant la complicit de quelques lves chargs de
demander des prcisions (cf. step 1, start from what
you know, question 3. b., p. 24 de ce guide).
e. Dernire phase : lecture de tous les textes et uti-
lisation de la logpage pour prparer la synthse.
Notons que cette dernire phase peut constituer le
travail la maison.
3 Synthse du travail de comprhension :
- aura galement pu faire lobjet dun travail prpa-
ratoire,
- donnera lieu une prise de parole collective,
- constituera la base de la trace crite,
description
project1.indd 29 5/10/07 11:47:55
30
- trace crite qui pourra ensuite servir de support
une lecture oralise : stress and meaning.
Productions possibles :
In his diary Bill Bryson depicts different aspects of
a country he has visited: Kenya.
One day he went to a market and he was very
surprised by what he saw. The market was an extra-
ordinary place, with lots of people, a lot of noise
and many colours / it was crowded, noisy, colourful.
But what surprised him most was the food: there was
a lot of good food, for example / like / such as sh,
vegetables He didnt expect Kenyans to be so particular
about their food / to choose their food so carefully.
Les structures what surprised him most was that /
he didnt expect to pourront faire lobjet :
- de mmorisation dans le cadre du cours partir
de jeux sur la prononciation,
- de remplois pour la rcapitulation des diffrents
extraits,
- de transfert dans la question Over to you.
Over to you
NB : En amont du Over to you, on aura pu charger
certains lves de rechercher des complments
dinformation sur le Kenya et de les partager avec
la classe, ce qui donnera lieu une prise de notes
sur la logpage.
4 Cette activit peut tre mene en demi-grou-
pes ou bien avec laide de lassistant(e).
Pour rpondre cette question, les lves vont tre
invits mettre en relation leurs connaissances du
Kenya et leurs gots personnels. Il sagira pour eux de
sexprimer partir de notes quils devront organiser.
Plusieurs tapes possibles :
mobiliser ses connaissances et les organiser :
- List what I like rebrassage de : enjoy, be inter-
ested in, be fond of, be keen on, love,
- List what I dont like rebrassage de : hate, cant
stand, dont like,
3
- Link it with what I know about Kenya.
- Check if I havent forgotten anything (Logpage): dans
un deuxime temps seulement, pour obliger les
lves mobiliser leurs connaissances.
sentraner parler partir de notes :
- seul, voix basse plusieurs fois en accentuant les
mots porteurs de sens, avec laide du professeur,
- deux, lun aprs lautre avec inter-corrections et
appel au professeur si besoin.
changer avec ses camarades et ragir.
Productions possibles :
Well, I think Id like to go to Kenya, because I
love hiking and Ive read about the gorgeous coun-
tryside and the stunning panoramas. It must be
particularly beautiful when the sun sets. Also, it is
possible to see wild animals, baboons, zebras and
lions for example. It is much better than seeing them
in a zoo. Im very interested in taking photos and Im
sure I could take great pictures.
- I didnt expect landscapes to be so varied in Kenya
and I would like to go there because Im fond of
taking photographs. Im very romantic and I enjoy
watching sunsets, the light makes me dream. But I
hate snakes so Im not quite sure it would be a good
idea for me to go there.
- What I like in Kenya is that you can travel from one
place to another and discover different landscapes
and people.
Recap
Trois temps dans cette rcapitulation :
- Prise de parole en continu : possible en binmes.
On attendra deux ou trois minutes de prise de
parole. Cette premire phase pourra donner lieu
une co-valuation (cf. lments joints p. 36 de ce
guide pour la co-valuation du projet).
- Raction ou interaction.
- Passage lcrit (en classe, ou poursuite du travail
la maison).
3
Book p. 18-19
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Book p. 18-19
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Words
(logbook p. 4)
A Les sons voyelles
a. - mme son [aIj que dans eye : high, island, cli-
mate, mild, dry, miles, hiking
- mme son [Ij que dans sh : hills, British, tradition,
rich, India, religion, live
- mme son [i:j que dans tree : sea, beach, fourteen,
people, east, green
b. <ee> et <ea> se prononcent : [i:j
project1.indd 30 5/10/07 11:47:59
31 Project 1 - Boarding now
c. Exemples de mots o les lettres <ea> se pro-
noncent [ej : meadow, measure, bread, dead, heavy,
read (participe pass).
Exemples de mots o les lettres <ea> se pronon-
cent [eIj : great, steak, break.
B Accent tonique
a. Laccent porte sur la syllabe qui prcde -ion, ter-
minaison contraignante.
b. Mme chose avec les terminaisons -ogy, -aphy,
-omy, -ity.
C Synonymes - antonymes
mots de sens proche
a big country enormous, gigantic, huge, large
different customs diverse, various
a dry climate arid
famous cities well-known
empty villages uninhabited
beautiful views gorgeous
a surprising sight amazing, unexpected
mots de sens oppos / loign
a rich country poor
at landscapes hilly, mountainous
a dry climate humid, wet
a silent town noisy
empty places crowded, inhabited
sunny spots shady
a cold weather hot, mild
D Infrence
a. crafts et customs sont des sous-catgories / des
exemples de cultural traditions, au mme titre que
dances, music, etc.
b. white rule: rapprocher de : apartheid system,
multi-racial elections, rst black president
beliefs: rapprocher de : variety, diverse, reli-
gious
farm commodities: rapprocher de : vegetables,
nuts products such as milk, butter, chicken
E Word bank
Lenseignant est libre dajouter dautres mots aux trois proposs (auquel cas, reproduire une grille de ce
type). Toutefois, il importe que ces mots puissent faire lobjet dun travail semblable (synonymes, drivs)
pour permettre llve de construire sa comptence lexicale.
customs exhibit spiritual
Phrase(s) dans
laquelle / lesquelles
jai rencontr ce mot
Id like to discover more
Maori traditions and
customs, like the Hangi or
the Haka.
However Indian culture
exhibits an eternal
harmony of spirit.

the spiritual land


of India
Domaine de sens
auquel je peux
le rattacher
culture culture religion
Nature du mot nom verbe adjectif
Dnition usual and generally
accepted behaviour among
members of a social group
show publicly for the
others to see
relating to deep feelings
and beliefs, especially
religious beliefs
!
Ne pas oublier !
Prononciation }'ktsLnz} }Ig'zIbIL} }spIrILul}
Mots proches
synonymes
habits, traditions, practice,
usual, regular
show, expose, display,
present
religious, supernatural,
immaterial
Mots loigns
antonymes
unusual, irregular hide material (adj.),
materialize (v.)
project1.indd 31 5/10/07 11:48:00
32
customs exhibit spiritual
Quelques mots
de la mme
famille avec leur
nature, et leur sens)
accustomed to (adj),
customer (n.), customary
(adj.)
exhibition, exhibitor (n)
exhibitionism,
exhibitionist (n.) : ici
derivation de sens
spirit (n), spiritually
(adj.), spirituality
(n), spiritualism
(n), spiritualist (n)
spiritualize (v)
Ne pas
confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
customs (duties or taxes),
customs (= the procedure
for inspecting goods and
baggage entering a country).
exhibit (n.)
Collocations,
tournures
idiomatiques
Social customs vary.
Its the custom to
exhibit paintings
exhibit in galleries
(The museum had many
exhibits of African art)
spiritual welfare
Negro spirituals
Proverbes, dictons Dont be a slave to custom.
!!
Listening
Facts and gures
1 Jersey is the largest of the Channel Islands.
It is situated just 12 miles west of the French coast
and 160 miles south of Great Britain. It has about
90 000 inhabitants and is 8 miles long and just over
5 miles wide.
Jamaican accent
2 Aprs laudition de lenregistrement, les l-
ves seront amens faire les constats suivants :
1) prononciation plus syllabique que langlais bri-
tannique,
2) rduction des syllabes non accentues moins
systmatique quen anglais britannique.
Speaking
Asking questions
3 On demandera galement aux lves de pr-
ter attention lintonation des questions.
Ex: How much does it cost?
Do they live in a at?
Noun determiners
4 Rchir sur la langue : Dtermination du nom
(logbook, p. 8)
La dtermination en gnral
a. the : dtermination par le contexte ; lment par-
ticularis.
a : un lment non dtermin dun ensemble ; de
lensemble des mots/noms on a extrait un mot/nom
dont on parle pour la premire fois.
: devant un nom de pays ; les gens en gnral.
La dtermination des noms de pays / langues
1. Pays
a. - b.
nom de pays prcd
de
nom de pays prcd
de the
Jamaica The United States
Cuba The Dominican
Republic
Haiti The Bahamas
c. Dhabitude les noms de pays ne prennent pas
darticle. Il sont prcds du dterminant THE seu-
lement lorsquil sagit, lorigine, de noms com-
muns (the United STATES, the Dominican REPUBLIC)
ou de pluriels (the BAHAMAS, the WEST INDIES).
2. Langues
a. Noms de langues cits : English, Creolese, Patois
b. Noms de langues : English, Afrikaans, Sesotho,
Setswana, Xhosa, Zulu
d.-e. On remarquera que les noms de langues sont
toujours sans THE (ENGLISH, PATOIS).
f. Dans ces exemples, il ne sagit pas de la langue
en gnral : il sagit dune catgorie de langue bien
dtermine : le patois driv de langlais (par oppo-
sition au patois en gnral), le franais que lon
parle au Canada, etc.
project1.indd 32 5/10/07 11:48:01
33 Project 1 - Boarding now
5 a.-b.
country continent inhabitants ethnic groups language(s)
1. South
Africa
Africa South
Africans
black Africans, Europeans,
South Asian
English, Afrikaans, Sesotho,
Setswana, Xhosa and Zulu
2. India South Asia Indians Indo-Aryans, Dravidians,
Mongoloids
Hindi, English
3. TheUnited
Kingdom
Europe The British English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish English, Welsh, Gaelic
4. Kenya Africa Kenyans Bantu Swahili, English
5. New
Zealand
New
Zealand
New
Zealanders
Europeans, Maori, Asians English, Maori
6. Canada America Canadians British, French, Ameridians English, French
7. The United
States
America Americans Europeans, Africans,
Hispanics, Asians, Natives
English, Spanish
8. Pakistan Asian Pakistanis Punjabis, Sindhis, Pashtuns,
Mohajirs, and Baluchis
Urdu, English, Punjabi,
Pashto
9. Ireland Europe The Irish Celtic, English English, Irish
10. Australia Australia Australians Europeans, Asians, Aborigenes English, Aboriginal dialects
c. South Africa is at the Southern tip of the African
continent.
There are several ethnic groups, such as Black Afri-
cans, Europeans, Indian-Asians. Many languages are
spoken, in fact there are 11 ofcial languages, includ-
ing Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi,
Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu.
6 New Zealand has a population of slightly
less than 4 million people. The large majority of the
population (89%) has a European heritage, primarily
English. Therefore, English is the predominant
language and Christianity the largest religion.
The Maori were the earliest inhabitants of New
Zealand.
: + nom de pays / langue = contexte gnralisant.
the : + nom dni par le contexte (of), superlatif,
rfrence un peuple.
a : on introduit une notion pour la premire fois et
elle nest pas dtermine par le contexte.
Expressing quantities
7 Rchir sur la langue : Quantits (logbook, p. 9)
c. 40%: exprime un pourcentage
two-thirds: une proportion
46 million: une quantit prcise, chiffre
many: une grande quantit
a few: une petite quantit
d. Pour exprimer la quantit, on peut utiliser des
pourcentages, des chiffres, des quantieurs.
e. Mots exprimant une quantit dans le texte : all,
most of, some, a few, none of, many, all, more than one
f. Cest la nature dnombrable ou indnombrable du
nom qui dtermine le choix du quantieur ; on utilise :
- MUCH et LITTLE avec les noms indnombrables
- MANY et A FEW avec les noms dnombrables.
g.
aucun none
petite quantit a few, little
quantit signicative some
grande quantit many, much
majorit most
tout all
8 Compared to France few people live in New
Zealand.
Most New Zealanders live in towns.
Most New Zealanders are under 65. Some are 65 and
over.
Most New Zealanders are of English origin.
All Nzers above 15 can read.
There are many sheep in NZ.
Most / Many Nzers use the Internet.
Nzers eat a lot of seafood and lamb.
Many people in NZ enjoy sailing, surng and playing
cricket.
Most of the meat produced is exported.
A few people work in agriculture many in services.
Many Nzers work in tourism.
project1.indd 33 5/10/07 11:48:02
34
The present tense for general facts
9 Rchir sur la langue : Prsent simple pour
faits gnraux (logbook, p. 11)
a. Les noncs prsentent une information.
b. Formes verbales = prsent simple. Indices : remar-
ques morphologiques : S la 3
e
personne du sin-
gulier.
En conclusion : pour exprimer des faits, on emploie
le prsent simple.
c. Verbes : be, have.
10 Il sagira pour les lves dexpliquer partir
des notes donnes ce que sont the Haka et the Hangi.
The Haka is a Maori war dance. It is performed
It sounds really scary.
The Maori perform it to frighten the enemy.
The Hangi is a traditional Maori way of cooking. It
consists of meat
Stress and meaning
11 a. Id like to go to Rotorua because I enjoy
relaxing and Id like to try the pools of natural hot
mineral water.
Les mots orthographiques (en gras) vhiculent le
sens, mais sur le plan strictement phonique il fau-
drait se concentrer sur les syllabes accentues
dans ces mots (soulignes ci-dessus).
3
b. Les mots et syllabes accentuer sont en gras.
1. Id like to swim in warm thermal water because
Im very keen on experiencing new sensations.
2. Id like to visit Rotorua because I fancy swimming
in pools of bubbling mud.
3. Id like to have a view of the famous Blue Lake
from a helicopter because I enjoy ying and disco-
vering beautiful landscapes.
4. Id like to experience trekking on an active vol-
cano because Im very interested in geology.
5. Id like to go to New Zealand because Im very
fond of sailing.
6. Id like to see two Maoris greeting each other in
the traditional way; apparently they rub noses.
Adding information: relative clauses
12 The Maori, who are highly regarded for their
tattooing art, were the earliest inhabitants of New
Zealand.
Captain Cook, who sailed to New Zealand on three
separate voyages, gave his name to a number of pla-
ces in New Zealand.
New Zealand, which is 1,600 km away from Australia,
is an island nation in the Pacic Ocean.
Book p. 20-21
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 20-21
YOUR PROJECT
valuation en deux temps : phase prparatoire et
phase de ralisation du projet prise de parole.
Phase prparatoire
Demander aux lves, avant la sance propre-
ment dite, de choisir un pays et de vous informer
de leur choix. Il sera ainsi plus facile danticiper les
besoins. Leur demander galement de rechercher,
en dehors du temps de classe, des informations sur
ce pays (gain de temps).
Lors de ce premier projet, prendre un temps col-
lectif pour bien cerner la tche et rcapituler les
stratgies utiles. Puis rpartition en groupes et
partage des informations et du travail de recher-
che complmentaire. Si les lves ont choisi lInde,
les documents crits et sonores mis leur disposi-
tion constitueront la base de ces recherches com-
plmentaires.
La logpage sera utilise pour conduire les recher-
ches et organiser les informations.

Individualisation de la prparation dans un deuxime


temps : slection des informations et mise en rela-
tion avec la personnalit de chacun ; organisation
des notes.
Un dictionnaire unilingue pourra tre mis la dis-
position des lves pendant un temps trs court,
lorsque les lves contrlent leur prparation. De
mme, ils pourront faire appel au professeur pour
lever les doutes sur la prononciation. On ne peut
pas exiger ce stade de lanne quils sachent lire
les transcriptions phontiques.
De mme, on pourra fournir aux lves des trans-
parents vierges quils pourront utiliser pour illus-
trer leurs propos.
Prise de parole
Plusieurs modalits possibles en fonction des choix
pdagogiques de lenseignant et du matriel dont il
dispose :

project1.indd 34 5/10/07 11:48:02


35 Project 1 - Boarding now
- Utilisation du laboratoire de langues ou de la salle
multimdia : prise de parole de 2 3 minutes.
Chaque lve peut senregistrer deux fois et laisse
son brouillon oral disposition de lenseignant.
- Enregistrement autonome la maison sur MP3 :
Si tous les lves disposent de ce matriel, il est
possible deffectuer le travail denregistrement la
maison et de leur demander de le rapporter len-
seignant pour valuation (remise des enregistre-
ments sur une semaine). Pour ce premier projet, les
lves pourront avoir envie de lire des notes com-
pltement rdiges ; il ne faudra pas hsiter, sans
les pnaliser, leur faire reprendre leur travail. De
mme que pour lenregistrement au laboratoire, on
demandera un brouillon oral.
- Prise de parole devant lves : prvoir une sance
supplmentaire.
Si lenseignant choisit dvaluer llve alors quil
sadresse un auditoire, cette solution sera retenue.
Pendant la prestation, il est important que le reste
de la classe soit mis en activit an que lattention
soit maintenue. Des tches doivent tre imprative-
ment donnes aux lves qui coutent leurs cama-
rades ; par exemple :
- poser des questions sur le pays choisi : pour aider
les lves les moins laise, ces questions doivent
pouvoir inclure des questions de conrmation : Did
you say? I am not sure I understood On peut dans
une phase pralable demander : Use your logpage
to prepare questions.
- leur demander dvaluer la prestation de leur(s)
camarade(s) sous forme de grille labore pour
eux (cf. lments pour une co-valuation p. 36 de
ce guide).
Tout au long du chapitre, les lves ont acquis des
mthodes, des stratgies, du vocabulaire et des for-
mes linguistiques pour mener bien le projet nal.
Lenseignant est alors en droit dattendre une cer-
taine qualit et un certain contenu dans les produc-
tions des lves.
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur) :
Traitement
du sujet
Expression en continu
(aisance)
Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 1 Peut prsenter
le pays en une
simple liste de
points successifs
= 2 pts
Peut se dbrouiller avec
des noncs trs courts
strotyps, beaucoup
de pauses
= 2 pts
Contrle limit de la syntaxe et
de la prononciation : langue
partiellement comprhensible
= 2 pts
Degr 2 Peut relier ces
informations ses
gots personnels
= 4 pts
Produit un discours assez
simple avec quelques pauses,
des faux dmarrages
= 4 pts
La langue est comprhensible malgr
des erreurs lmentaires (grammaire :
temps/dterminants/structures
verbales) et prononciation : phonmes
et accentuation lintrieur du mot)
= 4 pts
Degr 3 Peut illustrer
ses choix par
des exemples
pertinents
= 6 pts
Peut utiliser des gap llers
pour chercher ses mots, des
reformulations pour se faire
comprendre
= 5 pts
La langue est comprhensible et
globalement correcte
= 5 pts
Degr 4 Peut dvelopper
un grand nombre
daspects
= 8 pts
Peut discourir de manire
comprhensible dans une
squence longue de PO (3)
= 6 pts
La langue est comprhensible et
globalement correcte, le lexique riche
= 6 pts
Bonus : sest appliqu ralentir le
dbit pour transmettre les informations
importantes
= 2 pts
Total
(max.)
8 pts 6 pts 6 pts + 2 pts bonus

project1.indd 35 5/10/07 11:48:04


36
Suggestions pour une co-valuation du projet (lves) :
Listeners assessment n
o
1
chelle de points : 1 = trs insufsant 2 = insufsant 3 = moyen 4 = bien 5 = trs bien
Dans lensemble jai trouv que (jentoure la note)
lexpos de mon camarade tait comprhensible
1 2 3 4 5
lexpos tait bien organis et bien expliqu
1 2 3 4 5
il sest exprim avec clart et sans trop derreurs
1 2 3 4 5
il a t capable de rpondre avec prcision aux questions quon lui a poses
1 2 3 4 5
Total / 20
On peut galement proposer aux lves lappareil dvaluation en anglais ci-dessous (qui a t test en
classe par les auteurs avec des rsultats satisfaisants) : il conviendra dlucider avec les lves certains
termes, qui seront par la suite rgulirement utiliss et seront la base dchanges authentiques. Diffren-
tes rubriques sont possibles et peuvent tre cones tour tour diffrents lves / groupes dlves.
Listeners assessment n
o
2
Topic
How long did my friend talk for? _____________________________________________________________
What country did he / she choose ? ___________________________________________________________
What reasons did he / she give? ______________________________________________________________
What I have learnt about the country: _________________________________________________________
What I have learnt about my friend: __________________________________________________________
What else I would like to know about both: ____________________________________________________
On the whole, I think what he / she said was :
1: not very interesting 2: interesting 3: very interesting.
Language
(on pourra ne coner quune colonne par lve)
phonology uency grammar
Level 1 Only a few words were
pronounced correctly.
ex:
He / she spoke very slowly
and he stopped many times.
Many mistakes we have
identied:
Level 2 On the whole, the accent
was very French.
He / she managed to keep
going with many stops.
Many mistakes, but speech
could be understood.
Mistakes we have identied:
Level 3 The important information
was stressed.
ex:
He / she could use gap-llers
and rephrase his sentences.
Grammar was good, few
mistakes:
Level 4 Good English accent
and intonation.
He / she could speak for a
long time and didnt stop very
often.
Only one or two mistakes.
ex:
What would you advise him / her to do to improve his / her performance?

project1.indd 36 5/10/07 11:48:06


37 Project 1 - Boarding now
3 What I need to work on
2. b.
302 miles the greatest distance from north to south in the island
5 percent of the population ethnic and racial minorities
Tinkers nomadic travellers / the most prominent ethnic group
native games Gaelic football hurling -
horse racing
a very popular sport The Curragh racecourse hosts a major
international race: the Irish Derby
Shelbourne Park Dublin greyhound stadium (hosting greyhound races)
Steven Roche Dublin rider who won the Tour de France
Book p. 22, logbook p. 13-14
DEBRIEFING
Book p. 22, logbook p. 13-14
DEBRIEFING
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
1. Comprhension orale : A memorable trip CD classe, piste 1
Phase danticipation avant lcoute (individuelle les lves peuvent rassembler leurs ides sur papier.
Pas de mise en commun orale puisquil sagit dune valuation).
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 283 de ce guide.
Corrig et barme
Paliers de comprhension
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
Information about the country they are talking about.
(India, impressions, USA, Europe, mountains, beautiful, colours, villages, shops, scooters,
travel on bus, shampoo, money, pens, baby)
1 2
selon
quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte, conduisant une
comprhension lacunaire.
What the man remembers most.
(Physical beauty of country, beautiful mountains, colours of clothes, men / women /
families / four, ve peole on scooters, villages and shops, poverty, frightening)
3 4
selon
quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est
compris.
His opinion about the trip.
(Incredible cultural experience, not like other cultures, not like the USA or Europe, not as
much poverty as he expected)
5 8
Palier 4
Tout le contenu informatif est compris. Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont
relevs.
Details about what he saw.
(When confronted to poverty = a shock, frightening)
10
project1.indd 37 5/10/07 11:48:10
38
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Bonus: additional information
(Colours of womens sari, poverty not normally seen in the West, people begging outside
bus for money, shampoo, pens, ght and baby in middle of ght)
2
2. Comprhension crite
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 284 de ce guide.
Corrig
Name of the country Australia
Information you get about it
Tick the corresponding boxes
location climate landscapes economy history
towns culture sports population area animals
Pick out as many details as possible
about ve of the
topics you have ticked
- climate: summer from Dec to Feb: extremely hot. In the
north, summer wet season is very humid. Spring and autumn
are very mild.
Winter: June to August: snow in the South
- landscapes: endless horizons, dense tropical rainforests,
beaches
- towns: located along the coasts. Sydney is one of them; its
famous for its Opera House
- culture: interest in European art and food and also in sports
and outdoor activities
- sports: beach sports / skiing
- population: diverse
- area : huge/ vast
Type of text:
Tick the corresponding box
a passage from:
a diary an encyclopedia a tourist brochure
Give one justication visitors / what to see / when to go
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 = 10 / 20 : Australia + 5 topics identis + 2 topics renseigns.
- Seuil 2 = 12 / 20 : Llve a aussi identi le type de texte.
- Seuil 3 = 2 points en plus par lment complmentaire : 3 autres topics renseigns + justication.
project1.indd 38 8/10/07 16:35:33
39 Project 1 - Boarding now
La logpage ci-dessous contient des lments susceptibles dtre obtenus dautres sont possibles, tous ne
sont pas ncessairement exigibles.
Country fact le
Topics
Country 1
Jamaica
Country 2
South Africa
Country 3
Kenya
Country 4
New Zealand
g
e
o
g
r
a
p
h
y
location Caribbean sea,
south of Cuba,
west of Haiti,
500 km south of
Florida
southern tip /
Africa
East African coast Pacific Ocean
1,600 km east of
Australia
area 10,991 sq km 1.22 m sq km 582,000sq 267,990 sq km
climate tropical + trade
winds / sunny but
sometimes flooding
semi-arid . big
east and west
coast: hot and
humid, temperate
inland, very dry
north / northeast
mild temperate
climate
landscapes hilly (The Blue
Mountains, (east),
plains near the
coast, plateau
diverse: tall
mountains fertile
coastal plains, high
interior plateaus,
Veld (grassland
and desert)
diverse: beaches,
gentle slopes,
lakes, Great Rift
Valley, plateau,
mountains
glaciers, fiords,
mountains, plains,
hillsides, subtropical
forest, volcanic
plateau, coastline,
sandy beaches
capital city Kingston Pretoria Nairobi Wellington
natural
resources
bauxite, limestone,
gypsum
gold; diamonds,
uranium, platinium
limestone, soda
ash, salt, gypsum,
wildlife, hydropower
hydroelectricity,
gas, iron ore,
timber
a
n
i
m
a
l
s

a
n
d

p
l
a
n
t
s
animals jungle: cuckoos,
parrots, and
hummingbirds
inland: frogs,
crocodiles, and
lizards.
sea and shores:
turtles, rays, and
colourful fish
the Big Five: lion,
leopard, elephant,
buffalo and rhino
+ other wild
animals: antelopes,
monkeys, baboons,
ostriches,
snakes
the Big Five +
reptiles and birds,
baboons, flamingos,
zebras, tsetse flies,
mosquitoes
kiwis, bats,
small reptiles,
penguins, seals,
dolphins, whales
plants forest, rainforest,
savannas, dry
sandy areas
cacti, sugarcane,
bananas, citrus
trees, coconut
palm trees
semi-desert scrub
and grassland,
baobabs,
wildflowers
(daisies)
evergreen forests,
savannas,
thornbushes
tree ferns and
primitive pines
(from the Age of
Dinosaurs)
e
c
o
n
o
m
y

agriculture ackees, yams,
coffee, sugarcane,
citrus, bananas;
poultry, goats, milk,
crustaceans
corn, wheat /
fruit, sugarcane
/ poultry, sheep,
cows / wool, dairy
products, meat
tea, coffee,
sugarcane /
corn, wheat / fruit /
poultry, pigs,
cows / eggs / meat
sheep, cows /
wool, meat,
dairy products
industry bauxite, cement,
metal, paper /
agro-processing /
rum / tourism
mining (worlds
largest producer
of platinum,
gold, chromium),
automobile,
electricity,
metalworking
agricultural
products, oil
refining, aluminum,
steel, lead, cement,
shipyards, tourism
food processing,
textiles, machinery,
wood products,
tourism
currency Jamaican dollar Rand Kenyan shilling NZ dollar
trade bauxite, aluminium,
bananas
metals and
minerals, machinery
and equipment
tea, horticultural
products, coffee,
petroleum products,
fish, cement
meat, dairy
products, wood
products
Logbook p. 3
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 3
LOGPAGE
project1.indd 39 5/10/07 11:48:16
40
Topics
Country 1
Jamaica
Country 2
South Africa
Country 3
Kenya
Country 4
New Zealand
p
e
o
p
l
e

a
n
d

c
u
l
t
u
r
e
inhabitants 2,758,125 inh 46 million 34 m 4M:85%urban
ethnic groups Black, East Indian,
White, Chinese,
Mixed
coloured, whites,
Indian-Asian, Black
Africans
Kikuyu, Maasai
Luhya, Europeans,
Asians
English, Maori
language(s) English, Jamaican
Creole
11: English,
Afrikaans, Sesotho,
Zulu
Swahili, English English, Maori
religion Christians
(protestants
+ Catholics),
spiritual cults
Christians,
Muslims, spiritual
cults
Christians,
Indigenous beliefs,
Muslim
Christians
famous people Bob Marley N. Mandela Wangari Muta
Maathai -
Catherine Ndereba
Sir Edmund Hillary
Dame Kiri Te
Kanawa
education Literacy rate: 88% Literacy rate: 86% L.R: 83% L.R: 100%
sports cricket, soccer soccer, rugby,
cricket
long-distance
runners, soccer
surfing, sailing,
rugby, cricket
music ska, reggae,
calypso
pop and folk styles afro-fusion, benga
music, traditional
folk songs
The Haka
crafts jewelry, pottery,
straw goods, wood
carving, shell
carvings, furniture,
jewelry, musical
instruments
carvings,
jewelry, drums,
instruments
Bone carving,
pearl shell carving,
ceramics, jewelry
arts music (ska,
reggae), theatre,
pantomimes, visual
arts
African dolls,
leather art
drama, pop-music,
wood sculpture and
Maasai beadwork
Maori wood carving
and weaving
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

h
i
s
t
o
r
y
architecture colonial houses,
wooden cottages
wall decorations,
painted homes,
Cape Dutch
architecture
timber, framed
homes with mud
walls, modern
buildings
Maori carved
meeting houses,
Victorian houses,
(stone + brick and
wood)
clothes colourful clothing
made out of Calico,
head scarf
beaded aprons,
blankets designs
bright red fabrics-
vivid designs,
collars made of
roped beads +
Jewelry
informal and
similar to those
in any western
country
food sea food + chicken
(stewed, fried,
barbecued)
mealies or maize,
some fruit, and
vegetables. People
commonly drink tea
ugali, a mush made
from corn (maize)
often served
with spinach and
kale. Chapati
a fried pitalike
bread of Indian
origin. Seafood
and freshwater
fish, shambas
(vegetable
gardens) to
supplement
purchased foods.
the Hangi, lamb,
pork, salmon,
crayfish (lobster),
kumara (sweet
potato), kiwifruit
project1.indd 40 5/10/07 11:48:18
41 Project 1 - Boarding now
Topics
Country 1
Jamaica
Country 2
South Africa
Country 3
Kenya
Country 4
New Zealand
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

h
i
s
t
o
r
y
political
system
constitutional
parliamentary
democracy,
Commonwealth
constitutional
democracy,
Republic of South
Africa
Republic,
Commonwealth
constitutional
democracy,
Common wealth
flag green, yellow, black red, white, blue,
green, gold, black
black, red, green
and white stripes,
two crossed
spears and a shield
Union Jack + four
five-pointed red
stars
history Ameridians
p 1494: Colombus
= Spanish rule
p 1655 = British
p1962:
independent
1833:
emancipation of
Slaves
native tribes
(Bantu)
mid 17th: Dutch
1814: British
1899-1902: Boer
War
1961: Republic
1948-90s:
Apartheid
1994: first
black president
(Mandela)
dates back millions
of years (earliest
fossilized remains
of hominids)
1895: East Africa
Protectorate
(British
administration).
1922: the
protectorate
becomes Kenya.
1952: A political
Kikuyu group (Mau
Mau) starts
violent attacks on
white settlers.
December 12,
1963: Kenyan
independence day.
pRepublic
of Kenya.
Maori
1769:CookpEuro
pean settlers
1840: British
colony
1907: Independant
Dominion
1947: fully
independant
nation
project1.indd 41 5/10/07 11:48:19
42
PROJECT
2
Together for a time
Sommaire du chapitre Together for a time
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 43
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 24)
Make sense: What do you put in the yearbook? (book, p. 24)
Make sense: Working on the yearbook (book, p. 25)
Make sense: Stockport grammar school (book, p. 26)
Recap (book, p. 26)
p. 44
p. 45
p. 46
p. 47
p. 47
S
t
e
p

2Make sense: Two sample pages (book, p. 27)
Over to you (book, p. 28)
Recap (book, p. 29)
p. 48
p. 49
p. 49
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
s
Words (book, p. 30 / logbook p. 16-18)
Listening (book, p. 30)
Speaking (book, p. 30-31)
Reading (book, p. 31)
Writing (book, p. 31)
p. 50
p. 52
p. 52
p. 53
p. 53
Your project (book, p. 32-33)
Debrieng (book, p. 34 / logbook, p. 23)
valuation de la comprhension

/

Logpage (logbook, p. 15)
p. 53
p. 55
p. 55
p. 58
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 44
1 sance

Make sense: What do you put in the yearbook? p. 45
1 sance
Make sense: Working on the yearbook p. 46
1 sance
Make sense: Stockport Grammar School p. 47
Recap p. 47
1 sance
Possible en valuation intgre
une sance
STEP 2
Make sense: Two sample pages p. 48
2 sances
Over to you p. 49
1 sance, en modules
Recap p. 49
Recap possible en valuation
YOUR PROJECT p. 53
VALUATION :
1 sance, classe entire
(voire 2 sances selon leffectif)
1 sance en demi-groupes
(avec lassistant(e))

project2.indd 42 5/10/07 11:50:25


43 Project 2 - Together for a time
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE
p Voir Introduction, p. 14 de ce guide.
Il est important que le remplissage de la logpage
se limite des notes et non des noncs rdigs,
an que llve se trouve rellement en situation de
production orale (le cas chant, crite) et non en
activit de lecture.
Au terme de lexploitation du projet Together for a
time, llve sera invit mener une discussion,
visant la ngociation, pour dterminer comment
composer un yearbook. Le choix de ce projet illustre
le thme du lien social du programme culturel de la
classe de seconde ; dabord en mettant les lves
en situation dtudier dautres modes de vie sco-
laire que ceux auxquels ils sont habitus ; ensuite
en les mettant en situation de dbat pour arriver
un compromis, aspect fondamental de la vie en
socit.
Au terme de ce travail, les lves seront amens
comprendre ce quest un yearbook, savoir une
vocation trs souvent humoristique des souvenirs
dlves de High School. La ralisation de ce travail
leur aura aussi permis dapprendre cooprer et
ngocier au sein du groupe classe.
Situ en dbut danne, ce chapitre permet gale-
ment de lancer un projet sur lensemble de lanne
scolaire consistant pour un groupe ou une classe
motive raliser un vritable yearbook.
Step 1 est articul autour de la nature et de la fonc-
tion des yearbooks. Step 2 approfondit ltude de ces
livrets en mettant notamment laccent sur leur compo-
sition, leur mise en page et le ton qui les caractrise.
Types de texte
Les supports proposs sont varis tant dans leur
composition que par les informations quils appor-
tent. Ces textes sont essentiellement informatifs
et narratifs : dnition, rcit dexpriences dans
une autobiographie, page Internet, srie de photos,
enregistrement dun dialogue.
Ils fournissent des lments concrets tant sur la
nature des sujets traits, que sur les problmes
de composition dun yearbook, mais aussi sur lap-
proche anglo-saxonne de ces activits. Chacun des
textes fait lobjet dun entranement la discussion
recherche en n de projet.
Cur de sens
Il repose sur la notion de ngociation qui peut ame-
ner un consensus ou un compromis et implique une
prise de parole en continu (pendant lintroduction et

la conclusion du dbat notamment) et en interaction


pendant la phase dchange darguments.
Comptences gnrales et individuelles
Les comptences gnrales majeures du chapitre
sont la comptence culturelle (largissement des
connaissances sur le systme ducatif dAmrique
du Nord) et, au sein des comptences gnrales indi-
viduelles, tout ce qui a trait aux savoir-tre (coute
et respect des interlocuteurs au cours du dbat).
Activits langagires
Au cours de ce travail, llve est essentiellement
entran aux activits dexpression orale :
- : Comprendre lessentiel dune conversation
dlivre un rythme normal portant sur un domaine
familier. Mettre en place les tapes dune stratgie
dcoute.
- : Prendre la parole pour exprimer son opi-
nion. Prsenter un sujet de dbat ; en rsumer les
conclusions.
- : changer des arguments sur une motion d-
nie ayant trait un domaine familier. Mettre en place
amorces et reprises pour faciliter la ngociation et
lexercice du savoir-tre dans cette situation, tels que :
- savoir reformuler, questionner, utiliser le discours
indirect ;
- savoir utiliser les formes pour exprimer le doute,
la certitude, lopinion, laccord / le dsaccord, lhy-
pothse, la prfrence, le souvenir.
- : Lire un extrait dautobiographie portant sur un
domaine familier et utiliser ce que lon sait du genre
comme aide la comprhension. Comprendre les
informations essentielles dune page web. Comprendre
un court article de presse portant sur un sujet familier.
- : Prendre des notes, les organiser pour une
prise de parole. Rdiger un court texte informatif
(prsentation de personnages).
Outils linguistiques
- Les questions.
- Le discours indirect.
- Phonologie : tone units ; intonation nonciative.

project2.indd 43 5/10/07 11:50:29


44
Dans la majorit des cas, la logpage pourra servir
de support aux phases de rcapitulation et la
trace crite au tableau.
La logpage renseigne contient des lments
susceptibles dtre obtenus dautres sont pos-
sibles, tous ne sont pas ncessairement exigi-
bles.
p Voir logpage renseigne, p. 58 de ce guide.
Phase dchauffement
Cette sance tant la premire de la squence, on
pourra lors de la phase dchauffement, diriger les
changes sur le thme du chapitre :
- sous forme de questionnement au groupe, le pro-
fesseur inclus ( partir de Did you watch TV yester-
day? par exemple), le professeur pourra glisser le
thme dans une de ses rponses Yesterday I saw
a TV series about an American High School par
exemple, Gilmore Girls, American High.
- en proposant un document inconnu (afche de lm,
photographie de presse, etc.), soit par un travail per-
sonnel sur lillustration de la page 23, an de recueillir
lavis du groupe, des suppositions, des ractions.
- on pourra aussi, selon ce que lon sait des int-
rts et gots des lves, demander en amont quun
ou deux lves prsentent leurs camarades une
image, une photo, un poster pouvant servir de
dpart au thme ici abord.
Pour les sances suivantes : choisir le thme du
chapitre pour cette phase dchauffement ( prpa-
rer la maison : Warming up next time: get ready to
talk about etc.)
Les suggestions donnes p. 24 du manuel peuvent
aussi tre utilises pour cette phase.
Start from what you know
Le concept du manuel pose que lapprentissage se
fonde sur le connu des lves et quil importe de
rendre ce connu apparent, et accessible au groupe.
Ce chapitre ne fait pas exception.
1 Commencer par tablir le lien entre lexp-
rience des lves et ce quils vont dcouvrir.
Le thme de la vie en lyce anglo-saxon et le year-
book peuvent tre introduits :
- partir de leurs souvenirs de lms (Dead Poets
Society, Mona Lisa Smile), de sries tlvises,
de lectures ou dexpriences personnelles lors
dchanges ou de voyages. Le cours commence par
leur apport et les questions de leurs camarades et
du/au professeur.
- soit par un questionnement du professeur, en
dbut de cours : have you heard of / participated in
school bulletins, magazines? What does it consist
of? / If you decided to start one, what would you like
to mention in it? Imagine topics?
Avec reprises par les lves :
I suppose / I think we might / I would choose / I
agree because... / I dont agree because It is / it isnt
worth it.
Le professeur pourra reproduire sur un transparent
lillustration de la page 23 pour replacer cet change
dans un contexte anglo-saxon et il pourra apporter
ou xer quelques lments sur la structure scolaire
en G.B. et aux USA.
2 Avec les lves : introduction du thme par-
tir de lillustration et du titre de la page 24.
Describe the picture and link it with the caption.
On trouve page 100 deux illustrations de bus scolai-
res amricains qui peuvent aider les lves inter-
prter limage de la page 24.
Girls on a school bus: smiling / holding a paper.
- Together for a time: may be on a school trip, taking
notes.
Remember it with a yearbook / Explain the word
yearbook (travail sur les mots composs associ
interprtation du mot remember).
a. Productions possibles :
I think a yearbook is a book you keep for a year or
with which you can remember what happened during
a year at school.
- A yearbook in an American High School is a book /
booklet made by and for pupils to note useful infor-
mation / data (names / addresses) and to narrate
school events. Once they have left school, people use it
3
3
3
Book p. 24
STEP 1
Book p. 24
STEP 1
project2.indd 44 5/10/07 11:50:32
45 Project 2 - Together for a time
to remember events, parties and funny stories which
happened during a particular year.
b. changes avec le groupe classe (reprise des for-
mes dhypothse et accord dsaccord).
Lors de cette mise en commun, on pourra dsigner
deux secrtaires qui prendront en notes les diffrentes
rubriques proposes soit sur un transparent vierge
que leur aura remis le professeur, soit au tableau.
ce stade, on commence faire remplir la logpage. Il
est possible que des lments trs disparates soient
donns pour la logpage : ceci est normal, cette der-
nire tant la trace des apprentissages. On deman-
dera aux lves de ne pas effacer les informations
recueillies lors de cette premire tape ; la compa-
raison avec les informations recueillies par la suite
pourra servir de base la prise de parole de Recap,
page 29 o il est demand aux lves (qui sauront
ce stade ce quest un yearbook) dexpliquer la nature
et la fonction dapprentissage dun yearbook quel-
quun qui nen a jamais entendu parler (ce qui tait
peut-tre le cas au dbut du chapitre).
Analyse du document
Il sagit dune comprhension orale.
Le document : un dialogue informel, dbit authen-
tique, donc rapide pour des lves mais avec des
lments facilitant la comprhenion (rptitions et
redondances qui font entendre la mme information
sous diffrentes formes). Il faut envisager plusieurs
coutes pour que les lves surmontent les dif-
cults et tirent prot de ce potentiel, tant au niveau
de la forme - intonation (doute et certitude sur les
questions et assertions, tone units, reprage des
mots accentus) quau niveau de la comprhen-
sion du sens et de lorganisation des informations
parses dans ces reprises informelles.
En partant de lcoute du document dans sa prpara-
tion, le professeur choisira un ou plusieurs aspects
en fonction de son public et des tapes qui lui sem-
blent ncessaires pour assurer la comprhension en
tenant compte de laide apporte par la forme la
comprhension du sens. De mme, on recommande
de partir de ce que reconnaissent les lves et non
dune grille dcoute an de dvelopper leur concen-
tration sur lcoute et les prparer ainsi la ralit
dune situation de communication authentique.
Formes de travail
Amorce en collectif, suite en groupes.
Make sense
Une prparation personnelle la maison ou au CDI
pourra tre demande aux lves an quils sen-
tranent lcoute (Listening, p. 30 et CD lve, piste
n 7).
Reprise et vrication en dbut de cours la suite
du rappel attendu de ce quest un yearbook (bilan
sur le cours prcdent).

partir du titre, procder une anticipation par


questionnement : Given that the title is a question,
what answers do you expect to hear?
On attend ici des formes dhypothses et dopinion.
Exemples :
I am sure there are photos.
Perhaps there are photos of all the students in a
class and all their teachers.
There may be games, quizzes and funny stories.
You probably put articles about what happened in
the school
3 Aprs une premire coute, inscrire au tableau
les formes reconnues (doubt / certainty, questions
a girls voice / a mans voice, etc.) et les mots recon-
nus (yearbook / photos / work activities / lots of pho-
tos / nancing.)
Faire tablir un bilan de sens par les lves.
4 Procder une deuxime coute avec pauses
pour retrouver les tone units.
Lactivit suivante est facultative mais peut aider cer-
tains lves entrer dans le sens du dialogue : orga-
niser la classe en deux groupes, lun se concentre
sur la voix fminine et note les questions ou amor-
ces lies au doute (What is? How much? What about?
Im sort of intrigued / I think it was); lautre coute
essentiellement les interventions masculines pour
reprer dans les rponses des lments dinforma-
tion sur le contenu dun yearbook (Work activities /
fun activities / lots of sports / of photos, etc.).
changes entre lves pour complter ce qui est
reconnu.
5 Troisime coute : se concentrer sur la voix
dhomme pour mieux cerner les informations lies
au souvenir de son yearbook. On demandera aux
What do you put
in a yearbook?
Book p. 24
What do you put
in a yearbook?
Book p. 24
project2.indd 45 5/10/07 11:50:33
46
lves de renseigner les trois premires colonnes
de la logpage, toujours sous forme de notes.
Procder ensuite la trace crite du bilan de cette
comprhension.
Productions possibles :
It is a dialogue between a woman who asks a
former pupil for information about yearbooks, what
can be found in them and how they are presented.
- The man explains what they look like (big books
with lots of photos), what they are for (they give a
snapshot of everything that happened during a year in
the school) and what you nd in them (photos, men-
tion of work and fun activities, etc.
lissue de la troisime coute, il serait intressant
de faire le point avec les lves sur :
- les difcults quils ont rencontres (dbit rapide /
rptitions / tone units / mots non reconnus) ;
- les lments qui les ont aids la comprhension
(intonation / reprises des sujets / aide des bilans,
des termes inscrits),
3
- les moyens qui leur permettraient de progresser.
Pour cela recourir au Portfolio Europen des Lan-
gues si la classe en est dote et leur faire trouver le
seuil auquel ils se situent : A2-3 ou B1-1 et/ou leur
faire utiliser la che bilan de stratgies mthodolo-
gique de la page Debrieng.
Ce bilan peut tre tabli avec des mots trs simples
en anglais et donner lieu un moment de rexion
en langue orale et communicative, telle que :
I found it difficult to recognize stressed words /
tone units / intonation of doubt / keywords.
- I could reproduce 3 questions / pick out 4 words.
- I could understand more words when notes were
written on the blackboard.
- I must practice recognizing stressed words / recog-
nizing tone units, writing notes while listening
Il peut aussi amener un bilan crit auquel llve
pourra se rfrer lors dune prochaine tape soit
pour noter un progrs, soit pour se prparer pour
un prochain entranement.
3
Analyse du document
Il sagit dun extrait du rcit autobiographique dun
ancien lve de High School amricaine, passionn
par ou accro de yearbooks. Publi sur Internet
(http://www.creativepro.com/story/feature/22986.
html), ce texte tait lorigine entrecoup de repro-
ductions de yearbooks de diffrentes poques. Il
met laccent sur les comptences acquises et sur-
tout sur les savoir-tre dvelopps loccasion de
la cration de ces ouvrages. Pour lauteur, cette
exprience a t loccasion de trouver sa place et sa
voix dans le monde de lcole. Elle lui a permis
dacqurir des savoir-faire pratiques en matire
de composition graphique qui manifestement lui
servent encore (voir le site), mais surtout elle lui a
apport la conance et la motivation que les activi-
ts plus strictement acadmiques ne lui donnaient
pas (ce qui est le cas de nombre de nos lves).
En termes gnriques, le texte prsente les caract-
ristiques de lautobiographie (alternance de passages
narratifs pour le rcit de lexprience personnelle et
de passages informatifs au prsent pour comparaison
avec, ou mise en perspective de, cette exprience).
Dans ce cas prcis, comme souvent, les passages
narratifs (l. 1-7 et l. 18-26) contiennent le cur de
sens du texte. Cest l un savoir-lire que les lves ont
acquis en cours de franais ; la mise en uvre de lac-
cs au sens gagnera sy appuyer. La part dimplicite,
la plus difcile saisir pour les lves, se situe la
n du passage, lorsque le narrateur voque le pouvoir
des mots. Si les lves butent sur cette difcult, il est
prfrable dattendre quils aient dcouvert par eux-
mmes le ton (humoristique mais jamais blessant)
qui caractrise lcriture des Yearbooks pages 26 et 27
avant de revenir sur ce segment.
Make sense
1 Lanticipation partir des images et du titre
doit permettre dobtenir editors et layout qui ont t
vus dans la dnition donne la question 2 du Start
from what you know p. 24. Se servir ventuellement
des deux pages du manuel actuellement tudies
pour aider dnir les comptences ncessaires
leur mise en page. Attirer lattention des lves sur
le fait que dans les photographies, les personnes
reprsentes travaillent par deux pour guider vers
la notion de travail dquipe (collaboration).
2 Travail en groupe possible. On peut demander
un groupe de se concentrer sur les passages nar-
ratifs au pass et lautre de ne lire que les passa-
ges informatifs au prsent pour ensuite faire mieux
Working on the yearbook
Book p. 25
Working on the yearbook
Book p. 25
project2.indd 46 5/10/07 11:50:35
47 Project 2 - Together for a time
ressortir les savoir-tre acquis lors de llaboration
dun Yearbook la question 3.
3 Productions possibles :
We have learnt that a yearbook can be a class activity,
it can be written on students time tables. It can also be
an extra curricular activity, I mean a sort of club acti-
vity, not a lesson, even if you learn a lot from it.
3
Its a perfect mini life exercise because the students
work with professionals such as photographers. They
have to polish off their work in time, they have to learn
from their mistakes and improve their work even if
its time-consuming. They also learn how to work in
a team, to share the workload, to respect the work of
their partners.
Analyse du document
Il sagit dune page du site Internet dune cole bri-
tannique qui propose ses lves la ralisation
dun yearbook. Ce sera l loccasion pour les l-
ves de remarquer que la pratique des yearbooks
ne concerne pas que les tats-Unis. Le document
est informatif, dun accs assez facile ce stade de
ltude du thme. La mise en uvre propose vise
surtout enrichir le rpertoire de rubriques que les
lves se sont constitus depuis le dbut du chapi-
tre. On peut cependant choisir de faire galement
travailler les deux paragraphes rdigs (haut et bas
de la page web, au centre) pour complter les d-
nitions construites antrieurement (What? et What
for?) et revenir ventuellement sur la question des
savoir-tre (What tone?) qui est aborde propos des
photographies travers la notion de respectability.
Make sense
1 a. Voir ci-dessus pour travail possible en skim-
ming galement.
Productions possibles :
The sleepy sections might include photos and
photo caption or short articles about pupils or tea-
chers / members of the staff who find it difficult to
wake up in the morning.

3
- In the togetherness section I guess you nd things
such as team activities, for instance playing music or
just chatting.
b. Les lves ne sont peut-tre pas encore habi-
tus lcoute active de leurs camarades qui, dans
ce manuel, caractrise chaque activit de compte
rendu dun travail individuel ou collectif. La prise
de notes est essentielle pour garantir cette coute
attentive. Elle constitue galement un entrane-
ment trs important un savoir-faire indispensa-
ble. La transcription des informations collectes
vient aprs.
c. En ce dbut danne le professeur pourra rappe-
ler :
Dont forget to interrupt politely if you have pro-
blems understanding what is said.
Recap
Il sagit dune prise de parole en chane conduire
aprs une phase de mmorisation individuelle.
L encore, lcoute active est encourage par la
deuxime partie de la consigne, qui invite un ou
deux lves faire la synthse de toutes les rubri-
ques et sections mentionnes.
Book p. 27
STEP 2
Book p. 27
STEP 2
Stockport Grammar School
Book p. 26
Stockport Grammar School
Book p. 26
Step 2 permettra aux lves de dcouvrir trs
concrtement quoi ressemblent les pages dun
yearbook et le ton qui les caractrise. Pour amor-
cer le travail, lenseignant pourra leur demander
project2.indd 47 5/10/07 11:50:37
48
par exemple dimaginer la page de la bad hair
section dont il est question dans le document prc-
dent (Stockport grammar school) : Imagine what the
page looks like: its contents, its lay-out.
Analyse des documents
Ces deux pages de Yearbook sont des supports des-
tins faire dcouvrir aux lves la matrialit de
lobjet dont il a t question dans Step 1. Leur tude
permettra de mettre en vidence les questions de
mise en page, de codes couleurs, de choix de police,
etc., et de faire ressortir le ton caractristique de ces
ouvrages. Il est en effet essentiel pour le succs du
projet que les lves percoivent que les yearbooks
sont des ouvrages destins donner une image
positive de chacune des personnes quils voquent
et quils saisissent la limite entre humour et sar-
casme pour bien la respecter eux-mmes dans leur
propre cration (Over to you, p. 28). Les deux chan-
tillons montrent bien lesprit de valorisation qui
est celui des yearbooks. La srie de photographies
de la page Superlatives (p. 27) cherche manifeste-
ment montrer chaque individu sous son meilleur
jour mme lorsquil est timide, et sait trouver une
sous-section humoristique (Most likely to become a
millionnaire) pour croquer un lve peu attentif. La
page You work, That works rvle un aspect impor-
tant de la culture amricaine et de ses fondements
thiques. La valeur travail y est mise en avant par
les lves eux-mmes dans un article dont le ton
srieux, voire moralisateur, est contrebalanc par
lhumour qui caractrise le sondage.
Make sense
1 a. Insister sur les justications dans les sug-
gestions de classement faites par les lves pour
obtenir des noncs complexes. Habituer les l-
ves donner leur opinion sur les suggestions faites
(voir Introduction, p. 16 de ce guide) pour mettre en
place une interaction nourrie, garantie dune expo-
sition maximale la langue. Pour ce faire, solliciter
les avis si ils ne sont pas exprims spontanment.
Au besoin, lancer la discussion en faisant conna-
tre son dsaccord ventuel avec une proposition de
classement et en donnant une alternative.
b. Cette activit est loccasion de complter la
colonne How to present the page de la logpage. Faire
merger
- (p. 27) : la prsentation en deux colonnes, le
recours systmatique des couples / paires, le
choix dun fond color ple pour faire ressortir les
photographies, le choix de majuscules dimprimerie
pour les sous-sections ;
- (p. 28-29) : la place occupe par larticle, les pho-
tographies et le sondage, le choix de cadres colors
pour certains titres ou lgendes ainsi que pour le
sondage, etc.
2 Faire ressortir ici la valorisation du travail dans
les postures choisies pour les prises de vue (attitude
srieuse et concentre ou au contraire trs dtendue)
ainsi que dans les lgendes (insistance sur largent
gagn pretty penny, tips rolling in ou sur les mots
connotation positive perfection, ready, looking good).
3 La mise en uvre adopte ici vise laccs
rapide au cur de sens.
a. Premire mise en commun de ce qui a t com-
pris au cours de laquelle il faudra veiller faire vivre
la communication en sollicitant les ajouts ou cor-
rections par les pairs.
Productions possibles :
We understood its about high school and work.
- If I got it right, I think the students work outside
school.
- I mean they have a part time job to earn money.
- They have got different sorts of jobs such as driving
a golf cart or outside school scooping ice-cream.
b. Cette activit permet de mettre en vidence la
valeur positive associe au travail (voir Analyse
des documents ).
Voici une liste non exhaustive des expressions
souligner : work just another extracurricular activity;
money earned from working; not that working cant
be fun; work to pay debts to our parents; satisfaction
of a job well done; jobs of today (...) inspire us to do in
the future; proud of a job well done; source of fortune
for the future.
c. Pour conduire cette activit, on gagnera faire
remmorer ce qui a t dit la question 2 de la
valorisation du travail. La mise en relation en sera
facilite, au besoin par le biais dun petit tableau
mettant en regard photographie, points saillants de
la lgende et extraits de texte.
4 Il sagit l dune phase de synthse destine
lentranement la prise de parole en continu.
3
Two sample pages
Book p. 27
Two sample pages
Book p. 27
project2.indd 48 5/10/07 11:50:39
49 Project 2 - Together for a time
Commencer habituer les lves utiliser des
lments de cohsion discursive (introduction du
propos ; marqueurs chronologiques et logiques). On
peut faire prparer lactivit en groupes et dsigner
un rapporteur par groupes pour la synthse. Pen-
ser garantir lcoute active en faisant prendre des
notes et intervenir pour complter, corriger, etc.
Productions possibles :
So let me tell you a few words about the presenta-
tion of a yearbook page. First, concerning the photo-
graphs its interesting to note they are laid out in two
different columns.
- The colour photos are displayed on light background.
The captions are written under the photos and diffe-
rent fonts are used for the headlines and for the cap-
tions.
- About the article and the survey, its also interesting
to notice the two-column display and the use of the light
background which er sort of highlights the text.
- Last but not least, concerning the tone used in a
yearbook, its always humorous but also respectful
of other peoples feelings, I mean the editors are very
careful not to hurt anyone.
Over to you
5 Nous recommandons de conduire cette phase
en modules pour bncier de la rduction def-
fectifs. Il sagit l du dernier entranement avant la
ralisation du projet. Cette tche communicative est
une dcomposition de la tche nale (elle porte sur
les dcisions prendre concernant une page et
non lensemble du yearbook mais les lments
langagiers utiliser sont les mmes). Elle peut donc
tre loccasion de conduire une valuation formative
pour laquelle on utilisera la mme grille dvalua-
tion que pour le projet nal mais sans notation. Ce
sera le moment dexpliquer aux lves les objectifs
atteindre et, une fois la tche dvaluation rali-
se, de prciser les domaines dans lesquels des
marges de progrs sont possibles.
NB : il faut demander lavance aux lves dap-
porter des photographies les reprsentant (leur
rappeler ce qui est dit en matire de respect et de
dcence dans la page web de Stockport Grammar
School). Elles sont indispensables pour lactivit c.
a. Phase de prparation individuelle qui permet
llve de convoquer les outils conceptuels et lan-
gagiers dont il va avoir besoin. Elle est bien sr
conduire en saidant de la logpage.
b. Si on adopte la mise en uvre conseille, le dbat
au sein de chaque groupe sera valu formativement.
Une inter-valuation est possible, qui permettra aux
lves de mieux intgrer encore les critres dva-
luation du projet nal en les mettant eux-mmes en
uvre sur le travail de leurs camarades.
3
Productions possibles :
Student A: I think we should have caricatures
because it would be funnier than formal photos.
Student B: Well, Im not sure it is a good idea. Its very
difcult to draw caricatures. We can hurt peoples fee-
lings.
Student C: Yes, I agree. How would you feel if some-
body was making fun of you?
Student D: Well, well have to be careful with that
when we write the caption. But who is going to draw
the caricatures?
Student E: Well, I think thats another problem. Who
is good at drawing?
Student F: Dont you think that it will be easier to take
photos?
c. Activit conduire pour tendre la discussion
lensemble de la classe mais aussi dans loptique de
la ralisation dun vritable yearbook sur lensem-
ble de lanne.
Productions possibles :
We think its a good idea to make use of a digital
camera and to take funny photos. Its probably easier
and quicker than to draw caricatures.
It would be a good idea to show the photos we want to
use in our yearbook before using them: everyone has
to agree beforehand.
The two-column display is ne and we want to use it
as well as the green background they have used. It
looks really nice.
Recap
Il sagira ici de donner un temps court de prpara-
tion avec laide de la logpage soit pour se prparer
un questionnement soit donner des lments din-
formation sur les yearbooks.
Exemples de production qui ne sont encore une fois
quune des ralisations possibles et trs partielles
de lexercice :
Student A: Well, Ive heard you have spent a year
in an American High School. Is there something spe-
cial you remember and you would like to tell me
about?
Student B: Yes, denitely. Id like to tell you about the
yearbooks they make.
A: Yearbook? What is it?
B. Well a yearbook is a book made by the students
and for the students.
A. You mean the students write a book themselves?
Does it look like a novel?
B. No, no its a book to record their school year in the
High School.
3
3
3
project2.indd 49 5/10/07 11:50:40
50
Book p. 30-31
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Book p. 30-31
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Words (logbook p. 16)
A Prononciation de la lettre <a>
a. Grammar staff place back pat classes
made - trash - mistake patience salvation - space
practice slacker
b. / /: grammar...staff...back...pat... classes...
trash... salvation... practice...slacker
/ e /: place made mistake patience salva-
tion space
c. <a> se prononce / / quand elle suivie de deux
consonnes ou dune consonne nale.
<a> se prononce / e / quand elles est suivie dune
consonne + voyelle.
d. <a> se prononce / / : bank, fast, cash, sand,
<a> se prononce / e / : plate, cape, lake, face,
B Accentuation et sens
A yearbook is a book that is made by a class during
a schoolyear.It is a way of remembering memora-
ble events or people who went to school with you. It
contains several sections and topics such as sports,
social life and many others.
Working on a yearbook is a mini-life exercise. It
teaches you how to work in a team, to listen to other
peoples opinions and to nish a project.
Les syllabes accentues qui vont vous permettre de
transmettre le sens sont soulignes.
Les syllabes quil faudrait rduire sont les syllabes
non soulignes.
C Prononciation des lettres <ge>
- <ge> en anglais se prononce / d /.
- <ge> en franais se prononce / /.
D Organiser le lexique : dterminer les champs lexicaux
student jobs money free time memory restaurant
waiter / waitress
cook
diswasher
receptionist
math tutor
serve
grill cook
driver
gardener
removal helper
tap dance instructor
parking attendant
delivery person
mow the lawn
charge
earn
tip
cost
buy
subsidies
nance
penny
afford
debts
fee
weekend
relax
hobbies
rest
cook
slack
remember
commemorate
remind
reminder
past
record
waiter / waitress
cook
diswasher
tip
serve
grill cook
E Organiser le lexique : associations
a. 1. cute = charming 7. lazy hard-working 13. good-looking = handsome
2. current past 8. regular special 14. tender angry
3. boring interesting 9. playful sad 15. athletic = sporty
4. generous selsh 10. serious ironic 16. foolish = silly
5. daily unexpected 11. bright = intelligent 17. shy = timid
6. elegant = smart 12. academic extracurricular
- person: elegant, cute, charming, boring, interesting, generous, selsh, elegant, smart, lazy, hard-working,
playful, sad, serious, ironic, bright, intelligent, good-looking, handsome, tender, angry, athletic, sporty, foo-
lish, silly, shy, timid
- event: regular, current, past, daily, unexpected, special, sad, extracurricular
- activities: daily, current, past, boring, interesting, unexpected, regular, special, sporty, academic, extra-
curricular
- tone: serious, sad, ironic
project2.indd 50 5/10/07 11:50:41
51 Project 2 - Together for a time
F Word bank
Lenseignant est libre dajouter dautres mots aux trois proposs (auquel cas, reproduire une grille de ce
type). Toutefois, il importe que ces mots puissent faire lobjet dun travail similaire (synonymes, drivs)
pour permettre llve de construire sa comptence lexicale.
Ce travail sur trois mots-cls du chapitre va vous permettre de revoir et/ou dapprendre beaucoup dautres
mots qui leur sont lis.
fun editorial friend
Phrase(s) dans
laquelle / lesquelles
jai rencontr ce mot
Fun activities They may choose to have
an editorial.
I can keep photos of your
friends.
High School: laughing
with our friends.
Domaine de sens
auquel je peux le
rattacher
sections / topics sections / topics school life /
relationships
Nature du mot
unaccountable
noun
noun noun
Dnition
An article giving opinion
and perspective.
Ne pas oublier !
To have fun = to enjoy
oneself
La personne ou la
socit qui publie un
ouvrage sappelle en
anglais a publisher .
Prononciation
/ fn / / edtorl / / frend /
Mots proches
synonymes
amusement article, newspaper buddy, mate, pal
Mots loigns
antonymes
boring enemy, foe
Quelques mots
de la mme famille
(avec leur nature, et
leur sens)
funny (adj, amusant) editor (n., diteur /
rdacteur en chef)
editorial (adj, ditorial)
editorially (adv,
ditorialement)
edit (v., diter)
edition (n., dition)
friendly (adj., amical)
friendliness (n.)
frienship (n.)
friendless (adj.)
Ne pas
confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
Collocations,
tournures
idiomatiques
Have fun!
Its a lot of fun!
Make fun of...
make friends (with)
school / friend /
girlfriend / boyfriend
Proverbes, dictons
All for fun and fun for
all.
A friend in need is a
friend indeed.
!
!
project2.indd 51 5/10/07 11:50:44
52
Listening
Intonation doubt and certainty
1 1. Could you tell me mej
2. Well, its quite simplel
3. Well, Ill showl
4. I cant see whyj
5. O.K. lets recapl
6. The strangest thingj
7. Theres an easier wayl
8. I dont understandj
Tone Units
2 a. Activities
activities

fun activities
work activities

work activities
fun activities

all the activities (question / rponse )


b. Teams
teams

debate team

sports team

Clubs
clubs backgammon club skiing
club

NB : On pourrait envisager le mme entranement


pour identier les diffrents types de photos.
Speaking
Interrogatives
3 Rchir sur la langue : Les interrogatives
(logbook, p. 19)
a. Ces noncs sont des questions. Certaines com-
mencent par un mot interrogatif. Dautres non ; elles
commencent alors par un auxiliaire. Dans tous les
cas, on constate une inversion du groupe S/V.
b. Ces questions se classent en deux catgories :
- les questions ouvertes qui commencent par un
mot interrogatif ;
- les yes-no questions ou questions fermes qui
commencent par un auxiliaire.
c. Dans les questions ouvertes, celle commenant
par who se distingue car who est le sujet de la ques-
tion (on peut aussi dire quil est impossible dinverser
le sujet et le verbe car on ne connat pas le sujet).
d. 1. Mot interrogatif + (do) + S + V
2. Aux + S + V
e. Il ny a pas habituellement dauxiliaire la forme
afrmative. Son apparition la forme interrogative
pose problme aux francophones. De plus, si on
peut poser des questions en franais sans inverser
le sujet et le verbe, cest trs rare en anglais.
Indirect speech
5 Rchir sur la langue : Discours indirect
(logbook, p. 19)
b. 1. Gene Gable says that working on the yearbook
gave him purpose and condence.
2. He also says that it taught him that words are
powerful tools.
3. Group 1 said that the sleepy section was proba-
bly about people who sleep during classes.
4. Group 2 asked what the bad hair section could
be about.
5. Group 3 told us they did not understand the word
togetherness.
6. Group 4 asked if the berks section was about
silly students.
d. Il y a transformation du pronom me en him.
Quand les verbes introducteurs sont au prsent, il
ny pas de modication de temps dans la subordon-
ne.
Les verbes introducteurs sont au pass. En cons-
quence, il y a recul dun cran dans le pass du verbe
de la subordonne.
e. Pour conclure :
Il faut un verbe introducteur ; il y modication des
pronoms.
Il se produit, comme en franais, un phnomne de
concordance des temps. Quand le verbe introduc-
teur est au pass, celui de la subordonne recule
dun cran dans le pass.
V V-ing / V to V
8 Rchir sur la langue : V V-ing ou V to V
(logbook, p. 20)
a. Ces noncs expriment les gots.
b. 1. Chris enjoys playing football.
2. Leah likes discussing politics.
3. Some students cant bear working hard. They
prefer slacking.
4. Arun hates mowing lawns when dog remains are
involved.
Tous les verbes sont la forme V-ing.
c. Les noncs 1 4 expriment les gots prsents
alors que les noncs 5 9 expriment les souhaits,
project2.indd 52 5/10/07 11:50:48
53 Project 2 - Together for a time
les envies pour le futur. Phrases 1 4, construction
V V-ing, phrases 5 9, construction V to V.
d. Pour conclure : TO nous indique un mouve-
ment vers un vnement, lorsquil est associ
un verbe, do lide de futur, dune situation non
accomplie. La forme en -ing indique que laction a
dj t effectue dans un contexte prcdent, le
locuteur peut afrmer ses gots en rfrence un
contexte antrieur.
9
1. The two young lionesses are planning to go to a
party and of course they want to look good. One of
them is complaining because shed like to have spots
to look smarter but unfortunately she has got none.
2. The second cartoon pictures a teenager coming
back home to her parents. Shes got spiky hair and
lots of piercing and she explains she couldnt help
keeping up with the fashion/ it was impossible for her
to resist piercing fashion pressure.
I think I would like to have the rst cartoon in our
good looks page because it depicts our behaviour
when we go to a party: we like looking gorgeous
but we are always disappointed with ourselves, we
always hate looking at ourselves in the mirror. In my
opinion the second one is very funny but Im not quite
sure everybody would like it, especially the ones that
have got piercings.
Reading
Understanding long sentences
10 b.
1. I entered high school in 1970 under a bit of a cloud,
which made me even more self-conscious than the
other 100 boys that made up my freshman class.
2. My own yearbook advisor was an English teacher
named Kathryn Konoske, who also taught journa-
lism and probably several other subjects.
3. She taught me how to pay attention to details like
which direction the picture subjects were looking.
Follow their eyes, shed say.
4. She took us on a three-day trip to Fresno so we
could tour the printing and composition plant, an
experience that made a big impact on me.
5. Years later I wrote a letter to her, telling her of my
accomplishments and thanking her for being such a
positive inuence in my life.
Writing
Interrogatives
11 a. Productions possibles :
How do you react when friends havent done their
homework and ask you to help them?
A: You give them your homework with a smile.
B: You refuse to help them.
C: You tell the teacher.
- Do you complain to the teacher when your neighbour
wants to chat with you?
A: Never.
B: Sometimes.
C. Always.
b. If you have a majority of As you are likeable
If you have a majority of Bs you are not very nice /
friendly
If you have a majority of Cs you are a pest / a nui-
sance / selsh
3
Pour cette tape nale, on peut mettre les lves en
situation de dbat par groupes de cinq ou sept (un
nombre impair est prfrable en cas de vote). Pen-
dant la prestation, il est important que le reste de
la classe soit mis en activit an que lattention soit
maintenue. Des tches doivent tre imprativement
donnes aux lves qui coutent leurs camarades :
- poser des questions pour aider les lves les moins
laise, ces questions doivent pouvoir inclure des ques-
tions de conrmation : did you say ? I am not sure I
understood (On peut les prparer dans une phase
pralable: Use your logpage to prepare questions.)
- leur demander dvaluer la prestation de leur(s)
camarade(s) sous forme de grille labore pour eux.
Le temps de prparation est libre puisque la pr-
paration est effectue hors-classe mais avant la
Book p. 32-33
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 32-33
YOUR PROJECT
project2.indd 53 5/10/07 11:50:50
54
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur) :
A. Prendre part une conversation B. Intelligibilit et recevabilit linguistique
Peut intervenir simplement, mais
la communication repose sur la
rptition et la reformulation
3 pts Langue partiellement comprhensible 2 pts
Intervient et ragit de faon simple 4-5-6 pts Langue comprhensible malgr un
vocabulaire peu vari et des erreurs
3-4 pts
Prend sa part dans lchange et
sait, au besoin, se reprendre et
reformuler
7-8-9 pts Langue globalement correcte
(pour la morphosyntaxe comme
la prononciation) et vocabulaire
appropri
5-6 pts
Argumente, cherche convaincre,
ragit avec vivacit et pertinence
10-11-12
pts
Langue correcte et uide 7-8 pts
Note A : / 12 Note B : / 8
Note nale et apprciations : / 20
Suggestion pour une co-valuation du projet (lves) :
chelle de points : 1 = trs insufsant 2 = insufsant 3 = moyen 4 = bien 5 = trs bien
Dans lensemble jai trouv que (jentoure la note)
lexpos de mon camarade tait comprhensible 1 2 3 4 5
lexpos tait bien organis et bien expliqu 1 2 3 4 5
il sest exprim avec clart et sans trop derreurs 1 2 3 4 5
il a t capable de rpondre avec prcision aux questions quon lui a poses 1 2 3 4 5
Total / 20

prsentation elle-mme, limiter le temps de pr-


paration 5 minutes maximum. Les encourager
utiliser la logpage pour viter la rdaction, et sen-
traner les uns avec les autres sexprimer avant
dtre valus.
On peut xer une dure approximative de 10 minu-
tes par prestation. Ceci permettra de faire passer
facilement 3 groupes en une sance en laissant du
temps pour les questions de lauditoire.
Il peut tre pratique de disposer dun vido-projec-
teur et dun accs Internet si les lves ont envie
dillustrer leurs propos en montrant des exemples
de projets de yearbooks (sommaire et propositions
dillustrations, voire maquette par exemple) ; sinon,
ils pourront apporter leurs propres illustrations et
les afcher ou les faire circuler.
Lobjectif tant de ngocier pour arriver un com-
promis, chaque quipe devra proposer une syn-
thse de ses propositions dans une conclusion. De
mme, il faut habituer les lves introduire leur
propos (voir question 4, Make sense p. 28). Ces deux
phases du dbat doivent tre prpares (il convient
donc de mnager une pause la n de la phase
dchange des arguments pour la prparation de la
conclusion). Elles relvent de la prise de parole en
continu.
Il est utile de prvoir un modrateur ou arbitre des
dbats pour garantir le respect du temps imparti
et pour lancer les diffrentes phases de lactivit.
Cette fonction peut tre value galement.
Une fois que tous les groupes auront dbattu, une
synthse des synthses sera effectue en classe
entire sur la base des notes prises lors de lcoute
active (une logpage vierge sera utile pour ce faire).
Deux grilles dvaluation : la premire, pour lensei-
gnant, est base sur la grille dvaluation de loral
au baccalaurat en section STG, mais adapte au
niveau des classes de 2
nde
. La seconde grille, pour
les lves, est simplie. Bien sr, lenseignant a
le dernier mot pour la notation, mais il peut tre
intressant de prendre en compte la notation des
lves.
project2.indd 54 5/10/07 11:50:52
55 Project 2 - Together for a time
Book p. 34, logbook p. 23-24
DEBRIEFING
Book p. 34, logbook p. 23-24
DEBRIEFING
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
p Voir introduction p. 18 de ce guide.
3 What I need to work on
1. b. List your arguments in favour or against
homework.
we shouldnt have any
homework because
we must have
homework because
- we are too busy
- school days are too
long
- we need some time
in the day to relax
- our parents dont
work when they come
home
- what about the
35 hour week ?
- its impossible to
remember what we learn
- we need homework to
get good marks
- we have more than 3
months holiday a year
- it helps us understand
better
- homework is to prepare
for the next lesson
For or against including photos
for including photos
of our family / our
childhood
against
- its great to keep
memories
- we change as we get
older
- its fun to remember
how we were
- you can choose your
own photo
- pictures speak
louder than words
- some children
dont want to be
remembered
- people can laugh and
make fun of photos
- its not fair on children
with spots, etc.
- you dont have
to be seen to be
remembered
2. a. Give examples.
We are too busy : we have to work all the time.
Well er Let me explain, we get up very early
because school starts at 8 oclock and we often
arrive home at 7 oclock in the evening and were
tired and hungry.
- Its impossible to remember what we learn.
Well, er We spend a lot of time writing in our
copybook and we never read what we have written.
b. Rephrase.
1. I cant afford to buy a yearbook. What I mean
is that I havent got enough money to buy a year-
book What I mean is that a yearbook costs a lot
of money, too much for me.
2. The yearbook will record my life in school. What
I mean is that a yearbook will always be a way of
remembering what I did and how I was at school.
3. I want to include a bad hair section. In other
words I think it would be a good idea to have a sec-
tion of the yearbook for photos of children whose
hair looks bad.
4. I would like to have a page with quotes. What
I mean is that I think it would be good to remember
what people said that was very funny or really stu-
pid. It could be children or teachers.
5. If I could, Id like to earn money.

6. I dont think the yearbook should be an extra-cur-


ricular activity. In other words I think we should
work on the yearbook after school and in our free
time.
3
1. Comprhension orale : Together for a time CD classe, piste 2
Phase danticipation avant lcoute (individuelle les lves peuvent rassembler leurs ides sur papier. Pas
de mise en commun orale puisquil sagit dune valuation.)
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 285 de ce guide.
project2.indd 55 5/10/07 11:50:56
56
Corrig et barme
Remarque : le document est assez difcile car les voix des interlocuteurs se chevauchent parfois; il convien-
dra de bonier la quantit dlments retenus, en regroupant les deux premiers paliers, mme si la mise
en relation reste incomplte.
Paliers de comprhension
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
Elements related to yearbooks in general: school, pictures, (comparison of) hairdos,
looks, clothes, snapshot, really important, jeans, sneakers, CD player, good memories
1 2
selon quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte conduisant
une comprhension lacunaire.
Personal reasons why yearbooks are important: (documentation of) your life,
comparison (of hairdos, clothes, looks), school to college, sacrice(s), worth it, good
memories
3 4
selon quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est
compris.
Other reasons why yearbooks are very special books: documentation of your life,
childhood to young adult, 1
st
grade to senior year, keep the rest of your life, time capsule,
snapshot in time
5 8
Palier 4
Tout le contenu informatif est compris. Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont
relevs.
Yearbooks and the world outside school: section on most famous current events of
the year, the world at the time and your little world
10
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Additional information (bonus): Would you sacrice (jeans, sneakers, a CD player),
primary years occupied by school, budgetary concerns, struggling to afford
2
project2.indd 56 5/10/07 11:50:59
57 Project 2 - Together for a time
2. Comprhension crite
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 286 de ce guide.
Corrig
Nature of the
document
Main topic
Event described
a passage from a novel a passage from a yearbook
a passage from a newspaper article
education
(morning) assembly in American school
The protagonists
Name (if
known)
Dr
Potter
Amy Ken Crawley Corky
Henderson
Student Audience Narrator
Position
/ role /
status
Principal Student /
journalist
Student
council
President
Senior
class pdt
and capt of
foot team
Student
leaders
Students ?
Situation
in the
room
On
stage,
behind
podium
Last row of
auditorium
First in audi-
ence then on
stage behind
podium
On stage
then behind
podium
On stage In auditorium ?
Relations
between
characters (like/
dont like)
Dr
Potter
Student
leader
Amy Ken
Crawley
Corky
Henderson
Audience Narrator Chairman of
the science fair
Dr Potter Like Like
Dont
like
Dont like
Student
leader
Amy
Ken
Crawley
Like Dont like
Corky
Henderson
Like Dont
like
Like Like like Dont like
Student Like
Audience Dont
like
Narrator
Chairman
of the
science fair
Dont like
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 = 06 / 20 : tous les lments en gras sont renseigns.
- Seuil 2 = 12 / 20 : tous les lments souligns.
- Seuil 3 = deux points en plus par lment en italique.
project2.indd 57 5/10/07 11:50:59
Yearbooks
Report your ndings throughout Project 2 here.
What you learn
basics of page layout and design, writing press articles, transcribing
interwiews, collaboration/how to work collaboratively, patience, dignity,
words = powerful and dangerous weapons.
How to present the page
design a layout, use space appropriately, avoid rivers in two-page
spreads, etc.
What there is on a page photos captions, articles, narratives, interviews, etc.
Sub-sections Backgammon club, Debating club, sports team (skiing), etc.
Sections / topics
trips, parties, address book, editorial, messages from staff, signatures,
personal messages, fun activities, work activities, class photos, trips/
holidays, couples, end of year ball, quotes, etc.
Logbook p. 15
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 15
LOGPAGE
58 58
project2.indd 58 5/10/07 11:51:00
PROJECT
3
Its Superman!
Sommaire du chapitre Its Superman!
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 60
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 36)
Make sense: A few public portraits (book, p. 36-38)
Make sense: Hulk (book, p. 39)
Over to you (book, p. 39)
Recap (book, p. 39)
p. 61
p. 63
p. 64
p. 65
p. 66
S
t
e
p

2
Make sense: What makes a good superhero? (book, p. 40)
Make sense: Two private portraits (book, p. 40-41)
Over to you (book, p. 41)
Recap (book, p. 41)
p. 66
p. 68
p. 70
p. 71
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
s
Words (book, p. 42 / logbook p. 26-28)
Listening (book, p. 42)
Speaking (book, p. 42)
Reading (book, p. 42-43)
Writing (book, p. 43)
p. 71
p. 73
p. 73
p. 73
p. 74
Your project (book, p. 44)
Debrieng (book, p. 46 / logbook, p. 34)
valuation de la comprhension

/
Logpage (logbook, p. 25)
p. 75
p. 77
p. 77
p. 79
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 61

Make sense: A few public portraits p. 63
2 sances, dont une possible en
demi-groupes (reading strategies)

Make sense: Hulk p. 64
1 sance
Over to you p. 65
1 sance
Recap p. 66
Possible en valuation intgre
une sance
STEP 2

Make sense: What makes a good superhero? p. 66
1 sance
Make sense: Two private portraits p. 68
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
Over to you p. 70
Recap p. 71
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
(avec dictionnaires bilingues)
Recap possible en valuation
YOUR PROJECT p. 75
VALUATION :
1 sance, classe entire

59 Project 3 - Its Superman!


project3.indd 59 5/10/07 11:52:02
Au terme de lexploitation du projet Its Super-
man!, llve sera invit crer un super-hros
dont il devra dresser la fois le portrait public et
priv. Il sagira donc pour lui dutiliser ses connais-
sances du genre, son imagination et, sil le souhaite,
tout ou une partie des documents qui sont mis sa
disposition pour rdiger ce portrait original.
Ce projet renvoie la notion dnie par le pro-
gramme du vivre ensemble en socit et plus sp-
ciquement au thme de la cration.
Le chapitre prsente des super-hros bien connus
pour la plupart de nos lves, tels Superman, Bat-
man et Spiderman qui ont d faire partie du paysage
de leur enfance et qui constituent toujours un de leurs
centres dintrt si lon en juge par le succs rencon-
tr par les bandes dessines et leurs adaptations
lcran et celui des jeux vido. Dautres super-hros
un peu moins clbres de ce ct de lAtlantique
viendront complter le tableau. Nous avons choisi de
manire dlibre de nous appuyer sur un contexte
culturel bien connu des lves an quils prennent
conance en leurs connaissances sur le monde,
acquises en dehors de lcole, les largissent et les
analysent. De mme, il nous a sembl judicieux de
faire en sorte quils dveloppent leurs stratgies din-
frence en sappuyant sur ce contexte familier.
Le step 1 met particulirement laccent sur ce que
tout un chacun connat des super-hros leur
image publique, cest--dire leur apparence, leurs
costumes, leurs accessoires, leurs pouvoirs, la
source de leurs pouvoirs
Le step 2 donne dcouvrir une image plus intime
dont on connat parfois quelques pans mais dont de
larges parties nous sont inconnues, ce qui permet
des auteurs de ction de les imaginer librement,
comme Tom De Haven dans son roman Its Super-
man (2006).
Les textes complmentaires qui gurent p. 166 et
167 du manuel pourront galement permettre aux
lves daborder le thme dun point de vue diffrent.
On pourra aussi les encourager regarder en version
originale des adaptations cinmatographiques ou
utiliser les versions anglophones des jeux vido.
Types de texte
Le parcours conduit la rdaction dun portrait
imaginaire. En consquence, si les supports propo-
ss sont de sources et de natures trs diffrentes,
les textes tudis sont de type descriptif mais aussi
narratif et informatif.
Cur de sens
Le cur de sens du chapitre repose sur la notion
de dualit.
Un hros, daprs le Oxford English Dictionary, peut
tre dni comme a person who is admired by
many people for doing something brave or good.
Cest donc une personne qui a des qualits morales

que lhomme de la rue na pas ncessairement. Un


super-hros ajoute ces qualits morales des qua-
lits et des possibilits physiques que lhomme de
la rue na pas non plus.
En dautres termes, le super-hros se distingue dou-
blement du commun des mortels et est ainsi double-
ment part. Son volution dans le monde des humains
implique sa double identit et sa double vie.
Il pourra tre utile, lissue du step 1, de faire verba-
liser par les lves une dnition du super-hros,
en partant de la dnition du dictionnaire.
A hero is a person who is admired by many people
for doing something brave or good.
A superhero fights evil and so, has moral qualities
that not everybody has.
- A superhero has special powers and can do physical
wonders.
- Therefore, a superhero is doubly apart from the rest
of the population.
- He cannot have a normal life.
- That is why he must have a double identity and has
an alter ego.
Tous les super-hros et toutes les super-hrones
se prsentent donc sous un double visage : lom-
bre (identit secrte, vie prive, traits de carac-
tre somme toute ordinaires) et, par contraste, la
lumire, o leurs pouvoirs extraordinaires et les
exploits qui en rsultent sont surexposs. Leurs
noms, souvent composs, tmoignent de cette dou-
ble nature, mi-hommes / hros, mi-tres extraordi-
naires sortis de limagination de leur crateur. Ils
exercent leurs pouvoirs humains et surhumains
sur eux-mmes ou sur les autres pour le triomphe
du bien alors que leurs ennemis (supervillains)
cherchent faire triompher le mal.
Activits langagires
-

: Comprendre lessentiel dune interview en
sappuyant sur les ralentissements du rythme.
-

: Infrer en utilisant le contexte immdiat ou le
contexte culturel.
- : Se servir dinformations provenant de sour-
ces diffrentes pour dvelopper ses ides et organi-
ser son discours.
- : Se relire de manire efcace dans les trois
domaines suivants : ponctuation, orthographe,
grammaire.
Outils linguistiques
Pour parler des super-hros, les lves auront
naturellement besoin de manipuler les outils lin-
guistiques suivants : place de ladjectif, noms et
adjectifs composs, can, constructions causatives
avec make, look + adj. / look like + nom ; prononcia-
tion de la lettre < u >, description physique, portrait
moral, drivation, verbes de mouvement, pouvoirs.
3

ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
60
project3.indd 60 5/10/07 11:52:03
Phase dchauffement
Il sagit, dans cette premire tape du projet, de pro-
poser aux lves de dire ce quils connaissent des
super-hros. Il existe bon nombre de super-hros et
les adolescents sont trs friands des dernires nou-
veauts qui ont pu chapper au professeur ! Tirer prot
de cette situation pour stimuler la communication et
tablir des changes authentiques.
a. Formule questionnement dun lve charg lors du
cours prcdent de prparer un petit rsum soit dun
lm quil a vu en lien avec le thme, soit dun extrait
de DVD prt par le professeur. On pourrait imaginer
plusieurs phases dchauffement de ce type, sur la
base de lms ou de comics. ce titre les rfrences
donnes p. 46 du manuel dans la rubrique More about
superheroes peuvent tre prcieuses (et peuvent met-
tre les lves en apptit !).
b. Formule document inconnu : couter un extrait de la
bande sonore dun lm et faire imaginer la scne. On
peut aussi projeter la couverture dun comics (pour des
raisons de droits nous navons pas pu en reproduire ici)
ou bien limage douverture du chapitre (en cachant le
titre du chapitre si ncessaire).
c. Formule questionnement professeur partir dune
phrase lance par celui-ci : Guess who my favourite
superhero is? Ask me questions. Si cette activit inter-
vient lors dune phase dchauffement en cours de
chapitre, les lves peuvent aussi utiliser leur logpage
pour guider linterview. Au professeur dimproviser sa
rponse en fonction de ses gots personnels.
Remarque : les suggestions sont valables pour
lensemble de la squence.
Start from what you know
La phase dchauffement aura dj permis daborder
le thme du chapitre, nous suggrons ici de lister les
connaissances pralables des lves sur le thme et
dorganiser un sondage en petits groupes. Il convien-
dra de donner les moyens aux lves dorganiser ce
sondage pour quil se droule dans un laps de temps
raisonnable. Lenseignant pourra donc fournir une
grille aux lves leur permettant dorganiser la prise
p Voir introduction p. 14 de ce guide.
Les lves laborent la construction des diffrentes
rubriques ds le Start from what you know du step 1.
Plusieurs types de guidage sont possibles, par
exemple :
- les lves classent eux-mmes les informations
donnes par leurs camarades et trouvent en groupe
un titre aux diffrentes rubriques. Le sens nest pas
du tout pr-construit.
- pour faciliter lorganisation des informations en
Q. 2b, le professeur peut faire une prise de notes au
tableau organise en fonction des rubriques ; aux
lves de trouver les titres.
- lenseignant peut choisir, au cours de lactivit
de classement, de donner un nombre de rubriques
plus consquent que celui qui gure dans le manuel
sil estime que les lves ont besoin daide (cos-
tume, job, origins, occupation, superpower, hobbies,
extra abilities, physical description, home life, place of
residence, equipment, motivations, personal worries,
enemies, family situation, weapons, associates, perso-
nality traits, behaviour at home, friends, relatives)
On notera que lactivit de classement sera pour-
suivie dans la Q. 2c, puisquil sagira pour llve de
trier les rubriques en fonction de leur appartenance
la sphre publique ou prive.
Remarques :
- Les lves compltent ensuite leur logpage au
fur et mesure des activits, tel quindiqu dans le
manuel, de mmoire aprs une phase rcapitulative
ou en coutant leurs camarades ou bien encore lors
de llucidation des textes.
- La logpage sera renseigne sous forme de notes
et non dnoncs rdigs et pourra varier dun lve
lautre.
- Les lves pourront au l du chapitre et des
besoins constituer dautres ches didentit pour
complter leur galerie de super-hros.
- Introduire le mot villain, ds le dbut de la logpage,
partir de enemy par exemple, car ce mot est indis-
pensable tout au long du chapitre et notamment
parce quil apparat dans le document audio p. 40
du manuel (What makes a good superhero?).
p Voir logpage renseigne, p. 79 de ce guide.
EXPLOITATION
DE LA LOGPAGE
EXPLOITATION
DE LA LOGPAGE

Book p. 36

Transparents n
os
5 et 6
STEP 1

Book p. 36

Transparents n
os
5 et 6
STEP 1
61 Project 3 - Its Superman!
project3.indd 61 5/10/07 11:52:07
62
de parole et la prise de notes cette grille pourra gu-
rer sur un transparent remis chaque groupe dlves
par le professeur, ou bien tre rtroprojete ou crite
au tableau pour toute la classe. Il est galement sou-
haitable que chaque groupe dsigne un secrtaire /
rapporteur en dbut dactivit.
Suggestion de grille
a. Use this grid to interview your friends and make
up a statistics le.
Speakers
name
Number of SH heard
of + names
how
X 4: Spiderman /
Superman / Batman /
Catwoman
lms,
b. Make your statistics le:
- calculate the number of superheroes everyone
in your group knows:
All of us know at least 3 superheroes / One of us
doesnt know any superheroes; two of us know
- In the same way, calculate which superheroes
are the best-known in your group and how you got
to know them:
All of us know Spiderman / Most of us, four of us
actually, got to know them through films
1 - 2 Durant cette premire phase, les l-
ves pourront mutualiser leurs connaissances th-
matiques, lexicales et grammaticales. On veillera
maintenir linteraction qui a t mise en place lors
des prcdentes sances pour faire rpter, clair-
cir, peler, etc.
Les lves seront donc amens rebrasser et enrichir
leur lexique pour dcrire les super-hros (wear; carry;
look + adj. ; look like + n.; ordre des adjectifs), les cos-
tumes (masked / unmasked; cape / capeless; symbol /
emblem; bright / dark), les parties du corps (shoulders;
legs; knees; jaws; arms) et parler de leurs pouvoirs :
expression de la capacit (can / cant + BV; be able to;
3
3
strong enough to lift a car; manage to) et verbes daction
(y; lift; leap; jump; climb up and down; ght; catch; run
very fast; rush).
De mme, lorsquils partageront les informations dont
ils disposent, ils rebrasseront le prsent simple :
He lives in Gotham City; he works as a journalist for
the Daily Planet; he is in love with Lois Lane. He wears a
costume that marks him out.
Ils produiront peut tre aussi des noncs plus dubi-
tatifs :
I think his cape is blue and well, er Whats the English
for? What do you call his clothes? Yes, his outfit is blue;
as far as I know; if Im not mistaken
Ils pourront galement exprimer dans un contexte dif-
frent les notions de quantit revues lors du premier
projet et tablir des comparaisons :
All of them wear colourful costumes but a few of them
wear a cape. They all wear costumes that mark them out
but some of them are bright, others are dark. They also
have a different design.
- Superheroes who have / maintain a secret identity often
wear a mask whereas Spiderman wears a cowl.
- Unlike Batman, Spiderman wears a colourful costume.
On veillera lors de cette phase entretenir une bonne
interaction (voir Introduction, p. 13).
Cette tape rcapitulative pourra donner lieu une
prise de notes.
Pour complter cette activit et permettre aux lves
dacqurir un vocabulaire spcique concernant les
costumes des super-hros, on peut proposer une acti-
vit intermdiaire, faire en classe ou en travail prpa-
ratoire la maison.
Distribuer les quatre petits textes ci-dessous des
groupes diffrents, demander aux lves, individuelle-
ment ou en binmes, dexpliquer leurs camarades
ce quils ont compris et dutiliser une image de leur
manuel (p. 36-37-38) pour illustrer ce quils ont lu.
Batman has a symbol on his chest, it is his emblem, a
Bat, unlike Superman who has a stylized letter. Super-
man is unmasked whereas Spiderman wears a full
mask. Batmans mask covers his upper face.
3
3
3
3
Superheroes who maintain a secret identity often wear a mask, ranging from domino masks
to full-face masks. Most common are masks covering the upper face, leaving the mouth and
jaw exposed. Some also wear hoods or cowls to cover their heads and necks.
Superheroes who maintain a secret identity often wear a mask, ranging from domino masks
to full-face masks. Most common are masks covering the upper face, leaving the mouth and
jaw exposed. Some also wear hoods or cowls to cover their heads and necks.
Another common feature of a superhero costume is a symbol: a stylized letter or an
emblem usually on the chest.
Another common feature of a superhero costume is a symbol: a stylized letter or an
emblem usually on the chest.
Costume is also a source of power. Metal-plated armours or armoured suits, knee and elbow
pads, utility belts, ammunition pouches, whips, for example can protect them and help
them fight.
Costume is also a source of power. Metal-plated armours or armoured suits, knee and elbow
pads, utility belts, ammunition pouches, whips, for example can protect them and help
them fight.
project3.indd 62 5/10/07 11:52:10
63 Project 3 - Its Superman!
L encore les lves seront invits complter leur logpage.
Une phase de rcapitulation pourra consister projeter le

transparent n 5 dun super-hros et en
demander une description prcise. Ceci constituera la trace crite de lactivit.
The form-fitting clothing they often wear, referred to as skintight or spandex outfits,
emphasize their strength and athletic build.
The form-fitting clothing they often wear, referred to as skintight or spandex outfits,
emphasize their strength and athletic build.
A few public portraits

Book p. 36-38
A few public portraits

Book p. 36-38
Analyse des documents
Cet chantillonnage de textes descriptifs doit per-
mettre aux lves de complter ou dbaucher le
portrait des super-hros suivants : Spiderman, Bat-
man, X-men, Superman, the Fantastic Four. Il doit
aussi leur permettre dafner leurs stratgies de
lecture : reconnatre des indices et faire des dduc-
tions. Cest pourquoi les sources de ces textes nont
pas t prcises.
Mise en uvre
Dans un premier temps, les lves sont invits
procder un reprage rapide dindices qui leur
sont familiers ( partir de la relecture de la logpage)
pour identier les personnages dont il est question
dans les divers extraits : surlignage de ces indices
dans le logbook p. 32-33. Puis, dans un deuxime
temps, sur un extrait choisi par les lves et cor-
respondant donc leur domaine dintrt, extrapo-
lation du sens des mots inconnus et dduction du
sens de la phrase partir du contexte.
Make sense
3 La premire phase daccs au sens ne
devrait pas poser de difficults compte tenu de
la familiarit du sujet pour les lves. Si tel tait
toutefois le cas, on pourra demander aux lves
dassocier images et extraits : 1.d, 2.a, 3.b, 4.e.,
5.c. Spiderman, Batman et Superman ne pose-
ront coup sr aucun problme didentification.
Pour les X-men et The Fantastic Four : donner les
noms pour faciliter la tche ou bien prsenter sur
transparent la couverture dun comic de ces deux
sries.
4 La deuxime tape, qui intervient aprs une
tape de mise en commun sur les premiers l-
ments de sens relevs, constitue un entranement
linfrence contextuelle. Il sagira pour chacun
des groupes de lever lopacit de certains mots

quils nauront probablement jamais rencontrs


auparavant. Il sera plus simple de faire cette acti-
vit en classe ddouble pour tre plus disponi-
ble auprs des lves et individualiser la mise en
uvre des stratgies au sein des petits groupes
constitus.
a. Suggestions pour les termes chercher :
- Relire, lister les mots pour lesquels on sinter-
roge, mettre ces mots en commun, demander qui
les connat, ne retenir que ceux que personne ne
connat.
- Faire mettre des hypothses sur ces mots dans
le contexte de lhistoire.
- Relier ces mots dautres mots dans le contexte
immdiat (cf. extrait 2 du manuel).
- Faire mimer la scne en visualisant ce quils
savent du super-hros (cf. extrait 4 du manuel).
Use the context and explain the highlighted words.
Circle the helpful elements.
(EXT. BRICK BUILDING NIGHT)
Peters cheek is pressed
against the brick.
He opens his eyes and sees
that hes hanging onto the side
of the building like a spider.
And hes three storeys up!.
Tentatively at first, and then
with growing confidence,
he crawls to the roof
of the building.
At the top he gropes
for a railing and slips.
He dangles eight storeys
above the street.
Then, with a grunt, he vaults
to the roof one-handed.
project3.indd 63 5/10/07 11:52:15
64
1. disturbing, display, feared
2. state-of-the-art, skill, integrity
3. tuck
4. head into
Si lexercice dinfrence savre trop difcile pour
certains groupes on peut galement proposer des
dnitions pour les mots que lon aura retenus :
aux lves de relier le mot et sa dnition. Pour le
deuxime passage, reproduit ici titre dexemple
p. 62, on pourrait donner les dnitions suivantes :
hang or swing loosely; with one hand; feel about as
one does in the dark / search.
b. Le partage du sens avec lensemble du groupe
se fait cette fois sous la forme dune interview qui
reprendra les interrogatives travailles au cours
des deux prcdents projets. On veillera la qualit
phonologique des productions (schma intonatif et
accentuation). On pourra galement faire travailler
de manire plus prcise les questions qui permet-
tent la description :
How tall is he? How much does he weigh? What
does he look like? What is he like?
c. On pourra dsigner deux ou trois secrtaires qui
prendront les propos en notes et rcapituleront en
prise de parole en continu, ce qui servira ventuel-
lement de support la trace crite.
Cette phase rcapitulative comportera les mmes
exigences phonologiques et grammaticales.
Productions possibles, titre dexemple :
We understood the third passage is about / deals
with Batman because we know he has no super-
3
3
powers and also because we can read he is a charac-
ter of the night.
- We also know that his enemies are the Penguin, the
Joker and Catwoman.
- We learn that he wants to ght / get rid of criminals. /
He wants to eradicate / get rid of crimes. / He acts as
a vigilante.
- Concerning his personality, he is depicted as honest,
very skilful and ingenious.
- He can create gadgets, tools to defeat his enemies.
- We can also suppose that he has trained a lot to
develop his athletic abilities.
En n de parcours on pourra revenir sur les stra-
tgies daccs au sens utilises, dans un premier
temps en franais, si ncessaire. Une trace crite
possible pourrait tre dexpliciter, en anglais cette
fois, ces stratgies aprs avoir fait un travail collec-
tif de formulation.
It was difficult for us to understand some words but
we eventually managed to do it: for example, concer-
ning Spiderman, we understood that he was trying to
climb up a building like a spider. It was a bit difficult
for him and he slipped. We have linked the word dan-
gle with that word and we understood that he was
hanging above the street. The situation described, the
context helped us understand the word.
- We understood the word one-handed by looking
at the word itself. We could identify the root hand
and then we understood it meant with one hand.
With tuck, extract 4, it was a bit different. We tried
to visualize the scene and we all know how Super-
man ies, we mimed him and we discovered the
position of his head.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 79 de ce guide.
3
Hulk

Book p. 39
Hulk

Book p. 39
Analyse du document
Extrait du lm Hulk dAng Lee produit par Universal
Studio Pictures (juin 2003) qui met en scne Bruce
Banner peu aprs laccident qui a rvl ses pou-
voirs et son rival, Glen Talbot. Il sagit dune scne
simple de bagarre que lon pourrait aisment com-
prendre sans le son.
Les lves seront donc invits dcrire prcis-
ment ce quils voient, notamment la transforma-
tion de Bruce Banner en Hulk. Ils seront galement
amens expliquer les raisons de cette transfor-
mation, raisons quils pourront infrer sils ne
comprennent pas la bande son en se basant sur
la situation (transformation provoque par le dan-
ger). Cependant certains lves connaissent peut-
tre le lm ou le personnage et seront donc en
mesure de dire que ce sont les accs de colre du
hros qui dclenchent cette transformation.
Le dialogue permet de comprendre explicitement ce
qui dclenche la transformation de Bruce en mons-
tre, savoir la colre. La comprhension du seg-
ment important (Youre making me angry) permettra
donc la validation de cette information externe ou
la rectication des premires raisons trouves par
infrence.
Formes de travail
Traiter en collectif.

project3.indd 64 5/10/07 11:52:19


65 Project 3 - Its Superman!
Make sense
1 a. Laisser les lves prendre connaissance du
titre du lm et de la couverture du comic reproduite
p. 39 du manuel (voir aussi Transparent n6).
Prendre ce quils ont dire soit de manire sponta-
ne, soit aprs un court temps dchanges en bin-
mes.
Faire rcapituler les lments mis en vidence et
les organiser en faisant apparatre la dualit entre
Bruce Banner et son alter-ego Hulk dj trs nette
sur la couverture.
Productions possibles :
Bruce Banner looks like a scientist with his long
white lab coat whereas he looks like a monster when
he is represented as Hulk / when he has morphed /
changed himself into Hulk.
- He looks quite tall as Bruce but he looks gigantic /
huge / enormous as Hulk.
b. Visionnage du lm.
Plusieurs possibilits, dont :
- Tous les lves observent la scne, travaillent en
binmes et prennent quelques notes sur ce quils
ont observ. Mise en commun en classe entire.
- Quatre ou cinq lves, dos tourn lcran se
concentrent sur le son (entranement mettre des
hypothses de sens partir dlments non ver-
baux : musique/son). Les autres observent la scne.
Si cette hypothse de travail est choisie par lensei-
gnant il faudra veiller ce que ce groupe dlves
commence par expliquer ce quil a entendu et ses
hypothses de sens. Le reste de la classe pourra
alors valider ou non les hypothses.
Cette premire mise en commun permettra de
mentionner les deux protagonistes de la scne et
on pourra naturellement demander aux lves de
focaliser leur attention soit sur Bruce soit sur Glen
lors du second visionnage : Focus on one character:
what he does, what he looks like, what he feels.
c. Mise en commun et prise de notes dans la log-
page (voir p. 79 de ce guide). Puis palier rcapitula-
tif, reet des changes qui ont eu lieu dans la classe
et qui dressera le portrait de Hulk.
Productions possibles :
Bruce Banner is / seems to be / looks like a very quiet
man / scientist. In this scene, he is trying to keep his
self-control even when a man is pulling his hair / threa-
tening him. He apparently doesnt want to fight back.
- But after a while he cant stand it any longer, he
looks angry / furious / mad / erce / terrible / evil
and thats why / and then he morphs into Hulk / his
body transforms / grows / becomes more and more
powerful / stronger and stronger / turns into a huge
green 9 feet tall monster, weighing a thousand tons!
3
3
- He can make his enemies y into the air / he can
smash / destroy a house.
- He cant speak when he is Hulk: he groans or grunts
like an animal.
- He cant control himself.
- He cant be hurt by bullets.
Over to you
2 Activit en trois temps :
a. Les lves choisissent un super-hros pro-
pos duquel ils ont dj quelques informations. Pour
encourager lappel la mmoire et consolider, ce
faisant, les processus de mmorisation, on vitera le
recours immdiat la logpage. Toutefois, on pourra
par la suite demander aux lves de sy reporter an
denrichir leur production. Si lon dispose dune salle
multimdia, on peut aussi encourager les lves se
connecter aux sites web indiqus p. 46 du manuel pour
complter leur production. On peut aussi leur deman-
der de faire ces recherches au CDI ou la maison sils
disposent dun accs Internet. Il est galement pos-
sible pour lenseignant dimprimer les pages intres-
santes pour lactivit. Si lon opte pour la recherche
sur le temps de classe, il sera sans doute plus ais de
ddoubler la classe (modules/assistant).
b. La phase de relecture sous la conduite de lensei-
gnant constitue le deuxime temps de cette activit.
Sagissant du premier entranement lcriture,
cest une phase importante car elle donne les pre-
mires mthodes qui permettront ensuite lautono-
mie. On pourra ainsi demander aux lves de relire
soit leur propre production, soit la production dun
autre groupe, en utilisant les critres suivants :
- prsence de tous les lments qui concourent
tablir un portrait physique et moral qui voque les
pouvoirs de la personne dcrite ;
- ponctuation, orthographe, grammaire. Pour cha-
cune de ces catgories on pourra prciser la consi-
gne, par exemple souligner les verbes et les relier
leurs sujets pour vrier laccord, les constructions
avec can et make, ou bien entourer les adjectifs
et vrier quils ne comportent pas de -s et quils
sont bien placs avant le nom. En somme, deman-
der aux lves de mieux sapproprier les faits de
langue qui ont fait lobjet des Language skills.
De mme, on pourra demander de vrier lor-
thographe partir de la logpage, des documents
supports et de la rubrique Words (suivant ltat
davancement de celle-ci).
On pourra galement inviter les lves, aprs le tra-
vail sur les Language skills correspondant ce pre-
mier step, de dcider eux-mmes des objectifs de
relecture. Il sera ensuite intressant dengager un
dialogue avec les diffrents groupes pour contrler
la pertinence des choix.
project3.indd 65 5/10/07 11:52:21
66
c. lissue de ce travail les groupes travaillant sur le
mme super-hros pourront procder une forme
de co-pillage pour tirer le meilleur parti des
diverses productions et nen prsenter plus quune.
Cette dernire phase consiste faire prendre
conscience llve de limportance de prsenter
un produit ni. Cest une des raisons pour lesquel-
les lexposition des productions est importante.
Recap
Premire tape pendant laquelle les lves font
le bilan de ce quils ont appris. Cette activit peut
faire lobjet dune valuation individuelle, loral. On
conera des tches dcoute aux autres lves pour
ventuellement corriger au niveau phonologique et
grammatical ce qui a t dit par leurs camarades
ou bien complter ou vrier que les informations
donnes relvent bien de limage publique.
On peut ventuellement demander certains lves
auditeurs de choisir un super-hros et de le dcrire
aussi prcisment que possible.
Lenseignant pourra galement choisir dvaluer
lacquisition des connaissances lcrit.
Description: t, strong, tall, slim, broad-shouldered,
athletic, muscular, blond-haired, gruff-voiced, thick-
skinned, huge
Qualities: skilful, ingenious, smart, intelligent, clever,
shrewd, generous, quick, energetic, active
Costumes: cowls, hoods, capes, mask, full-face
masks, domino masks, skintight outts / tight-tting
outts, (armoured) suits, (star-spangled) pants, form-
tting clothes, dress, (thigh-high) boots, (leather)
jumpsuit, goggles, emblem, logo
Superpowers: can y, can see through walls, can
lift a car, can climb up building, can jump across
a canyon, can run faster than a train, can hurdle a
twenty storey building, can leap over tall buildings,
can lift tremendous weights, can stop a bullet, can
turn into ames, can become invisible, can plasticize
his body, can smash buildings, can turn green, can
save / rescue people
Accessories / weapons: utility belt, whip, lie-detec-
ting lasso, bullet-deecting bracelet, ammunition
pouches, laser powered stick, laser beam Batmo-
bile, Catmobile (Kitty car)
Origins: cosmic radiations, training and ingenuity,
intelligence, science, gods, accident in the middle of
an experimentation
Missions: ght againt criminals / Evil, save the world
from crime, get rid of criminals, help people in need,
rescue people, protect Mankind
On peut galement choisir lors de cette rcapitula-
tion de faire redonner aux lves le nom de toutes les
parties du corps quils connaissent et ventuellement
de les utiliser pour caractriser un super-hros :
A long-legged superheroine, a one-eared monster 3
Lexploitation des documents proposs au cours de ce step permettra aux lves de dcouvrir le second
visage des super-hros, lalter ego de Superman et de Spiderman en particulier, et de renseigner la seconde
partie de la logpage.

Book p. 40

Transparent n
o
6
STEP 2

Book p. 40

Transparent n
o
6
STEP 2
What makes a good superhero?

Book p. 40
What makes a good superhero?

Book p. 40
Analyse du document
Lobjectif de ce premier document est damener les
lves rchir aux ingrdients qui assurent le
succs des super-hros et de manire plus gn-
rale, des personnages de ction.
Les portraits qui suivront illustreront les lments
du succs et permettront aux lves de dresser
un portrait plus complexe et plus priv des super-
hros, qui ne correspond pas toujours lide
quils sen font.
project3.indd 66 5/10/07 11:52:23
67 Project 3 - Its Superman!
Mise en uvre
Nous suggrons, avant dentrer dans le document
proprement dit, de commencer par un petit exercice
dcoute correspondant lactivit 1 des Language
skills p. 42 (piste n
o
11 du CD lve). On notera au
passage que lenseignant peut choisir de donner ce
travail faire la maison pour prparer lcoute du
document suivant.
Make sense
1 Laccs au sens peut commencer directement
par une anticipation de la rponse cette question.
Productions possibles :
For me a good superhero has got a lot of superhu-
man powers to fight Evil or to help people who are in
trouble
Toutefois, pour certains lves le sens de la question
peut rester trop gnral et les rponses peuvent se
limiter des noncs concernant limage publique.
On peut alors inviter les lves sexprimer sur leur
super-hros favori et expliquer leur choix, par une
consigne du type :
You have a favourite superhero, get ready to explain
to the others why you like him best.
Well, actually, (un)like X, is my favourite supe-
rhero because he fights to rescue poor people / save
innocent people / help the
- Its difcult to explain why but I think I like her dark
tights and also her interest in cats.
- No doubt, the one I like best is because hes very
clever and skillful. He likes inventing gadgets and Im
very interested in gadgets too.
On peut aussi sattendre des noncs plus pro-
ches de la ralit du document, si les lves, et cer-
tains le feront sans doute, ont la curiosit de lire le
petit encadr Language skills. On pourra avoir des
propositions de ce type :
I like him because he is a teenager like me. I like
Catwoman because she loves cats just like me.
La premire page de Spiderman ( transparent n 6,
planche p. 40) peut galement servir de support.
On peut demander aux lves den prendre connais-
sance et, en binmes, de prparer une restitution
de ce quils ont compris ainsi que de leurs rac-
tions. On peut galement coner cette prparation,
en homework, un groupe dlves.
On pourra, par exemple, obtenir des noncs tels
que :
What we have here is the first page of the first Spi-
derman comic book.
There are some students / a group of students who
seem to be planning a party. Although they need ano-
ther boy for the dance, they dont want to invite Peter
Parker. In fact, they are laughing at him / mocking

3
3
3
3
him / making fun of him. They dont think he is very
good company. Hes more interested in books / stu-
dies than in having fun with his friends. They seem to
think he is a bit boring, nerdy; they compare him to a
wallower so it makes us think he is not very cheerful
or talkative. Maybe he is too absorbed in his studies
and not very sociable.
So Peter Parker seems / looks excluded alone / to be
an outcast.
Relance possible : He is not his friends favourite
and yet he is a very good superhero. How come?
Isnt that strange?
Le groupe pourra sans doute ragir en insistant sur
la diffrence sphre publique / sphre prive :
Yes, but when he is a super-powered hero / as a
superhero, he can perform (astounding) feats, thats
why he is popular / so good. Here he is depicted as
Peter Parker, Spidermans alter ego, thats why he is
more ordinary / mundane, an average individual.
Quelle que soit lentre choisie pour aborder le
document, une phase de rcapitulation des hypo-
thses mises sera sans doute ncessaire pour
pouvoir comparer ce qui a t anticip et la ralit
du document.
2 Notons que la comprhension de ce document
ne devrait pas poser de problme particulier car la
langue est clairement articule et les mots impor-
tants sont non seulement accentus mais rpts.
De plus, la phase danticipation aura sans doute per-
mis de sapprocher du cur de sens (just like me /
just like my friends / someone I can understand /
identify with them).
Un travail en binmes permettra de prciser les
premiers lments daccs au sens.
Suggestions :
- Mmoriser court terme et faire des hypothses
de sens : rcapitulation au tableau des lments
mmoriss : power / love / idealized / identify /
just like me par exemple. partir de ces lments
on peut inviter les lves formuler des hypoth-
ses de sens en mettant ces mots en relation, par
exemple :
Superheroes have impressive / super human
powers. They must be just like me / I cant / can iden-
tify with superheroes, I dont really understand.
Le groupe peut dj apporter des lments de vali-
dation + 2
e
coute si besoin.
- Se concentrer sur la validation des hypothses
mises en anticipation.
- Relever les mots accentus pendant lcoute et,
partir de ce relev, formuler des hypothses de
sens qui seront ou non valides par le groupe.
Pour conduire ce travail, on peut suggrer aux lves,
aprs une phase de mise en commun en binmes,
3
3
project3.indd 67 5/10/07 11:52:25
68
de classer leurs notes en trois colonnes (cf. tableau
ci-dessous) :
- We are certain that
- We think that but we are not sure.
- We understood the word or something about but
we dont understand what it means / but we dont
understand the connection.
Le groupe pourra dj valider ou non un certain nom-
bre dhypothses, claircir certains lments et lat-
tention des lves pourra porter lors de la seconde
coute sur les questions restant en suspens.
titre dexemple :
we are certain we dont really know if we dont understand
we love Spiderman
idealized version
able to identify
colourful costumes
just like me, just like my friend
someone I can understand
Si le mot villain a bien t
introduit en dbut de squence,
il devrait pouvoir tre repr ici.
he said someone you
wouldnt like to be like
moody, thoughtful
why he wouldnt like to be like them
Possibilit de reprage des deux
adjectifs sans comprhension du
sens : travail partir de la racine
possible (cf. logbook p. 27) ou mise
en relation avec la planche p. 40
( n 6)
Si les adjectifs nont pas t reprs
on peut faire une coute cible en
n de parcours dlucidation : une
illustration de just like you and me.
Productions possibles qui, si elles sont ralises
par les lves, pourraient conduire une trace
crite de ce type :
According to the writer, a superhero has to have
superhuman powers and a colourful costume but it
is not enough.
- He also has to have human traits, I mean, qualities
such as courage and generosity but also aws. For
instance he says Spiderman is not always in a good
mood, and not really cheerful. He is often quiet and
absorbed in his thoughts.
- The writer underlines the fact that the super pac-
kage is not enough.
- Both ingredients are necessary to make a good supe-
rhero otherwise the reader / viewer wont be able to /
identify with him.
3
- Without human traits, a superhero wont look real and
he has to look real for the reader to imagine he is just
like him, or that he could be his friend, or someone he
would like to be like / someone he would like to imitate.
- This human aspect is necessary for the reader to iden-
tify with a hero who obviously is so different from him.
- The writer points out that the key to a good super-
hero or to any ctional character is this double qua-
lity: on the one hand he has to be superhuman but on
the other hand he has to be simply human.
Aprs avoir pris conscience de limportance de la
double nature des personnages de ction, il sera
plus facile aux lves daborder les documents qui
suivent. Ils leur permettront de dpasser les clichs
et de comprendre que dans les textes dinvention on
peut prendre des liberts avec le convenu.
Two private portraits
Book p. 40-41
Two private portraits
Book p. 40-41
Analyse des documents
Deux types de textes sont ici proposs :
- Un extrait de scnario de lm, sous forme dun dia-
logue o les indications de temps et de lieu sont expo-
ses trs sommairement, de mme que les indications
portant sur linterprtation donner au dialogue. Le
portrait priv de Spiderman correspond ici en grande
partie ce que connaissent les lves du personnage :
timide, en particulier dans ses relations avec les lles,
proche de son oncle et de sa tante, tudiant dou ;
ses problmes dargent et sa volont de les rgler
seul seront peut-tre des lments nouveaux dans la
dcouverte de la personnalit de Peter Parker.
project3.indd 68 5/10/07 11:52:27
69 Project 3 - Its Superman!
- Un extrait de roman Its Superman publi en 2006,
crit par Tom de Haven, auteur amricain n en
1949.
Tom De Haven is the author of several novels, including
Derby Dugans Depression Funnies (winner of the 1997
American Book Award) and Funny Papers. A frequent
contributor to Entertainment Weekly and The New York
Times, he also teaches at Virginia Commonwealth Uni-
versity and is a licensed private investigator. He lives in
Midlothian, Virginia.(Source: Amazon.com.)
Extract from an interview with Tom de Haven about
Its Superman : (http://www.blackbird.vcu.edu/v4n2/
features/de_haven_t_021506/de_haven_t_text.htm)
I went back to the original Superman and made him
kind of ordinary looking and not muscle-bound, and
trying to get someone in the story who develops a certain
social conscience and, as he is going through the 1930s
and seeing whats going on.
Les lves seront donc vraisemblablement dcon-
certs par le portrait dress par lcrivain puisquil
ne sappuie pas sur les dernires productions de DC
Comics. La charge lexicale assez consquente dans
ce passage leur permettra de mettre en uvre leurs
stratgies dinfrence dj exerces en step 1.
Formes de travail
Deux possibilits :
- Travail de groupes en semi autonomie : le profes-
seur encouragera les lves, lintrieur de chaque
groupe et selon leurs besoins, exercer leurs stra-
tgies dinfrence.
- Traiter en collectif si le travail en demi-groupes
nest pas possible.
Make sense
2 La premire phase de pr-lecture devrait
permettre dune part de complter les diffrentes
rubriques que peut comporter un portrait priv
ou tout au moins les remettre en mmoire. Elle
doit galement favoriser le travail de tri en permet-
tant aux lves de faire un point collectif sur leurs
connaissances de lalter ego de Superman et de
Spiderman. Si ces lments ont dj t mention-
ns les lves les plus faibles pourront tirer prot
de ce rebrassage rapide.
Productions possibles :
We know that Spiderman doesnt have many friends.
As we pointed out before, he is not very sociable but
rather moody, thoughtful and nerdy.
- He doesnt have any success with girls but he secretly
loves Mary Jane. His best friend is Harry Osborne.

3
- Concerning his job, he studies astrophysics and he is
really good at science.
3 a. La phase daccs au sens proprement dite
ne devrait pas poser de problme majeur. Cepen-
dant, au cas o les lves bloqueraient , on
pourrait leur demander de reprer des indices
concernant les personnages, action, lieu et temps,
puis deffectuer leur mise en commun partir des
indices prlevs.
1. Spiderman
Termes lucider qui peut-tre feront lobjet de
questions : steady / xed for money / scholarship. On
invitera alors les lves utiliser une nouvelle fois
leurs stratgies dinfrence comme dans le step 1.
Il se peut galement que la phrase but if she gets
to know what you have to offer shell . soit dif-
cile en terme de contenu implicite. On pourra alors
demander aux lves de la complter et de la para-
phraser :
Shell be interested in him if she knows what he has
to offer / if she knows him better / if he speaks to her
more often / if he wasnt so shy,
Productions possibles :
We can understand that Pete is at home with his
uncle, Ben, and his aunt May. They are going to have
dinner.
- Aunt May would like Pete to have a girlfriend / she is
worried because Pete doesnt have a girlfriend and he
is old enough to have one. He admits he is in love with
a girl but she has a boyfriend. His aunt told him not to
be so shy, to be more outgoing
- His uncle isnt worried about girlfriends but about
money.
- We can understand Pete doesnt have a lot of money
to live on / has to cope with money problems / has
problems to make both ends meet / has problems to
provide for himself: he gets money for his studies and
he sells photos too.
- So we can understand he is a good photographer,
it may be his hobby. As well as this, we know that
he must be a very good student because his work is
going to be published.
- We also understand that he doesnt want to bother
his uncle, he doesnt want his uncle to help him / give /
lend him money, he wants to provide for himself / he
wants to be self-reliant.
2. Superman
Termes lucider qui pourront peut-tre faire lob-
jet de questions : drag himself out of bed, shufe,
yawn, sulky, a toss of his head.
De la mme faon on invitera les lves mettre en
uvre leurs stratgies dinfrence.
3
3
project3.indd 69 5/10/07 11:52:29
70
Productions possibles :
We can understand that Superman, alias Clark
Kent, is at home with his adoptive father and a friend
of the family.
- The scene takes place in the evening, after dinner.
- Clark perhaps helped his adoptive father and their
friend to do the washing up.
- He went back up to his room after cleaning the
dishes.
- This shows that he is not interested in talking to his
father and their friend.
- He does not appear to be very sociable.
- We also get the feeling that he is rather lazy / idle
because he got up very late in the afternoon, at half
past ve to be more precise.
- He is shown as someone who is not active or ener-
getic at all.
- When his father calls him and asks him to go and see
who is knocking at the door, he is very slow / reluc-
tant to obey: Mr Kent has to call him several times.
He keeps silent / he doesnt say a word, he seems to
be in a bad mood, sulky and unfriendly. He also looks
a bit messy / untidy : he has not combed his hair, he
doesnt care about his clothes.
- In this passage, Clark Kent is depicted as a very slow
person indeed and someone who is not pleasant at
all.
On pourra encourager les lves exprimer leurs
ractions de surprise ou non en leur fournissant quel-
ques prompts, qui gureront ensuite dans la trace
crite. On pourra cette occasion manipuler la struc-
ture expect someone to comme un bloc lexicalis.
I thought Superman was hard-working and friendly /
mild-mannered. I didnt expect him to be so slow and
sulky. I thought he was more sociable.
- I didnt expect him to stay in his room and to sleep
late in the afternoon.
- I had no idea he looked so untidy: he isnt at all how
I had pictured him!
- The way the writer has depicted Superman is indeed
very surprising. It doesnt correspond at all to what I
thought / knew about him.
b. - c. La phase de lecture ou relecture des docu-
ments est essentielle pour que lensemble du groupe
puisse partager les mmes informations et complter
ses notes au besoin. Cette activit peut tre faite en
classe ou bien faire lobjet dun travail la maison, tout
comme la prparation de la question 3d. En tout tat
de cause un temps de prparation sera ncessaire
avant la prise de parole et lchange de points de vue.
Plusieurs stratgies possibles, dont :
- en grand groupe sous la conduite du professeur ;
- en petit groupe : sous forme dinterview. Un lve
qui joue le journaliste, interroge deux lves, un
autre lve assure la prise de notes et rend compte
ensuite au grand groupe ;
- en grand groupe : mme scnario que pour les
3
3
petits groupes (deux lves pour mener linterview
du groupe, quelques secrtaires).
Dans les deux derniers cas, prciser aux lves leur
rle de journalistes ds la phase de prparation.
Productions possibles :
A good superhero is someone who is both extraor-
dinary and mundane, someone you can identify with
even if he has super human powers.
- No doubt, both Superman and Spiderman have super-
human powers, for example Superman can y or leap
over tall buildings, bend steel in his bare hands, and
outrun speeding locomotives, and Spiderman can stick
to different surfaces and has a superhuman strength.
- But is it possible to identify with them? Well, I think
so because I feel very sulky sometimes, I dont feel
like speaking to anyone. I prefer being alone. I must
say I enjoy staying in bed very late and I dont want
anyone to bother me
- I agree with you and its also possible to identify
with Spiderman because he has money problems as
we all have.
- I see what you mean but dont you think that Super-
man should be a bit more energetic? Its difcult to
imagine he could be so lazy and then so active.
- Everything considered / all in all we can say both
Spiderman and Superman are good superheroes.
- What they do in private is their own business after
all! What really matters is that they keep protecting
the world from evil.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 79 de ce guide.
Over to you
4 Phase dentranement la production crite qui
prparera les lves la ralisation du projet nal.
Peut tre utilise comme valuation formative avec
co-valuation.
Formes de travail
Ateliers dcriture en binmes.
Mise en uvre
Il sagit ici dentraner les lves prendre des
liberts par rapport au portrait convenu des super-
hros quils connaissent en imaginant leur portrait
priv. Pour leur permettre de mieux sapproprier le
vocabulaire du chapitre, il serait judicieux que les
activits Words soient galement compltes en
amont (logbook p. 26-28).
Usage du dictionnaire possible dans la deuxime
partie de lactivit lorsque les stratgies de com-
pensation seront puises.
Objectifs de relecture : soit au choix des lves qui
les indiquent, soit reprise des objectifs du Over to
you, step 1.
3

project3.indd 70 5/10/07 11:52:31


71 Project 3 - Its Superman!
Recap
- personality traits: sulky, moody, shy, talkative,
sociable, energetic, generous, thoughtful, friendly,
unfriendly, extrovert, outgoing, introvert, silent,
boring, nerdy, hard-working
- hobbies: interested in photography, enjoys writing, is
fond of cats, loves inventing state-of-the-art gadgetry
- personal worries: has to cope with money pro-
blems, is lonely, doesnt have many friends, feels
rejected, feels outcast, isnt successful with girls
- family situation: single, married, adopted child
(k foster parents)
- behaviour at home: untidy, messy, reluctant to
obey, idle, lazy
Words
(logbook p. 26)
A Prononciation de la lettre <u>
b. - c.
// /u/
jump, sulky, upward,
tuck, grunt, gruff, hulk,
funny, trust
future, humour,
junior, superhero
d. Quand la lettre <u> est accentue et suivie de deux
consonnes, (<u> + C + C), elle se prononce //.
En revanche quand la lettre <u> est accentue et
suivie dune consonne et une voyelle (<u> + C + V),
elle se prononce /u/.
B Trouver lintrus
a. Le mot se diffrencie des autres soit par son sens,
soit parce quil appartient une catgorie gramma-
ticale diffrente.
1. crawl : verbe mais dont sens ne renvoie pas la
notion de sauter .
2. take a downward step : verbe mais qui indique
mouvement vers le bas.
3. tiny : adjectif qui renvoie la taille mais sens dif-
frent.
4. speed : mme sens mais catgorie grammaticale
diffrente.
5. strong : adjectif qui renvoie aux qualits physiques.
C Drivation des mots
Type dinformations donnes : prononciation,
nature, dnition, drivs.
Pour transformer un nom en adjectif, on peut lui
adjoindre les sufxes -y, -ful, ou -less.
Pour transformer un adjectif en adverbe, on peut lui
adjoindre le sufxe -ly.
Book p. 42-43
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Book p. 42-43
LANGUAGE SKILLS
D Infrer le sens des mots
b.
nature racine sens
de la racine du mot
moody adjectif mood the way you are feeling at a
particular time = humeur
having moods that change
quickly and often = lunatique
thoughtful adjectif thought the process of using your
mind to consider something
carefully = pense
acting with or showing
thought and good sense =
rchi
generously adverbe generous willing to give = gnreux in a generous manner =
gnreusement
thoughtlessly adverbe thought the process of using your
mind to consider something
carefully = pense
showing lack of careful
thought = sans rchir
friendly adjectif friend a person you know well and
regard with affection = ami
behaving in a pleasant, kind
way = amical, sympathique
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72
nature racine sens
de la racine du mot
cleverly adverbe clever smart = intelligent, fut in a clever manner =
habilement, nement
easy adjectif ease lack of difculty = aisance,
facilit
posing no difculty; requiring
little effort = facilement
harmless adjectif harm physical injury = mal,
prjudice
not causing or capable of
causing harm = inoffensif
tricky adjectif trick a cunning or deceitful action
= ruse, tour
likely to deceive people =
rus, malin
slinky adjectif slink + in/out: moving in a slow
and secretive way = entrer /
sortir furtivement
made of delicate cloth and
tting the body closely in a
way that is sexually attractive
= collant, ajust
E Word bank
skill ght able
Phrase(s) dans laquelle /
lesquelles jai rencontr
ce mot
He succeeds through
ingenuity, skill and
integrity
Some of the bad people
he ghts are the
Penguin, the Joker and
Catwoman
Able to y
Able to shoot and spin
webs
Domaine de sens auquel
je peux le rattacher
extra abilities motivations abilities
Nature du mot nom verbe adjectif
Dnition ability to do
something
expertly and well
when people ght,
they use physical
force to try to defeat
each other
have the power,
means or opportunity
to do something
Ne pas oublier !
Verbe irrgulier : ght,
fought, fought
Prononciation
/skl/ /fat/ /ebl/
Mots proches
synonymes
ability, capacity,
faculty, talent,
competence,
aptitude (n.)
exchange blows, attack /
assault each other,
hit / pinch each other,
struggle, wrestle (n.)
capable of, t to,
competent to, qualied
to, talented, gifted (adj.)
Mots loigns
antonymes
incompetence unable, incompetent,
incapable
Quelques mots
de la mme famille (avec
leur nature, et leur sens)
skillful, skillfully,
unskilled (adj.)
ghter (n.) capable of, disabled
(adj.), ability (n.),
enable (v.)
Ne pas confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
!!
!!
project3.indd 72 5/10/07 11:52:33
73 Project 3 - Its Superman!
skill ght able
Collocations, tournures
idiomatiques
a lack of skills,
professional skills,
reading skills,
writing skills,
physical skills, a
range / a set of skills
ght for ones life,
crime-ghter, re-
ghter, ghting spirit,
ght against, ght for,
ght back, be involved in
a ght, ght crime, ght
evil
be able to
Proverbes, dictons A smooth sea never
made a skillful
mariner.
Talent without skill is
like a desert without
an oasis.
Fight re with re.
Advising is often better
than ghting.
When there is no enemy
it is safe to ght.
When elephants ght it
is the grass that suffers.
A good storyteller must
be able to lie a little.
Behind an able man
there are always other
able men.
To be willing is to be
able.
LISTENING
Speed and meaning
1 a. - key words in the question: your rst impres-
sions, when you rst met
- key words in the answer: immediately, sense of
humour, genuinely interested, other peoples opinions
b. Exemple de production :
A woman is asking a man questions about a friend of
his and how he felt about him when they rst met. The
man answers that he immediately liked his sense of
humour and interest in other people.
Speaking
Adjective order
2 Exemples de production :
Wonder Woman is a smart good-looking superhe-
roine.
Spiderman is a good athletic superhero . He is also a
thoughtful shy student.
The Hulk is a strong anti-social superhero but he is
also a friendly monster.
3 a. Dont underestimate her! Shes a smart quick
woman.
With her magic wand she can turn a dangerous strong
man into a real harmless pussycat.
Look how proud she is of her new black feline outt!
What a sexy slinky sly burglar she is!
b. What a frightening huge green monster!
Did you read that? A new superheroine dressed with a
curious yellow costume fought against Catwoman
Reading
Pronouns & determiners: what they refer to
4 a. In picture 1, Snakewoman is reading a news-
paper. She is disappointed because the journalist does
not mention her in his article.
In picture 2, she is looking at her costume in a mirror and
curses the people of Gotham City who make fun of it.
Compound noun / adjectives
5 Rchir sur la langue : Noms et adjectifs
composs (logbook, p. 29)
b. unusual children: des enfants peu communs
extraordinary feats: des exploits extraordinaires
Le premier est un adjectif, le deuxime est un nom.
Les adjectifs pithtes en anglais se placent tou-
jours avant le nom.
Le premier terme qualie le deuxime, il apporte
une prcision.
c. Ces groupes nominaux sont constitus de deux
noms.
1. laser beams: a beam generated by a laser > rayon
laser
2. wheelchair: a chair with wheels > chaise roulante
3. Batman: a man who looks like a Bat > homme
chauve-souris
4. Spiderman: a man who looks like a spider >
homme araigne
5. Catwoman: a woman who looks like a cat >
femme chat
6. mutant superhero: a superhero resulting from or
undergoing mutation > un super-hros mutant
Pour bien comprendre le sens dun nom compos,
on peut commencer par comprendre le mot le plus
droite puis prciser son sens par le mot qui se trouve
sa gauche.
project3.indd 73 5/10/07 11:52:33
74
d. wheelchair-bound: nom + participe pass de bind
employ comme adjectif
middle aged: adj + nom + ed
Composition diffrente des mots composs de c.
mais mme dmarche daccs au sens : de la droite
vers la gauche.
- wheelchair-bound: attach / qui ne peut pas quitter
sa chaise roulante
- middle aged: dge moyen
- gruff-voiced Thing: la Chose grosse voix
- self-destructive superheroine: une super-hrone
suicidaire
6 b. love affair: (n.) a love story / relationship
good-looking: (adj.) someone who looks good / pretty
background story: (n.) past story
self-destructive: (adj.) someone who destroys herself /
himself
ngernails: (n.) nails at the tip of the ngers
cat claws: (n.) claws cut like cats
stray animals: (n.) animals that have been abandoned
Writing
Can and make: capacity and power
7 Rchir sur la langue : Can and make some-
body do something <?> (logbook, p. 30)
a. Rubrique de la logpage : superpowers
lment du groupe verbal exprimant cette ide : can.
Can exprime la capacit, il est invariable et suivi
dune base verbale.
b. Dr Reed Richards exerce une action sur son corps,
qui devient plus grand et peut prendre la forme quil
veut / se tordre comme il veut.
- Le verbe dans la proposition action est conjugu,
il porte la marque de la personne et du temps.
- Le verbe dans la proposition rsultat est une base
verbale.
d. Diffrence avec les noncs de c. : pas de 2
e
verbe.
e. Constructions causatives possibles avec make :
- make someone do something
- make oneself do something
- make someone + adjectif (be sous-entendu)
- make oneself + adjectif (be sous-entendu)
8 Productions possibles :
Hi Jarrow! Ive heard that you want to eradicate
Batman Id love to help! Maybe we could work
together? I could use my purring voice to hypno-
tize him and make him fall asleep. You could
then hijack his Batmobile while Id drive him to your
place in my Kitty car. There I could scratch his eyes
out and make him blind. Then itd be the end of The
Batman!
9 Productions possibles :
What reasons make Batman ght evil?
- Injustice makes Batman ght evil.
- Money makes Batman ght evil.
- Fame makes Batman ght evil.
What costume makes Catwoman look particularly
attractive?
- A slinky black outt makes Catwoman look attrac-
tive.
- Blue jeans make Catwoman look attractive.
- Anger makes Catwoman look attractive.
The genitive
10 Rchir sur la langue : Gnitif (logbook,
p. 31)
a.
construction
prpositionnelle
gnitif
the side of the building Peters cheek
Les deux constructions sont diffrentes mais elles
permettent toutes deux de prciser, de dterminer
le sens dun mot.
b. 1. Catwomans address is a secret.
2. Superman is afraid of a special sort of rock. The
name of that rock is Kryptonite.
3. The Fantastic Four could not resist the force of the
cosmic storm.
7 c.
qui fait laction ? sur qui ou sur quoi ? pour quel rsultat ?
1.
Aunt May
Uncle Ben
Peter
Peter
Peter remembers his girlfriend
Peter thinks of his studies
2. the storm Ben Grimm Ben changes into the Thing
3. Reed Richards his body his body expands
4. Reed Richards (he) Reed Richards / lui mme he moves like plastic
project3.indd 74 5/10/07 11:52:34
75 Project 3 - Its Superman!
4. One of Batmans enemies is the Penguin. The Pen-
guins parents abandoned him when he was a baby.
5. Professor Charles Xavier is the founder of the
School for Mutant Children.
c. On choisit le gnitif lorsque lon veut marquer un
rapport de possession, de parent. Le premier lment
renvoie donc trs gnralement un tre humain.
d. Le dbut de lhistoire : the beginning of the story
- la plante principale dun autre systme solaire :
the main planet of another solar system
- lexplosion dun astrode : the explosion of an
asteroid
- les parents de Superman : Supermans parents
- lalter ego de Superman : Supermans alter-ego
- le bureau de Lois Lane : Lois Lanes ofce
- une autre partie de lunivers : another part of the
universe
11 3. Batmans mask, 4. Invisible Womans
blue skintight outt, 5. Wonder Womans boots,
6. Catwomans cat-goggles, 7. Catwomans black
outt.
Quelques exemples pour complter le catalogue :
Batmans utility belt, Spidermans cowl, Captain
Americas boots or shield or gloves, Wonder Womans
chains or pants or bracelet, Iron Mans helmet, She-
Hulks spiked heels,
Nul doute que les lves auront encore beaucoup
dides
Phase prparatoire
La premire partie de la prparation au projet
seffectue en groupes : il sagira ensemble dassu-
rer la comprhension de la tche et de mobiliser
des connaissances qui serviront organiser la pro-
duction. Le recours la logpage nest pas forcment
ncessaire. Toutefois, pour les lves les moins
autonomes on pourra fournir la copie de la carte
didentit dun super-hros, dont les rubriques ne
seront pas renseignes, et bonier les productions
dlves qui nauront pas eu besoin de cette aide.
La deuxime partie de la phase prparatoire se
fait individuellement puisque llve a des choix
effectuer pour crer son personnage de ction. La
mobilisation et le transfert des connaissances se
fait dans la deuxime partie et lenseignant est en
droit dattendre une certaine richesse du contenu
(en rfrence aux diverses rubriques composant la
logpage), un contenu organis, ainsi quune richesse
lexicale et grammaticale de la production en fonc-
tion des lments travaills au cours du chapitre.
Une valorisation de la phase de relecture peut ga-
lement tre envisage, dans la mesure o les l-
ves auront t entrans ce savoir-faire. Ainsi on
pourra leur demander de noter sur leur copie ler-
reur favorite quils aimeraient bien contrler de
manire trs systmatique.
Il conviendra galement de prciser une longueur
minimale pour cette production. (100-120 mots)
Il pourra aussi tre utile de demander aux lves de
rendre, en mme temps que leur production nale,
leur brouillon prparatoire. Le recours au diction-
naire bilingue semble peu ncessaire lors de cette
phase nale du projet. Il devra en tout cas tre trs
limit, quelques minutes en n de phase prpara-
toire, an que les lves apprennent sexprimer
avec leurs propres mots et compenser ce quils ne
savent pas dire par ce quils savent dj exprimer
et fassent un effort de mmorisation en cours de
projet.
Limiter le temps de prparation 15 minutes maxi-
mum et rappeler cinq minutes avant la n du temps
imparti la ncessit de relire.
On peut choisir de faire travailler les lves avec la
grille dvaluation soit lors de lvaluation, soit dj
lors de la dernire valuation formative, an de mieux
faire partager les critres.
Enn, on peut suggrer un travail en aval de cette
production : reprise du portrait en tenant compte des
annotations du professeur, prsentation du traitement
de texte et ventuellement illustration.
Ce travail pourrait gurer sur le site du lyce si
celui-ci dispose dun rseau informatique auquel
les enseignants de langues ont accs.
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur)
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 44
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 44
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76
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur)
Traitement du sujet Cohrence et cohsion Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 1 Peut mettre en adquation
sa production avec le sujet
propos : un portrait + respect
longueur minimale indique
= 2 pts
Peut juxtaposer une srie
dlments
= 1 pt
La langue est partiellement
comprhensible
= 1 pt
Degr 2 Peut dans ce portrait
distinguer le super-hros et
son alter-ego
= 3 pts
Peut relier une srie
dlments courts,
simples et distincts en un
discours qui senchane
= 3 pts
La langue est comprhensible
malgr des erreurs (marques
verbales / accord sujet-verbe /
adjectif / pronoms / capacit) et
un lexique limit
= 3 pts
Degr 3 Peut dvelopper les diffrents
aspects du portrait
(cf. rubriques logpage)
= 5 pts
Peut organiser ses ides
correctement enchanes
en diffrents paragraphes
= 5 pts
La langue est comprhensible
et globalement correcte
= 6 pts
Degr 4 Peut introduire
de loriginalit dans
le traitement du sujet
= 6 pts
La ponctuation et la
mise en page sont assez
justes pour tre suivies
facilement le plus souvent
= 6 pts
Utilise une gamme assez
tendue de vocabulaire et
de structures appropris
= 7 8 pts
Bonus Pas de recours la logpage
= 1 pt
Les objectifs de relecture ont
t atteints
= 1 pt
Total (max.) 6 pts + 1 pt bonus 6 pts 8 pts + 1 pt bonus
Exemples de productions dlves telles quelles ont t obtenues, avant correction :
3 The name of my super heroine is Miss Glue. Her mission is save people in New York. She can fly, become
invisible and she runs very fast. Her weapons are a gun of glue and a motorbike. Her skintight is all yellow, she
has a green marsk on her eyes, green boots, cap with green sun, her symbol. She fights the criminals in New York
with the Wasp and Wonder Woman. She begins super heroine two years ago.
When shes not Miss Glue, she is Kate. She is twenty years. She is secretary in a bank. She lives with her brother
in New York because their parents are dead. They died by a monster because their mother was super heroine.
She gave Kate the magic mask. It gives her superpowers.
She is slim and tall. She is green eyed and dark haired. She is a little shy and absent-minded. Her friend is Bianca
and his boyfriends name is Max. Although his brother lives with her, he doesnt know she is Miss Glue and Max
and Bianca not too: its to protect them.
- My super heroines name is Blue eyed Lily. Her true name is Lily Kaulitz because shes got a secret identity. She
comes from Germany, she is a blond haired girl. She is twenty years old and shes student in university: she can
speak many languages.
When she changes herself, she becomes very beautiful: she wears a blue dress, her boots are blue, and her nails
are blue too!
Shes got a lot of superpowers: for example, she can fly, see under the walls, jump very high and run as fast as possible.
Shes got one weapon: her eyes. Yes shes got blue sweets eyes but she can look her enemies ans think about
something she wants they do, and they will do that she expects. For example, when one of her ennemies was coming
on her, shes just looked at him and thank that he felt. She can see that they are thinking: she is incredible because
although she isnt a super heroine but a student, she can hear that people who are near her are thinking!
Some of her ennemies arent dangerous, theyre just jealous womans who hope they can be more beautiful than
Lily but its impossible and Lily doesnt care. She doesnt have any trouble with money, shes very brilliant so she
knows a lot of things that she is interested about. She hasnt got any boyfriend because they are too intimidated
about her but Lily has got many friends and for her, her relationships are very important in her life. Thats why
she isnt a super heroine all the time.
Her mission is to rescue people and stop some persons who want to destroy the world.
Although she is very nice, shes a kind of person who is sulky at the beginning of the morning.

project3.indd 76 5/10/07 11:52:36


77 Project 3 - Its Superman!
1. Comprhension orale : My favourite superhero CD classe, piste n
o
3
Phase danticipation avant lcoute (individuelle les lves peuvent rassembler leurs ides sur papier. Pas
de mise en commun orale puisquil sagit dune valuation).
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 287 de ce guide.
Corrig et barme
Paliers de comprhension
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure la comprhension
du message.
Information about the superheroes mentioned.
(Batman, Superman, athletic, gadgets, magic powers- normal, unique, extra power, costume,
save the world, cape, outt)
1 2
selon
quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte conduisant une
comprhension lacunaire.
The mens favourite superheroes and information about these superheroes.
(Man 1: Batman, gadgets, athletic ability, ghting for good, normal, no magic powers;
Man 2: Superman, alter ego = Clark Kent, pretending to be normal)
3 4
selon
quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est compris.
Man 2s reasons.
(Batman not his favourite because not unique = puts costume on and saves the world, Superman
IS special, alter ego is NOT when he puts cape and costume on his disguise is Clark Kent)
5 8
Palier 4
Tout le contenu informatif est compris. Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont relevs.
More details about Man 2s reasons.
(Unlike all others Superman different from all other superheroes, not an ordinary man
who becomes special, a special man who becomes ordinary)
10
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
p Voir introduction, p. 18 de ce guide.
3 What I need to work on
1. Proof-reading efciently: structure, contents,
punctuation, spelling, grammar
a. Different information: costumes, weapons, phy-
sical description
b. Missing information (headings): superpowers,
motivations, associates, enemies
c. Productions possibles :
She is a fashion-lover, thats why she collects different kinds
of costumes. Many of them incorporate gloves with retract-
able strangling whips. To be invisible at night she wears
a skintight purple body suit but she sometimes switches
to a black leather outt. Her face is covered by a snake mask
and this gives her the appearance of a real snake.
When she goes to parties she wears a dress with a
hood. To make herself more attractive she puts on
domino-shaped infrared goggles on her cowl and she
walks snakily on her high-heeled boots.
DEBRIEFING DEBRIEFING
Book p. 46, logbook p. 35-36
project3.indd 77 5/10/07 11:52:38
78
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Bonus: additional information.
(Keep people safe, personal trauma, mutated, extra sense, mild manners, spectacles, not
Joe Ordinary being himself when he is Superman, reversal)
2
2. Comprhension crite
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 288 de ce guide.
Corrig
1. A passage from a novel
2. Name of the character Clark
3. Characters main
action
exceptional runs very fast / faster and faster / so fast you can
hardly see him (blur) / 7 miles in 7 or 8 minutes
4. Physical reaction exceptional heartbeat unhurried
measured breathing (as if he had practiced yoga)
feet and claves springy
no scab
5. Feelings positive + un lment
de la colonne suivante
takes pleasure in his muscles and in the ways his
body performs
in his changing relationship to the solid world and
the so-called rules of gravity and physics.
6. Title New experience
Experiencing new feelings
Becoming a superhero
Proposition de barme :
- Un lment en gras dans chaque colonne : les lves ont compris lessentiel = 14 / 20.
- 2 points supplmentaires pour chaque lment soulign.
- Au-del de 20 / 20 si le titre propos montre que les lves ont compris limplicite, cest--dire quil sagit
dune sance dentranement au mtier de super-hros.
project3.indd 78 5/10/07 11:52:39
79 Project 3 - Its Superman!
Superheroes ID cards
1. Hulk
Public image
Name: Hulk
Physical description: huge
green monster, height: 66"
(gray Hulk) / 7, 8 (green /
savage Hulk), weight: 900 lbs
(gray Hulk) / 1,040, 1,400 lbs
(green / savage Hulk); eyes:
gray (gray Hulk) / green (green / savage Hulk); hair: black
(gray Hulk) / green (green / savage Hulk)
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: superhuman
strength, potentially limitless; wicked / smash / destroy;
can breathe underwater; can resist high temperatures and
physical damage
Weaknesses: not very intelligent and cant control his
temper
Origins: exposed to gamma radiation
Enemies: US Army; General Ross; journalist Jack McGee
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Robert Bruce Banner
Physical description: 5 9" tall, weight: 128 lbs, eyes and
hair: brown
Personality traits: friendly, calm
Job / occupation: nuclear physicist
Extraordinary abilities: a genius in nuclear physics,
possessing a mind so brilliant that it cant be measured on
any known intelligence test; when angry changes into the
Hulk
Hobbies: cycling
Place of residence: US army Desert Base, New Mexico
Friends / relatives: Betty Ross (love interest)
2. Superman
Public image
Name: Superman
Physical description: t, strong,
tall, brown-haired, as strong as
steel
Costume: blue cape, a logo, red
trunks, a tight-tting body suit
Superpowers / extraordinary
abilities: ies, runs faster than an express train or even
a bullet, superhuman strength: can lift very heavy things,
leaps tall buildings in a single bound, X-ray vision
Weaknesses: exposure to Kryptonite saps his strength
Motivations: ght Evil, save the world, help those in need /
the have-nots / innocent people
Origins: Planet Krypton (Father: a scientist)
Place of residence: Metropolis
Enemies: Lex Luthor
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Clark Kent
Physical description: wears glasses
Personality traits: mild-mannered, shy, awkward
Job / occupation: reporter at the Daily Planet
Hobbies: writing
Place of residence: Smallville
Family situation: foster parents: Martha and Jonathan
Kent
Friends / relatives: Lois Lane (love interest)
3. Spiderman
Public image
Name: Spiderman
Physical description: athletic
Costume: red and blue costume
with webbing impressions, a red
cowl with big goggles
Superpowers / extraordinary
abilities: superhuman strength
and reexes as well as superhuman speed and agility,
superhuman spider-like abilities: can stick / cling to most
surfaces, perfect balance and equilibrium, intuitive sense
for danger, able to shoot and spin webs
Tools / accessories: webslingers, small jets attached to his
wrists, re a special polymer k hardens on contact with air
Weaknesses: vulnerable to ordinary weapons (guns and
knives)
Motivations: ght Evil / vigilante
Origins: bitten by radioactive spider
Place of residence: crime-ridden streets of New York
Enemies: The Green Goblin and Doctor Octopus and Venom
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Peter Parker
Physical description: height: 510, weight: 167 lbs, eyes:
hazel, hair: brown
Personality traits: moody, thoughtful, not condent, very
clever
Job / occupation: photographer at the Daily Bugle, student /
science assistant in high school
Family situation: aunt May, Jane Watson
Friends / relatives: Mary-Jane Watson (love interest), Harry
Osborn (Petes best friend in college)
Personal worries: doesnt have a girlfriend, penniless,
money problems
4. Batman
Public image
Name: Batman
Physical description: human, athletic powers, height
Costume: a tight-tting body suit, cape, gloves / gauntlets,
armor, mask covering upper part of face (mask with bat-like
ears), stylized bat emblem on chest
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: no superpowers but
athletic powers: martial arts and state-of-the-art gadgetry
Tools / accessories: utility belt, batmobile, batarang, batplane,
batcuffs, night vision lenses, minicam and recorder, rope,
smoke pellets, shark repellent bat-spray
Weaknesses: vulnerable to ordinary weapons
Motivations: ght Evil / vigilante, using physical
and intellectual strength only,
Place of residence: Bat cave in Wayne Manor
Enemies: The Penguin, the Joker, Catwoman
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Bruce Wayne
Physical description: hair: black, eyes: blue
Personality traits: shrewd, ingenious, skilled, honest,
makes use of intellect, detective skills, science and techno-
logy, wealth, physical prowess, and intimidation in his war
on crime, seen as irresponsible, supercial, light-hearted
playboy, involved in charity
Job / occupation: billionaire industrialist, playboy,
philanthropist, wealthy businessman
Hobbies: inventing new devices, interested in technology
Place of residence: Gotham City
Family situation: witnessed the murder of his parents
Friends / relatives: Robin, his sidekick and Alfred,
his butler
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 25
project3.indd 79 5/10/07 11:52:40
80
5. The Fantastic Four
Public image
Name: Mister Fantastic
Physical description: mutant, normal human strength,
height: 61, weight: 180 lbs, hair: brown, eyes: brown
Costume: blue tight-tting body suit with logo (4), black
belt, gloves
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: ability to stretch /
deform / compress / expand his entire body into any shape
he can imagine, can extend his limbs / torso / neck to great
distances, can extend body parts (a single nger, an ear,
an eye), can extend his body in two directions to create a
canopy, parachute, able to absorb the impact of man-made
projectile
Tools / accessories: Fantastiare (launches a ery 4 into
the sky during combat situations to let other members of
the group know their location)
Weaknesses: the more he stretches, the weaker he beco-
mes
Motivations: ght for the benet of mankind
Origins: bombarded with cosmic radiation
Associates: Ben Grimm, Susan Storm, Johnny Storm
Enemies: Onslaught
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Richards Reed
Job / occupation: scientist, adventurer
Extraordinary abilities: very clever, a prodigy (college at
the age of 14), Earths foremost intelligence
Hobbies: inventor
Place of residence: New York City
Family situation: married to Susan Storm, a son: Franklin
Friends / relatives: Ben Grimm (college roommate),
Johnny (brother-in-law)
Public image
Name: The Human Torch
Physical description: mutant, normal human strength
Costume: blue tight-tting body suit with a logo (4), a black
belt
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: ability to ignite his
body, can generate ames from his nger tips, can bend
ame to his will, able to control ambient heat energy (can
reduce objects temperatures or raise them), can sculpt
ames with his hands, can surround himself with ames
and stay aame for about 17 hours, can release all of his
bodys stored energy in one burst, can turn water into
steam, is unaffected by heat and ames
Weaknesses: it takes him at least 12 hours to recover from
his feats
Motivations: ght for the benet of mankind
Origins: bombarded with cosmic radiation
Associates: Ben Grimm, Susan Storm, Johnny Storm
Enemies: Onslaught
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Johnny Storm
Physical description: height: 510, weight: 170 lbs, hair:
blond, eyes: blue
Job / occupation: adventurer
Personality traits: hot-headed but became more solemn
and brooding after his divorce
Extraordinary abilities: brilliant racing car driver, superb
mechanic and designer of automobiles
Hobbies: loves fast cars
Place of residence: Pier Four, New York City
Family situation: divorced (ex-wife: Lyja), father: physician,
mother died in a car accident when he was nine
Friends / relatives: Ben Grimm (college roommate)
Personal worries: enjoys dating, loves beautiful women k
tension between him and Ben Grimm (dated Alicia Masters)
Public image
Name: The Thing
Physical description: human features have been erased:
orange skin made of plates / scales that look like rocks,
height: 6, weight: 500 lbs, no hair
Costume: a blue tight-tting body suit with a logo (4)
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: possesses
superhuman strength (can lift or press 85 tons),
endurance, can hold his breath underwater for up to 9 min,
has reexes above average human level, can withstand
extreme temperatures, can withstand the explosive effects
of bazooka shells against his skin with no injury
Motivations: ght for the benet of mankind
Origins: bombarded with cosmic radiation
Associates: Richard Reed, Susan Storm, Johnny Storm
Enemies: the Mole Man
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Ben Grimm
Physical description: hair: brown, eyes: blue
Job / occupation: highly skilled test pilot and astronaut
Personality traits: intelligent and skillful, great courage
and heart of gold
Hobbies: football, experience at hand-to-hand combat
Place of residence: Pier Four, New York City
Family situation: single, parents dead, grew up in poverty
Friends / relatives: Richard Reed (college roommate)
Personal worries: disturbed and appalled by his appea-
rance, lled with anger. In love with Alicia Masters
Public image
Name: The Invisible Woman
Physical description: normal human strength, hair: brown,
eyes: brown
Costume: blue tight-tting body suit with a logo (4), a black
belt, gloves
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: can become invisible
at will / make herself invisible, can make objects invisible,
can create invisible force elds
Motivations: ght for the benet of mankind
Origins: bombarded with cosmic radiation
Associates: Ben Grimm, Johnny Storm, Reed Richards
Enemies: Onslaught
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Susan Storm
Job / occupation: scientist, adventurer
Hobbies: interested in acting
Place of residence: Pier Four,New York City
Family situation: married to Reed Richards, son (Franklin),
brother: Johnny
Personal worries: her son
project3.indd 80 5/10/07 11:52:42
81 Project 3 - Its Superman!
6. The X-men
Public image
Name: Doctor X, Professor Xavier (X-men founder)
Physical description: male, human, height: 6, weight:
190 lbs, hair: bald, eyes: blue, conned to a wheel-chair
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: the worlds most
powerful telepath: can read minds and project his own
thoughts into the minds of others, can make himself
invisible and manipulate the minds of others, can also
induce temporary mental and / or physical paralysis, loss
of particular memories or even total amnesia, can also
sense the presence of other mutants, can use his powers
to create ectoplasmic objects
Motivations: use power to improve relationships between
mutants and humans to protect mankind
Associates: The squad of X-men
Enemies: Magneto, Unus, Stranger Sentinal robots
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Charles Francis Xavier
Job / occupation: Mutant rights activist, geneticist, teacher,
formerly adventurer, soldier
Place of residence: Xavier Mansion Massachusetts Aca-
demy
Family situation: parents dead, a sister. ex-wife: Lilandran,
a son: dead
Public image
Name: Wolverine
Physical description: male, human, weight: without
Adamantium skeleton: 195 lbs / with Adamantium
skeleton: 300 lbs, hair: black, eyes: blue
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: ability to
regenerate damaged or destroyed areas of his cellular
structure very quickly, virtual immunity to poisons and
most drugs, can live longer: over a century old but as
healthy and t as a man in his prime, agility and reexes
enhanced, acute senses: can make him capable of seeing,
hearing and smelling things at very long distances, a
trained expert in multiple types of weapons, vehicles,
computer systems, explosives, and assassination
techniques, uent in many languages
Weapons: skeleton Adamantium structure includes
six retractable one-foot long bone claws, three in each
arm,beneath the skin and muscle of his forearms, bones
virtually unbreakable, and his claws capable of cutting
through almost any substance
Weaknesses: despite extent of his healing factor,
Wolverine is not immortal. If injuries are extensive enough,
he can die
Motivations: use power to improve relationships between
mutants and humans to protect mankind
Associates: The squad of X-men
Enemies: Magneto, Unus, Stranger Sentinal robots
Private image (alter ego)
Name: James Howlett
Job / occupation: adventurer, instructor, former bartender,
bouncer, spy, government operative, mercenary, soldier,
sailor, miner
Place of residence: Xavier Mansion Massachusetts
Academy
Family situation: parents deceased, a son, a foster
daughter, divorced
Public image
Name: Emma Frost
Physical description: female, height: 510, weight:
144 lbs, hair: brown (dyed ash blonde), eyes: blue
Costume: revealing wardrobe
Superpowers / extraordinary abilities: various telepathic
talents: can read minds and project her thoughts into
the minds of others, transform her skin and hair into a
diamond-hard form at will nearly indestructible, highly
skilled in electronic theory and electronics; has learned
how to build devices that can amplify psionic energy and
utilize psionic energy for various effects
Weaknesses: whilst in her diamond form, Emmas
telepathic abilities are suppressed
Weapons: a gun-like device which she once used
to exchange minds for a period of time with Storm of
the X-Men
Motivations: use power to improve relationships between
mutants and humans to protect mankind
Origins: born with telepathic abilities
Associates: The squad of X-men
Enemies: Magneto, Unus, Stranger Sentinal robots
Private image (alter ego)
Name: Emma Frost
Personality traits: intelligent, charming
Job / occupation: Co-headmaster of Xavier Institute for
Higher Learning, adventurer, Chairman and headmistress
of Massachusetts Academy, successful in business and
rich
Place of residence: Xavier Mansion Massachusetts
Academy
Friends, relatives: parents and siblings
lments dinformation accessibles sur le site sui-
vant : http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/super
heroes
project3.indd 81 5/10/07 11:52:42
PROJECT
4
Eureka!
Sommaire du chapitre Eureka!
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 83
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 48)
Make sense: Necessity is the mother of invention (book, p. 48)
Make sense: Three inventions and how they came into being (book, p. 49)
Over to you (book, p. 51)
Recap (book, p. 51)
p. 84
p. 85
p. 87
p. 91
p. 92
S
t
e
p

2
Make sense: A time machine (book, p. 52)
Start from what you know (book, p. 53)
Make sense: Cell phones for kids (book, p. 53)
Make sense: A robot? A vacuum cleaner? A Roomba! (book, p. 54)
Over to you (book, p. 55)
Recap (book, p. 55)
p. 93
p. 95
p. 95
p. 96
p. 97
p. 98
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
s
Words (book, p. 56 / logbook p. 38-40)
Listening (book, p. 56)
Speaking (book, p. 56)
Reading (book, p. 57)
Writing (book, p. 57)
p. 98
p. 99
p. 100
p. 101
p. 101
Your project (book, p. 58)
Debrieng (book, p. 60 / logbook, p. 48)
valuation de la comprhension

/

Logpage (logbook, p. 37)
p. 102
p. 103
p. 104
p. 106
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 84
Make sense: Necessity is the mother of invention p. 85
1 sance + sance
Make sense: Three inventions and how they came
into being p. 87
1 sance + sance
/ Over to you p. 91
2 sances :
- 1 sance en demi-groupes, au CDI
ou en salle multimdia
- 1 sance en classe entire
Recap p. 92 sance en classe entire
STEP 2
Make sense: A time machine p. 93
1 sance et demie :
- sance : phase de dcouverte
en classe entire
- 1 sance avec dictionnaires
unilingues, en demi-groupes au CDI
ou en salle multimdia

82
project4.indd 82 5/10/07 11:54:39
Start from what you know p. 95
1 sance (+ )
Make sense: Cell phones for kids p. 95
Make sense: A robot? A vacuum cleaner?
A Roomba! p. 96
1 sance
/ Over to you p. 97
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
(avec dictionnaires bilingues)
Recap possible en valuation
Recap p. 98
YOUR PROJECT p. 102
VALUATION :
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
Au terme de lexploitation du projet Eureka!, il sera
demand llve de se glisser dans la peau dun
inventeur participant un symposium et de prsen-
ter, en prise de parole en continu, son invention
lauditoire jou par le reste de la classe. Auditoire
actif, puisque llve, aprs sa prestation, devra
rpondre des questions poses par ses camara-
des sur le contenu de sa prsentation (dveloppe-
ment dun aspect, clarication, rptition). Prise
de parole en continu suivie donc dune phase dinte-
raction laquelle les lves auront dj t entra-
ns (notamment avec le projet Together for a Time)
et qui les prparera aux projets ultrieurs (notam-
ment Schools Inc.

et Whodunnit?)
Step 1 sarticule autour de la gense dinventions qui
ont marqu leur temps (le four micro-ondes, le
walkman, etc.), que ces inventions soient le fruit du
hasard ou non, on mettra laccent sur le besoin qui a
conduit (ou aurait d conduire) aux dites inventions.
Step 2 ajoute aux attentes de Step 1 le fonctionne-
ment des inventions ainsi que les avantages que
lon peut en tirer.
Le contenu de Step 2 est assez consquent. Sil est
ncessaire de conserver lexploitation de la vido
an que les lves soient entrans la comprhen-
sion orale dans ce projet, le professeur peut choisir
de ne pas exploiter lun des deux documents crits
de Step 2, savoir la BD de Calvin and Hobbes ou le
texte sur le Roomba. Il lui appartient de mesurer les
avantages et inconvnients de ce choix :
- la BD peut sembler plus attrayante, son exploita-
tion devra prendre en compte le temps ncessaire
la mise en vidence de sa part dimplicite et au
travail de mthodologie avec dictionnaire propos
- le texte sur le Roomba est plus factuel. En le sup-
primant de la squence, on supprimera aussi la pre-
mire activit (crite) du Over to You, ce qui ne pose
pas de problme majeur puisque les lves auront
dj ralis une activit de production crite dans
Step 1. Il peut nanmoins tre utile comme modle
de prsentation dune invention.
Types de texte
En n de parcours, il est demand aux lves din-
former, de montrer, dexpliquer. En consquence, si
les supports proposs sont de source et de nature
diffrentes, les textes tudis sont de type informa-
tif et explicatif.
Cur de sens
Le cur de sens du chapitre repose sur la notion
de seuil : les inventions dlimitent un avant et un
aprs, un pass rvolu, un prsent en mouvement
et un futur o le rve est possible.
Activits langagires
: Saisir lessentiel dun document vido ; identi-
er les informations en sappuyant sur le connu et
sur lintonation.
: Lire et comprendre des textes informatifs et
des bandes dessines ; infrer le sens des mots
inconnus et vrier avec un dictionnaire unilingue.
: Prsenter des inventions et leurs caractristi-
ques ; anticiper et rpondre des questions concer-
nant des inventions.
: Prsenter une invention lcrit de faon struc-
ture et cohrente ; prendre des notes en vue de la
production orale en continu.
Outils linguistiques
Outils linguistiques ncessaires lexpression :
prtrit, present perfect et present perfect be + -ing,
projections et conditions, possibilits venir.

ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
83 Project 4 - Eureka!
project4.indd 83 5/10/07 11:54:41
84
STEP 1
Book p. 48
p Voir introduction p. 14 de ce guide.
Dans step 1, lutilisation de la logpage peut tre
limite aux trois premires colonnes :
- lauteur de linvention (ou celui qui en a eu lide),
- lintention dorigine ayant donn naissance cette
invention,
- et enn sa description et son contexte.
Puis, en step 2, les catgories renseigner sont
largies au fonctionnement de linvention et ses
avantages.
Il est important que le remplissage de la logpage
se limite des notes et non des noncs rdigs,
an que llve se trouve rellement en situation de
production orale (ou le cas chant, crite) et non
en activit de lecture.
Dans la majorit des cas, la logpage pourra servir
de support aux phases de rcapitulation et la
trace crite au tableau.
La logpage renseigne (voir p. 106 de ce guide)
contient des lments susceptibles dtre obtenus
dautres sont possibles, tous ne sont pas nces-
sairement exigibles.
Remarque :
Il est possible que, ds step 1, certains lves men-
tionnent le fonctionnement et les avantages dune
invention ; dans ce cas, il faut saisir loccasion,
prendre leurs propositions en compte et les faire
gurer dans la trace crite.
Certaines activits proposes dans le chapitre invi-
tent les lves se rfrer la logpage, mais pas
ncessairement la renseigner.
Phase dchauffement
Pour la premire sance de cette squence, on
pourra lors de la phase dchauffement orienter les
changes vers le thme du chapitre. Cet chauffe-
ment peut prendre plusieurs formes.
a. Questionnement au groupe, professeur inclus ;
celui-ci pourra glisser le thme dans une de ses
rponses : Yesterday I went shopping need a
new vacuum cleaner was told about a new type,
etc.
b. Prise de parole partir dun document inconnu
(pourquoi pas la photo du chat-mnage, p. 55 du
manuel qui pourrait tre reproduite et rtro-proje-
te) an de recueillir les avis, les suppositions et les
ractions du groupe propos de linvention propo-
se. partir de cette photo, obtenir :
With a cat like this, you dont need a vacuum-cleaner.
Lors de la phase dchauffement de cette pre-
mire sance, il sera utile de poser en jalon le mot
vacuum-cleaner (texte step 2, p. 54).
Pour les sances suivantes : choisir le thme du
chapitre pour cette phase dchauffement ( prpa-
rer la maison : Warming up next time: get ready
to talk about an invention / bring the drawing /
plans for / photo of an invention, etc.)
3
Start from what you know
1 Les lves ont de limagination. Lors de tests
de mise en uvre du chapitre, ont t obtenus :
a machine that can read peoples minds, a jet
schoolbag, an instant make-up machine, a machine
that can duplicate me
Durant cette premire phase, les lves pourront
tre amens enrichir leur lexique (machine R
device, contraption) et rebrasser lexpression de
la volont (wanted to, planned to, had in mind to).
De mme, la consigne permet galement dintro-
duire lexpression du souhait et du dsir : I would
like to invent, I wish there were
Des tapes de sens logiques sont mnager pour
parvenir aux structures cibles : I hate I really
wish I didnt have to I wish there was a machine.
I would like to invent a machine. I wish somebody
would invent a machine
Si les lves semblent court dides, on peut leur
demander : What is the biggest problem you would
like to solve? et partir de ce problme, discuter
dune solution / dun remde.
Lors de cette activit et en vue de la phase de la
rcapitulation on pourra, au choix :
- demander 3 ou 4 lves de prendre en notes
3

Book p. 48

Transparent n 7
STEP 1

Book p. 48

Transparent n 7
STEP 1
EXPLOITATION
DE LA LOGPAGE
EXPLOITATION
DE LA LOGPAGE
project4.indd 84 5/10/07 11:54:42
85 Project 4 - Eureka!
les interventions de leurs camarades (notes quils
rcapituleront ensuite oralement) ;
- noter au tableau les noms des diffrents interve-
nants (on demandera ensuite aux lves de rappe-
ler ce que chacun a dit).
2 lissue de cette phase de prise de parole,
et lors de la rcapitulation, les lves commence-
ront remplir leur logpage ; ce sera le moment de
leur en expliquer le fonctionnement. Il est sou-
haitable, ce moment, de donner au tableau un
exemple dintervention prise en note dans la log-
page an que les lves ne soient pas tents de
rdiger.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide.
Necessity is the mother
of invention

Book p. 48
Necessity is the mother
of invention

Book p. 48
Analyse des documents
Genre particulier : la BD / dessin humoristique
sous forme de vignettes. Histoire raconte avec des
images et souvent avec humour.
1. From Gaul to Britain
Le titre, comme la source, sont des aides pour situer
gographiquement lhistoire. Les images seules ne
peuvent permettre dafrmer le sujet de la conver-
sation. Le sens des deux vignettes se construit avec
le texte.
Le troisime personnage nappartient pas aux per-
sonnages rcurrents des aventures des deux Gau-
lois. Son nom importe peu ici. Le terme ourselves
indique quil est anglais, ce qui est aussi soulign
par son vtement (un caleon apparemment en
tweed). Ce dernier lment chappera sans doute
aux lves : il nest pas utile de le faire verbaliser
ou souligner la nationalit du personnage pourra
tre infre par ce quil dit.
En 1966, le tunnel nest pas encore construit mais
alimente les conversations, les travaux pour le
tunnel sont au point mort depuis longtemps et les
auteurs de la BD, par un jeu danachronisme, font
remonter le projet 52 avant J.-C. pour indiquer
quon attend depuis si longtemps que lon peut
attendre encore longtemps !
2. Take-away music
Gnse (vraie ou fausse ?) du walkman ; adolescent
accroch sa musique : comment continuer cou-
ter tout en vaquant au reste de ses occupations ; ici
pas danachronisme : linvention est date. La BD
situe lide de linvention en 1975 ; le walkman a vu
le jour en 1979.
Formes de travail
Lextrait dAsterix in Britain est davantage charg en
implicite que lautre document.

Traiter en collectif lextrait dAsterix in Britain puis


laisser faire Take-away music en autonomie.
Make sense
NB : Bien que les consignes ne le mentionnent
pas, les lves peuvent trs bien sappuyer sur les
rubriques de la logpage pour lexploitation de ces
deux BD, sans ncessairement renseigner cette
logpage.
1. From Gaul to Britain
Laisser les lves dcouvrir le document.
Factuel
- Si des lves connaissent cette aventure dAstrix
et Oblix, exploiter tout ce quils ont dire.
- Si des lves parviennent infrer quil sagit du
tunnel sous la Manche, partir de leurs propositions
pour faire dire lhistoire :
They have just rowed across / crossed the Channel.
- They are not tired because they are very strong
thanks to the magic potion.
- Asterix looks furious / angry / fed up.
- It must be because the weather is terrible.
- They are all wet / drenched.
- If there was a tunnel, they would be able to / they
would not have to / it would be easier to
- Si les lves ne saisissent pas :
Tell the class what you know about these charac-
ters.
Theyre Gauls / from a village resisting the Romans.
The Roman conquest / ghting the whole Roman
Empire in 50 BC a special village: they have not
been conquered because they regularly drink a special
potion / they are very strong / Obelix is not allowed to
drink this potion because
3
3
project4.indd 85 5/10/07 11:54:44
86
Where is the village?
In the western part of Gaul, which is now Brittany,
in France.
Focus on the title of this adventure; explain the title:
Where do they come from? Where are they now?
They have rowed from Brittany to England.
So?
They have just crossed the Channel.
- They are talking about a tunnel under the Channel
Focus on what the third character says. What can
you say about him?
The third character might be English. / If there was
a tunnel, etc.
Implicite / humour
What do you know about the tunnel under the
Channel? Ask me questions.
The Chunnel
The rst proposal for a Tunnel linking Britain to
France was made in 1802 by a French engineer. In
1875, the French and British Parliaments decided a
Tunnel would be a good idea. Works started in 1876
and were halted in 1882 for defence reasons: the
British were afraid it would facilitate the invasion of
Britain. Talks were resumed in 1922 but works did
not start. In 1955, Britain agreed to cease its oppo-
sition on military grounds. Talks started again but
again works never started. In 1963, Frances presi-
dent Charles De Gaulle vetoed Britains entry into
the Common Market (now the European Union). He
said NON again in 1967. In 1973, Britain nally
entered the European Union (then called the Euro-
pean Economic Community). A project for the boring
of the tunnel was launched but stopped in 1975 for
nancial reasons. In 1984 the idea was relaunched.
The decision to build a tunnel was ofcially written
in The Franco-British Channel Fixed Link Treaty. It
was signed by the two governments in Canterbury,
Kent on 12 February 1986 and ratied in 1987. Works
started on 30 October 1990. The tunnel was ofcially
opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French President
Franois Mitterrand in a ceremony held in Calais on
6 May 1994. It is 50.450 km long.
http://en.wikipedia.org
Compare what you now know about the Chunnel
with what the comic strip shows.
Productions possibles :
The adventures of Asterix and Obelix take place
around 50 BC. This cartoon shows that Obelix was
one of the first to have the idea and that the English
actually started digging in 50 BC.
- In 1966, when this story was published, the tunnel
did not exist. People talked a lot about it but thought
it would never be possible.
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
- In the 1960s, the relations between Britain and
France were not very good because of Frances refu-
sal to admit Britain into the European Union.
- So this extract is also a joke about a tunnel that eve-
rybody talks about but can never be built and com-
pleted because France and Britain cannot be friends.
- In fact, people started talking about the Chunnel at
the beginning of the 19th century. Work started in
was interrupted in and started again in
- The Chunnel was eventually completed in 1994.
2. Take-away music
Laisser les lves dcouvrir le document.
Ils auront sans doute compris et pourront dire :
This explains how the walkman was invented.
Partir de cette proposition pour redrouler lhistoire
et expliciter le titre.
Productions possibles :
Baldo must go out but doesnt want to stop liste-
ning to his favourite music.
- He cant walk around with the equipment hes got /
its too big / heavy / hed need an extra long electric
cord / he would look ridiculous, etc.
- If he wants to listen to music wherever he goes, he
needs a machine that is not big / heavy / doesnt need
to be plugged in / is not too visible
- He needs a machine that would be very small and
light, that would t in his pocket, run on miniature
batteries, be equipped with tiny earphones, would
accept mini cassettes, etc.
- He is dreaming of a walkman.
- This cartoon also explains how its name was found.
The Walkman
The Walkman was invented by famous Japanese com-
pany Sony and rst arrived in shops in July 1979. It
was an instant success. About 340 million were sold
all over the world. The name appeared in the Petit
Larousse in 1981. It became generic and was admit-
ted in the Oxford English Dictionary in 1986. The word
walkman then ofcially became a new English word.
http://en.wikipedia.org
Pour conclure le travail sur cette BD, on pourra ame-
ner les lves parler de lvolution de la musique
portative . Ceci pourra accessoirement conduire
utiliser des repres chronologiques :
Productions possibles :
First, people had to stay at home to listen to music.
- Sound systems could be very big and of course, they
needed electrical energy.
- Then, sound systems which could run on batteries
were invented.
- In 1979, the walkman was invented. It enabled peo-
ple to listen to cassette tapes anywhere.
3
3
3
project4.indd 86 5/10/07 11:54:46
87 Project 4 - Eureka!
- Next it was possible to listen to CDs and minidiscs
on portable music players.
- Today, people dont use walkmans anymore but
MP3 players.
- The ingenious iPod can store up to 40 gigabytes of
music
On pourra aussi demander aux lves, aprs exploi-
tation de ces deux BD en classe, deffectuer quel-
ques recherches complmentaires chez eux sur
lune ou lautre invention et de les mettre en com-
mun lors de la sance suivante.
Analyse des documents
Les trois textes sont de type informatif. Il ny a pas
dimplicite faire mettre en vidence.
Des rfrences culturelles peuvent tre ncessai-
res (notamment pour le texte sur les jeans).
La charge lexicale peut premire vue apparatre
lourde. Nanmoins, les illustrations, ce que lon sait
de ces objets usuels et connus de tous ainsi que le
travail dj effectu sur la logpage peuvent aider
aller directement au sens, sans quil soit ncessaire
de donner de nombreux mots de lexique.
Les rares mots donns en amont ont t choisis
parce quils prsentent une voie directe vers le
sens.
Formes de travail
- Travail en classe entire pour lactivit 1.
- Travail en groupes pour lactivit 2a. (classe divi-
se en 3, un texte par groupe).
- Travail en classe entire pour les activits 2b, 3
et 4.
Make sense
1 Cette question doit faire lobjet dune prise de
parole collective.
Lors de cette phase d anticipation , qui servira
aussi lucider le sens des noms des inventions
dont il est question.
- Sappuyer sur les illustrations et les titres et
demander aux lves de quelles inventions il sagit.
Le mot pants (texte 3, ligne 17) pourra tre, sil
nest pas produit par les lves, donn ici comme
synonyme de trousers quil faudra faire utiliser
par les lves pour parler des blue jeans.
Judging from the titles, I think we are going to read
about / we expect to discover
- In my opinion / from my point of view / to my mind,
the texts are about

3
- We are going to read about how / why / when /
where was created / invented.
- Demander ensuite sils savent dj quelque chose
de lhistoire de ces inventions, ceci pourra faire pro-
duire du lexique et des structures utiles :
I think was invented in the century.
I dont know anything about these inventions.
- Mettre au tableau ce quils proposeront : ces rep-
res pourront aider la comprhension.
Renvoi la logpage : il ne sagit pas ici de rensei-
gner la logpage, mais de sinspirer de ses rubriques
pour rassembler les lments dont les lves peu-
vent avoir besoin pour parler de ces inventions.
2 Avant de diviser la classe en groupes, attirer
lattention de toute la classe sur :
- le terme lucider directement avant lecture du
texte 1 : gold. Demander si ce terme est connu ; si
la rponse est ngative, donner le sens en franais.
- les termes lucider avant lecture du texte 3 : gold
rush et prospector, ncessaires la construction
du sens, la gnse du blue jeans tant ancre
dans une situation particulire.
Lors de llucidation de gold pour le premier texte,
renvoyer gold rush ici et faire une lucidation
directe (donner le sens en franais).
partir de gold rush, demander ce que les l-
ves savent non pas de celui en Californie en 1853
mais en gnral pour obtenir lide que les cher-
cheurs dor ont besoin de matriel de camping et de
vtements solides :
Now that you know what gold rush means, what
do you know about people who look for gold?
You usually look for gold in mines or in rivers.
- If you look for gold in mines, you have to dig, spend
your time in the dust.
- If you look for gold in rivers, you spend your time in
the water.
- A person who looks for gold is called a gold digger
or a prospector.
3
3

Three inventions and how
they came into being
Book p. 49-50
Three inventions and how
they came into being
Book p. 49-50
project4.indd 87 5/10/07 11:54:47
88
- If you dont nd any gold where you are looking, you
must nd another place / spot.
- You usually look for gold in places where there are
no buildings and no people.
- You also need camping equipment.
a. Pour cette activit de comprhension crite, on
rpartira les lves en trois groupes (un texte par
groupe), ce qui leur permettra dinterroger leurs
camarades sur les textes quils nauront pas lus
(demande dinformations, de prcisions, de clari-
cations).
Note : la logpage peut tre utilise ds cette acti-
vit, ou uniquement dans lactivit 3, au cours de
laquelle les lves prendront des notes sur les
documents quils nont pas lus. Quoi quil en soit,
la logpage pourra tre renseigne de diffrentes
faons, suivant ce que les lves comprennent. Par
exemple, le texte de Bryson ne mentionne pas une
mais deux inventions, de mme que le texte sur Levi
Strauss traite de linvention du jean, mais aussi de
ses diffrentes amliorations.
Les trois textes proposs sont reproduits dans le
logbook an que les lves puissent surligner ce
quils comprennent, annoter les textes, etc. Il peut
tre utile, si lactivit na pas encore t faite, de
leur montrer (via un rtro-projecteur par exemple)
comment le surlignage et les annotations peuvent
les aider comprendre un texte.
Ce surlignage pouvant grandement varier selon les
lves, nest suggr ci-dessous quun surlignage
minimal. Il convient bien sr de prendre en compte
tout ce que les lves proposent, pourvu quils
soient capables, si la demande leur est faite, dex-
pliciter ou de reformuler ce quils ont surlign.
Matches
Perhaps nothing better typifies the strange and sometimes accidental nature of chemical
science in its early days than a discovery made by a German named Hennig Brand in
1675. Brand became convinced that gold could somehow be distilled from human urine.
(The similarity of colour seems to have been a factor in his conclusion.) He assembled
fifty buckets of human urine, which he kept for months in his cellar. By various recondite
processes, he converted the urine into a noxious paste and then into a translucent
substance. None of it yielded gold, of course, but a strange and interesting thing did
happen. After a time, the substance began to glow. Moreover, when exposed to air, it often
spontaneously burst into flame.
The commercial potential for the stuff which soon became known as phosphorus, from
Greek and Latin roots meaning light-bearing was not lost on eager business people, but
the difficulties of manufacture made it too costly to exploit. []
In the 1750s a Swedish chemist named Karl (or Carl) Scheele devised a way to manufacture
phosphorus in bulk without the slop or smell of urine. It was largely because of this
mastery of phosphorus that Sweden became, and remains, a leading producer of matches.
Bill Bryson, A Short History of Nearly Everything (2003)
Matches
Perhaps nothing better typifies the strange and sometimes accidental nature of chemical
science in its early days than a discovery made by a German named Hennig Brand in
1675. Brand became convinced that gold could somehow be distilled from human urine.
(The similarity of colour seems to have been a factor in his conclusion.) He assembled
fifty buckets of human urine, which he kept for months in his cellar. By various recondite
processes, he converted the urine into a noxious paste and then into a translucent
substance. None of it yielded gold, of course, but a strange and interesting thing did
happen. After a time, the substance began to glow. Moreover, when exposed to air, it often
spontaneously burst into flame.
The commercial potential for the stuff which soon became known as phosphorus, from
Greek and Latin roots meaning light-bearing was not lost on eager business people, but
the difficulties of manufacture made it too costly to exploit. []
In the 1750s a Swedish chemist named Karl (or Carl) Scheele devised a way to manufacture
phosphorus in bulk without the slop or smell of urine. It was largely because of this
mastery of phosphorus that Sweden became, and remains, a leading producer of matches.
Bill Bryson, A Short History of Nearly Everything (2003)
The Microwave Oven
Like many of todays great inventions, the microwave oven was a by-product of another
technology. It was during a radar-related research project in 1945 that Dr. Percy Spencer,
a self-taught engineer with the Raytheon Corporation, noticed something very unusual.
He was testing a new vacuum tube called a magnetron, when he discovered that the candy
bar in his pocket had melted. This intrigued Dr. Spencer, so he tried another experiment.
This time he placed some popcorn kernels near the tube and he watched with an inventive
sparkle in his eye as the popcorn sputtered, cracked and popped all over his lab.
The next morning, scientist Spencer decided to put the magnetron tube near an egg.
Spencer was joined by a curious colleague, and they both watched as the egg began to
tremor and quake. The rapid temperature rise within the egg was causing tremendous
internal pressure. Evidently the curious colleague moved in for a closer look just as the egg
exploded and splattered hot yolk all over his amazed face. The face of Spencer lit up with a
logical scientific conclusion: the melted candy bar, the popcorn, and now the exploding egg,
were all attributable to exposure to low-density microwave energy. Thus, if an egg can be
cooked that quickly, why not other foods?
Dr. Spencer had invented what was to revolutionize cooking, and form the basis of a
multimillion dollar industry the microwave oven.
The Microwave Oven
Like many of todays great inventions, the microwave oven was a by-product of another
technology. It was during a radar-related research project in 1945 that Dr. Percy Spencer,
a self-taught engineer with the Raytheon Corporation, noticed something very unusual.
He was testing a new vacuum tube called a magnetron, when he discovered that the candy
bar in his pocket had melted. This intrigued Dr. Spencer, so he tried another experiment.
This time he placed some popcorn kernels near the tube and he watched with an inventive
sparkle in his eye as the popcorn sputtered, cracked and popped all over his lab.
The next morning, scientist Spencer decided to put the magnetron tube near an egg.
Spencer was joined by a curious colleague, and they both watched as the egg began to
tremor and quake. The rapid temperature rise within the egg was causing tremendous
internal pressure. Evidently the curious colleague moved in for a closer look just as the egg
exploded and splattered hot yolk all over his amazed face. The face of Spencer lit up with a
logical scientific conclusion: the melted candy bar, the popcorn, and now the exploding egg,
were all attributable to exposure to low-density microwave energy. Thus, if an egg can be
cooked that quickly, why not other foods?
Dr. Spencer had invented what was to revolutionize cooking, and form the basis of a
multimillion dollar industry the microwave oven.
project4.indd 88 5/10/07 11:54:48
89 Project 4 - Eureka!
The Microwave Oven
William Hammack, The greatest discovery since re,
AmericanHeritage.com
STORIES OF ACCIDENTAL OR FORTUITOUS INVENTION HAVE
a powerful appeal. Roy Plunkett nds an unfamil-
iar substance inside a gas canister and turns it into
Teon; Samuel Colt sees a ships wheel turn and
uses the principle to invent his revolver. Alluring as
such tales are, they obscure both the insight needed
to take advantage of a chance observation and the
hard work needed to develop it. In many cases, a
simple origin myth like these can overshadow the
extensive and detailed research that led to a world-
changing invention.
Consider the microwave oven. Many of us have
heard how a Raytheon engineer walked past a
microwave tube one day, noticed that a candy bar
in his pocket had melted, and was struck with the
idea of using microwaves to cook food. This inci-
dent, or something like it, may have occurred, but
there is a lot more to the story than that. The idea of
microwave heating was not founded on any single
random discovery, and after the initial idea, it took
years, even decades, of engineering and marketing
to make it work.
The microwave oven traces its origins to early 1945,
when Laurence Marshall faced the nancial ruin
of his company, Raytheon. World War II seemed
likely to end within a year or two, and when it
did, Raytheons lucrative military contracts would
vanish, causing the companys revenue to drop
by at least 50 percent. Raytheon needed to come
up with something it could sell to civilians [...].
So as the new year dawned, [Marshall] gathered
a half-dozen of his top employees at his house in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and asked, What shall
we do after the war?
AFTER THE WAR, RAYTHEONS LUCRATIVE MILITARY CON-
TRACTS WOULD VANISH. IT NEEDED SOMETHING IT COULD
SELL TO CIVILIANS.
The men Marshall put his question to were dead
tired. They had been working 10 hours a day, seven
days a week, assembling and testing radars for the
U.S. military. But one of them, Percy Spencer, had
an idea. He suggested that Raytheon should build
on its expertise in radar by making an oven [...].
He was most intrigued by the idea of cooking with
microwave radiation, so in the early 1940s he and
other Raytheon engineers began to play around
with using radar tubes to heat food. The oft-reported
candy-bar incident may perhaps have spurred Spen-
cer to experiment with food, but the possibilities of
using microwave tubes for heating were already
quite well known. [...].
THE FIRST PRODUCTION MICROWAVE OVEN WEIGHED IN at
670 pounds, stood 62 inches tall, and measured
nearly 2 feet deep and wide. To install it, an electri-
cian had to put in a 220-volt line and a plumber had
to install a water pipe to cool the ovens radar tube.
This rst oven sold shortly after the war ended for
more than $2,000, the equivalent of about $20,000
today. Obviously, this was not an appliance for home
use [...]. In 1953 Raytheon launched a new oven,
with a somewhat streamlined appearance and a
sheaf of tasty recipes; the new oven featured a sleek
sheet-metal exterior, vertical sliding doors, and an
additional magnetron to increase heating preci-
sion. It was more successful than its predecessor,
selling 10,000 units between 1953 and 1697, but it
remained a money loser. Still believing in its ulti-
mate success, Raytheon decided in the mid-1960s
that the microwave oven would sell better if sales-
man could offer a whole line of related items, so it
acquired the high-end refrigerator maker Amana.
Blue jeans
In 1853, the California gold rush was in full swing, and everyday items were in short supply.
Levi Strauss, a 24-year-old German immigrant, left New York for San Francisco with a
small supply of dry goods with the intention of opening a branch of his brothers New York
dry goods business. Shortly after his arrival, a prospector wanted to know what Mr. Strauss
was selling. When Strauss told him he had rough canvas to use for tents and wagon covers,
the prospector said, You should have brought pants!, saying he couldnt find a pair of
pants strong enough to last.
Levi Strauss had the canvas made into waist overalls. Miners liked the pants, but
complained that they tended to chafe. Levi Strauss substituted a twilled cotton cloth from
France called serge de Nmes. The fabric later became known as denim and the pants
were nicknamed blue jeans.
In 1873, Levi Strauss & Company began using the pocket stitch design. Levi Strauss and
Nevada tailor David Jacobs co-patented the process of putting rivets in pants for strength.
On May 20, 1873, they received U.S. Patent No.139,121. This date is now considered the
official birthday of blue jeans.
In 1853, the California gold rush
Levi Strauss, New York Germa San Francisco w
prospector Mr. Strauss
was selling. tents a
prospector
pants strong e
s liked the pants,
project4.indd 89 5/10/07 11:54:59
90
Amana could take its expertise in building, distrib-
uting, and marketing consumer appliances and
apply it to Raytheons microwave-oven project [...].
As Richard Foerstner, son of the founder and presi-
dent of Amana redesigned the oven and prepared
it for mass production, his father concentrated on
getting ready to sell it [...].
Although the media would play a signicant role in
the ovens success, Foerstner knew from the start
that the best way to sell it was by demonstrations.
To organize them, he hired the 26-year-old JoAnne
Anderson, who had recently been discharged from
the Air Force.
Anderson groomed a team of 42 carefully chosen
women to show off the oven [...].
Andersons most important advice was: Never ever
lie or exaggerate about this machine. You dont have
to. Its a marvel.
She taught her demonstrators how to explain the
marvel. Its a simple thing, she would say, theres
nothing unusual here. There is energy, that is radio-
wave energy, that basically attacks water molecules
in your food it activates those molecules. Then
she would put her hand out and shake it as she
explained how die water molecules were rotating at
a very high speed, more than two billion times per
second. That causes friction, and friction, we know,
is heat. Therefore, your food is cooking itself.
DEMONSTRATORS WERE TOLD: NEVER EVER LIE OR EXAGGERATE
ABOUT THIS MACHINE. YOU DONT HAVE TO. ITS A MARVEL.
Anderson called the microwave oven a womans
appliance. Refrigerators were a couple purchase,
but a microwave oven was bought by a woman
alone. She also saw how it tted into a womans role
as a mother. Women liked to teach their kids to cook
but were put off because of the danger, says Ander-
son. The safety of using a microwave oven made it
easy for a relatively young child to use to reheat, to
warm up, or just put a hot dog in a bun and have a
snack when they come home from school. [...]
The microwave oven has achieved the status of a
primary technology, meaning that other technolo-
gies adapt to it instead of vice versa. TV dinners no
longer have metal trays, and pizzas and other fro-
zen foods are designed specically to make a quick
microwave blast mimic the results of slow cooking
in a conventional oven. Browned exteriors and crisp
crusts or skins had long been unattainable with
microwave ovens, but now carefully designed cook-
ing dishes and shields with layers of metal foil can
be used to concentrate the microwaves.
The development of the microwave oven encapsu-
lates much of the story of technology in the second
half of the twentieth century. It reveals the great
inuence of World War II technology in our lives; it
charts the rise of electronics as the greatest force in
technological change; it reects the growing sophis-
tication of advertising and marketing; and lastly, it
exemplies the great change in womens roles due
to the industrialization of the household.
William Hammack is a professor of chemical and
biomolecular engineering at the University of Illi-
nois. The American Institute of Physics awarded
him its 2004 Science Writing Prize in Broadcast
Media.
Jeans
Also called Blue Jeans, Dungarees, Denims, or
Levis, trousers originally designed in the United
States by Levi Strauss in the mid-19th century as
durable work clothes, with the seams and other
points of stress reinforced with small copper riv-
ets. They were eventually adopted by workingmen
throughout the United States and then worldwide.
Jeans are particularly identied as a standard item
of Western apparel worn by the American cow-
boy. After the mid-20th century, various adapta-
tions became internationally a characteristic part of
clothing for both men and women.
Denim
Durable twill-woven fabric with coloured (usu-
ally blue) warp and white lling threads; it is also
woven in coloured stripes. The name is said to have
originated in the French serge de Nmes. Denim is
yarn-dyed and mill-nished and is usually all-cot-
ton, although considerable quantities are of a cot-
ton-synthetic bre mixture. Decades of use in the
clothing industry, especially in the manufacture of
overalls and trousers worn for heavy labour, have
demonstrated denims durability. This quality also
made denim serviceable for leisure wear in the late
20th century.
Encyclopaedia Britannica
b. Lors de cette mise en commun, on pourra atti-
rer lattention sur le mot by-product (aprs que
le sens du texte 2 a t verbalis.). Pour cela, plu-
sieurs approches possibles :
- identier les sens possibles du mot compos
partir du nom (product) ;
- retrouver le mot partir du sens du texte : As
you have seen with matches, some inventions are
accidental; the microwave was too. Read the rst
paragraph again and nd a word which could have
the same meaning as accidental. Explain the sen-
tence where this word is used.
- isoler le mot dans un contexte (re)connu : Now
that you know more about how the microwave was
invented, read the rst sentence again. Explain it.
- sappuyer sur la structure, spcique au texte :
This text is destined to give information about an
project4.indd 90 5/10/07 11:55:01
91 Project 4 - Eureka!
invention. The rst sentence introduces the topic,
the last sentence stresses why the topic is worth
studying. The rst sentence therefore often contains
the essential information. Read the rst sentence of
the text again. Explain it.
The microwave oven was invented by people who
were working on another technology they were not
looking for a way to cook food quickly but for a new
kind of radar. It was accidental, it was a by-product.
Productions possibles :
Matches
They were invented over 2 centuries ago.
- Hennig Brand was looking for a way to create gold.
- He thought he could transform human urine into gold.
- The urine turned into a noxious / malodorous / stink-
ing paste; then it turned into a translucent substance.
- That substance caught re when it was exposed to air.
- Actually, Hennig Brand did not manage to make gold
but had accidentally discovered / found (the proper-
ties) of phosphorus.
- A century later, Scheele tried to manufacture phos-
phorus without the smell.
- Thanks to his research, he invented / devised / came
up with (safety) matches in the 1750s.
- Today, Sweden is the
The Microwave oven
It was invented by Dr Percy Spencer about 60 years
ago.
- Dr Percy Spencer worked in a radar research lab.
- He was doing experiments with a magnetron when
he realized it.
- He renewed the experiment with popcorn kernels
and with an egg.
- He understood / concluded / deduced that the mag-
netron could cook food very quickly.
- Thats how the microwave oven was invented / born.
Blue Jeans
Levi Strauss was a 24-year-old German immigrant
to the USA. He settled in San Francisco in the 1850s,
during the gold rush.
- He planned to / had in mind to / intended to open a
shop selling equipment and goods for gold-diggers and
pioneers, specially canvas and material for tents.
- A prospector told him he needed strong / hard-wear-
ing / long-lasting pants.
- Levi Strauss designed his jeans from the canvas he
had. But this material was destined for tents and it was
not very comfortable. It irritated and chafed the skin.
- So Levi Strauss used cotton cloth called serge de
Nmes instead of canvas. It was softer and more
comfortable but as resistant.
- People have been wearing jeans since 1873 / for
more than a century.
3
3
3
3
3 Voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide.
ce stade, on nattend pas des lves quils ren-
seignent les deux dernires colonnes de la logpage
(How the inventions works ; Benets of the inven-
tion) ; cela dit on prendra bien sr en compte, le cas
chant, leurs propositions.
4 Aprs avoir renseign la logpage, il sagit
damener les lves remarquer que les trois
inventions sont accidentelles . Le mot by-pro-
duct pourra tre rutilis ici.
La consigne compare the second and third col-
umns devrait sufre relancer la parole.
At first / At the beginning / Originally, he didnt
intend to / he didnt plan to create
- His intention was to
- So the creation of was unintentional / accidental
he created accidentally / unintentionally
- He didnt invent on purpose
Pour conclure, on pourra demander un bilan sur ces
inventions pour faire souligner le contraste pass /
prsent.
Are these inventions important? What did they rev-
olutionize?
Now it is much faster to cook food with a micro-
wave oven
- It is very practical when you have forgotten to take
food out of the freezer.
- You can have frozen pizza ready in 10 minutes.
Et ainsi, amener la construction used to.
People used to have to cook fresh food every day. Now
they can have frozen food ready in two minutes.
Before matches were invented
Over to you
Activit en trois temps, possible mettre en uvre
en deux sances, la premire en demi-groupe. La
tche est lorigine individuelle, mais rien nemp-
che de la rendre collective.
5 a. Premire sance : travail en demi-groupes :
de prfrence, au CDI ou mieux encore, en salle mul-
timdia. Les lves choisissent une invention parmi
les quatre proposes (on veillera ce que toutes
soient traites au moins une fois) et renseignent
leur logpage avec les informations quils trouveront
(voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide). Le rle
de lenseignant est ici de les guider de faon efcace
dans leurs recherches, quelles soient sur Internet ou
non. Il veillera l encore ce que les renseignements
reports dans la logpage se prsentent sous forme
de notes et non dnoncs rdigs. Si les lves sont
tents de renseigner davantage que les trois premi-
res colonnes de la logpage, les encourager dans ce
sens. Aprs leurs recherches, entraner les lves
3
3
project4.indd 91 5/10/07 11:55:01
92
sexprimer partir de leurs notes en vue de lexpos
quils accompliront lors de la sance suivante.
Note : sil est rellement impossible daccomplir
cette tape prliminaire au CDI ou en salle multi-
mdia, demander aux lves deffectuer les recher-
ches chez eux (en dernier recours).
Deuxime sance : les lves interrogs prsen-
tent leurs recherches oralement la classe entire
(ceux qui ont tudi la mme invention pourront tre
appels complter les prestations), tandis que
trois ou quatre secrtaires prendront les propos en
notes et rcapituleront en prise de parole en continu,
ce qui servira ventuellement de support la trace
crite. Les secrtaires peuvent tre volontaires ou
dsigns. Le professeur jugera, selon la classe et
les lves, si ces secrtaires prennent des notes sur
linvention sur laquelle ils ont travaill ou non.
b. En aval de cette activit, on demandera aux lves
de travailler leur production crite de faon struc-
ture (notamment en suivant les rubriques de la
logpage) en choisissant lune des quatre inventions.
Pour viter que les lves se contentent de recopier
le contenu de leurs recherches, on peut trs bien
utiliser cette activit en valuation de mi-parcours.
Productions possibles :
The printing press
The printing press was invented by Gutenberg more
than 5 centuries ago.
- Before it was invented, all books had to be written
by hand, which took a long time.
Note : il se peut que les lves, dans leurs recher-
ches, dcouvrent que limprimerie existait en fait
dj bien avant linvention de Gutenberg :
Before the invention of printing, multiple copies of
a manuscript had to be made by hand, a laborious
task that could take many years. Later books were
produced by and for the Church using the process
of wood engraving. This required the craftsman
to cut away the background, leaving the area to be
printed raised. ()
In the Far East, movable type and printing presses were
known but did not replace printing from individually
carved wooden blocks, from movable clay type, proc-
esses much more efcient than hand copying. The
use of movable type in printing was invented in 1041
AD by Bi Sheng in China. Since there are thousands
of Chinese characters, the benet of the technique is
not as obvious as in European languages.
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/
printpress.htm
The calculating machine
The first modern calculating machine was invented
by W.S. Burroughs in 1885.
- It was too difcult to calculate big numbers.
- The rst models were large steel mechanical devices
equipped with buttons and a lever (later, he added a
printer).
3
3
- Today, calculators are much smaller and equipped
with LCD displays.
The elevator
The elevator was invented in the 19
th
century.
- Actually, Otis invented the steam elevator but also
the elevator brake.
- It is exhausting / tiresome to climb up more than 3 or
4 storeys or to carry heavy things up or down stairs.
The dishwasher
The dishwasher was invented by J. Cochran over a
century ago.
- Before that, everybody used to wash their dishes by
hand. For many, it was a waste of time. They didnt
enjoy meals with their families or friends. It was a
real chore after big parties.
- The machine was equipped with a handle to splash
water on the dirty dishes.
- Today, all dishwashers are electronic and work
automatically.
Recap
Cette activit peut faire lobjet dune valuation
individuelle de loral, selon des critres qui seront
communiqus la classe. Pour lvaluation par le
professeur, on pourra se rfrer aux suggestions
donnes p. 35 (projet 1), pour la co-valuation, aux
suggestions page 54 (projet 2), reprises, pour ce
projet-ci, page 102. Un autre barme simple pour la
co-valuation est suggr ci-dessous :
Temps de parole :
- moins de 30 secondes
- entre 30 secondes et une minute
- une minute ou plus
0,5 pt
1 pt
2 pts
Contenu de lexpos :
- pas assez dinformations sur
linvention choisie
- sufsamment dinformations
- expos trs complet
2 pts
3 pts
4 pts
Qualit de la langue : phonologie
- expos difcile comprendre
- expos comprhensible mais accent
franais
- expos clair (prononciation, accentuation
globalement correctes) mme si hsitations
1 pt
2 pts
4 pts
Qualit de la langue : grammaire
- beaucoup derreurs
- erreurs limites
- peu derreurs
1 pt
2 pts
4 pts
Bonus : a rutilis des mots ou expressions
appris en cours (si cette contrainte a t
expressment donne)
1 pt
Ne pas consacrer plus dune demi-sance cette
activit.
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project4.indd 92 5/10/07 11:55:02
93 Project 4 - Eureka!
STEP 2

Book p. 52

Transparent n 8
STEP 2

Book p. 52

Transparent n 8
A time machine

Book p. 52
A time machine

Book p. 52
Analyse du document
Une BD dont il faut prendre en compte la spcicit
(histoire raconte sous forme de vignettes, avec de
lhumour), dautant plus quelle relate ici une his-
toire complte.
Des mots peuvent ne pas tre connus mais lhis-
toire en elle-mme est simple, et ltat desprit et
les ractions des personnages se lisent sur leur
visage.
Dans les huit premires vignettes, Calvin explique
Hobbes sa machine et les merveilles quelle rend
possibles.
Dans les quatre dernires, il explique les dangers
possibles, do la raction de Hobbes.
Lattitude de Hobbes vis--vis de cette invention fait
partie intgrante du sens : si il quitte le vaisseau,
cest que lui aussi est persuad quun carton vide
peut tre une machine voyager dans le temps.
Le sens de cette histoire est le pouvoir de limagi-
nation.
Mise en uvre
Pour la dcouverte du document en classe entire,
privilgier lutilisation du transparent n 8 sur
lequel, pour faciliter le travail collectif, le contenu
des bulles a t effac an que les lves anticipent
ce qui se passe. Ce travail est dautant plus perti-
nent que les quatre dernires cases prsenteront
certainement des problmes lexicaux.
Outre les objectifs de sens habituels, lexploitation
de cette BD permet de mettre en place un objec-
tif mthodologique : lutilisation du dictionnaire
unilingue ; le but sera, entre autres, que les lves
apprennent reprer la dnition sappliquant le
mieux au sens du document (comme le montre len-
cart sur ace gauche de la BD). Ce travail mtho-
dologique est faire, dans lidal, en demi-groupe
au CDI voire en salle multimdia, auquel cas il fau-
dra guider les lves vers un dictionnaire en ligne
(par exemple, http://dictionary.reference.com/, qui
a lavantage dinclure un thsaurus).
Il est essentiel que ce travail avec le dictionnaire
fasse suite au travail collectif de restitution de ce
qui a t compris ; il ne sagit pas ici de faire du
dictionnaire une stratgie de comprhension mais
dinitier la recherche dans un dictionnaire unilin-

gue en tant que manipulation dun outil supplmen-


taire. On mnera donc ce travail aprs lactivit 1.
Make sense
1 Cette premire tape peut occuper une demi-
sance, en classe entire, par exemple aprs lacti-
vit Recap du Step 1.
Laisser dcouvrir les huit premires vignettes
avec les bulles (rappeler aux lves de ne pas sar-
rter aux mots quils pourraient ne pas connatre).
Mise en commun pour mettre en vidence qui a
compris quoi.
Retour telle ou telle vignette pour dpartager les
avis.
The little boy (Calvin) has invented a time machine.
- With a time machine you can travel through time.
- You can travel into the past and into the future.
- Calvin thinks that, thanks to his time machine, he
could become rich.
Des lves relveront peut-tre (history) exams.
Si les mots sont mentionns, demander quel lien
peut exister entre les termes time-machine et
(history) exams
Laisser les lves expliquer comme ils peuvent :
If he can travel into the future, he will be able to see
the subject of the exam.
On peut ensuite guider par lobservation des
expressions et des attitudes des deux personnages
dans ces huit premires vignettes :
The little boy speaks all the time / obviously telling
his friend about his new invention.
- He looks very happy and very excited.
- The Tiger rst looks surprised (quizzical / skeptical).
- Then he looks interested and attentive. In the end he
looks just as enthusiastic as the boy.
- He lifts his arm, showing he is ready to go.
On fera ensuite comparer les expressions et atti-
tudes ainsi dcrites avec celles des quatre dernires
vignettes, que lon fera dcouvrir en demandant
de ne pas sintresser au texte ou en projetant le
transparent n 8 .
Demander ce qui est compris de ces 4 vignettes (
partir des images uniquement).
3
3
3
Pour lexploitation de ce step, les lves utiliseront
cette fois-ci lintgralit de la logpage.
project4.indd 93 5/10/07 11:55:04
94
The tiger doesnt look as enthusiastic.
- The boy has put thick glasses / goggles on and the
way he looks indicates he might be talking about dan-
gers / frightening things.
Faire mettre des hypothses de sens.
Why has he put goggles on?
Because of the sun the speed
What dangers do you think he might be talking
about?
Because of extra terrestrials monsters from
outer space
Faire lier pour construire un sens hypothtique.
Hobbes finally leaves because he is probably very
frightened.
- He does not want to be eaten by monsters / lost in
space.
- Perhaps he is afraid of never coming back.
Vrier les hypothses la lecture des bulles.
Faire verbaliser ce qui est maintenant compris.
The Tiger also believes they can travel through
space in a cardboard box. That is why he leaves.
Attirer lattention sur la machine de Calvin.
Its only a cardboard box.
- He has a lot of imagination.
- Children can often imagine extraordinary situations
and extraordinary things.
Attirer lattention sur la vignette 3 : the cardboard
box used to be a transmogrier / another invention?
/ Calvin keeps inventing things / he is probably very
imaginative / inventive.
2 Les deuxime et troisime tapes de lexploi-
tation du document se feront de prfrence en demi-
groupes, avec dictionnaires unilingues.
Faire relire toute la BD et vrier les mots inconnus
dans le dictionnaire.
Suggestions pour les termes chercher :
1. Relire / lister les mots pour lesquels on sinter-
roge / mettre ces mots en commun / demander qui
les connat / ne retenir que ceux que personne ne
connat.
2. Faire mettre des hypothses sur ces mots dans
le contexte de lhistoire.
3. Vrier dans le dictionnaire.
4. Confronter ce que lon a trouv.
5. Sil y a plusieurs dnitions, justier son choix.
3
3
3
3
3
3
Suggestion pour les quatre dernires vignettes :
Demander ce qui est compris de ces 4 vignettes :
1. sans les bulles :
- cest lenfant qui parle : que raconte-t-il ?
- le tigre : sa tte dans les vignettes 1 et 2 : atten-
tive? surprised? scared? etc.
- enfant et goggles : What for? the sun? speed?
Why? Will he be travelling in air? outer space?
What dangers are there?
- ce quil fait la dernire vignette : leaves
- conclusion : So what has Calvin been telling
him?
- Hypothses de sens : Explaining how the
machine works? What dangers await them trav-
elling through space in an open cardboard box?
2. avec les bulles : quest-ce que les lves com-
prennent maintenant ?
3. mots qui restent incompris : hypothses de sens.
4. vrication dictionnaire.
Aprs vrication du lexique inconnu, les lves
feront le point sur ce quils comprennent et pour-
ront, le cas chant, dire ce quils avaient compris
au dbut :
At first I thought the word meant but actually
it means
- We understand that Calvins time machine used to
be a transmogrier (a machine capable of changing
the form / shape of things).
- So now I understand why Hobbes is skeptical.
- Actually, he wants to travel into the past to have
excellent marks at history.
- He wants to explore the future to discover new
inventions; then he plans to bring them back to the
present and tell everybody he invented them; thats
how he hopes to become rich.
- They need to wear goggles because they will travel
through whirlwinds so they need to protect their eyes.
- In fact, the tiger gets out of the box because he is
afraid of travelling through space. Calvin says hes a
coward, he isnt courageous.
3 partir dune rcapitulation orale de lensem-
ble de lhistoire (en prise de parole en interaction ou
en continu par deux ou trois lves dsigns), les l-
ves remplissent leur logpage. Ici encore, lenseignant
peut projeter la logpage au tableau (ou la reconsti-
tuer) et guider les lves dans la prise de notes.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide.
3
project4.indd 94 5/10/07 11:55:07
95 Project 4 - Eureka!
Cell phones for kids

Book p. 53
Cell phones for kids

Book p. 53
Analyse du document
Document vido dont il faut respecter la spcicit.
Les images ici sont trs parlantes . Images et
son sont majoritairement redondants : on peut com-
prendre de quoi il sagit sans le son la fois en rai-
son de la faon dont le document est fait mais aussi
en raison du sujet, trs proche des lves. Il nest
pas utile de comprendre chacun des mots entendus
pour saisir la raction des personnes interroges,
dautant que ces ractions sont de lordre du pr-
visible : les ractions des lves seront sans doute
les mmes que celles des adolescents montrs, ils
pourront sans doute aussi comprendre les inqui-
tudes des parents, et comprendre pourquoi certains
adultes ne veulent pas entendre parler de ces cell
phones for kids.
La n du document souligne, sur le ton de la plaisan-
terie, laspect excessif de linvention : pour commu-
niquer au tlphone, encore faut-il savoir parler
Start from what you know
Mise en uvre
Pour cette activit, plusieurs possibilits concer-
nant lexploitation de la logpage :
- on peut utiliser lintgralit des rubriques pour
prendre des notes sur les tlphones portables ;
- on peut se contenter dutiliser la colonne bene-
ts (cf. question 3) ;
- on peut se contenter de garder la logpage sous
les yeux sans la renseigner : elle permet alors de
guider les lves dans leurs productions.
1 Les lves devraient avoir des choses dire
sur le sujet :
Ive had a cell phone for years / since
- My parents gave it to me for Xmas, my birthday
because I needed one, because I asked them to buy
me one.
- I bought it myself, with my (own) pocket money
- However, I cant pay my phone bills because I dont
earn money, so my parents pay them for me.
On ne manquera pas de rebondir sur la dernire
question : What if you phone for too long? What if
your phone bill is really high? ce qui amnera cer-
tainement les lves raconter des anecdotes.
ago, I had a very expensive phone bill, my parents
were furious
Bien sr, si certains lves ne possdent pas de
tlphone portable, on ne manquera pas de leur
demander pourquoi.
2 Pour cette question, demander aux lves de
ragir aux opinions des uns et des autres :

3
3
I think / In my opinion / To my mind
- People must have a cell phone today, they cant do
without it.
- Phones are very useful, for example, if you are lost
you can call for assistance or call your parents.
- I agree with you; besides if you are late, you can call
the people who are waiting for you.
- I disagree with you: cell phones are completely
unnecessary / useless.
- Besides, people spend all their time on the phone,
its really annoying / irritating, especially at the cin-
ema or at the restaurant
3 Laisser les lves partir de leur vcu et sex-
primer librement pour rpondre cette question.
Lutilisation de can et ses quivalents devrait se
faire naturellement.
What do you use your cell phone for? / Can you think
of situations where a cell phone would be very use-
ful?
Today, cell phones are equipped with MP3 players,
so you can listen to your music anywhere.
- It is possible to take lms with cell phones now.
- Phones enable you to take pictures anywhere.
- If you buy a Smartphone, you will be able to receive
and send emails.
- If you travel to / in a country where
Make sense
En amont, Listening activit 1 p. 56 (en autonomie
ou en classe).
Visionner la totalit du document, puis procder la
mise en commun de ce qui a t compris.
On reviendra au document pour dpartager dven-
tuels avis contraires.
4 3 The journalist is presenting cell phones for
young children.
- Some people like these phones, others dont. They dont
want to hear about them. They think its ridiculous. Some
of them (especially children and women) are really
enthusiastic. A woman says its a great idea. Two men
sound very angry and shut / slam the door violently.
- Actually the cell phones in the video are very differ-
ent from our cell phones (R from ours).
- They dont do pictures or messages or emails, they
can call only a few numbers, like the parents. One of
them can record only 5 numbers; but it has a vibrate
mode. For one of them, you record the phone numbers
on a web site.
- They look very different from other cell phones, in
fact they look like toys.
- This is really surprising, I cant believe it!
- I dont think babies need cell phones at all.
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project4.indd 95 5/10/07 11:55:08
96
- They should never / not be left alone at home.
- And anyway, you must be able to talk properly to
answer the phone.
- Babies only babble, their language can be difcult to
understand!
5 a. Sensibiliser ici les lves au volume de la voix,
lintonation, aux expressions faciales, aux gestes.
The elderly man speaks very loud, he says go away
to the journalist, he is against cell phones for kids, he
slams the door. (Intonation descendante sur go
away.)
- The rst woman looks and sounds enthusiastic, she
thinks its a great idea, shes smiling.
- The second man is apparently very surprised, he
cant believe there are cell phones for 6-year-olds,
he says come on R you must be joking. (Intonation
montante sur cell phones for six-year-olds?.)
- The second woman sounds enthusiastic too, shes
smiling, she says how do I get one?, she is ready to
buy one for her children.
- The third man seems to be in a very bad mood
(maybe the journalists dirturbed him), he says good-
bye (intonation descendante) and slams the door.
He doesnt want to hear about it.
- The rst two children (they are between 5 and
10 years old) are really excited about these cell
phones, especially the rst girl (she repeats the word
please); the second little girl says cool.
3
- On the other hand, the next 3 children are not enthu-
siastic at all. Its difcult to understand the rst one.
The second one says get me a real cell phone and
throws them away. The teenage girl sounds very
skeptical, she probably spends her time phoning her
friends, not her parents.
b. partir de ce qui a t dit, laisser quelques
minutes aux lves pour remplir leur logpage en
donnant la consigne : what about the original inten-
tion and the benets? (qui sont peu abords dans la
vido et qui peuvent en consquence tre dduits
par les lves). Puis demander 3 ou 4 dentre eux
de rcapituler oralement en vue dlaborer la trace
crite.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide.
Productions possibles :
The original intention: parents want to know where
their children are, what they are doing. But kids use
cell phones to call anybody anytime. The phone bill
can be very high sometimes
- The benets: the phones are nice-looking, the
recorded numbers are limited, so the cell phone is
very simple to use and the parents wont have bad
surprises with the phone bills
Pour conclure, poser aux lves les questions
contenues dans le document : Would you buy a cell
phone like these? / What would you say if your par-
ents gave you a phone like these?
3
A robot? A vacuum cleaner?
A Roomba!

Book p. 54
A robot? A vacuum cleaner?
A Roomba!

Book p. 54
Analyse du document
Document de type informatif-publicitaire, qui vante
les mrites et prouesses dune machine. Les sch-
mas confrent un aspect scientique, et ont pour
fonction de souligner l avance technologique
incarne par cette machine.
Make sense
1 Si le mot vacuum-cleaner a bien t pos en
jalon, le titre devrait permettre aux lves didenti-
er linvention.
Si ce nest pas le cas, on pourra attirer lattention
des lves sur lillustration qui montre le chemin
de lappareil dans une pice puis sur certains des
composants de lappareil prsents dans top view
et bottom view.
What sort of a machine / device is this?
A robot / robotic vacuum cleaner.
Look at the illustrations and compare them with
your own vacuum cleaner at home. Why do you think
a robot would be useful?
Cleaning is a drag / chore / boring / time-consu-
ming / you have to do it regularly.
What would the advantages be?
A robot could do all the work / people wouldnt
have to would be able to spend more time
How do you think it works?
Perhaps its got a computer inside? Batteries?
Remote control?
2 Avant de procder au surlignage du texte :
- faire lire le texte en entier ;
- procder une premire mise en commun orale :
What did you understand about this device? Do you
understand how it works?
3
3
3
3
project4.indd 96 5/10/07 11:55:09
97 Project 4 - Eureka!
On procdera ensuite au prlvement dinformation.
Trois rubriques renseigner (original problem, how
Roomba works, advantages), donc trois couleurs
diffrentes pour surligner le texte. De plus, les l-
ves ne doivent reprer que les lments essentiels,
et non les dtails. Il peut tre intressant, au terme
de la phase de surlignage, que lenseignant fasse la
mme chose au rtroprojecteur daprs les sugges-
tions des lves.
Productions possibles :
Problem / original intention
With an ordinary vacuum cleaner, you have to do
the cleaning yourself; it takes a lot of time (= it is
time-consuming)
- Besides, you have to pull it, and it can be very
heavy
Description / How it works
It is equipped / fitted with a rechargeable battery
and infrared sensors.
- It takes two hours to clean three rooms; then when the
battery is out of power, it will recharge automatically.
- Its a very intelligent vacuum cleaner: it remembers
the disposition of the room, how long it should spend
cleaning it / how long it takes to clean it.
Advantages: [en cas de panne, utiliser les dclen-
cheurs suivants]
There are sensors for steps k Roomba will not fall
down the stairs and break.
- Roomba is a very small vacuum cleaner.
- It remembers the disposition of the room k It's not
necessary to / you don't have to reprogram it.
3
3
3
- It's completely automatic k You don't have to do
anything, just let it work for you.
Au cours ou lissue de cette mise en commun
orale, on pourra inviter les lves complter leur
logpage pour cette invention.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide.
3 Formulation davis personnel de la part des
lves ; tous les noncs sont bons prendre.
Dclencheurs possibles :
Think of its size: its very small R It can easily clean
under furniture.
- Think of what it can do k It goes back to its station
when cleaning is over.
- Think of what you dont have to do / can do k You
can go away while Roomba is cleaning / You have
more free time.
Over to you
Il sagit dune phase dentranement la production
orale en continu qui prparera les lves la rali-
sation du projet nal.
3
A robot? A vacuum cleaner? A roomba!
There are those of us who clean once a week, and there are those of us who clean when the
in-laws come to visit. The appeal of the robotic vacuum reaches both camps: Either way, the
house is a bit more spotless with minimal human input.
Todays robotic vacuums are a far cry from the first models that you had to track down,
stranded somewhere in your house. The latest products clean your house, remember the
layout to increase efficiency, dump their own dirt in a receptacle and find their way back to
the charging station so they can rejuice.
By far the most popular robotic vacuum in the United States is iRobots Roomba, which
comes in various models.
The Roomba Red is approximately 13 inches (33 cm) in diameter and 3.5 inches (9 cm) tall.
An external examination reveals the following parts:
Roombas run on a rechargeable NiMH battery which takes about seven hours to fully
charge. A full charge equals approximately two hours of cleaning time, which in the
Roomba world means vacuuming three medium-size rooms before it needs to rejuice.
The first thing Roomba does when you press Clean is calculate the room size thanks to
the infrared receiver located on its bumper. Once it establishes the size of the room, it
knows how long it should spend cleaning it.
While Roomba is cleaning, it avoids steps using four infrared sensors on the front
underside of the unit cliff sensors. When Roomba knocks into something, its bumper
retracts, activating mechanical object sensors that tell Roomba it has encountered an obstacle.
This means it can clean pretty close up to these obstacles without bumping into them. It
also determines its own cleaning path.
Howstuffworks.com
project4.indd 97 5/10/07 11:55:11
98
Lensemble de cette activit ainsi que le Recap qui
suit pourront faire lobjet dune 2
e
sance, ventuel-
lement en module.
4 Dans un premier temps, demander un lve
de dire tout ce dont il se souvient sur le Roomba ; en
cas de difcults ou de trous de mmoire, on peut
lautoriser jeter un coup dil sa logpage ou au
texte quil aura surlign dans le logbook. Les autres
lves coutent et ragissent : complter, corriger
Puis, on demande aux lves de prsenter le Roomba
par crit, les rubriques de la logpage pouvant servir
de base pour guider la structuration.
Ceci pourra constituer une valuation.
5 a. Insister sur le fait que les lves prsentent
les inventions comme sils les avaient inventes
eux-mmes. Ceci leur permettra de parler de lin-
vention choisie avec plus de conviction, de sinvestir
pleinement dans cette prise de parole.
b. En utilisant la logpage, les lves se familiarise-
ront une fois de plus avec la prise de notes, par-
tir de laquelle ils prsenteront leur invention sous
forme de production orale. Puisquil sagit dun tra-
vail de groupe, on peut demander aux lves ayant
travaill sur la mme invention de complter ce que
dit llve interrog.
Quelques difcults lexicales pourront se poser. On
peut envisager de donner un dictionnaire bilingue
chaque groupe et, pour viter les recherches abusi-
ves, limiter son utilisation cinq minutes.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 106 de ce guide.
c. On sattendra bien sr des ractions du type :
Your invention is really original / unusual, ridicu-
lous, preposterous / weird, strange
- I would love to have
Recap
Les lves pourront choisir nimporte quelle inven-
tion, sauf le Roomba, qui aura dj fait lobjet dun
travail similaire. On attendra au moins 2 ou 3 minu-
tes de production. En vue dune valuation, on peut
rutiliser le barme propos p. 102 de ce guide.
3


Book p. 56-57
LANGUAGE SKILLS

Book p. 56-57
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Words
(logbook p. 38-39)
A Terminaison en -ate
a. activate - innovate - facilitate - operate
La syllabe accentue de ces mots est lavant-avant
dernire syllabe (antpnultime).
b. Le verbe create est accentu sur le dernire syl-
labe.
Autres exemples de verbes de deux syllabes en
-ate : inate, vibrate, donate
c. Les verbes de deux syllabes se terminant par -ate
sont accentus sur la dernire syllabe.
Les verbes de plus de deux syllabes se terminant
par -ate sont accentus sur lantpnultime.
B Unplug, disconnect : prxes sparables
a. Petit exercice phonologique permettant aux l-
ves de faire la distinction entre les mots compor-
tant des prxes et ceux qui nen nont pas : recount
est compos de deux lexmes, le prxe re- et le
lexme count sont accentus ; le re de realize nest
pas un prxe (alize nest pas un verbe), donc un
seul accent de mot.
b. /'disco'nnect - /'de'activate - /'un'plug - /'re'set -
/'disa'ssemble - /'re'activate - /'unblock - /'redis'cover
C Synonymes : origine latine / germanique
discover invent activate deactivate
nd out come up with switch on switch off
be equipped
with
revolution facilitate
t with breakthrough make easier
D Drivation
A complete success! His invention was totally suc-
cessful. Robert had never hoped he would succeed
in creating a refrigerator that could power itself
automatically (in other words, the refrigerator was
self-powered). All along, he had thought he would
fail and never nish it but actually, it was not a
failure at all.
E Prparer un expos publicitaire
Going camping or on an expedition? j Youve got a
pen knife havent you? l Your pen knife has got atta-
project4.indd 98 5/10/07 11:55:14
99 Project 4 - Eureka!
chments like scissors, a nail le and a toothpick. l
Now are those attachments really necessary? j How
can a nail le help you if you meet a dangerous ani-
mal? l What can you do with scissors if the place you
want to sleep in is dirty? l Can you eat spaghetti with
a toothpick? j Here is the new universal pen knife. l
It will never let you down. l
F Word bank
Lenseignant est libre dajouter dautres mots aux
trois proposs (auquel cas, reproduire une grille de
ce type). Toutefois, il importe que ces mots puis-
sent faire lobjet dun travail similaire (synonymes,
drivs) pour permettre llve de construire sa
comptence lexicale.
Listening
Feelings and intonation
1
1
st
person: angry,
2
nd
person: enthusiastic,
3
rd
person: disbelieving / surprised,
4
th
person: interested,
5
th
person: disinterested.
Links between two consonants
2 a. 1. I want to go back to Wales.
2. The last time I was there, I went rock climbing
with some mates.
3. My friends said they had a great time.
b. Exemples tirs de la vido Cell Phones for Kids:
- they dont do pictures
- youre supposed to talk into it
- they are pretty cool-looking
machine discover ingenious
Phrase(s) dans
laquelle / lesquelles
jai rencontr
ce mot
Domaine de sens
auquel je peux
le rattacher
technology, progress progress, science progress, intelligence
Nature du mot nom verbe adjectif
Dnition
!
Ne pas oublier !
uncover (= dvoiler,
mettre nu)
ingenuous (= nave)
Prononciation de e
Prononciation }n'i:n} }dI'sktv} }In'di:nis}
Mots proches
synonymes
contraption, device, tool,
apparatus, appliance
nd out, uncover
inventive, creative,
clever, smart, shrewd
Mots loigns
antonymes
silly, stupid, ordinary,
commonplace
Quelques mots
de mme famille
(avec leur nature et
leur sens)
machinate (v.),
machination (n.),
machinery (n.),
machinist (n.)
discovery (n.),
discoverer (n.)
undiscovered (adj.)
ingenuity (n.),
ingeniousness (n.),
engine (n.),
engineer (n. ou v.),
engineering (n.)
Ne pas confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
Collocations,
tournures
idiomatiques
Rage against
the machine
Proverbes, dictons
!!
project4.indd 99 5/10/07 11:55:15
100
- I showed them to
- I would not be caught dead with
Speaking
Used to
3 Rchir sur la langue : Used to (logbook, p. 41)
Rappel du sens : il ne sagit pas ici de traduire mais
de r-expliquer en franais ce que lon a compris.
b. & c.
1. Before Mrs Cochran invented the dishwasher, peo-
ple used to wash their dishes by hand.
2. Before Gutenberg invented the printing press,
every book and every document used to be a manu-
script.
3. Before Otis invented a braking system for ele-
vators, it used to be very difcult to lift very heavy
charges.
Les verbes wash et be sont conjugus laide de la
construction used to.
d. Un nonc au prtrit se contente de transmettre
une simple information : cest ainsi que les choses
se passaient avant. Un nonc avec used to + base
verbale ajoute une dtermination supplmentaire :
lnonciateur indique un dcalage entre le pass et
le prsent, signalant implicitement quun vne-
ment a provoqu ce dcalage.
e.
people wash
dishes by hand now
invention of dishwasher
Proposition de traduction : Autrefois / avant, les
gens lavaient la vaisselle la main. (Sous-entendu,
la situation a chang maintenant.)
f. Comme used to contient lauxiliaire du pass did,
celui-ci apparat distinctement la ngative et
linterrogative.
4. Autrefois, les gens ne regardaient pas la tlvi-
sion autant quaujourdhui.
5. Est-ce que tu fumais quand tu tais plus jeune ?
4 Mise en application du point de rexion sur
la langue prcdent. On peut orienter les lves
vers des inventions dj tudies :
- Before the walkman was invented, people used to
listen to their music at home only.
- Before the Chunnel was opened
- Before matches were invented
Ou les laisser parler dautres inventions non men-
tionnes en classe :
- Before writing was invented
If / When / Once I, I will
5 Rchir sur la langue : Utiliser le prsent
pour parler dune hypothse (logbook, p. 42)
b. 1. You will have a lot more free time when you get
a Roomba!
2. Once Calvin is rich, he will be able to hire somebody
to take his tests.
3. As soon as you use this extraordinary invention, you
will ask yourself why it wasnt invented earlier.
La subordonne est un complment de temps, elle
permet de localiser un vnement dans lavenir.
c. Dans la proposition principale, le verbe est au
futur (will + base verbale).
Dans la proposition subordonne, on trouve un
verbe au prsent simple.
On peut donc en conclure que les subordonnes de
temps, introduites par when, as soon as, ou once qui
renvoient un vnement futur ne prennent pas le
modal will.
d. Le franais utilise le futur dans la principale et la
subordonne, donc les lves sont tents de faire
de mme en anglais.
e. 4. Quand le Roomba heurte quelque chose, son
pare-choc se rtracte.
Les deux propositions sont au prsent.
Ici la conjonction when ne renvoie pas un vne-
ment futur mais un vnement qui se rpte. Elle
ne signie pas ds que ou quand mais plutt
chaque fois que . Puisque cest dune gn-
ralit quil sagit, lnonciateur fait naturellement
appel un temps simple knocks retracts
6 Exercice dapplication
Exemples dnoncs :
When you use the Drymobile, you will be able to dry
your clothes while driving.
As soon as you give your cat duster slippers, he will
help you clean the oor.
Once you use the all-day tissue dispenser, you will
never be short of tissues.
When you buy the butter-stick, you will never grease
your ngers again.
Injunctions
7 Cet exercice permet de revoir limpratif (for-
mes afrmative et ngative) la 2
e
personne.
Exemples dnoncs :
First, connect your DVD player to your TV set.
Press the power button and then press the open /
close button.
Insert a disc in the tray.
Press the open / close button again.
Dont forget to eject your disc after watching your lm.
As soon as
project4.indd 100 5/10/07 11:55:16
101 Project 4 - Eureka!
Reading
Chronology
8 Faire reprer les marqueurs de temps : in the
early 1970s, verbes au prtrit, had developed, soon,
when, in the late 70s, in 1977, in 1979, today.
1. Dr. Spencer Silver developed an adhesive.
2. In the early 1970s, Art Fry tried the adhesive on
a piece of paper to bookmark his hymnal.
3. He used it to leave a note on a work le.
4. And he realized his bookmark had other func-
tions.
5. 3M created the word Post-it.
6. In the late 70s, 3M began producing Post-it.
7. In 1977, the public was not interested.
8. In 1979, 3M launched a massive advertising
campaign.
9. As a result, the Post-it note became a success.
10. Today, we see Post-it notes everywhere.
Compound nouns
9 railway: the way on which you drive a train or
run an elevator.
- safety brake: a brake to ensure peoples safety.
- a railway safety brake: a brake to ensure peoples
safety in elevators.
- health problems: problems with his health, dis-
eases.
- master mechanic: an excellent mechanic.
- bedstead: the wooden frame of a bed.
- a bedstead factory: a factory where bedsteads are
produced.
- elevator brake: a brake used in an elevator.
- Crystal Palace Exposition: name of an exposition
that took place at the Crystal Palace.
- skyscrapers: building that are so high that they
scrape the sky.
Writing
Talking about events: for / since / ago
10 Le but premier de cet exercice est que les
lves fassent bien la diffrence entre les trois
marqueurs ; les formes verbales sont secondaires.
Pour simplier, on peut leur dire de limiter leurs
productions aux noncs de type :
- People have been using for / since
- The was invented ago.
Possibility and obligation
11 Rchir sur la langue : CAN / MUST et
leurs quivalents (logbook, p. 44)
a. 1. You must have one if you dont want to look old-
fashioned.
2. You must get one if you cant spend a day without
talking to your friends.
3. They save time when you have to make urgent
calls.
4. They can remember all your important phone
numbers. You dont have to learn them by heart.
5. They can save your life if you are lost in the jungle,
or caught in an avalanche.
6. They allow you to get in touch with the rest of the
world wherever you are.
7. They can also identify who is calling and you dont
have to answer if you dont want to.
Ces noncs montrent quen anglais, il existe plu-
sieurs faons dexprimer la possibilit (can / allow
to), lobligation (must / have to) et une faon dexpri-
mer labsence dobligation (dont have to).
b. 8. Soon, we wont have to use our computers so
much because well be able to receive and send
emails with our cell phones. It will

also be possible
to watch television on our cell phones.
9. Ten years ago, you used to have to recharge the cell
phones very often and it did not use to be possible
to take pictures or make lms with them.
- CAN et MUST napparaissent pas dans la phrase 8 en
raison du marqueur de temps soon et de la prsence
de will - auxiliaire modal pour expression du futur
(forme : pas deux auxiliaires modaux successifs).
- CAN et MUST napparaissent pas dans la phrase 9
en raison du marqueur de temps ten years ago et de
la prsence de used to et did not use to - expression
du pass rvolu (forme : pas de forme verbale entre
sujet et auxiliaire modal)
12 A word processor makes it possible to check
spelling and grammar.
You will not be able to use your word processor in any
situation, whereas a pen enables you to write any-
thing anytime and anywhere.
You need to use a computer to work with a word pro-
cessor.
project4.indd 101 5/10/07 11:55:17
102
Cette tape nale peut mettre en scne un ou deux
lves (pas plus, sinon la prise de parole ne sera
plus en continu). Pendant la prestation, il est impor-
tant que le reste de la classe soit mis en activit an
que lattention soit maintenue. Des tches doivent
tre imprativement donnes aux lves qui cou-
tent leurs camarades :
- poser des questions sur linvention prsente :
pour aider les lves les moins laise, ces questions
doivent pouvoir inclure des questions de conrma-
tion : Did you say ? I am not sure I understood
(On peut les prparer dans une phase pralable :
Use your logpage to prepare questions.)
- leur demander dvaluer la prestation de leur(s)
camarade(s) sous forme de grille labore pour eux.
Tout au long du chapitre, les lves ont acquis des
mthodes, des stratgies, du vocabulaire et des for-
mes linguistiques pour mener bien le projet nal.
Lenseignant est alors en droit dattendre une cer-
taine qualit et un certain contenu dans les produc-
tions des lves (exemples non limitatifs) :
People dont have enough time or are too tired to
cook when they come back home from work.
- Once you buy the Intelligent Oven, your dinner will
be ready to eat when you come home.
- Once you buy the No-Contact Jacket, you will never
be afraid of going out at night.
- The sticks of the food-cooler are tted with an elec-
tric fan.
- Before the Pot-in-Pot, people in Nigeria had to eat
their perishable food immediately.
- Very often, drivers are unable to prove who is wrong
after an accident.
- Once you buy our toaster, you will never burn your
toast again.
- 3M Novec allows you to splash water on a compu-
ter with no damages.
3
Suivant leffectif de la classe, on peut envisager de
raliser le projet nal en demi-groupe ou en classe
entire. Veiller ce quau moins quatre des inven-
tions proposes soient choisies, et ne pas hsiter
laisser les lves en choisir dautres. Il peut tre
utile dautoriser les diffrents groupes utiliser un
dictionnaire bilingue pour certains termes tech-
niques mais l encore, limiter son utilisation
quelques minutes seulement an que les lves
apprennent sexprimer avec leurs propres mots
et compenser ce quils ne savent pas dire par ce
quils savent dj exprimer.
Limiter le temps de prparation 20 minutes maxi-
mum aprs quoi les lves auront limpression
quil faut dire beaucoup plus et seront tents de
rdiger. Les encourager utiliser la logpage pour
viter la rdaction, et sentraner les uns avec les
autres sexprimer avant dtre valus.
On peut xer une dure minimale de 5 minutes par
prestation (voire un peu moins si un seul lve pr-
sente une invention). Ceci permet de faire passer
facilement 4 lves / groupe en une sance.
Il peut tre pratique de disposer dun vido-pro-
jecteur et dun accs Internet si les lves ont
envie dillustrer leurs propos (la majorit des
inventions proposes sont rfrences sur ces
sites : http://205.188.238.109/time/2003/inventions
http://www.time.com/time/2006/techguide/bes-
tinventions) ; sinon, ils pourront toujours faire des
schmas et croquis au tableau.
Deux grilles dvaluation : la premire, pour lensei-
gnant, est inspire de la grille dvaluation de loral
au baccalaurat en section STG, mais adapte au
niveau des classes de 2
de
. La seconde grille, pour
les lves, est simplie. Bien sr, lenseignant a
le dernier mot pour la notation, mais il peut tre
intressant de prendre en compte les notations des
lves.

Book p. 58-59
YOUR PROJECT

Book p. 58-59
YOUR PROJECT
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur)
Expression en continu
Expression en interaction
(rponses aux questions)
Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 1
Produit des noncs
trs courts, strotyps,
beaucoup de pauses
= 2 pts
Rpond de faon trs
limite, la communication
repose sur la rptition et
la reformulation = 2 pts
La langue est partiellement
comprhensible = 2 pts
Degr 2
Produit un discours
assez simple = 5 pts
Rpond et ragit de faon
simple = 4 pts
La langue est comprhensible malgr
des erreurs et un lexique limit = 4 pts
Degr 3
Produit un discours
articul, structur et
pertinent = 8 pts
Rpond avec prcision,
reformule ses propos
= 6 pts
La langue est comprhensible
et globalement correcte = 6 pts
Bonus
Est capable de fournir
des explications et dtails
supplmentaires = 2 pts
Est capable de remployer
structures et lexique bon escient
= 2 pts
Total
(max.)
8 pts 6 pts + 2 pts bonus 6 pts + 2 pts bonus

project4.indd 102 5/10/07 11:55:18


103 Project 4 - Eureka!
Suggestion pour une co-valuation du projet (lves)
chelle de points : 1 = trs insufsant 2 = insufsant 3 = moyen 4 = bien 5 = trs bien
Dans lensemble jai trouv que (jentoure la note)
lexpos de mon camarade tait comprhensible 1 2 3 4 5
lexpos tait bien organis et bien expliqu 1 2 3 4 5
mon camarade sest exprim avec clart et sans trop derreurs 1 2 3 4 5
il / elle a t capable de rpondre avec prcision aux questions quon lui a poses 1 2 3 4 5
Total / 20

p Voir introduction p. 18 de ce guide.


3 What I need to work on
1.
Name
of inventor
Problem /
original intention
Name and description
of invention
How it works Benets
Motorola Read emails
& look up web
information
anywhere without
a heavy computer
Offspring Wearable:
sunglasses tted with
digital devices (digital
camera, display,
earplug)
Wear it just as any pair
of sunglasses; take
pictures with camera, view
information on display,
make & receive calls with
earplug
Ultra light,
looks cool,
terribly trendy
Motorola Cant make urgent
call because
cell phone out of
power
FreeCharge: a handle
you attach to cellphone
Wind up handle to generate
enough power for 5 minutes
conversation
Soon available
for brands
other than
Motorola

Book p. 60, logbook p. 48-50
DEBRIEFING

Book p. 60, logbook p. 48-50
DEBRIEFING
3. Nous reproduisons ici larticle original de la 3
e

activit (organisation de notes en paragraphes) sur
linvention Loc8tor :
For years, people prayed to St. Anthony for help
nding misplaced items. Now you can attach radio-
frequency-emitting tags to your most losable pos-
sessions. When something is missing, re up the
Loc8tor, and it points you in the right direction - not
just left or right, but up or down too. It homes in
to within an inch of your item, while the tag itself
emits helpful beeps. The only thing the system cant
do is locate the Loc8tor itself. For that you still need
St. Anthony.
http://www.time.com
On nattendra pas ncessairement une production
aussi labore de la part des lves, mais cet exem-
ple de corrig a t rdig dans un niveau de langue
qui leur est accessible :
Consider all the time you waste looking for your wal-
let or your keys at the last minute. You used to pray
to St Anthony to nd your lost items as soon as pos-
sible. Now this is all history thanks to the Loc8tor.
This ingenious device looks like an ordinary alarm
remote control. Just attach little tags to the items you
lose easily and let the Loc8tor nd them: thanks to
the radio frequencies emitted by the tags, the remote
gives you the direction to follow and nearly the exact
location of your items while the tags start emitting
beeps. Now you will never lose anything again, and
why not use it for other purposes, like never losing
your dog in the street or your children at the mall?
But of course, if you lose your Loc8tor, thats quite
another story.
project4.indd 103 5/10/07 11:55:19
104
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
1. Comprhension orale : The Microprocessor CD classe, piste n
o
4
Une grille dvaluation est ici propose. Dautres sont possibles, lessentiel est que lvaluation soit positive
et valorise ce que llve sait faire.
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 289 de ce guide.
Corrig et barme
Paliers de comprhension
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
What inventions is he talking about? telephone, television, car
1 2
selon
quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte, conduisant une
comprhension lacunaire.
Examples of how each invention can be used:
telephone: memory, portable, pictures, music
television: memory of favourite channels
car: talks about fuel level, GPS
3 4
selon
quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est
compris.
Effect on narrators life: doesnt even think about it, changed his life
5 8
Palier 4
Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont relevs. Tout le contenu informatif est
compris.
The original invention: microprocessor/microchip
10
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Additional information (bonus): GPS like a map-reader, microchips everywhere
2
2. Comprhension crite
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 290 de ce guide.
Corrig
Information about
the viruses
- name: inuenza / u
- when people catch them: every winter
- effect: people have to stay in bed for several days
Equivalent in French
la rougeole la grippe la rage la mononuclose
Information about
the invention
- name: FluMist
- difference with other products: its not a vaccine (there are no needles,
no shots), its a nasal spray / you put it in your nose
project4.indd 104 5/10/07 11:55:21
105 Project 4 - Eureka!
Benets of the invention - There is no needle, so children wont be afraid of it
Problem with other products: Children are afraid of vaccines / syringes /
needles
Disadvantages / short-
comings of the invention
- Its more expensive than other vaccines ($50)
- Its not-refunded by health insurance companies
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 = 10 / 20 : tous les lments en gras sont renseigns.
- Seuil 2 = 12 / 20 : llve a trouv llment soulign.
- Seuil 3 = deux points en plus par lment surlign.
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 291 de ce guide.
Corrig
Name of the inventor Carmina OConnor
Original problem it takes a long time to boil and whip the potatoes
Name of the invention the mashed potato machine
How the invention works wash the potatoes, the machine automatically boils, mashes and
avours / seasons them
Benets of the invention it does all that in only 20 minutes, so you dont waste time anymore
Any problem? the machine hasnt been marketed yet, it is just a patent
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 = 08 / 20 pour les 3 premires lignes renseignes.
- Seuil 2 = + 2 points par lments souligns.
- Seuil 3 = + 2 points par lments surligns.
project4.indd 105 5/10/07 11:55:22
106
Voici un exemple de la faon dont les lves peuvent renseigner la logpage. noter quil serait dommage
de brider les lves si, ds le dbut du step 1, ils souhaitent parler du fonctionnement et des avantages des
inventions, do les suggestions possibles.
Name of
the speaker or
the inventor(s)
The problem /
The original idea
Name
and description
(indicate date
and place when
possible)
How the invention
works
Benefits of
the invention
S
t
e
p

1
:

S
t
a
r
t

f
r
o
m

w
h
a
t

y
o
u

k
n
o
w
Archimedes Had to prove
whether the kings
crown was solid
gold or not
Principle of
buoyancy: how/why
objects can FLOAT
(the story says he
found about it in
the bath and ran
out into the street
shouting Eureka!
lve A Didnt want to go
to school but was
obliged to
Duplicator: laser
beam revolver that
can duplicate you
lve B Never wanted to
finish dinner
A robot: looks like a
human, completes
any task you ask
S
t
e
p

1
:

T
h
r
e
e

I
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

h
o
w

t
h
e
y

c
a
m
e

i
n
t
o

b
e
i
n
g
Hennig Brand Wanted to create
gold
Noxious and
transluscent
substance
from human
urine (actually
phosphorus); glows
and bursts into
flame
Keep urine stored
for several
months and then
process it
Ignites.
It smells really bad
Scheeler Wanted to produce
phosphorus
without smell
Safety matches:
short wooden
sticks with a
phosphorus end
Rub phosphorus
end on rough
surface to ignite
So many!
Dr Percy Spenser Was working on
developing a new
kind of radar
Microwave oven:
originally a
magnetron, now
an electric cooking
device
Cooks food when
exposed to low-
density microwave
energy
Can cook anything
in a very short time.
Earned Spenser
millions of $
Levi Strauss Wanted to sell
canvas for tents
and wagon covers,
but the prospector
was looking for
pants
Blue jeans:
originally dark
blue rough canvas,
(from Genoa,
a town in Italy,
the beginning
of this name is
pronounced like
jean) then a
cotton cloth from
Nmes (denim),
five pockets
strengthened with
rivets
Hard wearing,
dirt doesnt show,
reinforced with
rivets and special
stitching
Quintessential
American.
Throughout 20th
century, became
successively
symbols for hard
pioneering life,
teenage rebellion,
relaxed attitudes
became very
fashionable and
can now be very
expensive (designer
jeans)
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 37
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 37
project4.indd 106 5/10/07 11:55:23
107 Project 4 - Eureka!
Name of
the speaker or
the inventor(s)
The problem /
The original idea
Name
and description
(indicate date
and place when
possible)
How the invention
works
Benefits of
the invention
S
t
e
p

1
:

O
v
e
r

t
o

y
o
u
Gutenberg All books had to
be written by hand
(took a long time)
The printing press:
a huge machine
to print books
and other written
materials
Recherche
faire faire par les
lves.
Made the printed
word available
to masses of
people: huge social
and economic
consequences
(lves chercheront
lesquelles).
Burroughs Too difficult to
calculate big
numbers
The calculating
machine: a steel
mechanical device
with a lever and
buttons (now an
electronic device
with an LCD
display)
Dial the numbers
on the buttons
then pull the lever
No longer necessary
to spend hours on
mental calculus
Otis Exhausting to
climb up more than
3 or 4 storeys,
especially if you
carry heavy things
The elevator: a big
shaft that can
take people up and
down buildings
Go up and down
with no effort.
Made the building
of skyscrapers
possible.
Perfect for chatting
up!!
Cochran Sick and tired
of washing her
dishes by hand in
soapy hot water
(obviously did not
have much help at
home)
The dishwasher: a
big box with a lever
(now an electronic
domestic device)
Turn the lever.
Now just set a
programme and
let it do the job
No waste of time
cleaning dishes
(better to entertain
your guests!).
No skin irritation.
No quarrelling
with your family /
parents
S
t
e
p

2
:

A

t
i
m
e

M
a
c
h
i
n
e
Calvin (and
Hobbes)
Wants to explore
the past and the
future. Wants to
have better marks
at History tests
A time machine:
just a cardboard
box in fact, takes
you into the past
or the future
Seems to be as
easy to drive as
a car with lots
of imagination.
Needs goggles
to travel through
vortexes and light
speeds
Explore past and
future, pass all
history tests.
Possibility to
discover a future
invention and bring
it back to the
present to get rich.
Possibility to see
results of lottery,
horse races, football
matches etc ..
and make millions
betting right.
Possibility to
alter past and
consequently future
project4.indd 107 5/10/07 11:55:24
108
Name of
the speaker or
the inventor(s)
The problem /
The original idea
Name
and description
(indicate date
and place when
possible)
How the invention
works
Benefits of
the invention
S
t
e
p

2
:

C
e
l
l

p
h
o
n
e
s

f
o
r

k
i
d
s
LG, firefly, TicTalk Kids spend too
much time on the
phone (huge bills);
parents want to be
able to call them
whenever they need
to
Cell phones for
kids: look like any
other cell phones,
but without the
keys
No need to punch
the number
you are calling:
select from a list
memorized in your
phone.
The kids cant call
just anybody and
increase the bill.
You can contact
them any time.
Theyre simple to
use; theyre also fun
to use and look at
S
t
e
p

2
:

A

r
o
b
o
t
?

A

v
a
c
-
u
u
m

c
l
e
a
n
e
r
?

A

R
o
o
m
b
a
!iRobot Takes too long to
vacuum. A vacuum
is very heavy
Roomba: a very
small robotic
vacuum cleaner
fitted with
sensors.
Avoids steps and
obstacles thanks
to sensors,
analyses surface
of rooms and
cleaning time,
determines path
Never falls down
stairs.
No need to
reprogram.
You can go out and
let it work.
So small: can be
stored anywhere
and vacuum under
furniture
S
t
e
p

2
:

O
v
e
r

t
o

y
o
u
You never know
when you will have
to blow your nose.
You can never find
a handkerchief
when you need one
All-day tissue
dispenser =
roll of toilet paper
tied to head with
elastic
Raise hand, unroll
paper, blow nose,
tear paper off,
throw away
Never short of
tissues any more.
Great looks in the
street.
Can protect from
the rain
You put butter
on fingers when
spread it on toast.
Can break the
toast if you spread
butter with knife
Butter-stick
Butter in plastic
cylinder.
Looks like lipstick,
but its butter
Take off the top
of stick (remove
cap), spread
butter, dont
press too hard,
replace cap after
use, put into the
fridge
Never stains your
hands, doesnt
break toast, keeps
butter at good
temperature (not
too solid, not too
soft)
Takes time to clean
/ dust wooden floor
+ you have to crawl
or bend down.
Cats leave hairs
everywhere
Duster slippers.
Small dust mops
tied to cats paws
Nothing to do:
just let your cat
do the job
Cat finally helps you
clean your home.
Cat can play with
mops when bored.
Cats feet never cold
during winter
Not enough room
at home to dry
clothes.
Dont have a
tumble-dryer.
Urgent need to dry
clothes between
morning and
evening but youre
not going home in
between
Drymobile =
An ordinary
clotheshorse
fastened to roof
rack of your
car
Hang out clothes
on clotheshorse
and let them dry.
Drive a little to
speed the drying
BUT use clothes
pegs and dont
drive too fast.
Dont use
windscreen
cleaning fluid
Clothes dry in no
time.
Can also be used at
home.
Good resting place
for birds (but
remove clothes
first).
Your car spotted
immediately on
parking lots
project4.indd 108 5/10/07 11:55:25
PROJECT
5
Whats on?
Sommaire du chapitre Whats on?
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 110
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 62)
Make sense: Whats on in London? (book, p. 64)
Over to you (book, p. 65)
Make sense: The London Film Festival (book, p. 66)
Over to you (book, p. 66)
Recap (book, p. 66)
p. 111
p. 113
p. 114
p. 114
p. 116
p. 116
S
t
e
p

2
Make sense: Discovering what makes a successful
leaet (book, p. 67)
Over to you (book, p. 67)
Make sense: The Globe Theatre (book, p. 68)
Make sense: Romeo and Juliet (book, p. 69)
Over to you (book, p. 69)
Recap (book, p. 69)
p. 117
p. 117
p. 118
p. 119
p. 120
p. 120
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
s
Words (book, p. 70 / logbook, p. 52)
Listening (book, p. 70)
Speaking (book, p. 70)
Reading (book, p. 70)
Writing (book, p. 71)
p. 121
p. 123
p. 123
p. 123
p. 123
Your project (book, p. 72)
Debrieng (book, p. 74 / logbook, p. 60)
valuation de la comprhension

/

Logpage (logbook, p. 51)
p. 124
p. 125
p. 125
p. 127
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 111 1 sance
Make sense: Whats on in London? p. 112
Over to you p. 114
1 sance (dictionnaires unilingues)

Make sense: The London Film Festival p. 114
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
(avec matriel multimdia /
laboratoire de langues)

Over to you p. 116
/ Recap p. 116
1 sance
Recap possible en valuation
STEP 2
Make sense: Discovering what makes p. 117
a successful leaet
Over to you p. 117
1 sance

Make sense: The Globe Theatre p. 118
1 sance et demie, en demi-groupes

Make sense: Romeo and Juliet p. 119 1 sance et demie, en demi-groupes

109 Project 5 - Whats on?


project5.indd 109 5/10/07 11:56:29

/

Over to you p. 120

Recap p. 120
1 sance
Recap possible en valuation
YOUR PROJECT p. 124
VALUATION :
1 sance, classe entire avec
matriel multimdia
Au terme de lexploitation du projet Whats on?,
llve est invit devenir concepteur de prospec-
tus publicitaire charg de promouvoir un spectacle
culturel Londres. Il devra donc se documenter
sur le spectacle, sur la salle o il doit avoir lieu et
enn concevoir la maquette du dpliant. Production
crite certes mais aussi mise en page et prsenta-
tion des informations joueront un rle important :
il sagit dinciter le lecteur se rendre ce spec-
tacle.
Step 1 permettra llve de dcouvrir les lments
constitutifs dun dpliant pour diffrents vne-
ments culturels qui se tiennent Londres, et par l
mme de se familiariser avec cette ville.
Step 2 apporte des conseils de prsentation dune
brochure pour la rendre plus efcace / incitative et
met laccent sur un des sites les plus visits de la
ville, le Globe Theatre.
Ce projet renvoie la notion dnie par le pro-
gramme du vivre ensemble en socit et plus sp-
ciquement au thme lien social / cration.
Types de texte
En n de parcours, il est demand aux lves din-
former, de montrer et de convaincre. En cons-
quence, si les supports proposs sont de sources
et de natures diffrentes, les textes tudis sont de
type informatif et incitatif.
Cur de sens
Le cur de sens du chapitre repose sur la notion
dincitation. Les lves dcouvriront le pouvoir des
mots et de limage dans les activits de rception et
de production : comprendre comment on est incit
et comment inciter . Do les reprages des
passages informatifs et incitatifs, les injonctions,
le conseil et la suggestion, lemploi du superlatif.
Enn ce chapitre est aussi une incitation pour eux

dcouvrir la ville de Londres et de manire plus


large divers vnements culturels.
Activits langagires

: Saisir lessentiel dun document radio (factuel
et apprciatif) ; identier des informations prcises
en sappuyant sur le connu.

: Lire et comprendre des dpliants o illustra-
tions, textes et mise en page concourent au sens (de
linformation lincitation).

: Discuter de llaboration dun dpliant expli-
cations, conseils, commentaires.

: Prendre des notes et rdiger un texte incluant
information et incitation ; expressions propres
au langage publicitaire ; prsenter des faits de
manire prcise et attrayante (illustrations, mise
en page).
Outils linguistiques
Lexpression du prsent ; les injonctions ; le super-
latif ; reprages de groupes de sens : accentuation
lintrieur de lnonc, lintrieur des mots ;
sufxes ; lexique li aux vnements culturels
(musique, thtre, lms, muses) ; adjectifs qui
marquent lapprciation.
laborer un dpliant
- Prsentation et structure spciques un genre
dcrit.
- Donner et demander des informations.
- Exprimer et dcouvrir des attitudes : gots, prf-
rences, dsirs, intentions.
- Exprimer des sentiments et des motions : plai-
sir / dplaisir, indiffrence / intrt.
- Faire faire : suggestions, conseils, requtes.

ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
110
project5.indd 110 5/10/07 11:56:32
p Voir Introduction p. 14 de ce guide
Dans le step 1, lutilisation de la logpage peut tre
limite aux informations factuelles, quelques
observations concernant la prsentation des diff-
rents prospectus (front page / back page / colours)
ainsi quau reprage dlments textuels rcurrents
(formes verbales / adjectifs, par exemple).
Puis, dans le step 2, laspect prsentation sera ren-
forc aprs lecture des Flyer design tips, p. 67.
Soulignons encore limportance de se limiter des
notes et non des noncs rdigs, an que llve
se trouve rellement en situation de production
orale (le cas chant, crite) et non en activit de
lecture lors des phases dchanges avec le groupe.
Dans la majorit des cas, la logpage pourra servir
de support aux phases de rcapitulation et la
trace crite au tableau.
La logpage renseigne contient des lments sus-
ceptibles dtre obtenus dautres sont possibles,
tous ne sont pas ncessairement exigibles.
p Voir logpage renseigne, p. 127 de ce guide.
Remarques :
- Il est possible que, ds le step 1, certains lves
dveloppent dj laspect visuel des dpliants :
typographie, mise en page, utilisation des couleurs ;
dans ce cas, il faut saisir loccasion, prendre leurs
propositions en compte et les faire gurer dans la
trace crite.
- Certaines activits proposes dans le projet invi-
tent les lves se rfrer la logpage, mais pas
ncessairement la renseigner.
Phase dchauffement
Cette sance tant la premire de la squence, on
pourra lors de la phase dchauffement, diriger les
changes sur le thme du chapitre.
Exemples de mise en uvre pour une premire
sance sur les vnements culturels, les sorties
possibles :
- Formule document inconnu (par exemple la photo
douverture du chapitre, p. 61 du manuel) : obtenir
open-air event /concert des suppositions pour cet
vnement et justications Would you like to attend
this event? Recueillir avis du groupe.
- Formule prise en charge par quelques lves aux-
quels on aura con, en amont, la prparation dun
sondage sur les diffrents types de loisirs. Des secr-
taires seront dsigns pour la ralisation du sondage
qui pourra dboucher sur a statistics le ; un trans-
parent, prpar et donn par le professeur, rensei-
gner, pourrait tre constitu pour la prise de notes :
Name of the
speaker
Favourite type of
entertainment
Justications
Rtro-projection du sondage et prise de parole ani-
me par les lves responsables de la prparation.
Cette activit pourrait, en n de Start from what you
know, donner lieu un travail sur une stratgie :
comment prendre des notes, donner des conseils
pour la prise de notes, utilisation de signes et
dabrviations.
Si cette formule est choisie par lenseignant, la
rcapitulation donnera lieu une trace crite per-
mettant en outre de rebrasser les expressions de
la quantit : a few of us, most of us, all of us, none
of us
Pour les sances suivantes, choisir le thme du
chapitre pour la phase dchauffement ( prparer
la maison : Warming up next time: get ready to
talk about an outing you have been on and you have
particularly enjoyed or on the contrary one you have
been disappointed with or a place, exhibition youd
like to visit.
Les indications qui gurent dans More about London
highlights p. 74 du manuel peuvent galement ser-
vir de dclencheurs.
Start from what you know
1 Le professeur peut choisir une formule ques-
tionnement et rpondre lui-mme la Q. 1 du Start
from what you know : Im crazy about going to the
theatre especially when one of Shakespeares
plays is on et proter ensuite des ractions des
EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE

Book p. 62

Transparent n
o
11
STEP 1

Book p. 62

Transparent n
o
11
STEP 1
111 Project 5 - Whats on?
project5.indd 111 5/10/07 11:56:35
112
lves en poursuivant le questionnement : What
about you?
Durant cette premire phase, les lves pourront
tre amens enrichir leur lexique (entertainment,
outings, events, exhibitions, carnivals, funfairs, street
festivals) et rebrasser lexpression des gots, de la
prfrence (fond of / mad about / nuts about / I cant
stand / I dont give a damn about... / I dont really care
about / Im (not really) interested in / I prefer to
/ Id rather than / What I like best is).
De mme, la consigne permet de rebrasser lex-
pression du souhait et du dsir introduite dans le
chapitre prcdent, Eureka! :
I would like to attend, I wish there were
Elle amne galement les lves ragir les uns par
rapport aux autres et favorise la xation des rponses
de conformit : So I / Neither I, ou de dsaccord.
2 Inventaire des moyens de se procurer une
information concernant un spectacle puis inven-
taire des informations pertinentes prlever qui
vont ensuite guider la lecture des yers : lire pour
sorienter. Partir des propositions des lves ; ils
pourront galement complter leurs propositions
partir des informations qui gurent dans More about
London highlights p. 74 du manuel. ce stade de la
recherche dinformations, qui ne sera pas ncessai-
rement exhaustive, il se peut que les noncs obte-
nus se limitent des mots.
3
Dans un deuxime temps, on amnera les lves
produire et structurer des noncs an dlaborer
la trace crite.
Productions possibles :
To get information about an event we can look at
newspapers, they usually have a whats on section.
- There are also adverts in newspapers, or on the
radio, billboards in the streets, or posters, or leaets,
or yers or previews, trailers for lms, different web-
sites, guides
- If you want to go to an exhibition in a museum, you
need to know / its necessary for you to know when it
is open / the opening hours.
- You also need to know how much it costs = admis-
sion fee.
- Its also very important to know the address of the
museum = venue and how to get there.
Lenseignant peut ensuite laisser un temps aux
lves pour faire le bilan de ce quils ont appris
(se redire intrieurement ou en labialisant). Puis,
cahiers ferms, travail en chane pour donner des
lments concrets de cet apprentissage : mmori-
sation, mise en place phonologique.
lissue de cette premire activit un bon nombre
des rubriques de la logpage auront t identies et
le travail danticipation du Make sense sera simpli.
p Voir logpage renseigne, p. 127 de ce guide.
3
Analyse des documents
Trois documents, prsents recto-verso, dun genre
particulier : des dpliants qui informent et incitent
aller voir. Lun se rapporte une comdie musicale,
lautre une prsentation du Londres historique (up
to 1666), le troisime une exposition sur les rgi-
mes alimentaires des dinosaures.
La charge lexicale est abondante mais en partie
prpare par ltape prcdente et lessentiel est
surmontable par un recours aux stratgies dinf-
rence contextuelle et grammaticale dj travailles
dans les chapitres prcdents (voir Project 1 Boar-
ding now, par exemple). Possibilit en n de tra-
vail dutiliser le dictionnaire unilingue pour vrier
les hypothses de sens. Le but ici nest pas
dessorer les textes mais de dcouvrir ce que
sont les leaets, comment ils se prsentent, ce
quils contiennent et comment ce contenu est mis
en valeur.
Au terme de llucidation de ces trois documents :
mise en vidence de ce qui relve de linformation
et de ce qui relve de la persuasion.
Pour information :
Little Shop of Horrors
Synopsis: Meek, mild mannered, out-of-luck Sey-
mour Krelbourn has just discovered an exotic little
plant with a strange and unusual appetite. The plant
is growing remarkably fast - and so is Seymours love
for Audrey, his co-worker at the ower shop. But she
has a boyfriend... and the plant has a bloodthirsty
secret that threatens the entire planet. The feeding-
frenzy begins, as Seymour becomes a celebrity and
the plant becomes a larger-than-life sensation.
http://www.newyorktheatreguide.com
Formes de travail
Question 3 traiter collectivement.
Question 4 traiter en groupes.

Whats on in London?

Book p. 62
Whats on in London?

Book p. 62
project5.indd 112 5/10/07 11:56:37
113 Project 5 - Whats on?
Make sense
3 Laisser les lves dcouvrir les documents
pour dgager les points saillants des trois prospec-
tus. Illustrations et titres serviront de points dap-
pui, de mme que les conclusions du Start from
what you know.
Identier le genre de document :
Just look at the documents do not read them and
say what they are.
These documents are all about what people / tour-
ists can do in London.
- Documents 2 and 3 are about museums.
- Document 1 is about a show? / a lm? / a play?
(Laisser question en suspens.)
Attirer lattention des lves sur la dnition du mot
leaet pour obtenir :
Theyre leaflets. They give information / They are
adverts.
On pourra ensuite faire mettre en vidence :
- la description de la forme :
Have a good look and say how many pages they are.
Document 1 has a front and a back. Theres only one
sheet of paper.
- Document 2 is a sheet of paper that is folded into
three parts. The front cover is the page where we can
read Discover a great city. The last page advertises
another museum in London.
- Document 3 is also a sheet of paper. It is folded in
two / in half.
- la faon dont linformation est prsente :
Can you tell what they are about without reading the
small print?
Yes, because there are titles in very big letters and
different colours.
- Documents 1 and 2 look packed with / crammed
with information.
On recueillera alors les hypothses quant au contenu.
Des lves ont peut-tre des connaissances sur lun
ou lautre des thmes abords ou des ractions per-
sonnelles : exploiter tout ce quils ont dire.
4 Laisser les lves choisir un document et le
lire attentivement.
- Vrication des hypothses mises.
- Recherche dinformations complmentaires
partir des rubriques de la logpage et recours aux
stratgies dinfrence contextuelle partir des
titres notamment.
Leaet 1
Termes sur lesquels attirer lattention et retenir
aprs construction du sens :
3
3
3
3
- one of the longest-running Off-Broadway shows of
all time
- this years must see (Christmas) musical
- a highly successful lm a score by a famous duo
charming, tuneful and hilarious.
- a household name
Infrence possible aprs mise en commun du texte.
Suggestions :
1. retrouver le mot : Youve just mentioned The Little
House of Horrors was a highly successful lm. Its
so successful that the name has become very famil-
iar. Read the second paragraph again and nd a word
which could have the same meaning as familiar.
Explain the sentence where this word is used.
2. isoler le mot dans un contexte (re)connu : Now
that you know more about how the Little Shop of
Horrors, read the rst sentence of the second para-
graph again. Explain it.
3. structure spcique au texte : This text aims at
convincing people to attend the performance. Find
out in the text how the qualities of the shows are
emphasized. Then explain the rst sentence / or
explain what a score is.
Les mmes techniques peuvent sappliquer aux deux
autres leaets et dans le cas du troisime dpliant
on pourra aussi suggrer aux lves de relever des
mots dont la racine est commune mais qui revt plu-
sieurs formes et plusieurs sens. Ils pourront alors
expliquer les diffrents sens de ce mot.
Leaet 2
Termes sur lesquels attirer lattention et retenir
aprs construction du sens : free entry + les formes
dinjonction : discover, explore, hear, eavesdrop on +
adjectifs marquant lapprciation.
Leaet 3
Termes sur lesquels attirer lattention et retenir
aprs construction du sens : booking-fee, pre-boo-
ked, pre-bookable, advance booking, available, hands-
on activities.
Pour lexplicitation des stratgies dinfrence on
pourra aussi prendre appui sur lexercice C du log-
book p. 52.
Les activits des Language skills 5-6 p. 70 du manuel
pourront aussi complter ltude de ces documents.
5 - 6 La rcapitulation se fera partir de la
logpage et il conviendra galement de faire ressortir
les deux types de discours qui font partie intgrante
des yers.
Productions possibles :
We can read very precise information: for instance,
concerning the exhibition about dinosaurs at the
Natural Museum, we can read Its an interactive
exhibition, with hands-on activities
3
project5.indd 113 5/10/07 11:56:38
114
- We can also read very positive comments about the
exhibition, for example we are told its an exciting, fun
and scary experience it looks very attractive for all the
family / the targeted audience is children and parents.
- The visuals are very funny as the dinosaurs look very
friendly. We feel like going to this exhibition.
Over to you
7 Activit en deux temps :
- En autonomie pour permettre aux lves de rca-
pituler les informations dgages lors de ltude
des prospectus. Occasion aussi de mobiliser les
expressions connues de la suggestion.
Pour mieux contextualiser lactivit, suggrer
dcrire un mail. Sinspirer du mail, exercice 9 p. 71
du manuel.
- Mise en commun de quelques productions avec
tches dcoute au choix : reprer les expressions
de la suggestion, complter les informations pour
tre plus persuasif.
How about? What about? I suggest Why
not? Why dont you? Why not? Dont forget. We
could.You should. Dont miss
la suite de ce travail, les lves pourront utilement
rchir lexpression de la suggestion (exercice 2
p. 55 du logbook) et xer ce quils ont appris par la
ralisation de lactivit 3 p. 70 du manuel.
3
Analyse des documents
Deux avant-premires du festival du lm de Lon-
dres : lune document principal consiste en une
interview du directeur artistique, Sandra Hebron,
lautre, qui vient en document dappui du premier,
est un extrait darticle publi en avant-premire sur
le site de la BBC (voir logbook p. 58).
Les deux textes sont de type informatif et pour une
part galement incitatif. Ils prsentent deux vne-
ments phares du festival.
La charge lexicale est mesure mme si le document
est long. Seul le reprage des nombres et des faits
peut poser problme lcoute. Toutefois, la lecture
de lavant-premire doit grandement faciliter la tche
dcoute des lves car elle permet la contextualisa-
tion de linterview. De plus, le travail dj effectu sur
la logpage peut donner des objectifs dcoute et aider
les lves aller directement au sens.
Formes de travail
Premire partie (Before listening) en autonomie puis
traiter en individuel / collectif.
Make sense
1 La premire question, peut faire lobjet dun
travail en autonomie, la maison par exemple.
Lors de cette phase d anticipation , qui servira
aussi diriger lcoute, demander aux lves de
surligner les lments importants de larticle puis
de prparer des hypothses de sens partir de ces
lments surligns. Le renvoi leur logpage pourra

galement aider les lves toffer leurs hypoth-


ses et rassembler les lments dont ils pourront
avoir besoin pour comprendre linterview.
Collectivement :
- mettre en commun les hypothses (ceci pourra
faire produire du lexique et des structures utiles) ;
- mettre au tableau les propositions des lves : ces
repres pourront aider la comprhension.
Productions possibles :
Judging from the titles, I think the artistic director
of the London Film Festival is going to speak about
the fifty screen event / we expect to discover / be told
when the famous actors are going to
- Im pretty sure / No doubt well get information
about the Surprise Film Gala.
- In my opinion / From my point of view / To my mind,
well know a bit more about the different venues
- Most certainly we are likely to get information about
admission fees, maybe about pre-booking We may
be told about how / why / when / where this festival
was created
Notons quil ne sagit pas ici de renseigner la log-
page, mais de sinspirer de ses rubriques pour tof-
fer lanticipation.
2 a. Premier temps : ce stade de llucida-
tion il pourra tre utile de faire couter aux lves
la piste n
o
15 de leur CD et complter lactivit 1 des
Languages skills, p. 70.
50th anniversary of the London Film Festival (5
rfrences)
- 50 days to go: the interview was recorded / trailed
50 days ahead of the opening event. (1 rfrence)
3
3
The London Film Festival

Book p. 66, CD lve piste n
o
14
The London Film Festival

Book p. 66, CD lve piste n
o
14
project5.indd 114 5/10/07 11:56:39
115 Project 5 - Whats on?
- 50 screens right across London (2 rfrences)
Vrication des hypothses + autres lments com-
pris.
Premire rcapitulation possible : prendre toutes
les propositions dlves.
Productions possibles :
What we have here is / We have just listened to an
interview with Sandra Hebron, the artistic director of
the London Film Festival.
- This interview was trailed / recorded 50 days ahead
of the opening of the festival which is celebrating its
50th anniversary.
- There is a special project: a 50 screen event, which
means there will be 50 screens across London / 50
screenings will be staged simultaneously / at the
same time. A surprise film will be on in 50 different
venues at the same time.
Si le deuxime special event nest pas mentionn
par les lves, relance possible: Is it the only spe-
cial project marking the 50th anniversary?
Si besoin, faire rcouter le passage 046 054.
Deuxime temps : sparer ensuite le groupe en
deux. coute cible de 054 0210 : pour A portrait
of London, passage plus difcile daccs car charg de
dtails (la comprhension exhaustive nest toutefois
pas vise) et non prpar par lanticipation, que
lon pourra coner au groupe dlves le plus laise.
Le deuxime passage, de 210 la n, reprend bon
nombre des informations contenues dans lavant-
premire, et sera plus la porte dlves qui nont
pas encore atteint le niveau B1 en comprhension
orale.
Chaque groupe aura cependant un travail dinfor-
mation vis--vis de lautre groupe.
Remarque : si lon fonctionne en module vritable
(les lves sont rpartis en groupes de besoin) le
partage dinformations pourra se faire la sance
suivante.
Troisime temps : rcoute du passage cibl et
reprage dinformations complmentaires. Les rubri-
ques de la logpage pourront tre relues au pralable
pour remettre en mmoire les infos recherches.
Reprages possibles :
1. A portrait of London facts:
- date: 27th October / (middle) Friday (of the festival)
- venue: in front of the national Gallery / Trafalgar
Square
- tickets: (a completely) free (event)
- what: big open air sort of spectacular event / like a
digital postcard of London / a kind of live mix of the
lms / amazing mix / original music for the piece
- who: London-based lm-makers / a famous lm-
maker masterminded it Mike Figgis
3
2. The 50 screens facts:
- date: that (lucid aprs mise en commun des
deux groupes) week-end / Sunday night
- venues: 50 screens / conventional cinema screen-
ings + unorthodox places (church, hospital, prison) /
right across London
- tickets: a ver = 5, not very / hugely expensive
- what: a surprise lm / you wont know until the very
last moment (take pot-luck)
b. Quatrime temps : reprage des moyens utili-
ss par Sandra Hebron pour promouvoir les deux
vnements.
On pourra diriger lcoute soit sur les moyens dj
reprs lors de ltude des prospectus et/ou sur les
phnomnes daccentuation :
promotion (a portrait of London): stress and use of
adjectives conveying the same ideas (big and huge,
spectacular and amazing not informative but sub-
jective comments)
- promotion (fty screenings): use of superlatives or
intensiers (sell out most quickly, not a hugely expen-
sive price, certainly the biggest surprise lm thats
ever been seen in the world stress on these subjec-
tive comments)
Cinquime temps : travail de mise en commun,
avec interaction (accord / dsaccord, ajouts, incerti-
tudes) et prise de notes dans la logpage.
p Voir logpage renseigne, p. 127 de ce guide.
Informations complmentaires disposition de
lenseignant.
A Portrait of London
Trafalgar Square
Fri 27 Oct 19.00
This unique and inspiring event has been specially
commissioned to celebrate the Festivals 50th birth-
day and will serve to combine the artistic potential
of the digital medium with the cultural heritage of
our great city.
A Portrait of London will be conceived by some of
the most celebrated British artists and lmmakers
under the creative guidance of Mike Figgis (Leaving
Las Vegas, One Night Stand and Timecode), and will
be made up of a series of digital postcards that will
serve both as a homage to the capital and its people
but also as a wider reection of the possibilities of
lmmaking within London.
Contributors include legendary director John Boor-
man (Deliverance, Excalibur), promo director Sophie
Muller (videos for Blur, Bjork and The Cure), shorts
director Jes Benstock, Ngozi Onwurah (Shoot the
Messenger), cinematographer Alwin Kuchler (Proof,
The Mother), documentary maker Sophie Fiennes
and photographer Nick Knight. Mike Figgis and
music producers Roxbury (Goldfrapp, UNKLE) have
created an exclusive soundtrack for the event.
http://www.lff.org.uk
3
project5.indd 115 5/10/07 11:56:40
116
Possibilit de visionner le lm partir de : http://
www.tiscali.co.uk/entertainment/lm/hub/london-
lm-festival/portraits-of-london
Over to you
3 Premier entranement la ralisation effec-
tive dun prospectus et ngociations pour en crer
un, commun toute la classe.
Notons que ce travail sera repris pour amlioration
la n de la premire activit du step 2.
a. Premier temps : rcapitulation orale des infor-
mations la disposition des lves concernant le
London Film Festival.
Tri des informations et choix des formulations retenir.
b. Deuxime temps : ralisation dun premier cro-
quis. Inviter les lves formuler leurs suggestions
par crit.
c. Troisime temps : change et ngociations pour
aboutir proposition commune de prospectus.
On en protera pour ractiver les lments linguis-
tiques propres la ngociation vus dans le chapi-
tre 2 Together for a time p. 23 du manuel.
Remarque : proter du Over to you pour amorcer
le Before reading, Q. 1 p. 67 : opinions about what
makes a leaet successful.
On ne manquera pas de garder une trace crite des
productions des lves.
Recap
Deux temps :
- Premire tape o les lves font le bilan de
ce quils ont appris. Cette activit peut l encore
faire lobjet dune valuation individuelle, loral
(ou lcrit). Les lves qui ne sont pas interrogs
auront pour tche de complter, dillustrer par un
exemple ou de corriger ce qui a t dit par leurs
camarades.
- partir du transparent n 11, reprage des dif-
frents lieux o se tiennent / sont tenus les divers
vnements mentionns dans le step 1.
On en protera pour rebrasser les expressions
south of, east of, slightly to the west, next to, in the
upper part of the map et lexpression de lhsita-
tion.

Book p. 67

Transparents n
os
9 et 10
STEP 2

Book p. 67

Transparents n
os
9 et 10
STEP 2
Discovering what makes
a successful leaet
Book p. 67
Discovering what makes
a successful leaet
Book p. 67
Analyse des documents
Le premier texte est un texte publicitaire prove-
nant dun fabriquant de dpliants qui informe sur
les qualits dun bon prospectus tandis que le
second renseigne prcisment sur la faon de rali-
ser un dpliant attrayant, comme son titre lindique,
il sagit dune srie de conseils.
Deux textes au contenu informatif trs concret qui
permettront aux lves dacqurir quelques notions
techniques sur la fabrication de dpliants.
Notons quil ne sera pas ncessaire dans llucida-
tion du texte 1 dapprofondir laspect publicitaire : le
faire reprer et justier seulement.
Formes de travail
Ltape de lecture pourra tre traite en autonomie
si la Q. 1 a t traite comme synthse de la ngo-
ciation du Over to you prcdent.
On peut galement demander aux lves de pr-
parer en autonomie lensemble des trois questions
puis dexpliquer et complter ce quils ont compris
partir de leur blank leaet (logbook p. 59).

project5.indd 116 5/10/07 11:56:41


117 Project 5 - Whats on?
Make sense
1 Voir la remarque dans Over to you du London
Film Festival, p. 116 de ce guide.
2 a. lments de rponse :
Its better to / It should / We must / We
should / Wed better
- Presentation: A6-paper: not thin and imsy a back
page and a front page
- Front page: focus on the name of the product / serv-
ice / event: title and pictures
- Back page: details extra information
- Volume: dont cram it with text keep information
short and to the point
- Colours / fonts
- Visuals: different types + clear
b. Laisser un temps dobservation. Prendre toutes
les propositions dlves soit les unes aprs les
autres soit en interaction faire ragir ce qui vient
dtre dit et ajouter des lments nouveaux.
Productions possibles :
If we take a look at flyer one, we can see the front
page focuses on the title of the event; it is not cram-
med with information.
- As far as the colours are concerned
- To come back to what you said before about , I
dont think
Lenseignant pourra galement choisir de projeter
les transparents n
os
9 et 10 pour que les lves
confrontent les conseils donns pour la ralisation
dun prospectus et la ralit dun tel document.
3
3
3 Draft for a leaet (logbook, p. 59). Plusieurs
possibilits de ralisation.
Une matrialisation possible :
Title
Picture XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
VENUE
Details about the event
Booking information
Opening hours
Access + map
Front Back
Over to you
4 Travail rapide de prise de parole qui compl-
tera les activits prcdentes. On veillera faire
rebrasser lexpression de la suggestion.
Productions possibles :
Instead of giving details about the festival on the
front page we should write them on the back page /
it would be better to use a limited number of fonts /
wed better match colours carefully
On pourra complter le Over to you par les activi-
ts 4 et 7 des Language skills p. 70-71 du manuel.
3
The Globe Theatre Romeo and Juliet
Book p. 68-69
The Globe Theatre Romeo and Juliet
Book p. 68-69
Mise en uvre
Deux documents vido de nature diffrente mais
complmentaires par le thme. Lenseignant pourra
soit :
- faire tudier les documents lun aprs lautre par
lensemble de la classe ;
- faire tudier un des documents par deux groupes
dlves diffrents lors des activits modulaires. La
mise en commun sur les deux documents se fera
alors dans la sance suivante, et sera suivie dun
nouveau visionnage des deux documents (en pra-
lable au Over to you) ;
- choisir de ntudier quun seul des deux documents.
1. The Globe Theatre
Analyse du document
Film promotionnel qui prsente le Globe Theatre,
dont la premire construction remonte 1599, aprs
sa rnovation en 1997, sous limpulsion de lacteur
metteur en scne amricain Sam Wanamaker.
(http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/tourexhibi-
tion/insidetheexhibition)
Le passage choisi ici permet de comprendre ce
quest le Globe Theatre et les moyens utiliss pour
donner vie ce lieu (interactive exhibition, education
workshop, stage reading).

project5.indd 117 5/10/07 11:56:45



118
Les diffrentes personnes interviewes insistent
sur laspect vivant de ce lieu historique et les ima-
ges laissent voir cette animation qui concerne tout
type de public, des plus jeunes aux plus gs.
Le directeur des expositions insiste aussi sur les
qualits de lexposition interactive qui permet de
dcouvrir le Globe librement, en fonction de ses
intrts, sans toujours avoir recours un guide.
Dans ce passage limage apporte autant dinfor-
mations que le son, toutefois une coute assez ne
permettra de conrmer et de complter les premi-
res impressions. Les lves auront t familiariss
avec le lexique en amont et ce reprage ne doit pas
en principe poser de difcults si le sens gnral a
dabord t lucid.
Forme de travail
Traiter (ventuellement en demi-groupes) de
manire collective pour la construction du sens.
Make sense
1 Anticipation en deux temps.
a. Laisser les lves dcouvrir lillustration seule-
ment sans lecture du texte. Prendre ce quils ont
dire soit de manire spontane soit aprs un court
temps dchange en binmes. Donner Shakespea-
res Globe pour obtenir un plus grand nombre de
ractions.
La prise de notes des questions et des informations
peut se faire directement au tableau par 3 secr-
taires ou bien sur des transparents vierges qui leur
seront cons. Les questions poses par les lves
eux-mmes serviront de l conducteur lcoute.
On pourra proter de ce temps pour une inter-cor-
rection rapide des questions : sens et formes.
b. Vers une dnition collective de interactive exhi-
bition : partir de toutes les suggestions des lves :
certains ont pu dj visiter ce type dexposition.
Remember the exhibition at the Natural History
Museum. Look at your logpage.
En partant de leur exprience, de la forme du mot
interactive, on pourra obtenir : questions-answer /
computers, par exemple, et partir de l des sup-
positions par rapport au Globe.
Rebrassage de lexpression des suppositions et
gap-llers :
Im not sure but I think / Well, er thats a bit
difficult but Id tend to think/ It might be/ I guess
it is kind of / sort of
- There might be some computer screens / some com-
puters might be used by the public / be available if
people want to know something about famous actors /
Shakespeares plays / the history of the building

3
3
Si les lves bloquent , lenseignant peut leur
demander : Ask me questions to discover what it is.
Quelques lments de rponse :
An interactive exhibition implies hands-on activities
p acting: drama performance; involves physical acti-
vity (engaging senses beyond sight requiring visi-
tor involvement); stimulates visitor emotionally and
intellectually by providing information; sometimes it
is a computer programme offering freedom of navi-
gation and allowing them to manipulate the informa-
tion to match their interests
2 a. Plusieurs possibilits de mise en uvre :
- tous les lves se concentrent la fois sur image
et son ;
- on divise le groupe en deux : un dos tourn lcran
(concentration sur le son), lautre face lcran
charg des images : audition / visionnage ; mise en
commun par groupe : ce que jai compris, ce que jai
entendu mais que je nai pas compris, ce que jai cru
comprendre. Le groupe audition est le premier
groupe intervenir et interroge lautre groupe.
Par exemple :
Weve heard something about
- The music sounds very happy and dynamic, lots of
things seem to be happening, is that right?
- Weve heard different people speaking, do you know
who they are?
- Ive heard the words audience and actors, could
you see any?
- I also heard something about the interactive exhibi-
tion, what did you see about it?
- Weve seen the Globe, I mean, the building. It looks old,
and its in the heart of London. All the buildings around
are very modern. Whats striking is the activity there
is / it attracts lots of people, children, teenagers, older
people, elderly people too. Some actors are dancing,
acting, fencing, getting dressed for the performance
Everyone seems happy / to have be having fun.
La rcapitulation dans les deux cas pourra consister
la validation ou non des hypothses et la rponse
apporte certaines questions labores en Q. 1.
b. Deuxime tape pour conrmer et enrichir les
premires impressions de sens :
- un groupe se concentre sur les infos concernant
un des trois thmes reprs (education workshops,
stage reading, interactive exhibition / karaoke),
remise en mmoire des caractristiques dun texte
informatif (comment linformation est-elle don-
ne ?), rythme plus lent, pause avant ;
- un groupe se concentre sur les commentaires posi-
tifs : stratgies de reprage (intonation, stress, com-
pensation on ne cherchera pas avoir exactement
les mmes mots mais le sens : greatest plays, brea-
thing exploration, alive, exciting, brilliant, fantastic way of
engaging children).
3
3
project5.indd 118 5/10/07 11:56:48
119 Project 5 - Whats on?
Les changes pourront donner lieu lexpression
de la capacit :
The interactive exhibition enables people to get
engaged in various activities like a karaoke for exam-
ple. Its easier for people to understand what is going
on in the place as they can attend live rehearsals
3 Questionnement professeur pour lever les
zones dombre ou bien webquest pour complter
rponses aux questions de Q1 et questions appa-
rues en cours dlucidation et non rsolues aprs
audition et lecture de larticle de Time Out.
Ce travail de recherche pourra tre rparti entre dif-
frents groupes dlves, ou con quelques lves
et faire lobjet dun homework. Il donnera lieu, lors de
la sance suivante, une prise de parole en continu,
en complment du rappel des acquis de dbut.
Aprs la recherche de sens prvoir une pause
mthodologique sur les stratgies dcoute + renvoi
logbook exercice B. p. 52
4 Palier rcapitulatif qui aboutira une trace crite
retant les changes qui ont eu lieu dans la classe.
Productions possibles :
First built in 1599 / in Shakespeares time / in the
Elizabethan period, the Globe Theatre has been faith-
fully reconstructed on the same spot, in the heart of
the city of London.
- Sam Wanamaker, an American actor / director
greatly contributed to this reconstruction / the recons-
truction of this open-air theatre.
- Nowadays its a very lively place attracting lots of
visitors for different performances of course but also to
take part in / attend different activities such as education
workshops, stage-reading or interactive exhibitions.
2. Romeo and Juliet
Analyse des documents
Bande annonce du lm Romeo + Juliet tourn en
1996 sous la direction de Baz Luhrmann, afche du
lm et clich extrait de ce mme lm, Juliette
son balcon , sont proposs aux lves.
La mise en uvre part de ces deux derniers docu-
ments iconographiques qui donnent une repr-
sentation la fois immdiatement identiable
mais aussi relativement surprenante de lhistoire :
Juliette son balcon, songeuse, apparat heureuse
et romantique, lafche attribue bien lhistoire Sha-
kespeare, montre deux amoureux jeunes et beaux,
une toile de fond et des accessoires qui leur cor-
respond. On pourra toutefois observer la marque du
ralisateur travers quelques notes discordantes :
limage de la jeune lle une carte jouer ? une
image pieuse ? lenvers et bien sr le pistolet.
Ces deux derniers lments annoncent la couleur
du lm : histoire damour et de haine ternellement
recommence, situe dans un autre temps et/ ou
lieu que la pice de Shakespeare.
3
3

De la mme faon la bande annonce souligne


laudace du ralisateur (voir afche visionary direc-
tor), audace renforce par le statut culte ou
mythique du sujet, et son talent ne pas trahir
Shakespeare et son histoire.
La bande son du trailer comporte diffrents l-
ments : la musique (religieuse + rock), la voix off qui
fait ofce de chur et reprend les lignes de Sha-
kespeare mais dans un ordre diffrent,(Two hou-
seholds, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona (where
we lay our scene) From ancient grudge break new
mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of
star-crossed lovers take their life) des extraits du
lm. Les dialogues de Shakespeare ont t assez
dlement repris mais ce que disent les personna-
ges peut tre difcile exploiter avec les lves.
En revanche, les inscriptions lcran et les images
(pistolet = Dagger 9mm , amour + gangs, des-
truction, tat de guerre, violence exacerbe) rsu-
ment lhistoire.
Pour inciter les gens aller voir le lm le trailer
souligne donc que :
a) cest une histoire suppose connue des specta-
teurs on voit les noms de Montague et Capulet, le
bal masqu, les amoureux, le prtre, lady Capulet
qui hurle sa colre, Juliette en marie et Romo
avec une ole de poison ;
b) quil ne sagit pas de nimporte laquelle puisque
le nom du plus grand / clbre dramaturge de lan-
gue anglaise apparat plusieurs fois et que lon sou-
ligne bien que cette histoire lui appartient ;
c) mais que cette histoire ici, est renouvele,
dpoussire - on ne va pas voir une nime
version avec musique lisabthaine et costumes
dpoque transpose dans une ralit moderne et
peut-tre donc plus susceptible dattirer un public
autre que celui qui traditionnellement, ou dans les
clichs, sintresse Shakespeare.
Ce trailer met en vidence laudace du ralisateur :
son lm transpose lhistoire tout en restant dle
Shakespeare et sa langue. Notons quil sera nces-
saire aussi de faire relever les informations propres
au lm (acteurs date de sortie) puisque lobjet est
de raliser un prospectus pour le lm.
Forme de travail
Traiter en collectif.
Make sense
5 a. Laisser les lves dcouvrir les documents
visuels de la page 69 du manuel. Exploiter tout ce
quils ont dire et garder trace au tableau.
Remarque : si des lves ont vu le lm, leur demander
de ne rien dire lors de lmission dhypothses sur le

project5.indd 119 5/10/07 11:56:49


120
lm, en revanche, les mettre largement contribution
aprs la mise en commun de Q 5c pour quils parlent
du lm = restitution du factuel et de leur avis).
- Obtenir le gros de lhistoire de R et J, quitte proc-
der par questionnement du professeur par la classe :
play written by Shakespeare, set in Verona, Italy in 16th
/ 17th century, two families, the Montagues and the
Capulets, ancient quarrel / grudge, enemies, Romeo
Montague meets Juliet Capulet during a masked ball
at the Capulets, they fall in love, cannot see each other,
Romeo kills Juliets cousin, must leave Verona, R and J
get secretly married, think of a stratagem to go away
together, a priest agrees to help them but .
- Regarder les photos et mettre des hypothses
sur le lm : attirer lattention sur special edition:
perhaps it is a new version / perhaps it is a version
that has never been presented before + attirer latten-
tion sur le pistolet pour obtenir : perhaps it is not set
in the 16th / 17th century; at that time, people did not
ght with guns; they fought with swords, daggers
Il sera utile de mettre les mots swords et dag-
gers au tableau, et les faire expliciter, le mot dag-
ger apparaissant lcran dans le trailer.
b. Regarder le trailer pour conrmer ou inrmer les
hypothses et voir si on retrouve lhistoire initiale et
comment elle est prsente.
Faire un visionnage intgral collectif : recueillir pre-
mires impressions Watch and tell the class what
you remember / understand.
c. Diviser la classe en groupes : 1 pour la bande son
= musique et voix off en particulier, ce que disent
les personnages, 1 pour les images, 1 pour les ins-
criptions lcran.
- Mise en commun : on pourra commencer par
les inscriptions lcran et lucider (notamment
ancient grudges et star-crossed lovers), reconstituer
les principaux pisodes de lhistoire, mettre en vi-
dence le nouveau contexte, insister sur les images
(pictures focusing on love, pictures focusing on hate -
violence).
d. La focalisation sur les images permettra de met-
tre en vidence lopposition et linterdpendance
entre la violence et lamour : illustration de my only
love sprang from my only hate ; de lindividuel et du
collectif (lovers and households, gangs), de mme
que le poids du destin (star crossed = ill fated).
The trailer intermingles pictures conveying either a
feeling of violence and hatred or a feeling of love and
happiness. For example
e. Premire tape de rexion vers la ralisation
dun prospectus pour le lm. On en protera pour
rebrasser lhypothtique, lopinion et lhsitation
ainsi que la justication du point de vue :
3
Well, Im not quite sure but I think I would insist on the
love aspect of the film because it makes people dream.
- Its a tricky question but I guess I would emphasize
/ stress / underline
- I dont know really, may be Id try to
- I would denitely choose a visual picturing
lissue de cette phase de prise de parole, on pourra
inviter les lves raliser les activits 8 et 9 des pages
Language skills p. 71 du manuel et logbook p. 57.
Une tape supplmentaire de xation pourrait
consister reformuler les phrases de la trace crite
en exprimant la cause dune manire diffrente.
Over to you
6 Activit en deux temps :
a. Entranement la production nale : le dpliant
devra la fois comporter les lments informatifs
ncessaires et les lments apprciatifs permettant
de convaincre le lecteur, la prsentation tant un
de ces lments. Il sagira dune phase de produc-
tion crite pendant laquelle le recours la logpage
pourra tre utile pour mobiliser les connaissances.
Lutilisation du dictionnaire bilingue sera possible
en n de prparation pour un temps limit.
b. Lafchage des diffrents posters permettra aux
lves de les comparer et de donner leur opinion.
Cette phase de production orale, qui pourra tre
assortie dchanges permettra aux lves de mieux
sapproprier les critres qualitatifs retenus pour la
ralisation du projet (se rfrer la page Debrieng
du logbook, exercice 2 p. 60, pour rcapituler ces dif-
frents critres).
Recap
Cette activit peut l encore faire lobjet dune va-
luation individuelle, loral, selon des critres qui
auront t communiqus la classe ; la recevabi-
lit linguistique fait partie de ces critres mais nest
ni le seul, ni le plus important. Ainsi tre capable
dillustrer le conseil donn par un exemple prcis
permet de faire de cet exercice qui pourrait tre uni-
quement formel sur lexpression de la suggestion
un exercice o le sens est prdominant. On veillera
laccentuation des lments porteurs de sens.
Les lves qui ne sont pas interrogs auront pour
tche de complter ou corriger ce qui a t dit par
leurs camarades.
Notons galement que les

transparents n
os
9 et
10 pourront tre utiliss comme supports de cette
phase rcapitulative.
3
project5.indd 120 5/10/07 11:56:49
121 Project 5 - Whats on?
Book p. 70-71
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Book p. 70-71
LANGUAGE SKILLS
C Infrer la nature grammaticale et le sens dun mot en retrouvant sa racine
a.
mot driv mot racine
sufxe
de drivation
nature et sens
du mot racine
nature et sens
du mot driv
designer design -er verbe nom
actor act -or verbe nom
successful success -ful nom adjectif
supported support -ed verbe adjectif
booking book -ing verbe adj sens actif
performer perform -er verbe nom
booked book -ed verbe adj sens passif
exciting excite -ing verbe adj sens actif
eventful event -ful nom adjectif
WORDS (logbook p. 52)
A Accentuation lintrieur du mot
Ooo(o): festival, photograph, gallery, programme,
interview, powerful, dinosaur, musical, newspapers,
colourful
oOo(o): performance, typography, museum, sugges-
tion, attractive, authentic, successful, hilarious, pro-
motion, available, including, director, spectacular,
experience, amazing, simplicity
oO: event
B Groupes intonatifs
Les groupes intonatifs (sens, soufe) dpendent de
la situation nonciative et ne sont pas identiques
dune personne lautre. Mais celui qui chercherait
faire la publicit du festival, pourrait dire :
Brighton Festival | is the largest event of its kind | in
England. | Now in its fth decade, | it has become one
of the major milestones | in the cultural calendar, | brin-
ging an international mix | of exclusive events, | world
and UK premieres, | special one-off commissions | and
endless hours of entertainment |/ to the city by the sea|.
b. -er / -or transforme un verbe en nom dsigne
celui qui fait laction.
-ful transforme un nom en adjectif sens positif.
-ing : le verbe est utilis comme un adjectif mais
avec un sens actif.
-ed : le verbe est utilis comme un adjectif mais
avec un sens passif.
c. 1. supporter = nom, someone who supports some-
one / sth
2. excited = adj., sens passif, someone who is thrilled
by someone / sth
3. thriller = nom, something that thrills
4. forceful = adj., sens positif, someone or sth that is
full of force or strength
5. fearful = adj., someone or sth that is full of fear
6. interesting = adj., sens actif, someone or sth that
arouses interest
7. thrilling = adj., sens actif, someone or sth that
causes emotion and excitement
D Trouver lintrus
1. stage cinema
2. camera theatre
3. recitals exhibition
4. cartoon music
E Organisation de la phrase
Productions possibles :
Witness the most hilarious one-man show on stage
a theatre play with one actor only.
- Eavesdrop on the most scary stories in the city a
show about horror stories.
- Explore the most thrilling exhibition in town an
exciting exhibition.
- Listen to the most incredible music in the country
a very surprising concert.
3
project5.indd 121 5/10/07 11:56:51
122
F Word bank
Utiliser un dictionnaire unilingue pour complter la che suivante.
event book advert
Phrase(s) dans laquelle /
lesquelles jai rencontr
ce mot
Where I can get
information about a
cultural event
Booking is strongly
recommended to
guarantee your ticket.
I can see adverts about
special exhibitions in
my TV magazine.
Domaine de sens auquel
je peux le rattacher
outings, happenings tickets publicity
Nature du mot nom verbe adjectif
Dnition
Something that
takes place / social
gathering or activity
Arrange for tickets
in advance, make a
reservation
A public promotion
of some product or
service
!
Ne pas oublier !
Prononciation /vent/ /bk/ /dv3t/
Mots proches
synonymes
occurrence,
happening, show
reserve, pre-arrange,
order
preview, trailer,
promotion, publicity,
yer, commercial,
notice, leaet, blurb
Mots loigns
antonymes
Quelques mots de la
mme famille (avec leur
nature, et leur sens)
eventful, eventless
(adj.)
pre-booked, bookable,
unbookable (adj.)
advertisement, ad,
advertiser, adman
(n.), advertising (adj.),
advertise (v.)
Ne pas confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
eventual = coming at
last
eventually = nally
book (n.) = a written
work or composition
that has been published
to add
Collocations, tournures
idiomatiques
in the natural course
of events, a special
event, in any event /
at all events (= in any
case)
a chain / a sequence
/ a series of events
verb + event: witness,
record, celebrate,
mark
adj.: big, great,
historic, important,
key, main, major
booking fee, book in
advance / book early,
be booked up / be fully
booked
Verbe + ad: place, put,
take out, nd, see, spot
an ad
Prep: in an / the ad, an
ad for
Adj: front-page / full-
page / classied ad
Proverbes, dictons
Its easy to be wise
after the event.
!!
project5.indd 122 5/10/07 11:56:54
123 Project 5 - Whats on?
Listening
Facts and gures
1 a.-b. 50th anniversary of the London Film Festi-
val (5 rfrences)
50 days to go: the interview was recorded / trailed 50
days ahead of the opening event. (1 rfrence)
50 screens right across London (2 rfrences)
Speaking
Making suggestions
2 Rchir sur la langue : Expression de la
suggestion (logbook, p. 55)
a. Les noncs servent suggrer.
b. Le locuteur fait partie du groupe qui il fait les
suggestions : 4-6-7
Le locuteur ne fait pas partie du groupe qui il fait
les suggestions : 1-2-3-5
3 Mise en application du point de rexion sur
la langue prcdent.
On peut orienter les lves sur ce qui se passe dans
leur propre ville.
Why dont you go and see Xs last film? Its on at
the right now.
Giving advice
4 Ex: You see, the front page is crammed with text:
you should simplify it / keep the information short and
to the point. Why not use the back page to write all the
details / youd better include some visuals
Reading
Superlatives
5 Rchir sur la langue : superlatifs (logbook,
p. 56)
a. On compare the Tower Music Festival tous les
autres festivals de Londres.
b. Les mots souligns sont des adjectifs.
Forme : superlatif. le superlatif indique quun
nom possde une proprit plus que tous les autres
noms de sa catgorie. Ici, par exemple, le Tower
Music Festival possde les proprits new et exciting
(plus que tous les autres festivals Londres.)
c. Pour la plupart des adjectifs courts, le superlatif
se forme laide du dterminant the et de la termi-
naison adjectivale -est.
- Pour les adjectifs longs (plus de deux syllabes) et
quelques adjectifs courts (ceux qui se terminent en
-ous et -ing en particulier), le superlatif se forme en
ajoutant le dterminant the et ladverbe quantieur
most devant ladjectif.
3
d. the best good; the farthest far; the worst bad
e. Ici le superlatif the longest-running a t fabriqu
partir de ladjectif compos long-running.
Il est souvent difcile de dire que quelque chose pos-
sde une proprit plus que tous ses concurrents
cest pour cela que lnonciateur a choisi demployer
one of the longest-running shows. Parmi la catgorie
des shows, il fabrique une sous-catgorie de the lon-
gest-running shows laquelle celui-ci appartient.
Lorsquon veut dire du bien de quelque chose, on aura
naturellement besoin des superlatifs de supriorit
MOST ou -EST. Dans le cas contraire, cependant, on
pourra faire appel au superlatif dinfriorit LEAST :
That was the least interesting show Ive ever seen!
6 Productions possibles :
The Capital Age Festival:
Highlight: food (cakes, tea) and service, elderly people
but younger people as well.
Emphasis: positive adjective + superlative: the most
delicious, the best tea, the most caring people
The Tower Music Festival: a summer music festi-
val
Highlights: outdoor stage within the Tower of Lon-
don 12 nights of music: performed by musicians
from all over the world + different types of music
(variety of genres)
Emphasis: positive adjective (vibrant) + superlative
(newest and most exciting biggest worlds perform-
ers one of the most famous historical landmark)
+ comparative with extremely famous event (not as
famous as the Proms)
Positive nouns or verbs : variety- panorama enjoy
Imperatives : not to be missed
The Brick Lane Festival: street festival
Highlights: fun cross cultural street parties attrac-
tions food
Emphasis: comparing: not as famous as not as spec-
tacular as as much fun + superlative: most exciting
- most colourful spiciest - one of the greatest most
memorable
Imperatives: come and join
Writing
Injunctions
7 Productions possibles :
Keep information to the point. Indicate the venue
more clearly. Mention the price. Dont forget to include
a map. Write details about tickets. Use superlatives
to emphasize the highlights. Make use of visuals. Be
careful with the colours youre going to use
3
3
3
3
project5.indd 123 8/10/07 16:35:21
124
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 72-73
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 72-73
Justifying your point of view
8 Rchir sur la langue : explication, justi-
cation (logbook, p. 57)
a. La personne qui parle est en train de regarder un
prospectus et de le commenter.
b. La subordonne exprime la cause.
La principale exprime la consquence.
c. Lnonc 1 prsente le point de vue de lnoncia-
teur pour ensuite lexpliquer.
Dans les noncs 2 et 3 on connat dj le point de
vue de lnonciateur qui essaie de justier ses dire.
9 Productions possibles :
Hi, Sue
You bet I do! Im absolutely mad about break-dance
thats why Ill join you on Monday. Looking forward to
meeting you. Jen.
- Sorry, Sue! The reason why I cant come along is that
I have to baby-sit on Monday. You know I desperately
need pocket money. Hope you wont be disappointed.
Love. Erin
3
Cette tape nale peut se faire par groupes dont la
constitution peut relever du choix de lenseignant.
Il semble raisonnable de constituer des groupes
de 4, ventuellement 5 lves. Au sein de chaque
quipe , on attirera lattention sur la ncessit de
la rpartition des tches, notamment lors des acti-
vits de recherche (show, venues).
Pour stimuler la prise de responsabilit, on pourra
proposer de donner une note globale lensemble des
membres du groupe et il reviendra chacun deux de
dcider de la rpartition : par exemple si le travail de
4 lves obtient une note de 14 on multipliera 14 par
4 = 56 pts que les lves se rpartiront selon le travail
effectif de chacun (dmarche teste en classe).
Il sagira lors de cette prparation la ralisation
du projet de runir les informations ncessaires
(show, venues) et de dcider de leur prsentation
de manire les rendre incitatives. On insistera sur
la ncessit de constituer un brouillon et on atten-
dra une certaine richesse des productions compte
tenu du travail effectu en amont.
Le dpliant pourra tre remis dans la semaine sui-
vante de manire donner le temps aux lves de
soigner leur prsentation, puisquelle constitue un
des critres dvaluation. Si les lves ne disposent
pas dun ordinateur (utile pour les diffrentes poli-
ces de caractres), il va sans dire quils pourront
rendre leur dpliant manuscrit.
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur)
Traitement du sujet Organisation et prsentation Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 1 Respecte la situation
et le type de production
demande (spectacle /
Londres / prospectus)
= 2 pts
Peut regrouper des
lments textuels et visuels
sur un recto / verso
= 2 pts
La langue est partiellement
comprhensible = 2 pts
Degr 2 Peut dans ce prospectus
donner des informations
pertinentes (venue / date
/ access / tickets) = 4 pts
Peut organiser ces diffrents
lments avec prcision
= 4 pts
Possde un vocabulaire
sufsant. Lorthographe
lexicale est assez juste. Essaie
de varier les structures = 4 pts
Degr 3 Peut galement donner
des lments apprciatifs
sur le spectacle = 6 pts
Peut prsenter les diffrents
lments de manire
attrayante = 7 pts
Peut utiliser une gamme
assez tendue de vocabulaire
et de structures, gnralement
appropries = 7 pts
Bonus Originalit
+ 1 pt
Soin apport la prsentation
+ 1 pt
Prise de risques consquente
+ 1 pt
Total (max.) 6 pts + 1 pt bonus 7 pts + 1 pt bonus 7 pts + 1 pt bonus

project5.indd 124 5/10/07 11:56:55


125 Project 5 - Whats on?
Book p. 74, logbook p. 60-62
DEBRIEFING
Book p. 74, logbook p. 60-62
DEBRIEFING
p Voir introduction, p. 18 de ce guide
3 What I need to work on
2b. categories: adjectives adverbs superlatives
imperatives.
Production possible :
The magic of The Lord of the Rings comes to life in
the newest and most amazing stage musical adapta-
3
tion to be seen from 9 May 2007 at the Theatre Royal
Drury Lane in London.
Go there with an open heart, wide-open eyes and pre-
pare to be transported to Middle-earth, in a world of
fantasy and enchantment.
Together with Frodo, a most unlikely hero, embark on
an epic quest to the Cracks of Doom and trod the most
perilous paths ever seen.
A hugely impressive production not to be missed!
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
1. Comprhension orale : Going out! CD classe, piste n 5
Phase danticipation avant lcoute (individuelle les lves peuvent rassembler leurs ides sur papier. Pas
de mise en commun orale puisquil sagit dune valuation).
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 292 de ce guide.
Corrig et barme
Paliers de comprhension :
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
Where the two girls are and what types of entertainment they are talking about.
(Hotel room, walk, baby animals, artists, photos, pictures, comedy show, opera, dancers,
magazine)
1 2
selon
quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte, conduisant
une comprhension lacunaire.
What each girl is interested in:
Girl 1: (baby animals, sheep, goat, (Brighton) festival, exhibitions, art shows, photos,
impressionists, (water) colours)
Girl 2: (opera, dancers, beautiful images, impressionists)
3 4
selon
quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est
compris.
Their reasons.
Girl 1: (wants to walk, magazine cover with animals, Brighton Festival: artistic shows,
exhibitions, paintings, photography, comedy show)
Girl 2: (opera, dancers, wants to discover music, good advert: beautiful images, interesting
layout)
5 8
Palier 4
Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont relevs. Tout le contenu informatif est
compris.
More information about their reasons.
(Girl 1: really wants to see comedy show, knows (name of) comedian, knows he is hilarious
Girl 2: opera, does not know music, wants to discover, dancers from ceiling with ropes)
10
project5.indd 125 5/10/07 11:56:58

126
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Bonus: additional information
(Cant / wont go to the same show together, accessible, baroque opera, Purcell, Richard
Herring)
2
2. Comprhension crite : At the cinema with Mum and Dad Book p. 168-169
Dans cet extrait du roman What a Carve Up! de Jonathan Coe, gure un prospectus, un extrait du programme
des cinmas de la ville publi dans le journal local, ou une afche annonant le lm dont il est question dans
le passage, lm rel, ralis en 1963.
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 293 de ce guide.
Corrig
Nature of the document
(more than one box can be
ticked)
a passage from a rst person narrative a passage from a novel
a passage from a newspaper article a preview
Information about
the general situation
- Place: (cinema)
- Characters present (who / how they are related): (a (young)boy, the narrator
and his parents/mother and father)
- What they are doing: (watching a lm)
- Why (special occasion): (its the boys birthday)
Link between
the illustration and
the text
- The lm: What a Carve Up! (announced in the ad + the lm they are watch-
ing)
- (title of the lm = title of the novel)
Parents attitude - Mother: (thinks it is too late (nearly 6 oclock), must leave, boy must have
dinner, go to bed)
- Father: (special occasion, must stay and enjoy, can stop on the way for dinner)
The lm was about A man who had to go Yorkshire after his rich uncles death to listen to the
reading of the will. Perhaps the rich uncle has left him some money. He went
to his uncles house, Blackshaw Towers, with a friend. The place was remote,
far from everywhere, there was dense fog. It was creepy, a little frightening.
The narrators reactions Scared, did not nd it funny like the rest of the audience, part of him wanted
to stay, part of him wanted to run out
What he thinks of the lm Had never seen a lm like that one before, good lm = convincing, dramatic
music, suspense, wants to know what happens next, afraid but / and very
interested
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 = 12 / 20 : tous les lments en gras sont renseigns.
- Seuil 2 = 14 / 20 : tous les lments en gras italiques.
- Seuil 3 = deux points en plus par lment soulign.
project5.indd 126 5/10/07 11:57:02
127 Project 5 - Whats on?
Voici un exemple de la faon dont les lves peuvent renseigner la logpage.
PROMOTING AN OUTING
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LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 51
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 51
project5.indd 127 5/10/07 11:57:04
128
PROJECT
6
Native America
Sommaire du chapitre Native America
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 129
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 76)
Make sense: Aspects of Navajo life (book, p. 76)
Over to you (manuel, p. 77)
Make sense: Growing Up Native-American Style (book, p. 79)
Over to you (book, p. 79)
Recap (book, p. 79)
p. 131
p. 132
p. 136
p. 137
p. 138
p. 138
S
t
e
p

2
Start from what you know (book, p. 80)
Make sense: The Hopi Way of Life (book, p. 80)
Over to you (book, p. 81)
Recap (book, p. 81)
p. 139
p. 139
p. 140
p. 140
L
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l
l
s
Words (book, p. 82 / logbook, p. 64)
Listening (book, p. 82)
Speaking (book, p. 82)
Reading (book, p. 83)
p. 141
p. 142
p. 142
p. 143
Your project (book, p. 78)
Debrieng (book, p. 85 / logbook, p. 71)
valuation de la comprhension
/
Logpage (logbook, p. 63)
p. 143
p. 155
p. 155
p. 158
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 131
1 sance avec 4 transparents
Make sense: Aspects of Navajo life p. 132
Over to you p. 136
2 sances
Make sense: Growing Up Native-American Style p. 137 2 sances
Over to you p. 138
Recap p. 138
1 sance
Recap possible en valuation
STEP 2
Start from what you know p. 139

Make sense: The Hopi Way of Life p. 139
1 sance
Over to you p. 140
Recap p. 140
1 sance
Recap possible en valuation
YOUR PROJECT p. 143
VALUATION :
1 sance

project6.indd 128 5/10/07 11:58:23


129 Project 6 - Native America
Au terme de lexploitation du projet Native Ame-
rica, il sera demand aux lves de se glisser dans
la peau dun ethnologue de retour du terrain et
de prsenter lauditoire, jou par le reste de la
classe, les informations recueillies sur une Nation
indienne de leur choix, en prise de parole en
continu. Auditoire actif, puisque les lves, aprs
leur prestation, devront rpondre des questions
poses par leurs camarades sur le contenu de leur
prsentation (dveloppement dun aspect, clari-
cation, rptition). Les lves pourront utiliser,
sils le souhaitent, tout ou partie des documents
qui sont mis leur disposition ; ils pourront gale-
ment effectuer des recherches personnelles sur le
sujet. La prise de parole en continu est suivie dune
phase dinteraction laquelle les lves auront
dj t entrans (notamment avec les projets
Together for a time et Eureka!) et qui les prparera
aux projets ultrieurs (notamment Schools Inc.

et
Whodunnit?).
Le Step 1 est articul autour de la vie dans les
rserves, vie o se mlent tradition et modernit.
Le Step 2 approfondit les lments de culture am-
rindienne esquisss dans le Step 1.
Types de texte
Le parcours conduit une prise de parole de type
informatif sur un sujet multiples facettes.
Les supports proposs sont de sources et de natu-
res varies (documents iconographiques, documen-
taire vido, article de magazine) mais concourent
tous informer, montrer et expliquer.
Cur de sens
Ce chapitre est ax sur la vie des Indiens dAmri-
que du Nord vivant dans les rserves aux tats-Unis,
rserves dont lexistence rappelle que lhistoire des
tats-Unis est aussi celle dune dpossession ter-
ritoriale. Lhistoire de lavance vers lOuest, de la
frontire et des combats dsesprs des Am-
rindiens pour garder la terre sacre ne sont nan-
moins pas au cur de ce chapitre.
Entirement fond sur le contenu culturel des pro-
grammes de seconde, cest dans la notion de vivre
ensemble en socit que le projet se situe. Rap-
pelons ici les termes de ce contenu culturel, tels
que les programmes les noncent : Ltude de la
socit au quotidien, o les hommes et les femmes
changent, travaillent, crent, se distraient, pren-
nent des dcisions () permet llve de prendre
conscience que les diffrences sont la fois le signe
dune altrit mais aussi dune similitude quant aux
aspirations, aux inquitudes, aux rves de tout tre
humain. Chaque socit est un lieu de vie intense avec
un pass qui contribue forger le prsent
La socit tudie ici est celle des Indiens dAmri-
que du Nord vivant dans des rserves aujourdhui :

lieu de vie intense dont le prsent est forg par


un pass grandiose et douloureux et dont les tradi-
tions et rites tmoignent de la vitalit.
Nous nignorons pas que le thme des rserves
indiennes inclut de nombreuses questions relevant
des institutions politiques et du dveloppement co-
nomique, relevant aussi du traitement des mino-
rits et de leur intgration dans la culture
dominante. Ces questions sont loin dtre secon-
daires mais lampleur du sujet oblige, au niveau de
la classe de seconde, faire des choix.
Nous avons choisi dentrer dans le lieu de vie
quest la rserve, guids par les Amrindiens eux-
mmes.
Il ne sagit pas, bien videmment, de faire faire de
lanthropologie, science sociale rigoureuse dont
les savoirs thoriques, les concepts, les mtho-
des et les outils dpassent de loin un manuel de
langue vivante pour une classe de seconde. Le
texte Growing Up Native-American Style p. 78 du
manuel, comprend des informations de nature
ethnologique. Laide lexicale propose pour d-
nir le mot clan ne rentre pas dans la complexit
que recouvre un tel terme. De mme, la notion de
matrilinarit peut tre explique de manire
accessible des adolescents. On ne demandera
pas ici aux lves dtudier des nations indiennes
dans le but de dgager des structures ou des lois
de porte gnrale qui mettraient en vidence,
dans un premier temps, lunit de ces nations et
dans un second, celle de lhumanit.
Dans cette squence, les lves sont davantage
ethnographes. Lenqute de terrain laquelle ils
sont convis leur fait collecter des informations
et des donnes quils pourront synthtiser et pr-
senter leurs camarades. Mais ils pourront, en
rassemblant ce quils savent des Navajos et des
Hopis, nations prsentes dans le chapitre, et ce
quils pourront apprendre des autres nations pr-
sentes lors du projet nal, trouver des chos et
des ressemblances.
Ils pourront aussi, notamment aprs ltude de
Growing Up Native-American Style, oprer un va-
et-vient entre les cultures quils dcouvrent dune
part, la culture occidentale en gnral et la culture
franaise en particulier dautre part. Il nest pas
non plus exclu que des lves dont la culture des
parents nest pas la culture franaise peroivent
des rsonances autres, leur permettant ainsi, peut-
tre, de tisser de nouveaux liens entre leur culture
dorigine et celle qui est maintenant aussi la leur.
Le cur de sens de ce chapitre sinscrit ainsi dans
ce que les programmes de seconde appellent la
dialectique entre la dimension spcique et la
dimension universelle de la culture. Dialectique
ancre ici dans le croisement de deux regards. Un
regard extrieur, celui de lobservateur et un regard
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
project6.indd 129 5/10/07 11:58:27
130
intrieur, ce que les Amrindiens disent deux-
mmes.
En dautres termes, le cur de sens du chapitre
repose sur la pluralit pluralit des cultures, plu-
ralit des perceptions, pluralit de lapprhension
du monde.
La comptence gnrale majeure du chapitre est la
comptence culturelle : largissement des connais-
sances sur les Indiens dAmrique du Nord et leur
mode de vie, retour vers dautres modes de vie, dont
celui de llve.
Activits langagires
- : Comprendre lessentiel dun document vido
de type documentaire.

- : Lire un article de magazine long dont la struc-


ture linaire aide la comprhension ; condenser
des informations provenant de sources diffrentes.
- : Prendre des notes, les organiser pour une
prise de parole.
- : Produire un discours structur sur un sujet
connu.
Outils linguistiques
- Le contraste et lopposition
- La voix passive
- Linterdiction et la permission
- Phonologie : accentuation des ngations ; rduc-
tion des pronoms

p Voir introduction, p. 14 de ce guide.


Il est important que le remplissage de la logpage
se limite des notes et non des noncs rdigs,
an que llve se trouve rellement en situation de
production orale (le cas chant, crite) et non en
activit de lecture.
Dans la majorit des cas, la logpage pourra servir
de support aux phases de rcapitulation et la
trace crite au tableau.
La logpage renseigne contient des lments sus-
ceptibles dtre obtenus dautres sont possibles,
tous ne sont pas ncessairement exigibles.
Ds le Step 1, les lves pourront renseigner la log-
page avec ce quils apprennent des Navajos.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 158 de ce guide.
EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE
STEP 1
Book p. 76

Transparents n
os
12 et 13
STEP 1
Book p. 76

Transparents n
os
12 et 13
phase dchauffement
Cette sance tant la premire de la squence, on
pourra lors de la phase dchauffement, diriger les
changes sur le thme du chapitre. Cette phase
peut prendre diffrentes formes :
- questionnement au groupe, professeur inclus,
le professeur pourra glisser le thme dans une de
ses rponses : Yesterday I went to the cinema
saw a western a film with Indians and cow-
boys ;
- document inconnu - lun des quatre documents,
des transparents n
os
12 et 13, an de recueillir
lavis du groupe, des suppositions, des ractions ;
- on pourra aussi, selon ce que lon sait des intrts et
gots des lves, demander en amont quun ou deux
prsentent leurs camarades une image, une photo, un
poster pouvant servir de dpart au thme ici abord.
Pour les sances suivantes : choisir le thme du
chapitre pour cette phase dchauffement ( prpa-
rer la maison : Warming up next time: get ready
to talk about)
project6.indd 130 5/10/07 11:58:28
131 Project 6 - Native America
Start from what you know
1 Il est difcile de prvoir ce que les lves dune
classe donne pourront produire aux questions
poses.
Si les productions sont peu fructueuses, on pourra
se servir des quatre (ou trois si lun a t utilis
pendant la phase dchauffement) documents qui
gurent sur les

transparents n
os
12 et 13. Lors
de cette phase, il conviendra de faire verbaliser une
dnition accessible du terme Native Americans.
Ces transparents montrent lvolution des repr-
sentations et donnent quelques lments dinfor-
mation factuels sur lhabillement, les coiffures, etc.
On pourra montrer lafche du lm de Walt Disney et
la couverture de la bande dessine en mme temps.
- Say what these documents are.
- Say what you think the stories may be about.
- Say how the Indians / Native Americans are pre-
sented on this lm poster / on the cover of the comic
as opposed to pioneers / white people / non natives.
Pour cette afche, on pourra faire remarquer lombre
des pionniers dun ct, des Indiens arms et en parure
de guerre de lautre, au milieu, un Blanc qui porte dans
ses bras un Indien bless ? mort ? Linterprtation,
pour qui ne connat pas le lm peut tre ambigu : a
good Indian is a dead Indian (?) ou les valeurs de solida-
rit qui passent outre la guerre en cours.
Linterprtation de la couverture de la bande des-
sine est plus manichenne : le titre Western gh-
ters, les images et lexpression des personnages
reprsents montrent la violence et les batailles
toujours recommences.
- On pourra ensuite montrer les deux images tires
du lm Dances with Wolves et faire mettre ici en vi-
dence que lhomme blanc et lIndien sont cte cte,
dans la mme position couchs ou assis sur leur
cheval quils ne sont pas en situation dopposition
ou daffrontement, que lun ne domine pas lautre,
que lhomme blanc partage sa technologie avec
lIndien : ils regardent tous les deux dans la mme
direction que regardent-ils tous les deux ? (dans le
lm, ce sont des bisons, mais on pourra laisser les
lves faire des suggestions), que le costume dap-
parat indien vaut bien luniforme de la cavalerie US.
- Pour rcapituler, on pourra demander : Say who
produced these representations.
Its a vision of Native Americains as savages / ene-
mies / friends seen through the eyes of non native
Americans / white men.
On pourra aussi demander de dater approximative-
ment ces documents et on donnera bien sr les dates
pour souligner lvolution des reprsentations :
- la srie de bandes dessines intitule Western
Fighters date de la n des annes 40 ;
3
- le lm de Walt Disney est sorti en 1956 ;
- le lm de Kevin Costner est sorti en 1990.
Pour faire le lien avec la question 2, il sera utile
de revenir, ou dintroduire les raisons de la guerre
entre Indiens et Blancs, en soulignant nouveau le
sens de Native Americans.
Productions possibles :
The White men wanted to settle in the New World.
- They wanted the land, they needed food, they wanted
to build houses and start a new life.
- But there were people there / It was inhabited by the
Indians. They were the rst inhabitants. They were born
there. That is why they are called Native Americans.
On pourra alors demander : So why do you think
this chapter is called Native America?
On peut commencer faire remplir la logpage ce
stade.
Il est possible que des lments trs disparates
soient donns pour la logpage : ceci est normal,
cette dernire tant la trace des apprentissages. On
demandera aux lves de ne pas effacer les infor-
mations recueillies lors de cette premire tape ; la
comparaison avec les informations recueillies par
la suite pourra servir de base la prise de parole
de Over to you.
On pourra alors demander : Where are the Native
Americans now?
2 Demander : In the context of Native America,
what do you think the word reservation means?
crire le terme au tableau.
Noter au tableau les suggestions des lves, mme
si elles sont errones, les suggestions serviront de
repre aux lves pour questionner le professeur :
Is it true that?
Si les lves rpondent : the word doesnt mean any-
thing, sorry, rtroprojeter la courte dnition ci-des-
sous, faire accder au sens puis passer directement
aux questions des lves pour le professeur.
In the United States, an Indian reservation is a land
which is managed by a Native American nation
under the control of the United States Department
of the Interiors Bureau of Indian Affairs. Reser-
vations were created when white people began to
forcibly take land from Native Americans, who had
lived there for thousands of years.
This is a denition ask me questions to know
more about reservations.
3 Recueillir suppositions et questions. Pour
aider les lves :
Think of the children, what questions could you ask?:
do they go to school? What do they do after school?
Think of the adults, what questions could you ask?:
have they got jobs? Can they get out of the reserva-
tion? Are they free to leave the reservation?
3
3
project6.indd 131 5/10/07 11:58:30
132
Think of what you already know about Native Ame-
ricans, what questions could you ask?: do they live
in tents / houses? Have they got horses / cars?
Reservations were rst created by seventeenth-cen-
tury English colonizers and imposed on American
Indian nations to remove them from the path of white
settlement. Reservations also provided a place where
missionaries could show Indians how to live, work,
and worship like themselves. The United States took
up this practice, employing military might, fraud,
and deception to create hundreds of tribal reserves
established by treaty, executive order, or congres-
sional decree. Despite the reservations grim origins,
Indian people have been able to adapt to reservation
environments while preserving many of their tra-
ditional values, beliefs, and customs. In fact, many
Indians now regard reservations as homelands.
The interplay of Indian aspirations and outside
interests is central to an understanding of reserva-
tions. Notwithstanding the oppression and land loss
associated with their founding, reservations also
represent a valiant struggle on the part of Indians
for autonomy, self-sufciency, religious freedom,
and cultural identity.
Today, Indian lands, whether called reservations,
rancherias, communities, or pueblos, comprise less
than 2 percent of their original area. These reser-
vations also vary widely in size and demographic
composition. In 1990, the federal government rec-
ognized 278 Indian land areas as reservations. The
Navajo (Din) Reservation consists of some 16 mil-
lion acres in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, while
others contain less than a hundred acres. Some
950,000 Indians, slightly less than 50 percent of all
Indians, lived on or near reservations. About half
of the land on contemporary reservations belongs
to Indians; signicant portions are owned and
inhabited by non-Indians. The Indian owned land
is usually held in trust by the federal government,
meaning that this property is exempt from state
and county taxes and can be sold only in accordance
with federal regulations.
Although both paternalism and anti-Indian racism
persist, Indian governments have reinvigorated their
reservations by adopting tax codes, establishing prof-
itable enterprises, organizing courts, drafting law-
and-order codes, controlling their resources, and
demanding a right to worship in customary ways.
Nonetheless, many small, landless, and isolated
native nations have been able to gain few benets.
As a result, economic, health, and social problems
still haunt many reservations. The challenge facing
Indian governments and federal policymakers con-
tinues to be to devise ways of improving reservation
living conditions in ways that support tribal self-gov-
ernment, traditional culture, and religious freedom.
See also Bureau of Indian Affairs; Termination.
Deloria, Vine, Jr., and Clifford Lytle, The Nations
Within: The Past and Future of American Indian Sov-
ereignty (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984); OBrien,
Sharon, American Indian Tribal Governments (Nor-
man and London: University of Oklahoma Press,
1989); Trafzer, Clifford E., Earth, Animals, and Aca-
demics: Plateau Indian Communities, Culture, and
Walla Walla Council of 1855, American Indian Cul-
ture and Research Journal 17, no.3 (1993): 81100.
JAMES RIDING IN (Pawnee)
Arizona State University
Barry M. Pritzker, Native Americans,
An Encyclopaedia of History, Culture and Peoples.
Volume 1
Aspects of Navajo life
Book p. 76-77
Aspects of Navajo life
Book p. 76-77
Analyse des documents
Photos montrant divers aspects de la vie des
Navajos : lhabitat traditionnel et contemporain, la
langue, lartisanat (poterie, bijoux, couvertures tis-
ses), tourisme.
Formes de travail
Amorce en collectif, suite en groupes.
Make sense
4 Activits mener en deux tapes.
- tape 1 collective : regarder, dcrire, commenter

trs rapidement les documents de la double page. Il


faudrait pouvoir obtenir :
Pictures taken on Navajo reservation
- Location of this reservation: the landscape / possi-
ble climate
- The people...
- tape 2 en groupes. Pour Do research on your own
about the Navajos, les lves peuvent conduire ces
recherches en autonomie. Le professeur pourra
aussi utiliser les documents suggrs ci-dessous
en les exploitant de la manire suivante :
- photocopier les lments ;
- partager la classe en 2 groupes ;
3
project6.indd 132 5/10/07 11:58:32
133 Project 6 - Native America
- distribuer ces groupes les informations ci-des-
sous 1) informations gnrales sur les Navajos :
population, habitat, conomie (y compris artisanat
et tourisme) 2) langue et code talkers ;
- rpartir la charge de travail dans chacun des
groupes et demander chaque sous-groupe de
dsigner des rapporteurs. Les lves ont dj prati-
qu ces formes de travail dans les projets 2 et 4. Se
rfrer aux suggestions de mise en uvre propo-
ses.
Lors de la mise en commun :
We have information about You can ask us ques-
tions
Logpage renseigner.
Trace crite.
3
Document 1 reproduire et distribuer au groupe 1
Navajo
Navajo (`N vho) is a Tewa word meaning planted fields. The Navajo called themselves
Dine (Di`n), the People. Like the Apache, they are of Athapaskan descent.
Location Dinetah, the traditional Navajo homeland, is located on the lower Colorado Plateau,
between the San Juan and Little Colorado Rivers, about 75 miles northwest of Santa Fe. Todays
Navajo Nation Occupies a 28,800-square-mile reservation in northern Arizona and New Mexico
and southern Utah. This land is mostly plateau (above 5,000 feet) and is marked by deep,
sheer-walled canyons. The winters are cold, the summers are hot, and there is little water.
Population The Dine are the most numerous Indian tribe in the United States. In 1990,
144,000 Indians lived on the Navajo Reservation, plus 1,177 at Caoncito and 191 at Ramah
(see Government/Reservations under Contemporary Information).
Many thousands also live off-reservation. More than 200,000 Indians now qualify for membership in
the Navajo Nation (officially 219,198 in 1990). Perhaps 6,000 Navajos lived in Dinetah in 1800.
Dwellings Navajos lived in hogans. At first they were cone-shaped structures, framed with logs
and poles and covered with earth and bark. Later the hogans had six or eight sides and were covered
with stone and adobe. Doorways always faced east. The hogans were grouped in rancherias, or
small settlements. Other structures included sweat lodges, brush corrals, and armadas.
Notable Arts The arts were traditionally seen as way to relate to and influence spiritual beings
and to be closer to the ancestors; as such they were integrated into Navajo ceremonialism. Oral
chants told history, traditions, and mythology and were accompanied by music. The Navajo
knew several categories of traditional music, from personal/pleasurable to deeply sacred. The
people made paintings on clean sand of mineral powders and pollens, which they destroyed at
the end of a ceremony. Weaving, done by women, was learned from Pueblo people around 1700;
Navajo weavers created a golden age in the early nineteenth century. Rugs began to replace
blankets after 1890. Women also made pottery. Basketry was more utilitarian than artistic. The
Navajo learned the art of making silver and turquoise jewellery in the mid-1800s.
Economy Peabody Coal remains the largest single employer of Navajos. Mineral (oil, gas, coal,
uranium) exploitation continues. Navajo Agricultural Products Industries and Navajo Forests
products Industries are also large employers. Some people still farm, herd, and produce wool.
Many are engaged in making arts and crafts, especially weavings, jewellery, baskets, pottery,
and commercial sandpaintings. There is some retail business as well as some off-reservation
employment. One third of the tribal workforce is often unemployed.
Barry M. Pritzker, Native Americans, An Encyclopaedia of History, Culture and Peoples. Volume 1
Navajo
Navajo (`N vho) is a Tewa word meaning planted fields. The Navajo called themselves
Dine (Di`n), the People. Like the Apache, they are of Athapaskan descent.
Location Dinetah, the traditional Navajo homeland, is located on the lower Colorado Plateau,
between the San Juan and Little Colorado Rivers, about 75 miles northwest of Santa Fe. Todays
Navajo Nation Occupies a 28,800-square-mile reservation in northern Arizona and New Mexico
and southern Utah. This land is mostly plateau (above 5,000 feet) and is marked by deep,
sheer-walled canyons. The winters are cold, the summers are hot, and there is little water.
Population The Dine are the most numerous Indian tribe in the United States. In 1990,
144,000 Indians lived on the Navajo Reservation, plus 1,177 at Caoncito and 191 at Ramah
(see Government/Reservations under Contemporary Information).
Many thousands also live off-reservation. More than 200,000 Indians now qualify for membership in
the Navajo Nation (officially 219,198 in 1990). Perhaps 6,000 Navajos lived in Dinetah in 1800.
Dwellings Navajos lived in hogans. At first they were cone-shaped structures, framed with logs
and poles and covered with earth and bark. Later the hogans had six or eight sides and were covered
with stone and adobe. Doorways always faced east. The hogans were grouped in rancherias, or
small settlements. Other structures included sweat lodges, brush corrals, and armadas.
Notable Arts The arts were traditionally seen as way to relate to and influence spiritual beings
and to be closer to the ancestors; as such they were integrated into Navajo ceremonialism. Oral
chants told history, traditions, and mythology and were accompanied by music. The Navajo
knew several categories of traditional music, from personal/pleasurable to deeply sacred. The
people made paintings on clean sand of mineral powders and pollens, which they destroyed at
the end of a ceremony. Weaving, done by women, was learned from Pueblo people around 1700;
Navajo weavers created a golden age in the early nineteenth century. Rugs began to replace
blankets after 1890. Women also made pottery. Basketry was more utilitarian than artistic. The
Navajo learned the art of making silver and turquoise jewellery in the mid-1800s.
Economy Peabody Coal remains the largest single employer of Navajos. Mineral (oil, gas, coal,
uranium) exploitation continues. Navajo Agricultural Products Industries and Navajo Forests
products Industries are also large employers. Some people still farm, herd, and produce wool.
Many are engaged in making arts and crafts, especially weavings, jewellery, baskets, pottery,
and commercial sandpaintings. There is some retail business as well as some off-reservation
employment. One third of the tribal workforce is often unemployed.
Barry M. Pritzker, Native Americans, An Encyclopaedia of History, Culture and Peoples. Volume 1
Advice for Visitors into Indian Country
As a visitor into Indian Country, please understand that your visit will have some kind of
impact upon the people and their communities. We ask that you be aware of that impact, and
take steps to ensure that the outcome of your visit will be positive in all aspects.
Here are some pieces of advice that will make your visit more enjoyable for you and your host
communities :
1. If there is a visitor center, go there first and register.
2. Never photograph a person or group without asking first. You may be asked to pay a photo
permit fee.
project6.indd 133 5/10/07 11:58:33
134
3. Never photograph dances or ceremonies. These events are traditional (and sometimes
religious) - not entertainment. Applause is never appropriate.
4. Never take alcohol onto Indian lands.
5. Do not hike, bike or four-wheel across open Indian lands without permission.
6. The native people you meet on your visit are generally as interested in you as you are in
them exchange information and experiences.
7. Respect and do not disturb protected areas - they have been protected for a reason.
8. Accommodate different ways of thinking and different ways of doing things that you may
observe during your visit.
9. Try to learn beforehand some of the tribal history and culture. If possible, try to learn and
speak a little of their language. Your hosts will be f avourably impressed.
10. As you buy local products, remember that it is inappropriate to attempt to bargain down
prices. Most handmade products are very labor intensive.
11. Do not attempt to buy products made from endangered species.
12. Do not expect to participate in native ceremonies unless you are invited.
13. Leave communities alone that are not specifically advertising for visitors. When in doubt,
check with tribal or community officials.
14. Always observe appropriate behavior. Refrain from any conduct felt to be offensive or
injurious to the local population, or likely to damage the local environment.
15. Dress sensibly. Over-exposure of bare skin can be offensive to some.
16. Dispose properly of your garbage.
Source: http://www.nativetourism.org/tips.asp
Document 2 : Language, distribuer au groupe 2
Un exemple enregistr se trouve sur : waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/language.html

The Navajo Language


The Navajos have never stopped speaking their native Athabaskan language, unlike many
other native peoples who are trying to revive their languages. The Navajo language is spoken
only on the Navajo reservation in the southwestern United States, and until recently was an
unwritten language. It is an extremely complex language with no alphabet or symbols. It is
very reflective of the Navajo way of life and their world. To be able to speak Navajo, one must
have extensive exposure and training.
Navajo is a tonal language, meaning the vowels rise and fall when pronounced, changing
meaning with pitch. There are four separate tones of voice used: low, high, rising,
and falling. Two separate words with different meanings may therefore have the same
pronunciation but with different tones. Some Navajo words are also nasalized, meaning that
the sound comes through the nose instead of the mouth. The following is a simplified guide
to the pronunciation of vowels.
The short vowels are pronounced as follows:
a as in father
e as in west
i as in sit
o as in low
The long or doubled vowels are pronounced the same, but the sounds are held longer:
aa as in say aah
ee as in yeah
ii as in see
oo as in oh
The Navajo Language
The Navajos have never stopped speaking their native Athabaskan language, unlike many
other native peoples who are trying to revive their languages. The Navajo language is spoken
only on the Navajo reservation in the southwestern United States, and until recently was an
unwritten language. It is an extremely complex language with no alphabet or symbols. It is
very reflective of the Navajo way of life and their world. To be able to speak Navajo, one must
have extensive exposure and training.
Navajo is a tonal language, meaning the vowels rise and fall when pronounced, changing
meaning with pitch. There are four separate tones of voice used: low, high, rising,
and falling. Two separate words with different meanings may therefore have the same
pronunciation but with different tones. Some Navajo words are also nasalized, meaning that
the sound comes through the nose instead of the mouth. The following is a simplified guide
to the pronunciation of vowels.
The short vowels are pronounced as follows:
a as in father
e as in west
i as in sit
o as in low
The long or doubled vowels are pronounced the same, but the sounds are held longer:
aa as in say aah
ee as in yeah
ii as in see
oo as in oh
project6.indd 134 5/10/07 11:58:40
135 Project 6 - Native America
The combined vowels are pronounced as follows:
ai as in my
ao as in cow
ei as in say
oi as in chewy
Accent marks after syllables mean to stress the syllable, while accent marks over vowels
indicate they are to be spoken in a high tone. Here are some examples of words that are
important to the Navajo people:
boy ashii house kin (also trading post)
brother naa (older) mother am
brother tsil (younger) mountain dzil
corn naad no dooda
coyote maii rabbit gah
deer biih rug diyogi
dog lchaa school lta
earth nahosdzn; also ni sheep dib
father azh silver bsh ligaii
feather atsos singer hataali (medicine man)
re ko sister d (older)
sh l sister d (older)
friend alah (of the opposite sex) sky y
friend akis (of the same sex) smoke lid
frog chal sun jhonaae
girl atd turquoise dootliizhii
goat tlz water t
hello yth wool aghaa
home hooghan yes aoo
horse l
The Navajo language is very difficult for non-Navajos to understand because of the precise way
in which one object relates to another. These relationships may seem unimportant to outsiders,
but are exceptionally important to the Navajos. Their view of life, which is that everything
they do and that happens to them is related to the world around them, is very apparent in the
way they speak. For example, a Navajo would not say, I am hungry, but instead would say,
Hunger is hurting me. It has been said that in Navajo, words paint a picture in your mind.
The combined vowels are pronounced as follows:
ai as in my
ao as in cow
ei as in say
oi as in chewy
Accent marks after syllables mean to stress the syllable, while accent marks over vowels
indicate they are to be spoken in a high tone. Here are some examples of words that are
important to the Navajo people:
boy ashii house kin (also trading post)
brother naa (older) mother am
brother tsil (younger) mountain dzil
corn naad no dooda
coyote maii rabbit gah
deer biih rug diyogi
dog lchaa school lta
earth nahosdzn; also ni sheep dib
father azh silver bsh ligaii
feather atsos singer hataali (medicine man)
re ko sister d (older)
sh l sister d (older)
friend alah (of the opposite sex) sky y
friend akis (of the same sex) smoke lid
frog chal sun jhonaae
girl atd turquoise dootliizhii
goat tlz water t
hello yth wool aghaa
home hooghan yes aoo
horse l
The Navajo language is very difficult for non-Navajos to understand because of the precise way
in which one object relates to another. These relationships may seem unimportant to outsiders,
but are exceptionally important to the Navajos. Their view of life, which is that everything
they do and that happens to them is related to the world around them, is very apparent in the
way they speak. For example, a Navajo would not say, I am hungry, but instead would say,
Hunger is hurting me. It has been said that in Navajo, words paint a picture in your mind.
When World War II started in the Pacific, it relied heavily on secret communications. The
military needed speedy communication among the islands of the Pacific Ocean, which were
spread out over thousands of miles. Deploying troops without tipping off the enemy was a
challenge and Japan had the advantage in the beginning. They were learning the time, place
and direction the American attack forces were deployed. But as the Navajo Marines started
transmitting messages by telephone and radio using their secret code, the United States soon
gained ground.
When the first Navajos started to develop a code, they never realized the task that lay ahead
of them. First they had to learn military and field terms in English. Then they had to create a
Navajo equivalent for each of these terms. In order to maintain secrecy, no written version of
any code was ever allowed in the battle zones. They had to commit every word to memory. While
creating the code, the Code Talkers used four basic rules to make memorization easier.
When World War II started in the Pacific, it relied heavily on secret communications. The
military needed speedy communication among the islands of the Pacific Ocean, which were
spread out over thousands of miles. Deploying troops without tipping off the enemy was a
challenge and Japan had the advantage in the beginning. They were learning the time, place
and direction the American attack forces were deployed. But as the Navajo Marines started
transmitting messages by telephone and radio using their secret code, the United States soon
gained ground.
When the first Navajos started to develop a code, they never realized the task that lay ahead
of them. First they had to learn military and field terms in English. Then they had to create a
Navajo equivalent for each of these terms. In order to maintain secrecy, no written version of
any code was ever allowed in the battle zones. They had to commit every word to memory. While
creating the code, the Code Talkers used four basic rules to make memorization easier.
project6.indd 135 5/10/07 11:58:45
136
1. The code words had to have some kind of logical connection to the term to which they referred.
2. Code words had to be unusually descriptive.
3. Code words had to be short.
4. They had to avoid words that could be confused with similar words.
Many of the code words were straightforward. For example, different aircraft were given
the name of different birds that acted similar to the planes. For instance a dive bomber was
much like a sparrow hawk to the Navajos, so it was called a gini; their word for sparrow hawk.
Other code words reflected the Navajo sense of humor. Below is a list of some of the terms
the Navajos created for military words.
Military term Navajo word Meaning
OFFICERS:
Major General So-na-kih Two Stars
Brigadier General So-ala-ih One Star
Colonel Astah-besh-legai Silver Eagle
Lieutenant Colonel Che-chil-getah-besh-legai Silver Oak Leaf
Major Che-chil-betah-ola Gold Oak Leaf
Captain Besh-legai-na-kih Two Silver Bars
Ist Lieutenant Besh-legai-a-lah-ih One Silver Bar
2nd Lieutenant Ola-alh-ih-ni-hi One Gold Bar
AIRPLANES: Wo-tah-dineh-ih (Air Corps)
Dive Bomber Gini Sparrow Hawk
Torpedo Plane Tas-chizzie Swallow
Observation Plane ine-ahs-jah Owl
Fighter Plane Da-he-tih-hi Hummingbird
Bomber Plane Jav-sho Buzzard
Patrol Plane Ga-gih Crow
Transport Plane Astah Eagle
SHIPS: Toh-dineh-ih (Water Clan Fleet)
Battleship Lo-tso Whale
Aircraft Carrier Tsidi-ney-ye-hi Bird carrier
Submarine Besh-lo Iron sh
Mine Sweeper Cha Beaver
Destroyer Ca-Io Shark
Troop Transport Dinch-nev-ye-hi Man carrierI
Cruiser Lo-tso-yazzie Small whale
In order to be able to include other words in their code, besides the assigned terms,
the Code Talkers added an alphabet code. They took the English letter and thought of
something that started with the letter, and then used the Navajo word for that object. Thus,
the Navajo words wol-la-chee (ant), be-la-sana (apple) and tse-nill (axe) all stood for
the letter a. They then used a group of Navajo words to spell out an English word. In
order to say Navy in Navajo Code they could say for instance, tsah (needle) wol-la-chee
(ant) ah-keh-di- glini (victor) tsah-ah-dzoh (yucca). When they received a message, it either
had terms they knew, or alphabet words which they could translate using the first letters of
English words. In this way, the Code Talkers could encode anything!
Source: http://library.thinkquest.org/J002073F/thinkquest/Language.htm
1. The code words had to have some kind of logical connection to the term to which they referred.
2. Code words had to be unusually descriptive.
3. Code words had to be short.
4. They had to avoid words that could be confused with similar words.
Many of the code words were straightforward. For example, different aircraft were given
the name of different birds that acted similar to the planes. For instance a dive bomber was
much like a sparrow hawk to the Navajos, so it was called a gini; their word for sparrow hawk.
Other code words reflected the Navajo sense of humor. Below is a list of some of the terms
the Navajos created for military words.
Military term Navajo word Meaning
OFFICERS:
Major General So-na-kih Two Stars
Brigadier General So-ala-ih One Star
Colonel Astah-besh-legai Silver Eagle
Lieutenant Colonel Che-chil-getah-besh-legai Silver Oak Leaf
Major Che-chil-betah-ola Gold Oak Leaf
Captain Besh-legai-na-kih Two Silver Bars
Ist Lieutenant Besh-legai-a-lah-ih One Silver Bar
2nd Lieutenant Ola-alh-ih-ni-hi One Gold Bar
AIRPLANES: Wo-tah-dineh-ih (Air Corps)
Dive Bomber Gini Sparrow Hawk
Torpedo Plane Tas-chizzie Swallow
Observation Plane ine-ahs-jah Owl
Fighter Plane Da-he-tih-hi Hummingbird
Bomber Plane Jav-sho Buzzard
Patrol Plane Ga-gih Crow
Transport Plane Astah Eagle
SHIPS: Toh-dineh-ih (Water Clan Fleet)
Battleship Lo-tso Whale
Aircraft Carrier Tsidi-ney-ye-hi Bird carrier
Submarine Besh-lo Iron sh
Mine Sweeper Cha Beaver
Destroyer Ca-Io Shark
Troop Transport Dinch-nev-ye-hi Man carrierI
Cruiser Lo-tso-yazzie Small whale
In order to be able to include other words in their code, besides the assigned terms,
the Code Talkers added an alphabet code. They took the English letter and thought of
something that started with the letter, and then used the Navajo word for that object. Thus,
the Navajo words wol-la-chee (ant), be-la-sana (apple) and tse-nill (axe) all stood for
the letter a. They then used a group of Navajo words to spell out an English word. In
order to say Navy in Navajo Code they could say for instance, tsah (needle) wol-la-chee
(ant) ah-keh-di- glini (victor) tsah-ah-dzoh (yucca). When they received a message, it either
had terms they knew, or alphabet words which they could translate using the first letters of
English words. In this way, the Code Talkers could encode anything!
Source: http://library.thinkquest.org/J002073F/thinkquest/Language.htm
Over to you
5 Phase de rcapitulation o les lves pourront
comparer les rponses donnes la question 1 et
ce quils savent maintenant. Cette rcapitulation est
une prise de parole en continu mais le professeur
peut aussi demander la suite de celle-ci une res-
titution crite sur la base des notes prises pendant
lcoute active.
project6.indd 136 5/10/07 11:58:53
137 Project 6 - Native America

Book p. 78-79
Growing Up Native-American
Style

Book p. 78-79
Growing Up Native-American
Style
Analyse du document
Texte tir dun magazine pour adolescents, comme
son nom lindique, do une prsentation destine
donner envie de lire un texte long.
Texte de type informatif, implicite rduit.
Structure : trois parties clairement dlimites et
annonces par des titres.
Contenu : la jeune Samatha dcrit son environne-
ment proche le lieu o elle vit, sa famille, sa vie
dadolescente amricaine (cole, loisirs, relations
personnelles) sujets qui nauront rien de surpre-
nant pour les lves.
Lexique
- Le mot slumber-parties a t donn en note de
bas de page an de permettre au groupe de saisir
lintroduction.
- Mots ncessitant une aide pralable : la lecture se
faisant par groupes, les notes ci-dessous pourront
tre reproduites et donnes au groupe respectif trai-
tant le passage en question. Chaque groupe pourra
ensuite, si des questions sont poses sur ces mots,
transmettre ce quil aura compris aux autres.
- Partie My name is Samatha
Elder: people of greater age, experience and authority. In
Native American cultures, elders are highly respected.
- Partie Culture Combo
Fifth grade: last year of primary school - American
children start school at the age of ve years. The rst
year at school is called kindergarten. The second year
at school is called rst grade. Primary school most
commonly consists of ve years of education. The last
year is the fth grade.

- Partie A Navajo education


Clan: a clan can be compared to a very large family.
People who have the same ancestors belong to the
same clan. The principal ancestor can be a totem. A
totem is a being, an animal or a plant that is consi-
dered as the rst ancestor of a clan and often gives
this clan its name.
Navajo society is a matrilineal society. This means
that the principal clan one belongs to is the clan of
the mother.
Navajo people belong to four clans: their mothers
clan, their fathers clan, their mothers fathers clan
and their fathers fathers clan. Clans are recorded on
marriage licenses by the Navajo Nation courts to pre-
vent intermarriage within the same clan. The names
of ones clans are used for identication of your rela-
tionship to a person.
Make sense
1 Les lves devraient tre capables de produire
des noncs tels que :
Perhaps Samatha is talking about her life on a res-
ervation / her family / her parents / what she does on
the reservation.
- She probably talks about her school / the traditions
and ceremonies.
2 Diviser la classe en trois groupes et donner
une des trois parties chacun des groupes ; distri-
buer au groupe concern laide lexicale suggre
ci-dessus.
3
Samathas Native
American identity
Samathas modern
American identity
Name of nation Navajo
Name
Family name
Traditional Navajo name
Given by elder / a secret
a kind of prophecy
Samatha
Where she was born El Paso, Texas
Where she grew up On reservation in Chinle
(give precise
geographical location
and name of State)
Arizona
Family
or family structure
Clan, mother, father, brother Mother, father, brother
Language(s) Navajo language English
project6.indd 137 5/10/07 11:59:01
138
Samathas Native
American identity
Samathas modern
American identity
Education, schools
School on reservation
Taught Navajo language from fth grade
Navajo Preparatory School,
Farmington, New Mexico,
not on the reservation
Leisure time and
social activities
Arts and crafts / beading
Sleepovers, skating,
dances, basketball games
Clothes Ceremonial clothing Jeans and sweatshirts
Prohibitions
Navajo religion (father)
Prohibited to date someone from own clan
Mum is Christian
Ritual ceremonies,
traditional
gatherings and
festivals
Kinaalda: puberty ceremony
Giant cookouts
Powwow
Hozho Naasha Walk in Beauty
Sleepovers, dances
Christmas
3 On veillera ici aussi ce que les notes prises
dans la logpage ne soient pas rdiges sous formes
dnoncs complets an que les prises de parole
restent naturelles.
Productions possibles (on pourra attirer lattention
sur le terme Culture Combo, terme repris dans le
titre du projet 12) :
In this magazine article, Samatha, a Navajo teen-
ager tells us about growing up on a reservation.
- The main issue / topic of the article is culture combo,
which means the combination / mixing of cultures.
- Samatha has a double culture, both Native Ameri-
can and American.
- For instance, she has a secret tribal name and must
go through Kinalda but her family also celebrates
Christmas and at the reservation school she was
taught in English
Over to you
4 Cette activit pourra tre prpare la mai-
son et mise en commun la suite du rappel des
acquis concernant tout le texte sur Samatha. Sui-
3
vant le temps dont on dispose et les entranements
conduits en amont, ce Over to you se prte bien un
mini dbat sur la question pose, surtout si parmi
les lves il sen trouve qui sont dans la mme
situation quelle.
Les productions seront bien sr libres mais si les
lves nen font pas tat eux-mmes, il faudra faire
mettre en vidence le cur de sens du texte, savoir :
Samatha is happy with having a double culture.
Recap
conduire dans la foule. On pourra ici demander
aux lves de reprendre leurs rponses aux ques-
tions 2a et b et de mettre en vidence lvolution de
leurs connaissances et / ou reprsentations.
Productions possibles :
I thought that Indians did not exist anymore. I didnt
know that they lived on reservations and that these
could be visited.
- I learnt that Navajos helped the Americans win the
war in the Pacic.
- I still dont know what a seed pot is
3

Book p. 80

Transparents n
os
2 et 14
STEP 2

Book p. 80

Transparents n
os
2 et 14
STEP 2
Dans ce step est prsent un document unique : un
documentaire de la BBC o les Hopis eux-mmes
font dcouvrir leur terre, leur mode de vie et leurs
rites. Cette vido donne llve nombre dinforma-
tions quil pourra mettre en regard de celles quil a
dj sur les Navajos.
project6.indd 138 5/10/07 11:59:03
139 Project 6 - Native America
Analyse du document
Ce document est un montage effectu partir dun
documentaire produit par la BBC sur la vie quoti-
dienne des Indiens Hopis dans leur rserve (elle-
mme situe lintrieur du territoire Navajo voir
carte p. 80 et n 14). Il met laccent sur la dter-
mination de cette nation conserver sa culture au
sein du monde amricain moderne . La langue,
le systme clanique, les rites, la transmission de
valeurs et de savoir-faire sont montrs comme les
enjeux prioritaires de cette lutte pour la survie dun
mode de vie immmorial.
Comme le souligne le post-it Strategy p. 80 du
manuel, son et images ne sont pas toujours syn-
chrones dans ce documentaire. Ce que lon voit et
ce que lon sait du thme sont donc des cls pour
la comprhension. Cest la raison pour laquelle on
gagnera adopter une dmarche daccs au sens
privilgiant dabord la lecture des images (ques-
tion 4 p. 81). Lcoute plus attentive de la bande son
( partir des questions 5 et 6) permettra de vri-
er les hypothses de sens mises dans la phase
danticipation (questions 2 et 3 p. 80) ainsi que de
prlever et de mettre en rseau des informations
complmentaires.
Start from what you know
1 Les lves ont dj tudi un documentaire
dans le chapitre 1 et pourront donc sappuyer sur
les savoir-faire acquis cette occasion pour rpon-
dre la partie b de cette question. Les caractris-
tiques du genre faire merger en priorit sont :
lintention informative ou militante, le tournage en
extrieur avec des quipes lgres, le recours
linterview et aux archives, la prsence dun com-
mentaire, souvent en voix off. Il sagit aussi bien
videmment de mettre en vidence la relation dif-
frente quentretiennent les lms de ction et les
lms documentaires avec la ralit dont ils traitent.
On gagnera cependant guider la rexion vers la
prsence dun point de vue dans les deux systmes
de reprsentation de faon viter que les lves ne
considrent les documentaires comme des trans-
criptions compltement dles du rel.
Make sense
2 a. Il sagit l de faire reprer la situation go-
graphique du territoire Hopi. Pour ce faire, on peut
renvoyer les lves la carte de la page 76 trans-
parent n 14 (quils ont dj tudie, aprs avoir
consult celle de la page 80 ainsi que celle de la
page VI transparent n 2). La rserve Hopi est
une enclave dans la rserve Navajo. Ce travail de
localisation sera loccasion de faire remmorer des
donnes gographiques (notamment topographi-
ques, gologiques et climatiques) vues lors de Step 1
et qui seront trs utiles la comprhension du sup-
port vido. La duret des conditions de vie est en
effet fortement mise en avant. Les relations difciles
avec les voisins Navajos sont galement voques
implicitement par le vieil homme qui prend la parole
devant les enfants durant le cours de langue Hopi.
b. Pour rpondre cette question, les lves gagne-
ront se rfrer leur logpage.
3 On pourra ventuellement demander aux l-
ves de sexprimer sur les diffrences entre les deux
photographies des pages 80-81 (lune en noir blanc,
donc peut-tre plus ancienne que lautre en cou-
leurs ; les vtements du spectateur blanc larrire
plan gauche de la photographie de la page 80, les voi-
tures gares devant les maisons de la photographie
page 81) pour amorcer une rexion sur le thme
tradition / modernit en amont du visionnage du
documentaire. Dans le souci dalimenter la commu-
nication, les opinions divergentes seront notes pour
quil soit possible dy revenir en n de parcours.
4 a. Comme indiqu ci-dessus, il est prfrable
de conduire ce premier visionnage en demandant aux
lves de se concentrer en priorit sur les images.
Pour chaque personnage que lon voit sexprimer, on
pourra demander aux lves dimaginer (parfois en
saidant des sous-titres) ce dont il parle en sappuyant
sur les activits dans lesquelles il est engag. Ce tra-
vail sera facilit par llaboration dun petit tableau au
brouillon selon le modle ci-dessous qui prparera la
prise de notes dans la logpage.
Character
What he /
she is doing
What he / she might
be talking about
Old man
in eld
Teenager
boy in eld
Man in
purple shirt
Same man
in blue shirt
Walking
through village
talking to
camera after
passage on
traditional
dance
Woman
sitting in
front of re
/ oven?
Making
pancakes?
Etc.
The Hopi Way of Life

Book p. 80
The Hopi Way of Life

Book p. 80
project6.indd 139 5/10/07 11:59:05
140
Mise en commun du contenu du tableau. Les lves
peuvent bien sr dj ce stade apporter des l-
ments dinformation provenant de leur comprhen-
sion de la bande son ou des sous-titres :
Im sure the old man in the field is talking about the
Hopi language because I read the word in the subti-
tles. Im pretty sure the woman sitting in front of the
fire is talking about the same thing because I heard
her say I want my daughters to learn the language.
Rappeler les caractristiques gnriques du docu-
mentaire pour constater que le commentaire en
voix off napparat videmment pas dans le tableau,
et pour cause, puisque lon ne voit jamais la jour-
naliste.
b. Les informations entres dans la logpage seront
destines, dans cette dmarche, tre conrmes,
compltes ou modies lors de lcoute ultrieure.
5 Ce deuxime visionnage sera conduit avec une
attention particulire porte la bande son.
On pourra partager la classe en 5 groupes :
- groupe 1 : climate, habitat, dwelling ;
- groupe 2 : education and schools ;
- groupe 3 : traditions (1 sous-groupe pour la danse du
serpent, 1 sous-groupe pour le Piki et pour les fem-
mes prparant des galettes dans leur cuisine) ;
- groupes 4 et 5 : le commentaire en voix off.
6 a. La prsentation des informations collectes
dans chaque groupe sera alors faite par un rappor-
teur aprs une phase de mise en commun au sein
de chaque groupe lissue de ltape prcdente.
b. Cette phase dcoute active sera loccasion dinvi-
ter les lves demander des prcisions, des clari-
cations, etc. (voir Introduction, p. 16 de ce guide).
Over to you
7 Cette activit sera conduite en prise de parole
en continu suivie dune interaction avec la classe. Les
lves volontaires ou dsigns sont invits revenir
sur les hypothses mises lors de la phase danti-
3
cipation pour les conrmer ou les inrmer avant de
prsenter un aspect de la vie des Hopis qui les a mar-
qus, dexpliquer pourquoi et de discuter de leurs
choix et de leurs raisons avec leurs camarades.
Recap
Prise de parole partir de la logpage ou aprs mmo-
risation des entres renseignes dans celles-ci.
Des informations supplmentaires sur la nation
Hopi gurent dans le texte suggr en Debrieng
page 72 du logbook. Si le professeur lestime utile,
ce texte pourrait tre donn lire la maison pour
prparer la fois le Over to you et le Recap de la
page 81 du manuel. On pourra demander aux l-
ves de prlever par surlignement dans ce texte des
lments susceptibles dtoffer la logpage, qui ne
sont pas mentionns dans le documentaire.
On pourra galement leur fournir les dtails ci-des-
sous :
The focus of the Hopi religion involves Kachinas,
which represent everything in nature. For a Hopi, a
Kachina can represent the spirits of ancestors, dei-
ties of the natural world, or go betweens between
man and the gods. The Kachinas may bring rain,
punish transgressions or cure disease.
During the season of Kachina dance ceremonies, the
Hopi men dress in colorful masks and impersonate
these spirits. Hopi men become the Kachinas with
the power and spirit of the Kachinas instilled in
these masks. Considered sacred, these masks must
be kept out of sign when not in use. Kachinas play a
paramount role in the Hopi way of life.
A Kachina doll is a carved doll wearing the costume
of a particular spirit, usually presented as a gift to a
child.
http://www.durangosilver.com/hopihistory.htm
(Ce travail la maison pourra tre partag : un
groupe pourra traiter le texte de la page 72 du log-
book un autre le texte sur les poupes Kachina.)
project6.indd 140 5/10/07 11:59:06
141 Project 6 - Native America
Words (logbook, p. 64-66)
A Se faire comprendre loral
a. I didnt know much about Native Americans. I
didnt know what reservations were. I didnt know
anything precise about Indian customs and beliefs.
Ive learned that the Navajo and the Hopi have a lot
in common. They speak English but they also learn
their native language at school. Theyve kept their
own cultural traditions. For instance, the Navajo
have a secret name; the Hopi hold a ceremony
called The Snake Dance.
b. I didnt know much

about Native

Americans.
I didnt know

what reservations were. I didnt


know

anything precise

about

Indian customs

and
beliefs. Ive learned that

the Navajo

and

the
Hopi have

a lot

in common. They speak

English
but they

also learn their native language

at
school. Theyve kept their

own cultural traditions.


For

instance, the Navajo have

a secret name; the


Hopi hold

a ceremony called The Snake Dance.


c.
/i/: beliefs, secret
//: native, Indians, didnt, Americans, anything, in,
English, traditions, instance
D Word bank
Lenseignant est libre dajouter dautres mots aux
trois proposs (auquel cas, reproduire une grille de
ce type). Toutefois, il importe que ces mots puis-
sent faire lobjet dun travail similaire (synonymes,
drivs) pour permettre llve de construire sa
comptence lexicale.
Ce travail sur trois mots-cls du chapitre va permet-
tre de revoir et / ou dapprendre beaucoup dautres
mots qui leur sont lis.
ceremony allow traditional
Phrase(s) dans laquelle /
lesquelles jai rencontr
ce mot
Domaine de sens auquel
je peux le rattacher
Nature du mot nom verbe adjectif
Dnition
!
Ne pas oublier !
pluriel = ceremonies allow se prononce
comme cow ou now
Prononciation /sermni/ /lau/ /trdnl/
Mots proches
synonymes
rites, customs to permit
to let
customary
conventional
Mots loigns
antonymes
prevent
forbid
prohibit
unconventional
modern
Quelques mots
de la mme famille
(avec leur nature,
et leur sens)
ceremonial = related
to ceremonies
ceremonious =
excessively formal
allowance / allow =
accept, admit
disallow = to refuse
something because it is
not valid
traditionally
!
Ne pas confondre !
(homophones, homonymes)
project6.indd 141 5/10/07 11:59:07
142
ceremony allow traditional
Collocations,
tournures idiomatiques
stand on ceremony
master of ceremonies
= MC = a person who
introduces guests or
entertainers during a
formal occasion or a
show
Allow me (used to offer
help politely)
Proverbes, dictons
Every dog is allowed one
bite.
Dont allow the grass
to grow on the path of
friendship.
Id never join a club that
would allow a person
like me to become
a member. Woody Allen
The youth of America
is their oldest
tradition. Its been
going on for three
hundred years
Oscar Wilde
Tradition is a guide
and not a jailer.
Listening
Reduction of pronouns
1 a. In the rocky high grounds of the heart of the
American west lives an American Indian tribe called
the Hopi who govern their own lives. They were never
conquered, they never signed a peace treaty but the
white man came all the same
Les lves pourront constater que le nom de la tribu
the Hopi est fortement accentu alors que les trois
pronoms qui suivent (who, they et they) sont
systmatiquement rduits.
Stress on negatives
2 Listen to what Lorin Poliara says and try and
pick out the negatives he uses when talking about his
friends.
On attend que les lves reprent not speak our
language et puis not many opportunities quils
pourront ensuite mettre en relation.
Speaking
Relative clauses
5 Rchir sur la langue : Propositions relati-
ves (logbook, p. 67)
a. 1. Her mother, who is Navajo, is Christian.
2. Samatha went to Navajo Preparatory School, which
is in Farmington.
3. The ideas that tourists have about Native Ameri-
cans are often wrong.
4. The boy that Samatha dated belonged to her clan.
5. Each Navajo belongs to a clan whose members can
be very numerous.
b. 3 Her mother, who is Navajo, is Christian. Her
mother is Navajo. Her mother is Christian.
Samatha went to Navajo Preparatory School. Navajo
Preparatory School is in Farmington.
Samatha dated a boy. The boy belonged to her clan.
c. Quels mots ont disparu ? Les pronoms relatifs.
Quel est leur rle dans les noncs ? Ils lient les
deux noncs.
d. WHICH semploie lorsque lantcdent nest pas
humain.
WHO semploie lorsque lantcdent est humain.
THAT semploie indiffremment pour les deux
(humain et non humain).
WHOSE semploie lorsquil y a une relation de pos-
session.
e. 1. The Iroquois, who live in the Great Lakes area,
share the same mythology.
2. The Tlingit whose society is matrilineal are a Native
American people.
3. Navajo dance songs are traditional songs which /
that are about love, courting and honour.
Obligation and prohibition
8 Rchir sur la langue : Obligation / inter-
diction (logbook, p. 67)
b. Pour exprimer linterdiction : do not let / do not
allow
Pour exprimer lobligation : must.
c. Pour exprimer linterdiction : mustnt / cant.
1. Young girls cant / mustnt help with the cooking
before Kinaalda.
2. Young people cant / mustnt date members of
their clan.
project6.indd 142 5/10/07 11:59:08
143 Project 6 - Native America
Reading
The passive voice
11 Rchir sur la langue : La voix passive
(logbook, p. 68)
b. 1. Tourists were fascinated by Samathas dark skin
and ceremonial clothes.
2. A ceremony is held by Native Americans to initiate
young girls into adult life.
3. After Kinaalda, Samatha was respected as an adult.
Phrases 1 et 2 : voix passive ; phrase 3, voix active.
d.
votre avis, pourquoi la voix passive est-elle
employe ici ?
Samatha parle delle-mme quand elle tait plus
jeune et avant la crmonie qui a fait delle une
adulte de sa communaut. On peut comprendre
quelle parle delle une poque de sa vie o elle ne
pouvait pas prendre de dcision.
Pensez la faon dont vous traduiriez :
We were taught in English: Nos cours taient en
anglais / on nous faisait les cours en anglais / les
professeurs enseignaient en anglais.
I wasnt allowed to help with cooking: Je navais
pas le droit / on minterdisait de /
Quelles remarques pouvez-vous faire ?
Les quivalents franais des verbes teach et
allow ne peuvent pas, en franais, se mettre
la tournure passive de la mme faon quen
anglais.
En anglais, teach et allow sont doublement
transitifs (teach someone something / allow someone
something) alors quen franais, lun des deux com-
plments essentiels de ces verbes est ncessai-
rement introduit par une prposition (enseigner
quelque chose quelquun / permettre quelque
chose quelquun).
En anglais comme en franais, un verbe peut se
mettre la forme passive sil est transitif direct a
des complments dobjet directs.
Cest la raison pour laquelle teach et allow peu-
vent avoir deux tournures passives.
At school, we were taught in English, but
starting in the fifth grade we had a Navajo
culture class; lessons on the language
and history of the Navajo Nation, as
well as arts and crafts, like beading. For
fun, wed skate and go to sleepovers,
dances and basketball games. My family
also celebrated Christmas. My dad was
raised in the Navajo religion, while my
mom, who is also Navajo, is Christian.
I respect both faiths. On weekends in
Chinle, everyone would get together for
giant cookouts. [] I wasnt allowed to
help with cooking, however, until I went
through Kinaalda, the puberty ceremony.
It was done to recognize me as a woman
and to protect and cleanse me. Before the
ceremony, I had been considered a child.
After it, I was respected as an adult and
given household responsibilities.
Teen, March 1999
At school, we were taught in English, but
starting in the fifth grade we had a Navajo
culture class; lessons on the language
and history of the Navajo Nation, as
well as arts and crafts, like beading. For
fun, wed skate and go to sleepovers,
dances and basketball games. My family
also celebrated Christmas. My dad was
raised in the Navajo religion, while my
mom, who is also Navajo, is Christian.
I respect both faiths. On weekends in
Chinle, everyone would get together for
giant cookouts. [] I wasnt allowed to
help with cooking, however, until I went
through Kinaalda, the puberty ceremony.
It was done to recognize me as a woman
and to protect and cleanse me. Before the
ceremony, I had been considered a child.
After it, I was respected as an adult and
given household responsibilities.
Teen, March 1999

Book p. 84-85
YOUR PROJECT

Book p. 84-85
YOUR PROJECT
Cette tape nale peut mettre en scne un ou deux
lves (pas plus, sinon la prise de parole ne sera
plus en continu). Pendant la prestation, il est impor-
tant que le reste de la classe soit mis en activit an
que lattention soit maintenue. Des tches doivent
tre imprativement donnes aux lves qui cou-
tent leurs camarades :
- poser des questions : pour aider les lves les
moins laise, ces questions doivent pouvoir inclure
des questions de conrmation : did you say ? I am
not sure I understood (On peut les prparer dans
une phase pralable : use your logapge to prepare
questions) ;
- leur demander dvaluer la prestation de leur(s)
camarade(s) sous forme de grille labore pour eux.
On divisera la classe en trois groupes : un pour cha-
cune des trois nations suggres dans les pages 84
et 85 du manuel. Nous fournissons dans les pages
ci-dessous des documents tirs dune encyclop-
die sur les Indiens, que lon pourra distribuer aux
groupes selon la nation quils auront choisie. Libre
eux daller chercher dautres informations dans
des sources diffrentes.
Le temps de prparation est libre puisque la prpa-
ration est effectue hors-classe mais avant la pr-
sentation elle-mme, limiter le temps de prparation
5 minutes maximum. Les encourager utiliser la
logpage pour viter la rdaction, et sentraner
sexprimer avant dtre valus.
On peut xer une dure approximative de 10 minu-
project6.indd 143 5/10/07 11:59:09
144
tes par prestation. Ceci permet de faire passer
facilement 3 groupes en une sance en laissant du
temps pour les questions de lauditoire.
Il peut tre pratique de disposer dun vido-projec-
teur et dun accs Internet si les lves ont envie
dillustrer leurs propos ; sinon, ils pourront appor-
ter leurs propres illustrations et les afcher ou les
faire circuler.
Deux grilles dvaluation : la premire, pour lensei-
gnant, est base sur la grille dvaluation de loral
au baccalaurat en section STG, mais adapte au
niveau des classes de 2
nde
; la seconde grille, pour
les lves, est simplie. Bien sr, lenseignant a
le dernier mot pour la notation, mais il peut tre
intressant de prendre en compte la notation des
lves.
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur) :
Expression en continu
Expression en interaction
(rponses aux questions)
Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 1 Produit des noncs
trs courts, strotyps,
beaucoup de pauses
= 2 pts
Rpond de faon trs limite,
la communication repose sur la
rptition et la reformulation
= 2 pts
La langue est partiellement
comprhensible
= 2 pts
Degr 2 Produit un discours
assez simple
= 5 pts
Rpond et ragit de faon
simple
= 4 pts
La langue est comprhensible
malgr des erreurs et un
lexique limit
= 4 pts
Degr 3 Produit un discours
articul, structur et
pertinent
= 8 pts
Rpond avec prcision,
reformule ses propos
= 6 pts
La langue est comprhensible
et globalement correcte
= 6 pts
Bonus Est capable de fournir
des explications et dtails
supplmentaires
= 2 pts
Est capable de remployer
structures et lexique bon
escient
= 2 pts
Total
(max.)
8 pts 6 pts + 2 pts bonus 6 pts + 2 pts bonus
Suggestion pour une co-valuation du projet (lves) :
chelle de points : 1 = trs insufsant 2 = insufsant 3 = moyen 4 = bien 5 = trs bien
Dans lensemble jai trouv que (jentoure la note)
lexpos de mon camarade tait comprhensible 1 2 3 4 5
lexpos tait bien organis et bien expliqu 1 2 3 4 5
il sest exprim avec clart et sans trop derreurs 1 2 3 4 5
il a t capable de rpondre avec prcision aux questions quon lui a
poses
1 2 3 4 5
Total / 20

project6.indd 144 5/10/07 11:59:12


145 Project 6 - Native America
Northwest
Native Americans of the Northwest Coast
Bella Bella
Bella Coola
Chinook
Coosans
Haida
Kwakiutl
Makah
Nootkans
Quileute
Salish, Central Coast
Salish, Northern Coast
Salish, Southern Coast
Salish, Southwestern Coast
Tillamook
Tlingit
Tsimshian
Upper Umpqua
Tlingit
Tlingit (`Tln git or `Kln kit), meaning human beings, is taken from the groups name for themselves.
Location Tlingit groups lived along the Pacic coast from roughly Icy Bay in the north to Chatham Sound
in the south, or roughly throughout the Alaskan panhandle. This country, no more than 30 miles wide, but
roughly 500 miles long, is marked by a profusion of fjords, inlets and bays, and islands, most of which are
mountainous. The climate is marked by fog, rain, snow, and strong winds in fall and winter. Most Coastal
Tlingits live in Alaska and cities of the greater Northwest.
Population Total Tlingit population was at least 10,000 in 1740. In the early 1990s there were roughly
14,000 Tlingits in the United States and 1,200 in Canada.
Language Tlingit is remotely related to Athapaskan languages.
Religion Animals and even natural features had souls similar to those of people. Thus they were treated
with respect, in part to win their help or to avoid their malice. Hunters engaged in ritual purication
before the hunt, and during the hunt the hunter as well as his family back home engaged in certain formal
rules of behaviour.
Shamans were very powerful. Most were men. Shamans could cure, control weather, bring success in hun-
ting, tell the future, and expose witches, but only if they were consulted in time and not impeded by another
shaman. Their powers came from spirits that could be summoned by a special song. A shaman underwent
regular periods of physical deprivation to keep spiritually pure. Neither he nor his wife could cut their hair.
Government The basic political units were matrilineal clans of two divisions, Raven and Eagle. Each clan
was subdivided into lineages or house groups. All territory and property rights were held by the clans.
Clan and lineage chiefs, or headmen, assigned their groups resources, regulated subsistence activities,
ordered the death of trespassers, and hosted memorial ceremonies.
Customs The two divisions served as opposites for marriage and ceremonial purposes. A clans crest
represented its totem, or the living things, heavenly bodies, physical features, and supernatural beings
associated with it. Crests were displayed on house posts, totem poles, canoes, feast dishes, and other
items. All present members of an opposite division received payment to view a crest, because in so doing
they legitimated both the display and the crests associated privileges. All clan property could be bought
and sold, given as gifts, or taken in war.
Women had high status, probably because they controlled the food supply (not catching sh but the much
harder and more laborious jobs of cutting, drying, smoking and baling it). The three important feasts were
the funeral feast, memorial potlatch feast, and childrens feast.
All babies were believed to be reincarnations of maternal relatives. At about age eight, a boy went to live
with his maternal uncle, who saw that he toughened and puried himself and learned the traditions and
responsibilities of his clan and lineage. Girls were conned in a dark room or cellar for up to two years
(according to rank and wealth) at their rst period, at which time they learned the traditions of their clan,
performed certain rituals, and observed behaviour restrictions. At the end of this time their ears were
pierced, high-status families gave a potlatch, and girls were considered marriageable.
Only people of opposite divisions but similar clans and lineages could marry. Marriage formalities inclu-
ded mutual gift giving.
Dwellings Tlingits usually lived in one main (winter) village and perhaps one or more satellite villages.
Each house could hold 40-50 people, including about six families and a few unmarried adults or slaves.
Documents pour le projet
project6.indd 145 5/10/07 11:59:13
146
Each family slept on partitioned wooden platforms that could be removed to make a larger ceremonial
space. The four main house posts were carved and painted in totemic or ancestral designs.
Diet Fish was the staple, especially all ve species of salmon, as well as eulachon, halibut, and herring.
Fish was boiled, baked, roasted, or dried and smoked for winter. Whole salmon might be frozen for winter
use. Other important sea foods included shellsh, seaweed, seal, sea lion, sea otter, and porpoise.
The people also ate land mammals such as deer, bear, and mountain sheep and goat. Dogs assisted in
the hunt.
Key Technology Salmon were caught in rectangular, wooden traps; trapped behind stone walls; or impa-
led on wooden stakes in low water. Tlingits began forging iron in the late eighteenth century, although
some iron was acquired from intercontinental trade or drift wreckage in aboriginal times. Some foods
were baked in earth ovens.
Trade Imports included walrus ivory from Bering Sea Eskimos, copper from interior tribes, dentalia shell
from the south, Haida canoes, Tsimshian carvings, slaves, furs, skin garments decorated with porcupine
quills, and various sh products. Exports included Chilkat blankets, seaweed, leaf tobacco, and sh oil.
Notable Arts Tlingits excelled at wood carving. Chilkat Tlingit blankets were the most intricate and
sought-after textiles of the Northwest Coast. They were really ceremonial robes, and the ceremonies, in
which myth was dramatized through dance, were fully as artistic as the crafts themselves.
Transportation The most common type of canoe was of spruce, except in the south, where they used red
cedar.
Dress In warm weather, women wore cedar-bark aprons, whereas men went naked. Blankets of woven
cedar bark, mountain goat wool or dog hair, or tanned, sewn skins kept people warm in cold weather.
War and Weapons War occurred between clans in different groups or tribes for reason of plunder or,
more often, revenge. Settlement involved the ceremonial kidnapping and ransom of high-ranking indi-
viduals, dancing, and feasting.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations Many Tlingits live in their traditional villages, although many also live in
urban centres in Alaska and the Northwest. The Teslin Tlingit Council Band (part of the Da Ka Nation)
controls three reserves on 187 hectares of land in the southwest part of Teslin. The 1993 population was
482 (119 houses).
Facilities on the reserves include two administration buildings, a longhouse, a clinic, a recreation center,
and a drop-in center.
Important economic activities of the Teslin Tlingit Council Band include a coin laundry. The band plans to
organize a development corporation.
Daily Life Most villages now have full electric service as well as amenities such as satellite television.
Every village has a grade school, some have high schools, and all have at least one church. The traditional
clan system still exists but has declined in importance. Relatively few people speak the Tlingit language,
although it is now being taught in school. Most Tlingits are Christian. Urban Tlingits show a markedly
greater level of assimilation than do those away from cities.
Great Plains
Native Americans of the Great Plains
Apache
Arapaho
Arikara
Assiniboine
Blackfeet
Cheyenne
Comanche
Cree, Plains
Crow
Dakota
Gros Ventres
Hidatsa
Ioway
Kaw
Kiowa
Lakota
Manda
Missouria
Nakota
Ojibwa, Plains
Omaha
Osage
Otoe
Pawnee
Ponca
Quapaw
Tonkawa
Wichita
project6.indd 146 5/10/07 11:59:19
147 Project 6 - Native America
Dakota
Dakota (D`kot), a Siouan dialect spoken by the Eastern group of the tribe commonly referred to as
Sioux. The Dakota refer to themselves as Dakota. The word Sioux is derived originally from an Ojibwa
word, Nadowe-is-iw, meaning lesser adder (enemy is the implication), which was corrupted by French
voyageurs to Nadoussioux and then shortened to Sioux. Today, many use the term Dakota or, less com-
monly, Lakota to refer to all Sioux people.
Location In the late seventeenth century, the Dakotas lived in Wisconsin and north-central Minnesota,
around Mille Lacs. By the nineteenth century they had migrated to the prairies and eastern plains of
Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and eastern South Dakota. Today, most Dakotas live on reservations in the
Dakotas, Nebraska, and Minnesota and in regional cities and towns.
Population Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota speakers numbered about 25,000 in the late seventeenth century.
At that time there were approximately 5,000 Dakota speakers. There were about 12,00015,000 Dakota
and Nakota speakers in the late eighteenth century. Today there are at least 6,000 Dakotas living in the
United States and Canada.
Language The Eastern group speaks the Dakota dialect of Dakota, a Siouan language.
Religion Male and female shamans provided religious leadership. Depending on the tribe, their duties
might include leading hunting and war parties; curing the sick; foretelling the future, including the wea-
ther; and interpreting visions and dreams.
Other religious activities included vision quests and ritual purication in the sweat lodge.
Dwellings Dakotas built small, occasionally palisaded villages near lakes and rice swamps when they
lived in the Wisconsin-Minnesota area. At that time they lived in large, heavily timbered bark houses with
pitched roofs.
Diet Siouan people in the Ohio Valley farmed corn, beans, and squash. While still in the Great Lakes
region, women grew corn, beans, and squash. People ate turtles, sh, dogs, and large and small game
and gathered wild rice. Buffalo, which roamed the area in small herds, was also an important food source.
People burned grass around the range and forced the buffalo toward an ambush.
Key Technology Bows and arrows were the main hunting weapons. All groups made pottery. Iron-con-
taining clays were pulverized in stone mortars and mixed with gluey material to make paint. Brushes
were made of bone, horn, wood, or a tuft of antelope hair mounted on a stick.
Trade Depending on time and location, Dakota tribes traded various woodland/prairie/plains goods.
Items included wild rice, pottery, and skins and other animal products.
Notable Arts The Dakota made ne painted rawhide trunks. They incised and painted pareches, pipe
pouches, robes, and other items.
Dress Most clothing was made from buckskin. In the Woodlands, the people wore breechclouts, dresses,
leggings, and moccasins, with fur robes for extra warmth. On the Plains, they decorated their clothing
with beads and quillwork in geometric and animal designs.
War and Weapons The idea that the purpose of war was to bring glory to an individual rather than to
acquire territory or destroy an enemy people was distinctive to the Siouan people and may have originated
with them. Dakotas did not generally ght other Dakotas.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations The Fort Peck reservation, Montana, established in 1873, consists of about
one million acres, about one quarter of which is tribally owned, with 6,700 residents.
The Devils Lake reservation, North Dakota, established in 1867, consist of 53,239 acres, most of which
have been allotted, with about 2,900 in residence.
The Lake Traverse Reservation, North Dakota, established in 1867, consists of about 105,000 acres, with
a resident population of 5,306.
The Santee Sioux Reservation, Nebraska, established in 1863, consists of about 3,600 acres. In 1992 there
were 748 residents.
The Flandreau Santee Sioux Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1935, consists of about 2,180 acres
and 230 residents.
The Lower Sioux Community, Redwood, Minnesota, established in 1887, owns 1,742.93 acres, with about
300 residents.
The Prairie Island Community, Minnesota, established in 1887, consists of about 534 acres, with 56 resi-
dents in 1990.
The Upper Sioux Community, Minnesota, established in 1938, consists of 743.57 acres. There were
43 residents in 1990.
project6.indd 147 5/10/07 11:59:24
148
Economy The Devils Lake Sioux have a plant that makes non-violent armaments such as camouage
nets. There are also a bingo hall and a casino. With an inadequate land base and little industry, many
residents of the Santee Sioux Reservation must seek employment in nearby cities and towns. A pharma-
ceutical company provides a small number of jobs.
The Lower Sioux own a casino, as do Prairie Island (casino and bingo hall), Upper Sioux (casino), and Prior
Lake (casino and bingo hall).
Daily life At Lake Traverse, Sisseton-Wahpeton Community.
Lakota
Lakota (L`ko t), a Siouan Dialect spoken by the Western or Teton (Titunwan, prairie dwellers) group
of the tribe commonly referred to as Sioux. The subdivisions of the Western group include Oglada (they
scatter their own), Sicangu (burned thighs; also known by the French name Brul), Hunkpapa (end
village), Minneconjou (plant beside the stream), Itazipco (no bows; also known by the French name
Sans Arcs), Sihasapa (Blackfeet), and Oohenonpa (two kettles). The Lakota refer to themselves as
Lakota (ally), as Lakota Oyate (Lakota people), or as Ikce Wicasa (Natural or Free People).
Location In the late seventeenth century, the Lakota lived in north-central Minnesota, around Mille Lacs,
and parts of Wisconsin. By the mid-nineteenth century they had migrated to the western Dakotas, north-
western Nebraska, northeastern Wyoming, and southeastern Montana. Today, most Lakotas live on res-
ervations in South Dakota as well as in regional and national cities. Many Lakotas leave the reservation to
nd work but return for summer visits and, often, to retire.
Population Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota speakers numbered approximately 25,000 in the late eighteenth
century; almost of these were probably Lakotas. In the mid-1990s there were roughly 55,000 Lakotas
living on U.S reservations, mostly Oglalas at Pine Ridge and Sicangus at Rosebud. There were 103,225
Sioux people in the United States, according to the 1990 census.
Language The Western group speaks the Lakota dialect of Dakota, a Siouan language.
Government Chiefs were older men who had distinguished themselves in hunting and battle and were
noted for their wisdom, well-spokenness, and generosity. Each band also had a council of such men,
who governed without any force to back them up except the respect engendered by their position and a
consensus-style of decision making.
Customs On the Plains, patrilineal clans gave way to bilaterally descended extended families. The band,
Oglala, for example, came together only for the summer activities. Otherwise it was divided into indepen-
dent subbands, which themselves broke into even smaller groups during winter.
Generosity was highly valued, as were bravery, fortitude, wisdom, and delity. In the giveaway custom, peo-
ple shared generously, especially with the less able or fortunate and during important times in their lives.
Social control was effected mostly by peer pressure and ridicule, although serious crimes were punished
by revenge and/or adjudication by the council.
Prestige was based less on wealth than on bravery, generosity, oratorical ability, supernatural powers,
and other factors. Wealth and kin connections did, however, play a part, and status ultimately rested on a
combination of individual and family qualities.
Girls who had reached puberty were considered marriageable. Boys did not have a specic puberty cere-
mony. Their vision quest, rst successful buffalo hunt, rst war party, and so forth might be marked by
feasts and gifts and were considered rites of passage.
As a mater of respect there was no verbal communication between a man and his mother-in-law.
Dwellings Once on the Plains, they shifted to conical buffalo-skin tipis in both summer and winter. The
average tipi was made of about 12 buffalo skins, dressed and sewn together by women and placed over a
pole framework. A tipi held one family.
Skin liners helped insulate against the cold and wind. Tanned buffalo robes served as beds and blankets
and buffalo robes as carpeting. Tipis were often painted with special symbols and war exploits and were
also decorated with feathers, quills, or other items.
Diet Large and small game, wild rice, maple sugar, and sh constituted the bulk of the Woodland diet.
On the Plains, people mostly ate buffalo. No part of the animal went to waste.
Key Technology On the Plains, most manufactured items came from the buffalo.
Notable Arts Winter counts were pictographs on hides that recorded annual events. Clothing and bags
were decorated with paintings and porcupine quillwork, later beadwork.
project6.indd 148 5/10/07 11:59:25
149 Project 6 - Native America
Transportation On the Plains, dogs served as the rst beast of burden. They still played a role in trans-
portation even after the Lakota acquired horses during the mid-eighteenth century. Horse travois carried
tipis and other goods.
Dress Men wore deerskin or elk-skin breechclouts, leggings, and soft-sole moccasins. They braided
their hair, and they often wore face and body paint. In winter, women wore long elk-skin dresses, knee-
length leggings, and moccasins. They braided and parted their hair in the middle. They also wore face
paint and earrings. Some of the above clothing was discarded in summer.
From about the mid-nineteenth century on, certain war leaders wore long eagle-feathered war bonnets
for ceremonial purposes.
War and Weapons Warfare and raiding were the primary means to gain prestige. Weapons included
bows and arrows, buffalo-hide shields, war clubs, and lances.
War leaders, generally young men, had absolute authority but only over the war party while on a sortie.
War and raiding parties were completely voluntary, motivated mainly by the desire to attain prestige. Men
generally engaged in ritual purication in the sweat lodge before battle. Large battles involving hundreds
of warriors occurred only in the late historical period.
As practised in the early nineteenth century, counting coup meant achieving bravery in a hand-to-hand
encounter with the enemy or some other feat of daring such as stealing a horse within a village. Killing
and scalping generally merited less honour than did counting coup, although, in the nineteenth century,
scalping was important to the Lakota for ritualistic purposes.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations Standing Rock Reservation, North Dakota, established in 1868, contains
847,799 acres. In 1990 there were 4,866 Indian residents.
Cheyenne River Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1889, contains 1,419,499 acres. The 1990 Indian
population was 5,100.
Lower Brul Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1868, contains 114,219 acres. The 1990 Indian
population was 994.
Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1863, contains 125,483 acres. The 1990 Indian
population was 1,531.
Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1868, contains 2,778,000 acres. The 1990 Indian
population was 11,180.
Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1868, contains almost 1 million acres. The 1990 Indian
population was 1,160.
Economy Moccasins are manufactured at Pine Ridge. Pine Ridge has plans to open a casino. Except for
a few gas stations, convenience stores, and arts and crafts stores, most retail businesses on the reserva-
tions are owned by non-Indians. In general, land leasing is the most important economic activity. Unem-
ployment on all Lakota reservations is commonly over 50 percent and has reached 80 percent.
Daily Life Such seminal mid- to late-nineteenth-century events as the Battle of the Greasy Grass (also
known as Custers Last Stand) and the Wounded Knee massacre remain very much in the hearts and
minds of Lakotas, with many observing annual remembrance ceremonies and pilgrimages to sites.
Although many Lakotas consider themselves Christian, they continue to follow many traditional cere-
monies and customs. Summer remains a time of traditional ceremonies and feasting, including the Sun
Dance, which today lasts for four days.
The original sacred pipe of the Lakota Nation is kept at the Cheyenne River Reservation.
In general, the Lakota reservations face problems associated with poverty, including relatively poor health
related in part to substance abuse.
Nakota
Nakota (N`ko t), a Siouan dialect spoken by the Central groupwhose divisions include Yankton (end
village) and Yanktonai (little end village) of the tribe commonly referred to as Sioux. The Nakota refer
to themselves as Nakota (ally) or as Ikce Wicasa (Natural or Free people).
Location Nakota speakers migrated from north-central Minnesota, around Mille Lacs, in the early seven-
teenth century, to near the Missouri River in present-day eastern North and South Dakota, southwestern
Minnesota, and southwestern Iowa in the nineteenth century. Today, Yanktons and Yanktonais live on
reservations in the Dakotas and Montana as well as in regional cities and towns.
project6.indd 149 5/10/07 11:59:25
150
Population Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota speakers numbered approximately 25,000 in the late seven-
teenth century. At that time there were approximately 5,000 Nakota speakers. In the mid-nineteenth
century there were about 3,000 Yanktons and 6,000 Yanktonais. Today there are roughly 10,000 Yanktons
and Yanktonais.
Language Nakota is a dialect of Dakota, a Siouan language.
Religion Wakan Tanka was known as the great spirit and creator of the universe. Access to the super-
natural world was provided in part by guardian spirits obtained through quests and in dreams. From the
eighteenth century on, Nakotas performed the Sun Dance.
Customs Nakota bands were composed of patrilineal clans.
Dwellings From the mid to late eighteenth century, the Yaktonai lived in earth lodges like the Arikara,
as well as in tipis.
Diet Buffalo were hunted in part by burning grass around the range and forcing the animals toward an
ambush. Women also grew some corn, beans, and squash along the river bottomlands and gathered
fruits and berries.
Key Technology In addition to the usual tools and other items made of animal parts, Nakotas caught sh
with weirs and basket traps and wove mats and various containers. They also made pottery and pipes.
Transportation On the Plains, horses replaced dogs as travois carriers around 1760. They also used
round bull-boats when crossing water.
Dress Most clothing was made from buckskin.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations The Yankton reservation, South Dakota, established in 1853, contains rou-
ghly 36,000 acres, and about 3,400 residents.
The Upper Sioux Community, Minnesota, established in 1938, contains 743.57 acres. There were 43 resi-
dents in 1990.
The Fort Peck Reservation, Montana, established in 1873, contains about 1,000,000 acres, with 6,700
residents.
The Devils Lake Reservation, North Dakota, established in 1867, contains 53,239 acres. There were 4,420
people enrolled in 1992, with about 2,900 in residence.
The Standing Rock Reservation, North Dakota, established in 1868, contains 847,799 acres. There were
4,866 Indian residents in 1990.
The Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota, established in 1863, contains 125,483 acres. There were
3,521 enrolled members in 1992, with about 1,200 in residence.
Economy The Devils Lake people have a bingo hall and casino as well as a plant that makes non-violent
armaments such as camouage nets.
At Crow Creek, other sources of employment include a mufer plant, a boarding school, federal and tribal
jobs, and off-reservation jobs.
Daily Life Standing Rock Community college was chartered in 1973. The reservation has a history of
maintaining cultural integrity through relative isolation. There is also a community college at Fort Peck.
That reservation has bucked the gambling tide, refusing to turn their bingo hall into a casino.
project6.indd 150 5/10/07 11:59:26
151 Project 6 - Native America
Northeast Woodlands
Native Americans of the Northeast Woodlands
Abenaki
Algonquin
Anishinabe
Cayuga
Fox
Illinois
Kickapoo
Lenpe
Mahican
Maliseet
Menominee
Miami
Micmac
Mohawk
Nanticoke
Narragansett
Oneida
Onondaga
Ottawa
Passamaquoddy
Penobscot
Pequot
Potawatomi
Sauk
Seneca
Shawnee
Wampanoag
Winnebago
Wyandotte
Cayuga
The Cayuga (K`u g), from their word for People of Oiogouen, were one of the ve original tribes of the
Iroquois League. The name Iroquois (real adders) comes from the French adaptation of the Algonquian
name of these people. Their self-designation was Kanonsionni, League of the United (Extended) House-
holds. Iroquois today refer to themselves as Haudenosaunee, People of the Longhouse.
Location At the height of their power, the Iroquois controlled land from the Hudson to the Illinois Rivers
ands the Ottawa to the Tennessee Rivers. Today, Cayugas live in Canada, western New York, Wisconsin,
and Oklahoma.
Population There were about 1,500 Cayugas in 1660 and possibly as many as several thousand or more a
century earlier, of perhaps 20,000 members of the Iroquois League. In the 1990s fewer than 500 Cayugas
lived in New York, about 3,000 lived in Canada, and about 2,500 Seneca-Cayugas lived in Oklahoma. There
were roughly 70,000 Iroquois Indians living in the United States and Canada in the mid-1990s.
Language Cayugas spoke a Northern Iroquois dialect.
Religion The Cayuga recognized Orenda, a supreme creator. Other animate and inanimate objects and
natural forces were also considered of a spiritual nature. They held important festivals to celebrate maple
sap and strawberries as well as corn planting, ripening (Green Corn Ceremony), and harvest.
The eight-day New Years festival may have been most important of all. Held in midwinter, it was a time to
give thanks, to forget past wrongs, and to kindle new res, with much attention paid to new and old dreams.
In the early nineteenth century, many Iroquois embraced the teachings of Handsome Lake. A blend of
traditional and Christian teachings, the Handsome Lake religion had the effect of facilitating the cultural
transition occurring at the time.
Customs The Cayuga recognized a dual division, each composed of two more matrilineal, animal-named clans.
The clans in turn were composed of matrilineal lineages. The Cayuga probably had nine clans. Each owned a
set number of personal names, some of which were linked with particular activities and responsibilities.
Women enjoyed a high degree of prestige, being largely equated with the three sisters (corn, beans, and
squash), and they were in charge of most village activities, including marriage. Food was shared so that
everyone had roughly the same to eat.
Dwellings In the early eighteenth century, Cayugas lived in at least three villages of 30 or more longhou-
ses, each village with 500 or more people. Iroquois Indians built elm-bark longhouses, 50100 feet long,
depending on how many people lived there, from about the twelfth century on. The longhouses held 2 or
3 or as many as 20 families, related maternally (lineage segments), as well as their dogs.
project6.indd 151 5/10/07 11:59:26
152
Diet Corn was the staple and was used in soups, stews, breads, and puddings. Tobacco was grown for
ceremonial and social smoking.
Key Technology Iroquois used porcupine quills and wampum belts as a record of events. Farming tools
were made of stone, bone, wood (spades), and antler. Women wove tobacco trays, mats, and baskets.
Transportation Unstable elm-bark canoes were roughly 25 feet long. The people were also great run-
ners and preferred to travel on land. They used snowshoes in winter.
Dress Women made most clothing from deerskins.
War and Weapons Boys began developing war skills at a young age. Prestige and leadership were often
gained through war, which was in many ways the most important activity.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations The Cayuga have no reservation. Most live on the three Seneca reservations.
Economy There is generally high unemployment in New York and Canada.
Daily Life Traditional political and social (clan) structures remain intact, as does the language.
Mohawk
Mohawk (`Mo hk), Algonquian for eaters of men, one of the ve original tribes of the Iroquois League.
The Mohawk self-designation was Kaniengehawa, People of the Place of Flint. They were the keepers of
the Eastern door of the Iroquois League.
Location Today Mohawks live in southern Quebec and Ontario, Canada, and extreme northern New York.
Population There were perhaps 15,00020,000 members of the Iroquois League around 1500 and roughly
4,000 Mohawks in the midseventeenth century. About 70,000 Iroquois Indians were living in the United
States and Canada in the mid1900s. Of these, about 28,000 were Mohawks: about 13,000 in Canada and
15,000 in the United States.
Language Mohawks spoke a Northern Iroquois dialect.
Religion See Cayuga.
Customs The Mohawk recognized a dual division, each composed of three matrilineal, animal-named clans
(Wolf, Bear, and Turtle). The clans in turn were composed of matrilineal lineages. Each owned a set number
of personal names some of which were linked to particular activities and responsibilities (see Cayuga).
Dwellings See Cayuga.
Diet See Cayuga.
Key Technology See Cayuga.
Trade See Cayuga.
Notable Arts See Cayuga.
Transportation See Cayuga.
Dress See Cayuga.
War and Weapons See Cayuga.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations Khanawake/Caughnawaga and Doncaster Reserves, Quebec, Canada, were
established in 1667 as a Jesuit mission for mostly Oneida and Mohawk Indians. The mid-1990s population
was about 6,500.
Gibson Reserve, Ontario, Canada, was established in 1881. The mid-1990s population was about 800.
St. Regis Reservation, New York, and Quebec. The resident Indian population in 1990 was 1,923.
Tyendinega Reserve, Ontario, Canada, is mainly a Mohawk reserve. The mid-1990s population was around
3,000.
Economy At Kahnawake/Caughnawaga, most people engage in small-scale farming, high-steel work,
factory work, and reservation government.
Daily Life Mohawks, particularly those from Kahnawake, have earned a rst-rate reputation as high-
steel workers throughout the United States since the late nineteenth century. As a result of generations
that have worked in high-steel, Mohawk communities exist in some northeastern cities. Most of these
people remain spiritually tied to their traditions, however, and frequently return to the reserves to partici-
pate in ceremonies, including Longhouse ceremonies, which have been active at least since the 1930s.
project6.indd 152 5/10/07 11:59:32
153 Project 6 - Native America
In general, traditional political and social (clan) structures remain intact. One major exception is caused
by Canadas requirement that band membership be reckoned patrilineally.
Oneida
Oneida (O`n d), People of the Standing Stone, one of the ve original tribes of the Iroquois League.
Their name refers to a large boulder near the main village.
Location The Oneida were located between the Mohawk and the Onondaga, between Lake Ontario and
the upper Susquehanna River, and especially around Oneida Creek.
Population There were perhaps 15,00020,000 members of the Iroquois League around 1500, and rou-
ghly 1,000 Oneidas in the midseventeenth century. In the early 1990s, there were 11,000 members of the
Wisconsin Oneida tribe, 4,600 Oneidas in Ontario, and about 700 in New York. The total number of Iroquois
Indians approached 70,000.
Language The Oneida spoke a Northern Iroquois dialect.
Religion See Cayuga.
Customs See Cayuga.
Dwellings See Cayuga.
Diet See Cayuga.
Key Technology See Cayuga.
Trade See Cayuga.
Notable Arts See Cayuga.
Transportation See Cayuga.
Dress See Cayuga.
War and Weapons See Cayuga.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations The Checkerboard Oneida Reservation (established in 1838), Wisconsin. In
the mid-1990s it contained roughly 2,500 acres. The 1990 Indian population was 2,447.
Ontario Oneidas live on the Six Nations/Grand River Reserve (1,800 Indian residents in the mid-1990s)
and Oneida of the Thames, near London (2,800 Indian residents in the mid-1990s).
Economy The two U.S communities have gaming establishments. The proceeds go in part to reacquiring
land, building new facilities, and sponsoring activities. The Wisconsin tribe employs 2,000 tribal members in
its various enterprises, including a hotel. The Canadian Oneidas are largely dependent on government fun-
ding.
Daily Life Few people speak Oneida, although the tribal school teaches classes in the native language.
There is an annual powwow.
Although most people are Christian, there are also many adherents of the Handsome Lake religion among
the Ontario Oneida community. Descent is patrilineal by Canadian law, and clan identication has lost
much of its signicance.
Onondaga
Onondaga (`O nn`d g), People of the Hill, were one of the ve original tribes of the Iroquois League.
As keepers of the Council Fire, they hosted the annual great council.
Location The Onondaga were the geographically central tribe of the Iroquois confederacy, located near
Onondaga Lake and the Oswego River, near present-day Syracuse. At the height of their power, the Iro-
quois controlled land from the Hudson to the Illinois Rivers and the Ottawa to the Tennessee Rivers.
Most Onondagas today live on the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada, and in Onondaga County, New
York.
Population There were perhaps 15,00020,000 members of the Iroquois League around 150, and approxi-
mately 1,000 Onondaga in the mid-seventeenth century. Of perhaps 70,000 Iroquois living in the United
States and Canada in the mid-1990s, roughly 1,600 Onondagas lived in the United States and another
3,000 lived in Canada.
project6.indd 153 5/10/07 11:59:32
154
Language Onondagas spoke a Northern Iroquois dialect.
Religion The Onondaga recognized Ha-Wah-ne-u as the supreme creator.
Customs See Cayuga.
Dwellings See Cayuga.
Diet See Cayuga.
Key Technology See Cayuga.
Notable Arts See Cayuga.
Transportation See Cayuga.
Dress See Cayuga.
War and Weapons See Cayuga.
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations The Onondaga Reservation, Onondaga County, New York, contains 7,300
acres, all of which is tribally owned. The Indian population was about 1,600 in the mid-1990s. Government
is by council of hereditary chiefs, selected by the clan mothers.
The Six Nations/Grand River Reserve, Ontario, Canada, was established in 1784. It is governed by both an
elected and a hereditary council, although only the rst is federally recognized.
Economy Like most Indians, the Onondaga face high unemployment. Many people work in Syracuse,
especially in the construction (high-steel especially) and service industries.
Daily Life Onondagas are considered to be the most conservative of the Six Nations. The Onondaga Rese r-
vation is again the capital of the Iroquois Confederacy. The leader of the Iroquois League, who alone can
summon meetings of the Great Council, is always an Onondaga.
In general, traditional political and social (clan) structures remain intact. One major exception is caused
by Canadas requirement that band membership be reckoned patrilineally. The political structure of the
Iroquois League continues to be a source of controversy for many Iroquois.
Seneca
Seneca (`Se n ku) were the largest, most powerful, and westernmost of the ve original tribes of the
Iroquois League. Their self-designation was Onotowaka, Great Hill People.
Location The Seneca homeland stretched north to south from Lake Ontario to the upper Allegheny
and Susquehanna Rivers and west to east from Lake Erie to Seneca Lake, but especially from Lake
Canandaigua to the Genesee River. At the height of their power, The Iroquois controlled land from the
Hudson to the Illinois Rivers and the Ottawa to the Tennessee Rivers. In the 1990s, most Senecas continue
to live in upstate New York near their traditional land. Some live in Ontario, Canada, and northeastern
Oklahoma.
Population There were perhaps 15,00020,000 members of the Iroquois League around 1500 and about
5,000 Senecas in the mid-seventeenth century. In the mid-1990s, there were approximately 8,000 mem-
bers of the Seneca Nation of Indians in the United States, including members of the Tonawanda Band;
2,500 Seneca-Cayugas; and some 1,000 Seneca in Canada. There were about 70,000 Iroquois Indians
li ving in the United States and Canada in the mid-1990s.
Language The Seneca spoke a Northern Iroquois dialect.
Religion The Seneca recognized an earth holder.
Customs See Cayuga.
Dwellings See Cayuga.
Diet See Cayuga.
Key Technology See Cayuga.
Notable Arts See Cayuga.
Transportation See Cayuga.
Dress See Cayuga.
War and Weapons See Cayuga.
project6.indd 154 5/10/07 11:59:33
155 Project 6 - Native America
Contemporary Information
Government/Reservations Allegany Reservation, established in 1794, consists of about 20,000 acres.
The 1990 Indian population was 1,059.
Cattaraugus Reservation, New York, established in 1794, consists of about 21,600 acres. The 1990 Indian
population was 2,051.
Oil Springs Reservation, New York, established in 1877, consists of 640 acres (a square mile). There were
no residents in 1990.
Tonawanda Reservation, New York, established in 1863, consists of 7,550 acres. The 1990 Indian popula-
tion was 453.
Six Nations / Grand River, Ontario, Canada, was established in 1784.
The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe is located in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The reservation consists of about 4,000
acres. Roughly 800 tribal members lived in northeastern Oklahoma in the mid-1990s.
Economy The tribe received a federal settlement of $35 million in 1990 and a state settlement of $25
million in 1992. Many people work in Rochester and Buffalo. Natural resources include timber, sand and
gravel, and natural gas.
Daily Life Traditional political and social (clan) structures remain intact, as does the language, with the
exception of Canadas requirement that band membership be reckoned patrilineally. The people par-
ticipate in Longhouse and many other celebrations, such as midwinter, maple, green corn, and harvest
ceremonies.
Barry M. Pritzker, Native Americans, An Encyclopaedia of History, Culture, and Peoples, Volume I

Book p. 86, logbook p. 72
DEBRIEFING

Book p. 86, logbook p. 72
DEBRIEFING
p Voir Introduction, p. 18 de ce guide.
Mots surligner (texte p. 72 du logbook) :
- agriculture
- ocks of animals
- textile work
- ceramic arts
- religious artefacts
- dramatic entertainments
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
1. Comprhension orale : Whats in a name? CD classe, piste n
o
6
Phase danticipation avant lcoute (individuelle les lves peuvent rassembler leurs ides sur papier. Pas
de mise en commun orale puisquil sagit dune valuation).
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 294 de ce guide.
Corrig et barme
tant donn la difcult du contenu, il conviendra de bonier la quantit dlments retenus, en regroupant
les deux premiers paliers, mme si la mise en relation reste incomplte.
project6.indd 155 5/10/07 11:59:34
156
Paliers de comprhension
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
Elements related to Native Americans names.
Just one name / rst, second, last name; (great great) grandfather; legal name, public;
tribal name, indian name; clan; son; 4 years old; proud; heritage.
1 2
selon
quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte, conduisant une
comprhension lacunaire.
Elements related to the mans familys name.
His familys traditional / tribal name = clan name = fox
Legal name = public)
3 4
selon
quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est
compris.
What makes traditional names important and special.
Cultural and religious foundations, Native American heritage, sense of direction, not used
in public, related to clan.
5 8
Palier 4
Tout le contenu informatif est compris. Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont
relevs.
More information about the mans traditional name and his sons traditional name.
His name (given by great great grandfather to family) = sounds like a fox
His sons legal name = Nika (= also means something in Indian) = friend
His sons traditional name = ? = Fox walking together
10
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Bonus: additional information
US department of war, census, provided us with surnames, sons traditional name given
during family reunion on farm
2
2. Comprhension crite
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 295 de ce guide.
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157 Project 6 - Native America
Corrig
Nature of the document
Main topic
a passage from a rst person narrative c a passage from a yearbook
c a passage from a newspaper article
education
General information
about the narrator
More precise information
about the narrator
Nationality: American
Ethnic origin: Indian
School he goes to (where?): reservation
Grade 4 5 6
Events Teacher talked
to him about his
future
Played basketball
for rst time.
Missed rst shot
Randy, new
Indian kid arrived
at school
People
involved
Teacher
(Mr Schluter)
Parents
Himself Randy, Stevie,
rest of Indian
boys
What they
said / did
Teacher: you
should a be a
doctor
Parents: father
drank; mother
made quilts;
never nished
them; both wept
Randy and Stevie
got into a ght
How the
narrator
reacted, how
he felt, what
he learnt
First didnt
understand, then
happy. Imagined
what it was like
being a doctor
Very happy; it
was beautiful
having the ball in
his hands
First very
impressed by
Randy.
Learnt a lesson
from Randy: in
the white world,
always throw the
rst punch
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 = 06 / 20 : tous les lments en gras sont renseigns.
- Seuil 2 = 12 / 20 : tous les lments souligns.
- Seuil 3 = deux points en plus par lment en italique.
project6.indd 157 5/10/07 11:59:36
158
Name of nation, people, tribe NAVAJO
Country, state (or province in
Canada), precise geographi-
cal location
Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, USA
Climate, geographical envi-
ronment, habitat, dwellings
Dry, desert
Cold winters / hot summers / very little rain
Hogan
Language(s) Navajo, English
Education, schools
Primary School on reservation
Preparatory School not on reservation
Economic activities
Arts and crafts (beading, turquoise jewelry, basketry, blankets and rugs),
tourism (the Navajo reservation welcomes visitors); mineral exploitation;
sheep and farming
Religion(s) and
Beliefs, prohibitions, sacred
sites or objects
Navajo religion
Each Navajo belongs to four clan
Totally prohibited to marry someone from own clan
Rites and ceremonies
Secret name given by elder
Kinaalda: puberty ceremony
Other traditional ceremonies
and festivals
Hozho Nashaa
Powow
Arts and crafts fair
Sources of information (writ-
ers, encyclopedias etc.)
Photos and text in book p.
Documents given by teacher ()
Documents found by myself (sources)
Logbook p. 63
LOGPAGE
Logbook p. 63
LOGPAGE
project6.indd 158 5/10/07 11:59:36
PROJECT
7
So sorry
Sommaire du chapitre So sorry
Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 160
S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 88)
Make sense: A sample of apology letters (book, p. 89)
Over to you (book, p. 89)
Make sense: This Is Just to Say (book, p. 90)
Over to you (book, p. 90)
Recap (book, p. 90)
p. 161
p. 162
p. 163
p. 164
p. 165
p. 166
S
t
e
p

2
Start from what you know (book, p. 91)
Make sense: Mr Pringles apology (book, p. 91)
Over to you (book, p. 91)
Make sense: Excuse notes (book, p. 93)
Over to you (book, p. 93)
Recap (book, p. 93)
p. 166
p. 167
p. 169
p. 170
p. 171
p. 172
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
s
Words (book, p. 94 / logbook, p. 74-75)
Listening (book, p. 94)
Speaking (book, p. 94)
Reading (book, p. 94)
Writing (book, p. 95)
p. 172
p. 173
p. 174
p. 174
p. 174
Your project (book, p. 96)
Debrieng (book, p. 98 / logbook, p. 82)
valuation de la comprhension
/
Logpage (logbook, p. 73)
p. 176
p. 178
p. 179
p. 181
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 161
Make sense: A sample of apology letters p. 162
Over to you p. 163
2 sances
Make sense: This Is Just to Say p. 164
Over to you p. 165
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
(avec dictionnaire bilingue)
Recap p. 166
Possible en valuation intgre
une sance
STEP 2
Start from what you know p. 166
1 sance + sance

Make sense: Mr Pringles apology p. 167
Over to you p. 169
1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
Make sense: Excuse notes p. 170
1 sance

159 Project 7 - So sorry


project7.indd 159 5/10/07 12:02:23
160
Over to you p. 171
Recap p. 172
1 sance,, possible en demi-groupes
(avec dictionnaire bilingue).
Recap possible en valuation.
YOUR PROJECT p. 176
VALUATION :
1 sance, classe entire
Au terme de lexploitation du projet So sorry, on
demandera llve de prendre part un concours
de lettre dexcuses qui pourrait tre un vrai
concours organis au sein de ltablissement entre
plusieurs classes de seconde et de choisir le ton
de cette lettre : srieux ou drle. Il sagira donc
pour llve de rdiger une lettre personnelle en
respectant les codes du genre (prise en compte du
destinataire formules rituelles mise en page)
pour relater un comportement inadquat dans une
situation donne et exprimer des sentiments plus
ou moins sincres.
Ce projet renvoie la notion dnie par le pro-
gramme du vivre ensemble en socit et plus sp-
ciquement au lien social.
Types de texte
En n de parcours, il est demand aux lves de
raconter, dexpliquer leur attitude et dexprimer
leurs sentiments. En consquence, si les sup-
ports proposs sont de sources et de natures dif-
frentes, les textes tudis sont de type narratif
et explicatif.
Cur de sens
Le cur de sens du chapitre repose sur la notion
de lien. En effet, demander pardon cest au fond
vouloir restaurer la relation lautre, relation qui
a t brise par la faute . Demander pardon,
cest donc chercher rparer un lien bris. Dans
la lettre, qui elle-mme est un lien, lnonciateur
va porter depuis le prsent un regard interprta-
tif, exprim notamment par les modaux, sur son
attitude passe. Il va tenter de mettre en relation
lattitude et son explication, la faute et le respon-
sable, la faute et lintention ; en respectant les
codes formels, pour essayer de se situer dans le
mme type de relation lautre que celui qui exis-
tait avant la faute.

Activits langagires

: Accentuation et sens (noncs ngatifs, inten-
sicateurs, verbe et / ou auxiliaire).
: Reprage des types de textes, du genre, du ton.
/
: Organiser son discours.
Outils linguistiques
- Prtrit, present perfect, will / wont, promise to,
constructions verbales (sorry about, apologize for,
blame for + ing).
- Sufxes et accentuation.
- Exprimer cause et consquence.
- Exprimer et dcouvrir des attitudes : regret, inten-
tions.
crire une lettre
- Codes lis un genre, intentions de lnonciateur
- Structurer une lettre de manire cohrente
- Ponctuation, paragraphes, mise en page
- Adapter sa lettre au destinataire
Le chapitre propose de dcouvrir plusieurs for-
mes dexcuses faisant suite des attitudes bles-
santes envers autrui dans une situation donne
(comportement insolent, oubli dun rendez-vous,
propos irrespectueux, travail non rendu, etc.) au
travers de divers textes.
Le step 1 met particulirement laccent sur lex-
pression de ces excuses dans des lettres person-
nelles au contenu factuel dont les destinataires
entretiennent des relations plus ou moins formel-
les avec le signataire, qui reconnat tout ou partie
de sa responsabilit.
Le step 2 propose des documents charge impli-
cite plus consquente et souligne la non ad-
quation entre le dit et le signi au travers dune
confrence de presse publicitaire et des billets
dlves portant la signature de leurs parents.

ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
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161 Project 7 - So sorry
EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE
Plusieurs possibilits :
Les lves compltent leur logpage pr-construite
au fur et mesure des activits, tel quindiqu dans
le manuel, de mmoire aprs les phases rcapitula-
tives en coutant leurs camarades ou lors de llu-
cidation des textes.
Les lves laborent la construction des diff rentes
rubriques partir du Start from what you know.
Plusieurs types de guidage sont possibles, par
exemple :
- lors de la rcapitulation des anecdotes Q2, le pro-
fesseur peut faire une prise de notes au tableau
organise en fonction des rubriques : aux lves de
trouver les titres ;
- partir de la Q3a du Start from what you know : I
would start saying I am sorry / then perhaps I would
relate the circumstances and explain why I did it.
Remarques : si ce stade certaines rubriques
nont pas t voques par les lves, on peut en
diffrer llucidation et la prise en compte lors de
ltude des documents, ce qui permettra un tra-
vail dinfrence supplmentaire, par exemple sur
make amends.
La logpage sera l encore renseigne sous forme
de notes et non dnoncs rdigs et pourra varier
dun lve lautre.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 181 de ce guide.

Book p. 88
STEP 1

Book p. 88
STEP 1
Phase dchauffement
On pourra diriger les changes sur le thme du
chapitre.
- Formule questionnement dun lve charg lors
du cours prcdent de prparer une situation.
- Formule document inconnu : pourquoi ne pas
faire couter un extrait de Jealous guy (ou une autre
chanson propose p. 98 du manuel) par exemple :
A boy has done something wrong / he has hurt a
girl - probably his girlfriend because he says he is
jealous / des suppositions sur les circonstances.
Ou bien partir de limage douverture du chapitre :
Someone in the family has done something wrong,
suppositions et recueil de lavis du groupe.
Ou bien, avant lentre en classe, sassurer de la
complicit dun lve : lui demander dentrer un
peu en retard en lui expliquant quil devra sexcuser.
On peut alors dramatiser son entre.
- Formule questionnement professeur partir dune
phrase lance par celui-ci : Ive done something
wrong. Si cette activit intervient lors dune phase
dchauffement en cours de chapitre, les lves peu-
vent aussi utiliser leur logpage pour guider linter-
view. Libre au professeur dimproviser sa rponse.
Toutefois, il pourrait tre utile de partir sur une situa-
tion concernant un problme de voiture de manire
rendre plus familier le thme de lvaluation de com-
prhension orale. Par exemple : borrowed one of my
colleagues cars / had a at tyre / couldnt jack up
3
3
the car / had to call / apologized to . / was quite
angry / didnt really forgive me.
Start from what you know
1 Il sagit dans cette premire tape du projet de
faire raconter aux lves une exprience vcue et
de leur faire mobiliser ce quils connaissent dj.
Durant cette premire phase, les lves pourront
dj tre amens :
- enrichir leur lexique (apologize for, feel sorry about,
be late, be on time, miss an appointment, be rude to
be kind to, be angry with, forgive, lie, regret + ing,
lend / borrow ),
- rebrasser lexpression du pass et ventuelle-
ment lafner (correction grammaticale et phono-
logique).
De mme, ils pourront vouloir exprimer labsence
dintention :
I didnt want to., I didnt mean to / I didnt do it on
purpose, voire des noncs en wish (I wish I hadnt
said that).
2 lissue de cette phase de prise de parole,
phase rcapitulative. Plusieurs possibilits :
- demander, lors de la premire phase, 3 ou 4 l-
ves de prendre en notes les interventions de leurs
camarades, puis de rcapituler oralement ;
- demander tous les lves de prendre des notes
pendant les interventions ;
3
project7.indd 161 5/10/07 12:02:28
162
- noter au tableau les mots-cls organiss en fonc-
tion des rubriques de la logpage - sans donner les
intituls des rubriques. charge pour eux de voir
lide qui relie les diffrents lments ;
- slectionner quelques productions : Which anec-
dote do you prefer? Mots-cls au tableau organiss
en fonction des rubriques de la logpage.
En trace crite on pourrait obtenir des noncs de
ce type.
- Si plusieurs expriences sont identiques (les pro-
ductions suivantes ont t obtenues en situation de
classe) :
Four of us had to apologize to their parents for
being rude. They were in a bad mood that day and they
couldnt stand their parents questions.
They didnt mean to be rude; they said sorry and
promised not to do it again, but two of them were
punished / werent allowed to go out with friends.
- Si les expriences sont diffrentes :
Ulrichs anecdote was our favourite one: one day
he was playing in his garage and he stepped on a
mouse. He felt very sorry for the little animal but
unfortunately he couldnt apologize because he had
killed it! He couldnt forgive himself for what he had
done.
- Or: one day, when she was still a child, Pauline
was playing in her grandmothers house with some
of her friends. They got excited and started run-
3
3
ning around. She bumped into a table and broke her
grandmothers favourite vase / china. She apologi-
zed to her grandmother and gave her a kiss and her
sweetest smile.
- Or depending on their imagination!
3 a. Mise en commun des connaissances concer-
nant les normes dcriture de lettre. Accepter tou-
tes les propositions qui seront plus tard valides ou
bien remises en question.
b. Il sagit l encore pour les lves de formuler des
hypothses quant lordre dapparition des rubri-
ques de la logpage. partir de l on peut laisser les
propositions ouvertes et lancer le dbat.
Productions possibles :
I would begin by apologizing Im very sorry about
what I have done.
- I dont agree with you. I think I would start by explain-
ing what happened and then I would apologize.
- I would certainly end the letter with a closing for-
mula and perhaps I would apologize again / ask the
person Im writing to, to forgive me.
- For me, the very last thing I would write would be
my name, because I would sign my letter! I dont
want it to be anonymous!
- If you have forgotten something you can add an
extra sentence after the signature. I think its called
post-scriptum but Im not sure.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 181 de ce guide.
3

A sample of apology letters
Book p. 88-89
A sample of apology letters
Book p. 88-89
Analyse des documents
Cet chantillonage de lettres dexcuses doit per-
mettre aux lves de mettre en vidence certaines
rgularits concernant les contenus et la forme de
ce type de lettre personnelle.
Forme de travail
Travail en groupes pour la question 5 du Make sense
et pour la question 8 du Over to you (classe divise
en 3 groupes, une lettre par groupe).
Make sense
4 Travail rapide sur la premire question en
sappuyant sur les rubriques dj commentes
de la logpage, prise dindices, dinformations. On

obtiendra sans nul doute victim / offender type


of relationships offence pour certaines des let-
tres.
5 Group work : recherche commune du sens.
la fin de cette activit les dernires rubriques
de la logpage seront trs probablement abordes.
Par exemple on pourra obtenir des noncs du
type :
Thomas misbehaved / acted up / was rude to the
teacher because Ms Smith was a substitute teacher.
His regular teacher wasnt there.
- Tim wants to invite Jolene to an Italian restaurant
because he would like her / wants her to forgive him.
He wants to make amends. Or he would like to make
up for his forgetting their date.
- We think David didnt agree with Felicia but we
3
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163 Project 7 - So sorry
dont exactly know what happened. We understand
he told her he loved her .. Theres something about
dumb but so far we have no idea what it means.
Tous les problmes de sens ne sont pas rgls mais
les lves sont lancs sur la piste des nigmes
rsoudre. Collaboration possible entre les diffrents
groupes pour lancer des hypothses, par exemple :
We think dumb means something bad, it must be
an offence because he said he was wrong.
6 Nouvelle recherche de sens. On pourra rap-
peler aux lves dutiliser des stratgies quils
connaissent dj pour surmonter le problme des
mots difciles.
Thomas acknowledged his misbehaviour and he
thought he shouldnt have behaved so badly. He
shouldnt have taken advantage of the fact the subs-
titute teacher didnt know the students names to act
silly.
- Tim has forgotten his lunch date with Jolene. He
explains he was too busy. He acknowledges his respon-
sibility for the offence / He blames himself for the
offence. He thinks he should have marked the date in his
planner. He really feels sorry about what he has done.
- David insists on his feelings for Felicia. He admits he
was rude to her while they were arguing. He doesnt
deny his responsibility for the offence but he also
points out Felicia didnt let him talk. We can under-
stand that even if he was perhaps not the only one to
blame he wants to make amends to restore the rela-
tionship with his friend.
la n de lactivit on peut galement choisir de
dresser une liste de mots qui ont pos problme :
substitute valuable busy slipped my mind
valuable handled dumb. charge pour les lves
dexpliquer ce qui leur a permis de rsoudre le pro-
blme (proximit avec un mot dorigine franaise,
contexte, partir du noyau et de la nature du mot).
Do explicitation des stratgies et du sens de ces
mots, qui pourra faire lobjet dune trace crite.
7 De mmoire et en rfrence aux textes, les l-
ves peuvent complter la logpage (renseigne p. 181
3
3
de ce guide). Encore une fois sous forme de notes.
ce stade, possibilit de co-valuer une logpage : notes
or not / missing elements / wrong information. On peut
proter de loccasion pour rebrasser sous forme de
bloc lexicalis : you should / shouldnt have written
ce qui permettra damorcer en situation la rexion
sur la langue sur les regrets et reproches.
Autre possibilit : utiliser le tableau de Hopper p. 89
du manuel. In your opinion, why is there such an
illustration on this page?
Well, actually, it could be representing Jolene, alone
in the restaurant and waiting for Tim. She looks very
sad, lonely. It must have been really difficult for her
to wait for him in this restaurant. Perhaps, she got
angry with him.
- She might not be ready to forgive him and accept
his invitation.
- Perhaps she knows he is overworked, or absent-
minded
Aprs la lecture des trois lettres : phase rcapitula-
tive orale qui pourra donner lieu une trace crite
rdige en commun.
Over to you
8 Mise en vidence de ladquation des codes
formels et des relations entre signataire et desti-
nataire.
Mise en vidence de ladquation entre lorganisa-
tion de la lettre et son contenu.
Quelques exemples de stratgies possibles :
- mmes groupes en charge de la mme lettre, utili-
sation des parties dj surlignes k gain de temps.
- groupes en charge dune lettre diffrente k plus
de temps mais meilleure connaissance des docu-
ments.
Ce travail peut tre bauch en classe et faire lob-
jet dune prparation plus dtaille la maison qui
donnera lieu une mise en commun en classe.
partir de lobservation de la structure des lettres
on peut obtenir des guidelines de ce type :
3
Letter one: student / teacher
Opening formula:
Name of injured / offended party (victim): Dear .
First paragraph: You dont know the person very well : introduce yourself
Write about the circumstances of the offence
The reasons for the offence
Second paragraph: The offence
Third paragraph: Apologize
Make resolutions for the future
Closing formula: Sincerely
Signature
Opening formula:
Name of injured / offended party (victim): Dear .
First paragraph: You dont know the person very well : introduce yourself
Write about the circumstances of the offence
The reasons for the offence
Second paragraph: The offence
Third paragraph: Apologize
Make resolutions for the future
Closing formula: Sincerely
Signature
project7.indd 163 5/10/07 12:02:34
164
On pourra amener les lves comparer les diff-
rents types dorganisation (similitudes et diffren-
ces) et expliquer les choix des nonciateurs.
In all the letters, we know the sender and the
addressee or in other words the offender and the
victim.
- Depending on their relationships they use different
formulas: for example / for instance if they know
each other very well they use your friend or even
love but if its a teacher and a pupil a more formal
relationship the writer uses sincerely.
3
- The letters are organized differently : in some of
them the writer begins with and we can understand
he is very sorry about what he has done; thats why he
repeats his apologies two times / twice, I think.
- In the third letter David starts writing that his rela-
tionship with Felicia is very important for him / he
values his relationship with Felicia.
- In fact at the end he tells her he loves her; I think
thats why he apologizes to her because he admits he
was wrong but he also mentions / points out he was
not fully responsible for it: Felicia didnt let him talk.
Letter two: friends
Address of the sender /offender: top right hand-side
Opening Formula: Dear + first name
First paragraph: Apology + fault + reasons
Second paragraph: Making amends
Third paragraph: Apologizing once more
Closing formula: Your friend
Signature
Letter three: close friends
Opening formula: Dear + first name
First paragraph: Reasons for apologizing
Second paragraph: Admitting responsibility
Third paragraph: Expressing apology and other feelings
Closing formula: Please write back to me. Love
Signature

This Is Just To Say
Book p. 90
This Is Just To Say
Book p. 90
Analyse du document
William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) was born in
Rutherford, New Jersey. He began writing poetry
while a student and he made the decision to become
both a writer and a doctor. His major works include
Kora in Hell (1920), Spring and All (1923), Pictures
from Brueghel and Other Poems (1962), the ve-
volume epic Paterson (1963, 1992), and Imagina-
tions (1970).
http://www.poets.org
Les lves vont tre confronts un texte de nature
diffrente dans la forme mais dont le contenu est
proche des lettres tudies en amont. En n de par-
cours, on pourra attirer leur attention sur les simi-
litudes (on sadresse quelquun, on sexcuse, on
mentionne la nature de la faute ) mais aussi sur
les diffrences (le nom du signataire et du destina-
taire ne sont pas connus, les sentiments sont plus
partags : sagit-il vritablement de regret ?) Ces
diffrences tiennent la nature du texte : un pome
qui donne lieu une interprtation de celui qui le
lit et qui a une porte beaucoup plus gnralisante
que la lettre personnelle.
Make sense
1 Laisser les lves dcouvrir le document.
Ils auront sans doute compris la situation au moins
de manire partielle :
The narrator has eaten the plums in the fridge they
were delicious.
3
project7.indd 164 5/10/07 12:02:37
165 Project 7 - So sorry
Ils peuvent aussi interprter demble en disant :
It was probably hot that day or he was thirsty
because he insists on the fact they were cold.
Ils pourront aussi faire des suppositions sur the
offender and the victim :
They must be members of the same family / hou-
sehold because they live in the same house, they
have the same fridge I think / Id tend to think the
offender is a little boy and the victim is his mother
or one of his parents. Well, it could also be husband
and wife.
On peut relancer: Are you sure the offender is a
boy? Pour les amener prciser la diffrence
auteur / narrateur qui pose problme mme en
franais.
2 3 The narrator doesnt seem to feel really sorry
about what he has done! He enjoyed it very much.
3 Dans la deuxime strophe, saving peut
poser problme : travail dinfrence + utilisation de
la logpage (prcision de la faute) peuvent permettre
de lever les doutes.
Very positive / the narrator is almost thanking the
person he is writing to for the plums. We dont have
the feeling he has done something wrong.
The second stanza enables us to understand he has
misbehaved because the family were going to eat the
plums later on. In fact hes been very selsh.
4 Certains peuvent aussi tre immdiatement
sensibles aux adjectifs employs dans la dernire
strophe :
Its a bit strange / Im surprised that / What strikes
me is that / he doesnt seem to be really sorry about
eating the plums, in fact he enjoys them very much,
he says they were delicious and sweet. I dont think
he feels guilty. I havent got the feeling he is really
ashamed of eating the plums.
- I dont understand the word sweet, can someone
help me? - It tastes like sugar.
5 Cette question permettra une synthse de
la comprhension y compris de limplicite aprs
une phase de dbat, au cours de laquelle on peut
demander aux lves de prendre en compte obliga-
toirement ce qui a t dit avant.
Productions possibles :
Like X, I think the narrator feels very ashamed of
eating the plums, he understands he was very sel-
fish. He should have left at least some plums for the
others.
- I agree when you say he feels ashamed but I dont
understand why he feels selsh. I think he feels
ashamed because he didnt obey his parents.
Yes, its true but if his parents cant eat the plums,
he must feel selsh
3
3
3
3
3
- I dont see it that way. He knows he shouldnt have
done it but doesnt really feel sorry about it.
- I think he has mixed feelings about his wrongdoing.
On the one hand he realizes he has done something
wrong, he has been selsh but on the other hand he
cant help thinking of the pleasure he has had. So I
dont think he thinks he shouldnt have eaten the
plums. He would probably do it again!
La trace crite pourrait tre un tmoignage de cette
divergence de points de vue :
Some of us think that But others
Possibilit aussi ce stade de faire un travail de
mmorisation par strophe et de le faire dire en choi-
sissant une interprtation possible :
I really shouldnt have eaten them / it was such a
pleasure a real treat.
Strategy : comparer ce type de texte et les lettres
personnelles.
Over to you
6 Premire phase de travail sans dictionnaire,
seul ou en atelier dcriture. Puis ventuellement
recours au dictionnaire bilingue puis unilingue pour
vrication des collocations et de la prononciation,
dans un temps trs limit.
Exemple de production relle :
I have to lie
When my cat ies
I look at it
And say no panic
Mother, Im sorry
I feel so guilty
Please, stop crying
Im apologizing,
I shouldnt have
Given it wings!
On peut galement lancer un petit concours de po-
sie au sein de la classe.
La forme des / dun des pomes pourrait aussi tre
calque sur celui de William Carlos Williams :
ne laisser alors que les amorces, complter avec
son imagination :
This is just to say
I have
The
That were / was
And which
You .
Forgive me
They / it
Demander aux lves, aprs correction des po-
mes, dapprendre et dapprendre dire (avec laide
de lassistant(e) par exemple) leur pome.
3
3
3
project7.indd 165 5/10/07 12:02:40
166
Recap
Misbehaviour in class / missed deadline / damaged
property / lost property / hurt feelings / missing an
appointment / missing an event / forgetting someone /
being late / breaking the rules / disobeying / sending
an email by mistake.
Premire tape o les lves font le bilan de ce
quils ont appris. Cette activit peut faire lobjet
dune valuation individuelle, loral. On conera
3
des tches dcoute aux autres lves pour ven-
tuellement corriger au niveau phonologique et
grammatical ce qui a t dit par leurs camarades
ou bien complter.
On peut ventuellement demander certains
lves auditeurs de choisir une situation donne
et de raconter comment elle a donn lieu des
excuses. Ici encore, lenseignant peut projeter la
logpage au tableau (ou la reconstituer) et guider
les lves dans la prise de parole.
Les documents proposs au cours du step 2 per-
mettront aux lves de reprer et danalyser le
dcalage qui peut exister entre le dire je suis
dsol(e) et le signi les sentiments vritables
de lnonciateur .
Start from what you know
Suite au pome o les sentiments sont partags entre
regret vritable et plaisir de la faute, le but de cette
premire activit est de faire noncer dautres situa-
tions o les sentiments peuvent tre ambivalents.
1 Cette question peut faire lobjet dun travail
prparatoire la maison, seul ou en binme, car les
lves possdent dj un petit rpertoire de voca-
bulaire sur le thme. Il sera intressant de leur faire
expliquer leurs hypothses en rfrence aux visuels
bien sr mais aussi en tenant compte des signes de
ponctuation.
Possibilit galement dutiliser les cartoons p. 92-
93 du manuel.
On attendra que les lves expriment leurs impres-
sions ainsi que divers degrs dhypothse. On
pourra galement rebrasser les constructions de
make (cf. projet 3) et aussi travailler en interaction
car les avis peuvent tre divergents (I dont think
so / I dont see it that way).
Productions possibles :
The little girl seems to be sad she looks really
sorry. No doubt she is sorry. She might have disobey-
ed her parents she must have done something wrong,
for example, she might have thrown her mothers
watch out of the window. Her parents have just told
her what she did was bad / wasnt done.
- Im not quite sure the man is sorry because
theres a question mark and also because when I look
at his eyes, he seems to be happy, ready to laugh. He
certainly did something wrong but the result was so
funny that he didnt know if he should apologize or
not. For example he
- Well I dont think he looks happy, I get the feeling he
is surprised, maybe someone wants him to apologize
and he doesnt understand why. He might have cooked
the meat in a very special way, I mean, perhaps he
has used too much spice and its really too hot for the
person whos eating it, or may be the kitchen is in a
real mess ..
- The young lady / girl says sorry but her smile makes
me think / the exclamation mark makes me think /
she is rather happy. Maybe she has just refused to do
something, to do her classmates homework, to hang
out with friends, for instance
- When I look at the young lady I get the feeling that
she is not really sorry, shes just refusing something,
she disagrees in a polite way.
3

Book p. 91
STEP 2
project7.indd 166 5/10/07 12:02:40
167 Project 7 - So sorry
Mr Pringles apology
Book p. 91
Mr Pringles apology
Book p. 91
Analyse du document
Pringles
Pringles are a brand of potato chips (or potato crisps)
produced by Procter & Gamble. Pringles were rst
sold in North America in October 1968 and are now
available in more than 140 countries worldwide. Its
arch-rivals Lays and Rufes is owned by PepsiCos
Frito-Lay.
Pringles are advertised in the United States with the
slogan Once you pop, the fun dont stop, and in
the UK with Once you pop, you just cant stop. In
North America, Pringles are not marketed as potato
chips, but rather potato crisps.
Pringles are especially known for their richly col-
oured packaging (invented by Fred Baur), which
consists of an upright tubular can with a foil-coated
interior, and a resealable plastic lid; it also has a
famous icon that helps sell the brands attributes
of sociability, irresistibility and fun: a stylized rep-
resentation of a man, known as Mr Pringles, with a
large moustache and parted bangs (US) or fringe.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pringles
Il sagit dun document publicitaire pour les pro-
duits de la gamme Pringles. La situation prsen-
te (excuses aux consommateurs) est une situation
ctive de lien bris, mais, la volont de rtablir ou
dtablir ou consolider le lien avec les consomma-
teurs, est, elle, bien relle. La comprhension se
situera donc deux niveaux : la faute suppose ; la
nalit des excuses.
Le document tant une confrence de presse , et
M. Pringles lisant le document, la comprhension
de la bande son est primordiale la comprhension
du document. Les images, notamment lattitude du
jeune homme en retrait et ses mimiques, mettent
en vidence laspect humoristique, voire relevant de
la farce, du document.
Le produit pizzalicious est prsent comme poten-
tiellement addictif, et susceptible, comme lalcool
ou autres substances moins licites, de mettre le
consommateur dans un tat second.
Linterprtation de ce document vido peut donc
prsenter certaines difcults alors que la compr-
hension factuelle est relativement simple.
Formes de travail
Travail avec lensemble du groupe pour les ques-
tions 3, 6 du Make sense.
Travail en binme pour la question 4 du Make sense.
Travail en groupe (groupe divis en 2 ou 3 selon la
stratgie retenue) pour la question 5 du Make sense.
Travail en binme pour la question 7 du Over to you.

Make sense
3 La phase danticipation constituera une tape
importante laccs au sens, de mme que la
confrontation de limage et du son peut permettre
de comprendre le dcalage entre les excuses expri-
mes et ce qui est signi.
Plusieurs possibilits pour lanticipation :
- Les lves interviewent le professeur sur Mr Prin-
gles. Certains peuvent avoir la photo p. 91 sous
les yeux, dautres non, ce qui permettra davoir un
ventail de questions plus large.
- Les lves interviewent quelques camarades
chargs de faire des recherches lors du cours pr-
cdent.
- Les informations sur Pringles, qui gurent dans
la partie Analyse du document , sont distribues
aux lves mais de manire partielle. On aura fait
des documents diffrents en enlevant certaines
parties pour crer un information gap ; aux diff-
rents groupes de sinterroger pour reconstituer
lensemble des informations.
- Partir du titre : certains connatront la marque,
dautres non. Mr Pringles: Famous or anonymous?
- Partir du titre et de la photo.
- Partir du titre, de la photo et de lintroduction
gnrale : une confrence de presse donc quelque
chose dofciel et srieux.
- Coner ces diffrentes tches diffrents groupes
ou binmes et lors de la mise en commun confron-
ter les diverses hypothses de sens.
Productions possibles :
A man is going to apologize.
- Ive heard of him / his name before.
- I think its the name of a famous brand. Perhaps he
is the manager and something has gone wrong with
the product.
- They might have put too much salt and vinegar in it
and its impossible for consumers to eat the potato
crisps: they are not edible
- They might have mixed up the different avours
- Perhaps there is poison in it some people have
been taken to hospital or the price of the product is
too high so he wants to explain why
- It must be something important because he is giving
a press conference so the offence is serious.
- Maybe he wants everybody to know about it because
its still dangerous
- He doesnt want everybody to stop buying his chips.
Il est aussi possible que certains lves, guids par
le Start from what you know anticipent le document
de faon diffrente et suggrent des situations plus
proches de la ralit :
3
project7.indd 167 5/10/07 12:02:42
168
Mr Pringles gives a press conference but perhaps
he is pretending to apologize. Something might
have gone wrong but he isnt really sorry, he wants
the customers to keep buying his products.
- Or perhaps he apologized because his products are
the best in the world so the rival brands have gone ban-
krupt . sorry about addicting people to Pringles pro-
ducts but they are so good, its impossible to resist.
Quelque soit la possibilit choisie, il sera utile de
faire verbaliser :
Pringles arch rival is Frito-Lays, a company that
also makes crisps.
Et galement, notamment partir de la photo
page 91 :
Pringles crisps come in a variety of flavours.
- There are different sort of Pringles crisps: salt and
vinegar, barbeque
Le professeur pourra rajouter :
Theres also cream and onion. The ones that taste
like pizza are called pizzalicious.
On pourra obtenir des lves :
They are called pizzalicious probably because
they taste like pizza and they are delicious.
- Once you pop a packet, you cant stop
La trace crite de ces productions - soit mise en
forme dans une trace crite, ou prises sous forme
de notes dans la logpage - pourra tre une aide pr-
cieuse pour confronter ce qui est attendu et la ra-
lit du document.
4 Aprs le premier visionnage de la vido, mme
si les lves nont pas compris le son, ils pourront
tablir que limage ne correspond pas tout fait ce
que la majorit dentre eux avait anticip.
Un travail en binmes permettra de prciser les
premires impressions.
Obtenir quelques noncs sur leurs sentiments et
la description physique de Mr Pringles :
We didnt expect such a press conference . It is
really surprising, I cant believe it! Its really funny, it
makes me laugh.
- The people around are very noisy, they sound excited.
Everybody seems to be speaking at the same time.
- Mr Pringles looks like the logo / the icon on the
packaging. He looks like a clown.
- Mr Pringles is very fat, he is wearing red braces and
a red bow tie and round glasses. He looks as if he were
a famous actor, the conference is set in Hollywood.
- Were not sure but we think he apologized for driv-
ing.
5 Pour conduire cette question, on peut, par
exemple, suggrer aux lves de classer leurs notes
en trois colonnes : we are certain that .. / we think
that but we are not sure / we understood the word
3
3
3
3
3
3
or something about but we dont understand what
it means or but we dont understand the connection.
Le groupe pourra dj valider ou invalider un certain
nombre dhypothses, claircir certains lments
et lattention des lves pourra porter sur les ques-
tions restant en suspens lors du second visionnage.
titre dexemple :
We are certain:
- Mr Pringles is apologizing.
- Theres something about driving.
- He says hes truly sorry about Thursday night.
We dont really know if:
- He is apologizing about potato chips.
- We dont understand the problem with his car.
- Theres something about sheriff or sheriffs? He had
an accident.
We dont understand:
speakable things ( despicable non reconnu) :
- Chercher travailler par infrence de sens par
rapport au contexte : rcoute du passage et hypo-
thse de sens : bad / wrong / evil something about
fffri do lese? It doesnt make sense.
- Difcile de retrouver Frito-lay sil na pas t intro-
duit en phase danticipation : he accused someone
of being responsible for wars / he blamed someone
for being responsible for all the wars in the world.
On pourra par contre mettre des hypothses sur
someone avant de donner Frito-lay.
- lucidation en tape nale daccs au sens (porte
sur des dtails et non sur le sens gnral).
Pour le deuxime visionnage, plusieurs stratgies
possibles dont :
travail partag entre 3 diffrents groupes :
- un groupe concentr sur le son (concentration sur
les ngatifs et / ou intensieurs) ;
- un groupe concentr sur limage (sensibiliser les
lves aux expressions faciales, aux gestes) ;
- un groupe concentr sur la recherche de rpon-
ses aux questions poses lors de la premire tape
daccs au sens.
Mise en commun.
Dissociation son et image dans un premier temps
en travaillant sur la bande son : 2 groupes = 2 tches
(ngatifs - intensieurs).
- Groupe 1 : ngatif + lment sur lequel porte la
ngation (attitude condamnable).
- Groupe 2 : intensieur + lment sur lequel il
porte (regret).
Mise en commun puis confrontation son et image.
Productions possibles :
Mr Pringles says he misbehaved because he ate too
many potato crisps.
- He wants to sound convincing but what he says is a
bit exaggerated / absurd.
3
project7.indd 168 5/10/07 12:02:43
169 Project 7 - So sorry
- He says eating too many pizzalicious crisps made
him do bad / disgraceful / despicable things.
- Eating crisps cannot intoxicate you like alcohol.
- Perhaps it means that when you eat Pringles crisps,
you feel good / you feel so good you do things you
would not normally do.
- In fact this is an advert / a commercial for Pringles
products.
- Thats why he mentions the slogan / catchphrase
Once you pop, you cant stop!
Enn, une coute cible sur des noncs importants
pour le sens gnral (ou bien repr comme tel par
les lves) et qui nauraient pas t encore lucids
(type despicable ou Frito-Lay dans lexemple ci-des-
sus) : mise en uvre de stratgies pour infrer le
sens ou bien compenser les mots inconnus.
6 Phases rcapitulatives avec prise de notes
dans la logpage (renseigne p. 181 de ce guide) et
interprtation.
Plusieurs stratgies possibles, dont :
- revenir sur la notion de absurd. So why such an
apology?
- utiliser la logpage. Sils ne lont pas dj point les
lves prendront conscience lors de leur prise de
notes dans la logpage que les raisons de la faute
invoques par Mr Pringles sont absurdes et lensei-
gnant pourra utiliser ce tremplin pour les interro-
ger sur la nalit de ces excuses exagres et sans
vrai fondement.
Productions possibles :
Mr Pringles says he has eaten too many potato
chips thats why he says he has misbehaved.
3
- He does not sound very convincing and what he says
is a bit absurd.
- He mentions potato chips many times as well as the
name of the brand. Even the slogan of the brand is
used: once I pop, I simply cannot stop! This press
conference is in fact an advert / a commercial for
Mr Pringles products.
- pour amener les lves cette conclusion, leur
demander : Do you think this document is a real press
conference a show an advert? Justify your opinion.
Over to you
7 Phase dentranement la production crite qui
prparera les lves la ralisation du projet nal.
Elle peut tre utilise comme valuation formative
avec co-valuation.
Ateliers dcriture en binmes (3 lves au maxi-
mum).
On peut demander aux lves de choisir un desti-
nataire et de souligner les lments prendre en
compte dans la lettre en fonction de la personne
qui on sadresse :
Logpage + prise de notes:
- Doctor: potato chip addiction + horric relapse +
physical description (fat?).
- Family: disgraced myself / ashamed R disgrace for
the family.
- Customers: disgrace for the entire brand once I
pop, I simply cannot stop.
Excuse notes

Book p. 92
Excuse notes

Book p. 92
Analyse du document
Texte narratif la premire personne.
Il sagit dun extrait de roman de Frank McCourt, o,
comme dans Angelas Ashes, qui t sa renomme,
le pacte autobiographique stipule que des faits peu
heureux, voire trs sombres, seront dcrits et rap-
ports sur un ton humoristique, ton qui sous-entend
jai survcu .
Le caractre oral de la langue crite, labsence de mar-
ques du discours direct, les lignes oues entre rcit et
citations / discours peuvent drouter : qui parle ?
La structure du passage est nanmoins une aide :
- lignes 1-3 : le narrateur prsente une lettre,
- lignes 4-13 : la lettre en question, dlimite par
Dear Mr Mc Cort et P.S, crite par la maman
de Mickey Dolan,
- lignes 14-21 : reprise du narrateur (I et They),
- lignes 22- 23 : introduction au tiroir qui vient
dtre mentionn,
- lignes 24-32 : contenu du tiroir : crits de divers
lves / parents,
- lignes 33- 45 : conversation en classe entre le nar-
rateur et les lves.
On pourra, aprs lanticipation o auront t
produits teacher, students, parents et autobio-
graphy et avant le surlignage, faire un travail col-
lectif de reprage rapide en donnant successive-
ment ces parties lire avec la consigne : You know
this is an extract from an autobiography. The story
is told by the teacher. Read lines and nd out
who is Cette activit prparera aussi la ques-
tion 4.
project7.indd 169 5/10/07 12:02:45
170
Phase dchauffement
Avant daborder le texte proprement dit, il est possi-
ble de faire travailler les lves sur le cartoon de la
page 92 en phase dchauffement.
Have you got a dog? Are you afraid of dogs? Look at
this one. Its dangerous!
Would you like to have such a dog?
Les lves pourront tre invits utiliser les infor-
mations priphriques et lintroduction pour lanti-
cipation.
Make sense
1 Pour cette question, demander aussi aux l-
ves de sappuyer sur leur exprience personnelle.
Have you or your parents ever written excuse notes
to a teacher?
Judging from the title we can assume this passage
from a novel will deal with apologies.
- This novel is an autobiography: perhaps the teacher
is recalling excuse notes that he received.
- We can suppose we are not going to read letters but
notes, i.e shorter texts. Judging from the title of the novel
Teacher man and the topic of the passage a teachers
memories it might be about excuse notes at school.
- Perhaps the students have written these excuse
notes because they havent done their homework or
they have misbehaved / they might have been rude /
the teacher might be a substitute teacher.
- Or it might be their parents if they were ill and had to
stay at home for example.
- Or the teacher was late perhaps and he wrote an excuse
note for his students, asking them to wait for him.
Prvoir une trace crite rcapitulant les changes dans
la classe pour faciliter la validation ou la non validation
de ces hypothses aprs la phase de lecture.
2 - 3 Aprs un travail en binmes, on pourra
amener les lves valider et justier oralement les
premires hypothses et en formuler dautres.
ce stade de la dmarche daccs au sens on pourra
obtenir certains des lments suivants :
Its about excuse notes written to a teacher in a
school in New York.
- The students wrote these excuse notes but they
didnt sign their names but their parents names.
- These notes were not written by the parents at all.
They are forgeries. The students want the teacher to
believe that their parents wrote these notes.
3
3
Lactivit de reprage des notes dexcuse et leur
explicitation avec laide des rubriques de la log-
page si besoin permettra de complter des l-
ments de sens manquants.
Suggestion :
- temps de reprage individuel
(6 notes dexcuses reprer :
- excuse 1 : l. 1 14
- excuse 2 : l. 24 26
- excuse 3 : l. 27
- excuse 4 : l. 28
- excuse 5 : l. 29-30
- excuse 6 : l. 31-32) ;
- mise en commun : par exemple, un lve peut
surligner, sur un transparent donn par le profes-
seur et projeter ses propositions ; le groupe classe
valide ou non ;
- prparation la prise de parole en binmes avec
laide ventuelle de la logpage ;
- mise en commun et interaction : what makes you
think it is a girl who has written the excuse note?
Well, I can read her big brother. I dont understand
why he has thrown her essay out of the window? I
dont know why exactly but I think they have had an
argument, or she has done something wrong because
he was furious.
On pourra amener les lves rcapituler :
The writer pretends he is someone else. She /
he doesnt acknowledge what he has done / mis-
behaviour, I mean, she doesnt acknowledge (she
hasnt done her essay). Lies / Wants to convince
the reader. She / he isnt responsible for what hap-
pened / fool the teacher / the teacher isnt fooled
because he doesnt believe the essay flew over
Staten Island
- For instance Mickey Dolan puts the blame on
his grandmother because she had drunk too much
coffee.
- Arnold puts the blame on the conductor because he
did not stop the train and he was very vulgar
Lors de la mise en commun les lves sont amens
complter leur logpage (voir p. 181 de ce guide
la logpage renseigne). Si ce stade de lanne il
est encore difcile de faire faire une prise de notes
et de linteraction en simultan, on peut diviser la
classe en deux et demander certains de prendre
des notes, aux autres dinteragir.
Les phases rcapitulatives assures tour de rle
permettront de complter.
3
3
project7.indd 170 5/10/07 12:02:46
171 Project 7 - So sorry
4 F. McCourts reaction
In Teacher Man, Frank McCourt recalls the days when he was a teacher in a New York City
high school.
Mikey Dolan handed me a note from his mother explaining his absence the day before:
Dear Mr McCort, Mikeys grandmother who is my mother eighty years of age fell down the
stairs from too much coffee and I kept Mikey at home to take care of her and his baby sister
so I could go to my job at the coffee shop in the ferry terminal. Please excuse Mikey and
hell do his best in the future as he likes your class. Sincerely yours, Imelda Dolan. P.S. His
grandmother is OK. []
Isnt it remarkable, I thought, how they resist any kind of writing assignment in class
or at home. They whine and say they are busy and its hard putting two hundred words
together on any subject. But when they forge these excuse notes theyre brilliant. Why? I
have a drawer full of excuse notes that could be turned into an anthology of Great American
Excuses or GreatAmerican Lies.
The drawer was filled with samples of American talents never mentioned in song, story or
scholarly study. []
Arnold doesnt have his work today because he was getting off the train yesterday and the
door closed on his school bag and the train took it away. He yelled to the conductor who
said very vulgar things as the train drove away. Something should be done.
His sisters dog ate his homework and I hope it chokes him.
Her baby brother peed on her story when she was in the bathroom this morning.
A man died in the bathtub upstairs and it overflowed and messed up all Robertas
homework on the table.
Her big brother got mad at her and threw her essay out the window and it flew away all over
Staten Island which is not a good thing
Toward the end of the term I typed a dozen excuse notes on a stencil and distributed them
to my two senior classes. They read silently and intently. Yo, Mr McCourt, whats this?
Excuse notes.
Whaddya mean, excuse notes? Who wrote them? You did, or some of you did. I omitted the
names to protect the guilty. Theyre supposed to be written by parents, but you and I know
the real authors. Yes, Mikey?
So, what are we supposed to do with these excuse notes? Well read them aloud. I want you
to realize this is the first class in the world ever to study the art of the excuse note, the first
class ever to practise writing them. You are so lucky to have a teacher like me who has taken
your best writing, the excuse note, and turned it into a subject worthy of study.
Frank McCourt, Teacher Man (2005)
In Teacher Man, Frank McCourt recalls the days when he was a teacher in a New York City
high school.
Mikey Dolan handed me a note from his mother explaining his absence the day before:
Dear Mr McCort, Mikeys grandmother who is my mother eighty years of age fell down the
stairs from too much coffee and I kept Mikey at home to take care of her and his baby sister
so I could go to my job at the coffee shop in the ferry terminal. Please excuse Mikey and
hell do his best in the future as he likes your class. Sincerely yours, Imelda Dolan. P.S. His
grandmother is OK. []
Isnt it remarkable, I thought, how they resist any kind of writing assignment in class
or at home. They whine and say they are busy and its hard putting two hundred words
together on any subject. But when they forge these excuse notes theyre brilliant. Why? I
have a drawer full of excuse notes that could be turned into an anthology of Great American
Excuses or GreatAmerican Lies.
The drawer was filled with samples of American talents never mentioned in song, story or
scholarly study. []
Arnold doesnt have his work today because he was getting off the train yesterday and the
door closed on his school bag and the train took it away. He yelled to the conductor who
said very vulgar things as the train drove away. Something should be done.
His sisters dog ate his homework and I hope it chokes him.
Her baby brother peed on her story when she was in the bathroom this morning.
A man died in the bathtub upstairs and it overflowed and messed up all Robertas
homework on the table.
Her big brother got mad at her and threw her essay out the window and it flew away all over
Staten Island which is not a good thing
Toward the end of the term I typed a dozen excuse notes on a stencil and distributed them
to my two senior classes. They read silently and intently. Yo, Mr McCourt, whats this?
Excuse notes.
Whaddya mean, excuse notes? Who wrote them? You did, or some of you did. I omitted the
names to protect the guilty. Theyre supposed to be written by parents, but you and I know
the real authors. Yes, Mikey?
So, what are we supposed to do with these excuse notes? Well read them aloud. I want you
to realize this is the first class in the world ever to study the art of the excuse note, the first
class ever to practise writing them. You are so lucky to have a teacher like me who has taken
your best writing, the excuse note, and turned it into a subject worthy of study.
Frank McCourt, Teacher Man (2005)
forge these excuse notes theyre brilliant
G
E .
d
to my two senior classes
y
y
y
lissue de la phase dchanges, pour lancer la
rcapitulation on pourra demander aux lves dex-
pliquer la phrase : when they forge excuse notes they
are brilliant.
Students imagined excuses for their misbehaviour
and pretended the excuse notes were written by their
parents.
- The teacher thought the excuse notes were really
good, very imaginative and also funny. He thought
the students were talented, skillful. He was surprised
because in class the students didnt want to / were
always reluctant to write / were not interested in wri-
ting. He was so impressed by their notes that he had a
brilliant idea : to set them as an example to practise
writing excuse notes in class.
3
Over to you
5 Phase dentranement la production crite
qui prparera les lves la ralisation du projet
nal. Peut tre utilise comme valuation formative
avec co-valuation.
Ici encore, possibilit de faire cette activit en
module, ou en classe entire. Insister sur le fait que
les lves rdigent leurs lettres dexcuses comme
sils taient eux-mmes fautifs. Ceci leur permettra
de pouvoir mieux exprimer leurs sentiments.
En utilisant la logpage, les lves pourront une fois
de plus sentraner dvelopper leurs ides en sap-
puyant sur les diverses rubriques et structurer
leurs notes. Puisquil sagit dun travail de groupe,
project7.indd 171 5/10/07 12:02:52
172
on peut demander aux lves de faire ensemble
la recherche et lorganisation des ides puis de
prendre individuellement en charge lcriture dun
paragraphe. La relecture peut galement se faire
individuellement sur un paragraphe rdig par un
autre membre du groupe.
Quelques difcults lexicales pourront se poser.
On peut envisager de donner un dictionnaire bilin-
gue chaque groupe lorsquils auront puis leurs
stratgies de contournement et, pour viter les
recherches abusives, limiter son utilisation cinq
minutes.
Recap
inventing excuses: blaming someone in the family
including the pet, blaming someone in the street, bla-
ming oneself in an exaggerated way, inventing some-
thing that did not happen...
Ici encore, possibilit dvaluation des connaissan-
ces lexicales et de leur ralisation en production
orale, do prise en compte de la phonologie.
On peut choisir de demander quelques lves
dtoffer une des excuses inventes en production
orale en continu de lordre dune minute, en enle-
vant le bquillage de la logpage.
3
Book p. 94-95
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Book p. 94-95
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Words logbook, p. 74-75
A Prononciation : sufxe -able
a. forget forgettable / believe believable / excuse
excusable / forgive forgivable
b. Le schma accentuel reste le mme
c. Le sufxe -able nest pas une terminaison contrai-
gnante. Il y a 3 exceptions peu ou pas rpertories,
savoir :
compare comparable
admire admirable
prefer preferable
B Prononciation : prxes un- et mis-
a. unforgettable unbelievable unforgivable mis-
understand misbehave misinterpretation.
b. Il y a deux accentuations.
c. Les prxes antonymiques, tout comme les nga-
tifs, sont toujours accentus...
C Organiser le lexique :
1. indelicate rude disrespectful impolite
insulting despicable: attitude
2. guilty ashamed embarrassed worried
sorry happy proud: feelings
3. wound scar injure hurt: damage
4. mean to intend to do on purpose: intentions
5. wrong-doing mischief offence aggravation:
misbehaviour
D Associer un mot et sa dnition
1. mischief (noun)
2. despicable (adj.)
3. scar (noun)
4. guilty (adj.)
5. worried (adj.)
E Word bank
lie blame ashamed
Phrase(s) dans laquelle /
lesquelles jai rencontr
ce mot
They lied when they
forged their excuse
notes
He blamed the dog for
eating his homework
He was ashamed of
his attitude!
Domaine de sens auquel
je peux le rattacher
Reasons for
misbehaviour
Responsibility Feelings
Nature du mot verbe verbe ou nom adjectif
Dnition
Not tell the truth Blame: To say or think that
someone or something is
responsible for something
which has happened.
Ashamed: Feeling
guilty or embarrassed
about something you
have done.
project7.indd 172 5/10/07 12:02:57
173 Project 7 - So sorry
lie blame ashamed
Ne pas oublier !
He lied , he is lying To blame someone for
(doing) something
Ashamed of (doing)
something
Prononciation / la / / blem / /emd /
Mots proches
synonymes
fake forge-
pretend- deceive
to accuse someone of / to
reproach someone with /
charge someone with /
condemn
criticize
to be responsible for
guilty
sorry
Mots loigns
antonymes
tell the truth
be honest
praise proud of : adj.
pride: n
unashamed
Quelques mots de la
mme famille (avec leur
nature, et leur sens)
a liar (n.): someone
who lies
blame (nom)
blameless (adj.)
blamelessly (adv)
blameworthy (adj.) :
deserving blame
blamable (adj.)
shame (nom)
shameful /
shameless: (adj.)
ashamedly (adv)
shame-facedly :
(adv)
Ne pas confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
to lie - lay - lain
Collocations, tournures
idiomatiques
lie to someone
to lie through ones
teeth = to lie
outrageously
a white lie = un-
important lie to
spare feelings, to be
polite
put or pin the blame on
take the blame for
Proverbes, dictons
A lie has no legs, but
a scandal has wings.
Fix the problem not the
blame.
The bad workman blames
his tools.
It is easier to blame than do
better.
When two quarrel, both are
to blame.
He who is ashamed
of asking, is
ashamed of
learning.
!!
!!
Listening
Negatives
1 In the introduction :
I am not going to answer any questions (rpt
une deuxime fois)
- In Mr Pringles statement
when I should not have
do not believe to be true
do not believe that
and I cannot stop
Intensieurs
2 very wrong
truly do not believe
truly sorry
profoundly regret
truly cannot stop
Verb or auxiliary
3 1. I havent seen him for years.
2. She had more than she asked for.
3. My teacher should have told me.
4. Do you have to make so much noise?
5. How long have you lived here?
project7.indd 173 5/10/07 12:02:59
174
strong
(hv / hd)
weak
(v /d)
why?
1. X auxiliaire + ngation attache = forme forte
2. X verbe (sens de recevoir)
3. X auxiliaire
4. X verbe (obligation) (ne peut pas tre rduit)
5. X auxiliaire
Speaking
Present perfect vs Preterite
4 Rchir sur la langue : Present Perfect vs
prtrit (logbook, p. 76)
La forme have + pp apparat dans un environnement
prsent : be + ing - now - will - always. Lnonciateur
se situe donc dans le prsent et tourne son regard
vers le pass, fait le lien avec le pass.
Le prtrit dans chacun des noncs renvoie lac-
tion elle-mme et pour elle-mme et non ses
consquences :
- 1. laction de manger les prunes, donc quelque
chose de pass ;
- 2. la semaine dernire : pass ;
- 3. un vnement qui appartient au pass : this
morning.
5 Les lves pourront prparer leur prise de
parole partir de notes qui pourraient se prsenter
de la faon suivante.
Boy R eaten homework.
Teacher or parents R lying R know the truth R dog to
the vets R dog: X-rayed
Vet and boy see homework R boy / happy / not
guilty / not responsible / no liar
On veillera faire exprimer les liens logiques et
chronologiques, et on encouragera le recours aux
gap-llers. Well, I mean , you see
Reading
Reading a letter
6
Dear Elizabeth,
I dont know what to do. Im experiencing extreme complications of guilt. I keep sending
you anonymous notes apologizing about anonymous notes and then straight away I have to
apologize for anonymous apologizing.
You get what I mean?
I dont want to stop being anonymous and tell you who I am, because Im too embarrassed.
But as a compromise I could REDUCE my anonymity by telling you a BIT about who I am.
OK? Im very sorry.
From: A Stranger Who Catches Your Bus, and Who Sits up the Back,
and Who Goes to Brookfield.
PS: Is that enough? Sorry.
Dear Elizabeth,
I dont know what to do. Im experiencing extreme complications of guilt. I keep sending
you anonymous notes apologizing about anonymous notes and then straight away I have to
apologize for anonymous apologizing.
You get what I mean?
I dont want to stop being anonymous and tell you who I am, because Im too embarrassed.
But as a compromise I could REDUCE my anonymity by telling you a BIT about who I am.
OK? Im very sorry.
From: A Stranger Who Catches Your Bus, and Who Sits up the Back,
and Who Goes to Brookfield.
PS: Is that enough? Sorry.
Writing
Sorry about + V-ing
7 Rchir sur la langue : Sorry about + V-ing
(logbook, p. 77)
b. Ils renvoient la logpage : apologizing
c. Les groupes verbaux sont souligns, les compl-
ment en gras.
I apologize for acting so badly.
I am sorry about forgetting our lunch date.
Id just like to apologize again for missing the lunch
date.
I was wrong for telling you that you were dumb.
Les complments qui suivent les groupes verbaux
sont forms de base verbale + ing.
project7.indd 174 5/10/07 12:03:01
175 Project 7 - So sorry
La principale vient avant la subordonne mais chro-
nologiquement laction de la subordonne vient
avant celle de la principale.
d. 2. I forgot our lunch date and I am sorry about it.
3. I missed the lunch date and Id just like to apologize
again.
4. I told you that you were dumb and I was wrong.
8 On pourra demander aux lves de prciser
qui sadresse les mots dexcuses et de donner quel-
ques explications, mmes succinctes.
Productions possibles :
- Dearest sister. Im sorry about losing the earrings
you lent me for the party last night. There were so
many people there, they may have fallen.
- Dear Mr X. I didnt have time to complete the file
you gave me last week because my children were
sick. Im sorry about being late but I hope you will
forgive me.
- Hi, Jack! Sorry about keeping you waiting last
night but my moped didnt start and the battery of
my cell-phone was dead! What about meeting you
to-night?
Regrets and reproaches
9 Rchir sur la langue : Modalit dans le
pass (logbook, p. 78)
b.
modal + BV
should be more polite
should behave
could handle
modal + have + pp
should not have told
should have been
should not have performed
could have handled
could have stopped
should not have kicked
wish + prtrit
wish I knew
I wish you werent
wish + had+ pp
wish I had eaten
wish I hadnt ruined
c. Modal + BV = comportement prfrable : conseil.
Modal + have + pp = regret.
Conclusion :
- modal + BV : la prise de position de lnonciateur
porte sur une action / comportement venir ou sur
comportement gnral.
- modal + have + pp : la prise de position de lnon-
ciateur porte sur une action passe.
d. Wish + prtrit = souhait.
Wish + had + pp = regret.
Conclusion :
- wish + prterit : souhait sur le prsent. Le prtrit
ici ne renvoie pas un pass mais est une mar-
que de lirralit de la situation prsente. Cest le
dcalage entre le temps utilis et le temps de la
situation qui indique quil ne sagit pas dune ralit
mais de quelque chose que lon souhaiterait tre
la ralit.
- wish + had + pp : regret ou souhait rtrospectif,
souhait qui porte sur une action passe. Lorsque
lon parle de la ralit passe, on utilise le prtrit
mais ici la forme had + participe pass nous indique
quil ne sagit pas de la ralit, de ce qui sest rel-
lement pass mais de ce quon souhaiterait tre la
ralit. Le dcalage des temps marque le dcalage
entre ralit et souhait.
10 Corrig possible :
- My darling wife,
- Im sorry to admit Ive made a terrible mistake: I
shouldnt have forgotten your birthday. Once again, it
completely slipped my mind. I wish I werent so for-
getful.
- Last year you told me to mark the date in my plan-
ner and believe me I did! Unfortunately I didnt look
at it last week as we were on holiday. We shouldnt
have chosen this time to go away, we should have
stayed at home and I would have looked at it.
- You cant imagine how sorry I am.
- I wish I hadnt hurt your feelings. It was so rude of
me after 30 wonderful years together. I could have
been more tactful when you shouted at me. Its true;
- I shouldnt have said you were too sensitive.
- I wish you werent so cross with me now.
- As you dont want to talk to me anymore, Im sen-
ding you a gift you will never forget. I hope you will
open it and forgive me.
- Please do believe Im sorry and give me another
chance.
- Love.
Expanding sentences
11 Il sagit dans cet exercice de mettre en place
les notions de cause et de consquence et de faire
produire des noncs qui pourront tre srieux
mais aussi humoristiques, si la cause ou la cons-
quence est en dcalage avec laction. Cet exercice
constituera un entranement supplmentaire au
projet puisque les lves doivent choisir le ton de
leur lettre.
Dans un premier temps donc les lves crivent en
une phrase un problme, lenseignant collecte des
propositions puis tirage au sort dune phrase par
chacun des lves. eux ensuite dinventer lexpli-
cation ou les consquences de la situation.
project7.indd 175 5/10/07 12:03:04
176
Exemple : I didnt watch TV yesterday
- because the TV didnt work / there was a power
cut / I wasnt allowed to / my mother wanted to
watch a football match.
- Thats why I cant talk about the lm / thats why
Im so excited today
Making good resolutions
12 Engagements pour lavenir
d. Conclusion :
- will = futur
- promise to prend relais de will : I promise TO = I
promise I will
Book p. 96-97
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 96-97
YOUR PROJECT
Cette tape nale se fait individuellement du dbut
la n du projet. On peut considrer qu ce stade de
lanne, les lves nauront plus besoin du soutien de
leur logpage laquelle ils ont eu maintes fois recours
tout au long du chapitre. Toutefois, si le niveau atteint
par certains lves ne leur permet pas une telle auto-
nomie on pourra leur fournir une copie des rubriques
de la logpage et bonier les productions dlves qui
nauront pas eu besoin de cette aide.
Tout au long du chapitre, les lves ont acquis des
mthodes, des stratgies, du vocabulaire et des formes
linguistiques pour mener bien le projet nal. Lensei-
gnant est alors en droit dattendre une certaine qualit
et un certain contenu dans les productions des lves
(exemples non limitatifs) :
Im very sorry about losing the DVD you lent me. I
should have been more careful. I wish I hadnt brou-
ght it to school. I could have told my friends you didnt
want me to bring it to school. I know you are going to
blame me for my carelessness thats why I promise to
buy a new DVD for you as soon as I have got money for
my birthday. I hope you will forgive me. I didnt mean
to hurt you.
3
Il pourra tre utile de demander aux lves de rendre
en mme temps que leur production nale leur brouil-
lon prparatoire, de manire les inciter rellement
prendre en compte cette tape bien souvent escamo-
te, leffaceur permettant les corrections rapides mais
limites, en particulier en ce qui concerne la structure
de la lettre.
Le recours au dictionnaire bilingue semble peu nces-
saire lors de cette phase nale du projet. Il devra en tout
cas tre trs limit - quelques minutes en n de phase
prparatoire - an que les lves apprennent sexpri-
mer avec leurs propres mots et compenser ce quils
ne savent pas dire par ce quils savent dj exprimer et
fassent un effort de mmorisation en cours de projet.
Limiter le temps de prparation 15 minutes maximum
et rappeler 5 minutes avant la n du temps imparti la
ncessit de relire. On pourra demander aux lves de
prciser sur leur production leurs objectifs de relecture
et bonier leur production si ces objectifs sont atteints.
On peut choisir de faire travailler les lves avec la
grille dvaluation soit lors de lvaluation soit dj lors
de la dernire valuation formative, an de mieux faire
partager les critres.
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur) :
Traitement du sujet Cohrence et cohsion Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 1 Peut mettre en adquation
sa production avec le sujet
propos : une lettre + respect
longueur minimale indique
= 2 pts
Peut juxtaposer une srie
dlments
= 2 pts
La langue est partiellement
comprhensible
= 2 pts
Degr 2 Peut dans cette lettre
adapter son langage au
destinataire (opening and
closing formula)
= 3 pts
Peut relier une srie
dlments courts, simples
et distincts en un discours
qui senchane
= 3 pts
La langue est comprhensible
malgr des erreurs (marques
verbales / choix des temps /
accord sujet-verbe) et
un lexique limit
= 3 pts

project7.indd 176 5/10/07 12:03:04


177 Project 7 - So sorry
Traitement du sujet Cohrence et cohsion Recevabilit linguistique
Degr 3 Peut dvelopper les
diffrents aspects dune
lettre dexcuses (excuses /
faute / circonstances /
explication / rparation)
= 5 pts
Peut organiser ses ides
correctement enchanes
en diffrents paragraphes
= 4 pts
La langue est
comprhensible et
globalement correcte
= 4 pts
Degr 4 Peut introduire originalit ou
humour dans le traitement
du sujet
= 6 pts
La ponctuation et la
mise en page sont assez
justes pour tre suivies
facilement le plus souvent
= 6 pts
Utilise une gamme assez
tendue de vocabulaire et de
structures appropris
= 8 pts
Bonus Pas de recours la logpage
= 2 pts
Les objectifs de relecture ont
t atteints
= 1 pt
Total (max.) 6 pts + 2 pts bonus 6 pts 8 pts + 1 pt bonus
Exemples de productions obtenues en classe et exemple dapplication du barme
Objectif de relecture annonc : grammar : pas de bonus
Pas de recours la logpage : + 2 pts
Dear Miss Walter
I write this letter because I would like you to forgive me.
Last Tuesday Ive forgotten to do my homework and I want to explain why. On Monday
morning when I wanted to do my homework, I didnt find my homework book thats why
I wanted to call a friend of my class. But, I remembered my dog has eaten my phone, I
believe he thought it was a bone. So I wanted to go to my friends home but, again a but,
my parents couldnt take me to my friends home. They were very busy . I couldnt go
alone because my friend lives very far away and, of course I havent got a car.
Ive thought I could send a letter to my friend but it will arrive in 2 or 3 days. I didnt
find any solutions and I had to eat. After dinner, I look for my homework book again but
without result. It was eleven oclock p.m. and I had to go to bed.
Im very sorry about it. I promise I will buy a new homework book and Ill keep it always
on me! Forever! And, although its expensive, Ill tell my parents to buy me a new phone.
Sincerely
Your favourite student, Delphine.
Dear Miss Walter
I write this letter because I would like you to forgive me.
Last Tuesday Ive forgotten to do my homework and I want to explain why. On Monday
morning when I wanted to do my homework, I didnt find my homework book thats why
I wanted to call a friend of my class. But, I remembered my dog has eaten my phone, I
believe he thought it was a bone. So I wanted to go to my friends home but, again a but,
my parents couldnt take me to my friends home. They were very busy . I couldnt go
alone because my friend lives very far away and, of course I havent got a car.
Ive thought I could send a letter to my friend but it will arrive in 2 or 3 days. I didnt
find any solutions and I had to eat. After dinner, I look for my homework book again but
without result. It was eleven oclock p.m. and I had to go to bed.
Im very sorry about it. I promise I will buy a new homework book and Ill keep it always
on me! Forever! And, although its expensive, Ill tell my parents to buy me a new phone.
Sincerely
Your favourite student, Delphine.
Tuesday, May 15th
Dear Miss
Im so sorry to didnt have my homework the last time. Im sorry but it wasnt my fault.
My little brother took my copy book for playing with it and he kept it all the day. He slept
with my copy book all the night an the morning when I saw he peed on my copy book
during the night, I was so angry! but I promise I didnt hit my brother because he is very
little. So, I put my copy book in the washing machine but after it was just a big ball of
paper, and my little brother took this ball of paper for playing with it and sleeping with
it. So my mother bought a new copy book but my little brother did it another time. Im
so sorry because I cant have a copy book for the English class so I cant do my English
homework. I think I will miss the English class.
Please, forgive my brother it isnt his fault, he is very young.
Sincerely
Anthony
Tuesday, May 15th
Dear Miss
Im so sorry to didnt have my homework the last time. Im sorry but it wasnt my fault.
My little brother took my copy book for playing with it and he kept it all the day. He slept
with my copy book all the night an the morning when I saw he peed on my copy book
during the night, I was so angry! but I promise I didnt hit my brother because he is very
little. So, I put my copy book in the washing machine but after it was just a big ball of
paper, and my little brother took this ball of paper for playing with it and sleeping with
it. So my mother bought a new copy book but my little brother did it another time. Im
so sorry because I cant have a copy book for the English class so I cant do my English
homework. I think I will miss the English class.
Please, forgive my brother it isnt his fault, he is very young.
Sincerely
Anthony
project7.indd 177 5/10/07 12:03:13
178
25 May
Dear Mum,
Im very sorry about my room. I should have tidied it up and again I didnt do it. I am
too busy to do it at this moment. Between my horse, my homework and my room, the
choice is simple. The most important is my homework but it isnt very funny! So, I have
to go riding to have some fun in life. I would like to add my horse is boring in his box if I
dont go and see him.
You should punish me but if you do, you will punish him too and it isnt his fault if teachers
give me too much homework. Before punishing me, listen to my excuses. Im tired (like you
I know), I work (like you too). I hope that you will forgive me for all my mistakes.
I promise to tidy up my room this week-end and if you want to tidy the house.
Love xxx
Sandra
25 May
Dear Mum,
Im very sorry about my room. I should have tidied it up and again I didnt do it. I am
too busy to do it at this moment. Between my horse, my homework and my room, the
choice is simple. The most important is my homework but it isnt very funny! So, I have
to go riding to have some fun in life. I would like to add my horse is boring in his box if I
dont go and see him.
You should punish me but if you do, you will punish him too and it isnt his fault if teachers
give me too much homework. Before punishing me, listen to my excuses. Im tired (like you
I know), I work (like you too). I hope that you will forgive me for all my mistakes.
I promise to tidy up my room this week-end and if you want to tidy the house.
Love xxx
Sandra
Book p. 98, logbook p. 82-84
DEBRIEFING
Book p. 98, logbook p. 82-84
DEBRIEFING
p Voir introduction p. 18 de ce guide
3 What I need to work on
p Voir entranement la comprhension orale p. 279
de ce guide et piste 22 du CD lve.
1. A man or a woman is writing to the tax collector
rst because he/she was rude to this person on the
telephone and also because he/she wants to explain
why he/she has not paid his/her taxes.
Dear Sir
I am writing to apologize because I realize that I was
extremely rude to you on the telephone. I shouldnt
have called you a stupid fool.
Let me please explain why I behaved so badly.
I hope you understand the situation. Please accept my
apology. You must believe me. I take all the blame.
Will you give me some time? I promise I will pay my
taxes as soon as the bank has sent me a new cheque
book and when I have enough money, because I must
buy a new sofa rst.
Yours very truthfully,
2. a : 6 3 7 1 5 4 2.
b.: they are friends. Irrelevant element: 4 (yours sin-
cerely)
c.: 3: apology and misbehaviour - 7: circumstances
- 1: apology
d.: promises for the future I promise I will be more
careful next time/ I promise I will buy you a new I-
pod
3. 1. I shouldnt have told you you were stupid. - I
gave him the wrong book.
2. Thats why I feel sick. - Because they were so sweet.
3. I shouldnt have hurt you. / I should be more res-
pectful.
4. Thats why Im angry with her. / So Ill do it. / I
dont want to, its unfair.
5. Aucun.
project7.indd 178 5/10/07 12:03:21
179 Project 7 - So sorry
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
VALUATION
DE LA COMPRHENSION
1. Comprhension orale : Excuses, excuses! CD classe, piste n
o
7
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 296 de ce guide.
Corrig et barme
Paliers de comprhension :
Points
attribus
Palier 1
Mots isols ou expressions courantes, sans quune mise en rseau assure
la comprhension du message.
General information about the situation
Late (night) 6.30 2am 5 alarm car cold disastrous - breakfast neighbour
called boss
1 2
selon
quantit
Palier 2
Des informations sont comprises mais la collecte est incomplte, conduisant une
comprhension lacunaire.
What the man did and said
Woke up 6.30 called boss said was late because car wouldnt start because of cold
3 4
selon
quantit
Palier 3
Toutes les informations principales sont releves et mises en relation. Lessentiel est
compris.
The real facts
Went to bed 2am - Had to be at work 6.30 didnt want to get up at 5 set alarm for 6.30
called boss to apologize said car couldnt start had quiet breakfast went to work
5 8
Palier 4
Certains dtails signicatifs du document sont relevs. Tout le contenu informatif est
compris.
The nal problem
Went to work after his breakfast was really late had real at tyre - couldnt call boss
again
10
Note de llve = ........ / 10
x 2 = ........ / 20
Bonus : informations supplmentaires qui ajoutent au sens .
Bonus: additional information
Said called neighbour twice - cables - no jack now ashamed
2
2. Comprhension crite : A Note From Mum Book p. 161
Appareil dvaluation
p Voir p. 297 de ce guide.
Corrig
Identify the type of
document
- a poem
- could remind us of a letter (addressing someone + PS)
Identify the narrators
aim
- apologize
Information about
the offender and the
victims
- offender: mother
- victim(s): household or children
project7.indd 179 5/10/07 12:03:27
180
Offence (s) + reasons for
each of them
nothing to eat dirty clothes spent time shopping / helped a neighbour
no time / in a hurry / busy
(3 de ces lments souligns, au choix, font partie du seuil 1)
Narrators general
situation accounting for
the offence
- she has got a job (working mum)
How the offender makes
amends
- a slap up supper / things will get better / says she loves them / cooks
something good / something everybody likes / promises thing will get
better.
(1 de ces lments, au choix, pour le seuil 1)
Feelings guilty: her children are not the rst on the list but she loves them
More general message denounces working womens life conditions
Proposition de barme :
- Seuil 1 : 10 / 20 : tous les lments souligns sont renseigns : 8 au total.
- Seuil 2 : 12 / 20 : llve a trouv llment gris (she has got a job - si working mum seulement 11 / 20).
- Seuil 3 : un point en plus par lment ajout.
- Seuil 4 : deux points en plus par lment en italique ajout.
project7.indd 180 5/10/07 12:03:31
181 Project 7 - So sorry
Logbook p. 73
Logpage
Logbook p. 73
Logpage
Victim,
offender +
their relation-
ships
Misbehaviour and
circumstances (what happened,
where, when, where, how, why)
How apologizes
are expressed
Promises
for the future
Opening and
closing
formula in the
letters
X + a mouse Stepped on it / killed it.
Playing in the garage.
Couldnt / was
dead p felt very
guilty + sad.
S
t
e
p

1
:

A

S
a
m
p
l
e

o
f

a
p
o
l
o
g
y

l
e
t
t
e
r
s
Thomas Morlin
/ Miss Smith
pupil / teacher
Acted up = acted disrespectfully /
made faces / didnt speak respectfully.
In class / substitute teacher.
Make fun of the substitute teacher /
make other kids laugh.
Apologized for
acting badly.
Make good
resolutions:
promise not to
do it again.
Dear Ms Smith
Sincerely
Jolene / Tim
friends
Missed lunch date.
Too busy.
Forgot / slipped my mind / didnt write
it in my planner.
Im sorry about
forgetting /
apologize for
missing.
Treat the injured
party (victim) to
a restaurant.
Your friend
Felicia / David
girlfriend /
boyfriend or
close friends
Said you were dumb / hurt your
feelings / insult.
Silly argument.
Disagreement / couldnt speak / got
angry / lost my temper.
I admit that I was
wrong for telling
you
I want you to
know I am very
sorry.
Say you value
the relationship
/say you love the
person you have
hurt.
Please write me
back.
Love
S
t
e
p

1
:

T
h
i
s

I
s

J
u
s
t

T
o

S
a
y
We dont
know exactly-
live in the
same family
- probably child
an parent
Ate plums saved for breakfast
Hot weather / thirsty
So sweet /so cold
Forgive me.
S
t
e
p

2
:

M
r

P
r
i
n
g
l
e
s


a
p
o
l
o
g
y
Consumers /
Mr Pringles
Very wrong things / drove a car when
I should not have / stopped by the LA
country sheriffs.
Said despicable things /dont believe
them to be true / disgraced myself.
Do not believe Frito-lay is responsible
for all the wars in the world.
After eating two cans of pizzalicious
Pringles on Thursday night.
Potato chip addiction (once I pop I
truly cannot stop).
Disgrace myself
and the entire
Pringles brand
with my behaviour
/ for that I am
truly sorry /
profoundly regret
my horrific
relapse / I am
ashamed.
S
t
e
p

2
:

E
x
c
u
s
e

n
o
t
e
Mikey Dolan /
teacher
Skipped classes / missing.
Grandmothers accident f too much
coffee.
Had to take care of her + baby sister.
Please excuse
Mikey.
Hell do his best
as he likes your
class.
Arnold /
teacher
No work.
Yesterday / getting off the train.
Problem with train door+ conductor.
a boy / teacher No homework.
Dog ate it.
Hope dogll die.
girl / teacher No story / work / written exercise.
In the bathroom.
Baby brother peed on it.
Roberta /
teacher
Homework.
On the table.
messed up by water f man upstairs
died / bath p water
girl /teacher Essay.
Argument with brother.
Threw it out of the window / wind took
it away.
project7.indd 181 5/10/07 12:03:32
182
PROJECT
8
Schools Inc.

Sommaire du chapitre Schools Inc.

Organisation gnrale et nalit du projet p. 183


S
t
e
p

1
Start from what you know (book, p. 100)
Make sense: School bus advertising in the USA (book, p. 100)
Make sense: Our school is sponsored by (book, p. 101)
Over to you (book, p. 102)
Recap (book, p. 102)
p. 184
p. 184
p. 185
p. 188
p. 188
S
t
e
p

2
Start from what you know (book, p. 103)
Make sense: School are starting to look like big ads (book, p. 103)
Over to you (book, p. 103)
Make sense: Is it okay to sell school naming rights (book, p. 105)
Over to you (book, p. 105)
Recap (book, p. 105)
p. 189
p. 190
p. 191
p. 192
p. 194
p. 194
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

s
k
i
l
l
s
Words (book, p. 106 / logbook, p. 86-88)
Listening (book, p. 106)
Speaking (book, p. 106)
Reading (book, p. 107)
Writing (book, p. 107)
p. 194
p. 196
p. 196
p. 197
p. 197
Your project (book, p. 108)
Debrieng (book, p. 109 / logbook, p. 94)
valuation de la comprhension /
Logpage (logbook, p. 85)
p. 198
p. 200
p. 201
p. 203
Droulement de la squence
Activits Dure et modalits indicatives
STEP 1
Start from what you know p. 184
1 sance
Make sense: School bus advertising in the USA p. 184 1 sance,
Make sense: Our school is sponsored by p. 185 1 sance,
Over to you p. 188 1 sance, possible en demi-groupes
Recap p. 188
1 sance, possible en demi-groupe
ou en classe entire, possible en
valuation
STEP 2
Start from what you know p. 189
Make sense: Schools are starting to look like big ads p. 190
Over to you p. 191
2 sances ()
Make sense: It is okay to sell school naming rights p. 192 1 sance, possible en demi-groupes

project8.indd 182 5/10/07 14:03:32


183 Project 8 - Schools Inc.


/

Over to you p. 194
1 sance, production crite possible
en valuation
Recap possible en valuation
Recap p. 194
YOUR PROJECT p. 200
VALUATION :
1 sance, en module
Au terme du projet Schools Inc.

les lves partici-


peront un dbat sur un sujet qui leur est familier :
lcole. Amorce par le projet 2 Together for a time,
cette activit de prise de parole en interaction obit
des rgles bien dnies. Les lves pourront ici
rinvestir ce quils savent dj faire : tre lcoute
des uns et des autres pour ragir sur le fond des
interventions, les mettre en question, demander
des reformulations, des explicitations
Types de texte
En n de parcours, il est demand aux lves dar-
gumenter leur position sur la motion propose pour
le dbat et de ragir aux arguments de lquipe
adverse. En consquence, les textes proposs dans
ce projet sont de nature informative et, dans le
Step 2, argumentative.
Cur de sens
Le cur de sens du projet repose sur la notion de dsac-
cord : participer un dbat, cest dfendre un point de
vue par opposition un autre, critiquer, reprendre des
propos pour les conrmer ou les inrmer.
Activits langagires
: Comprendre lessentiel dun reportage tlvis
sur le sujet tudi.
: Comprendre un texte publicitaire et des textes
dopinion.

: Produire des crits structurs avec reprise


darguments.
: changer des ides et des opinions, argumenter.
Outils linguistiques
- Expression du contraste et de lopposition.
- Discours indirect.
- Questions rhtoriques.
- Intonation.
Prendre part un dbat
- Attitude et savoir-tre en interaction : coute, tour
de parole, prise de parole.
- Utilisation de notes ventuelles.
- Utilisation des arguments adverses.
- Illustration de ses propres arguments pour les tayer.
Le Step 1 du chapitre est avant tout descriptif : il
est demand aux lves de noter les spcicits du
systme scolaire de certains tablissements (am-
ricains en particulier) en matire de publicits et de
partenariats avec les entreprises prives, dy ragir
et de commencer dgager des arguments pour ou
contre.
Le Step 2 systmatise la recherche darguments et
y ajoute la notion de contre-arguments (comment
contredire ou reprendre son avantage ce que
lautre a dj dit) et les implications / rpercussions
dun tel systme.

ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
ORGANISATION GNRALE
ET FINALIT DU PROJET
tant donn la place importante de lopposition
pour / contre au sein dun dbat, la logpage se
compose naturellement de deux colonnes, pros
et cons, que les lves renseigneront au fur et
mesure du projet 8. Celle-ci leur permettra, en
rception, dorienter leur lecture et leur coute
des documents proposs, puis, en production
(orale, en interaction, ou crite) de structurer
leur discours. Une fois encore, la logpage repro-
duite p. 203 de ce guide contient des noncs
susceptibles dtre produits seulement, mais pas
ncessairement exigibles.
EXPLOITATION DE LA LOGPAGE
project8.indd 183 5/10/07 14:03:34
184
Phase dchauffement
Du warm-up pour entrer dans le vif du sujet.
- Formule questionnement : poser la question :
What have you watched on TV recently?; en der-
nier recours, le professeur pourra rpondre but
the show was cut with commercials what do you
think of that? pour inviter les lves sexprimer
sur lomniprsence de la publicit.
- Formule document inconnu : trouver dans la
presse deux publicits de tons diffrents (par exem-
ple lune humoristique et lautre plus srieuse) pour
arriver des ractions de type :
I like / dont like this ad I think its very original /
funny / boring I dont see what they mean
Start from what you know
1 La grille propose dans le manuel peut tre
reproduite dans le cahier ; elle ne gure pas sur la
logpage car elle naborde pas le lien direct entre la
publicit et le milieu scolaire.
La premire consigne permet de recenser tous les
supports sur lesquels on peut voir des publicits (et
amener la diffrence advertisement / commercial, de
mme que see et watch), voire dinciter dj les lves
sinterroger sur lomniprsence de la publicit.
We can find ads in magazines, on walls (on bill-
boards), in the subway, at the bus stop
- Advertising is everywhere (ubiquitous).
Puis on les amne parler dune publicit et
expliquer :
3
3
- son contenu factuel et sa prsentation ;
- en quoi elle leur a plu ou non.
On invitera les lves ragir, quils connaissent ou
non la publicit en question :
I really think that ad is ridiculous
- Oh really? I dont ! On the contrary I think it is very
convincing, funny
2 Pour cette activit, on pourra nommer qua-
tre secrtaires chargs de prendre des notes. Le
tableau ntant alors utilis par lenseignant que
pour indiquer certains mots / expressions retenir.
Leur compte-rendu sera loccasion dune prise de
parole en continu partir de notes valuable la
discrtion de lenseignant.
Les noncs produits lors de cette rcapitulation
pourront servir de base la trace crite.
La seconde consigne fait directement appel au vcu
des lves :
Sometimes there are ads for special events (like a
play or a special day at school).
- There are also campaigns to encourage pupils to
vote, to encourage them not to start smoking, to
advise them about their health
- There arent any ads that advertise products.
- No ads for supermarkets, or perfume, or expensive
clothes or sportswear.
- Maybe the headmaster / headmistress does not like
advertising...
- Our parents would not agree
- Perhaps it is forbidden / illegal to advertise brands
at school
3
3
School bus advertising
in the USA
Book p. 100
School bus advertising
in the USA
Book p. 100
Make sense
3 Si les ractions des lves manquent de spon-
tanit, ne pas hsiter une fois encore faire appel
leur vcu : How do you go to school? Do you walk?
I go to school on foot / I walk to school.
- I come by bike / motorbike / scooter.
- My parents drive me to school.
- I come by bus.
Puis faire aborder la diffrence entre les bus scolaires
amricains et franais en partant des illustrations :
In the US, all school buses are yellow.
3
3
- It is probably yellow / that colour because other dri-
vers can recognize them easily on the road.
- The buses usually pick up the pupils not far from
where they live.
- In France, there are school buses but generally, they
are not yellow.
- In areas where there are no school buses, the pupils have
to use ordinary means of transport (the tube, the bus).
- We can see an advertisement for a game shop on the
side of the rst bus, whereas the second one adver-
tises the NY lottery.
Book p. 100
STEP 1
project8.indd 184 5/10/07 14:03:36
185 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

- Unlike American school buses, I dont think French


school buses advertise local shops or games.
4 Lors de lexploitation, pour faciliter le rep-
rage et laccs au sens, demander aux lves de
reprer tous les pronoms personnels (you essen-
tiellement) et les formes relatives lconomie
(marketing, benefits, target market, compete for,
generate funds) de sorte que, lors de la phase de
mise en commun, les lves puissent produire :
Its an advantage to place ads on school buses
because everybody sees them and they go everywhere
in the town.
- You dont have to buy a newspaper or a magazine to
see those ads.
- The text explains all the benets of placing ads on
school buses.
3
- So it is meant to encourage businessmen and shop
owners to advertise their rms on buses.
- So the document is about the benets of advertising
on school buses.
- Its an advantage for businesses because they
can draw peoples attention. They can get more
clients.
- Its also a benet for the school disctrict because
they receive a portion of / part of the money made by
businesses.
- Thanks to that money, schools can organize projects
and activities without having to use all the money in
their budget.
- Thanks to school bus advertising, local busines-
ses can get more clients and schools will earn more
money.
Our school is sponsored by
Book p. 101
Our school is sponsored by
Book p. 101
Analyse du document
Le roman Wake Up (2002) de Tim Pears est lhistoire
de John Sharpe, mdecin assailli de doutes existen-
tiels, et de ses expriences pour obtenir des vaccins
oraux, labors partir de gnes de pommes de
terre (il est, avec son frre, le fondateur de Spudnik,
la multinationale de la pomme de terre) et de lADN
de maladies redoutables.
Le roman se passe en Angleterre dans un futur
proche mais nest pas proprement parler de la
science-ction. Pour citer New Statesman du 5 aot
2002 :
From the corporate-sponsored school attended by Johns
nephews, where adverts are the new catechism, to the
spooky holograms gathered round the table at Spudnik
board meetings, this is a fable full of eerie futuristic
detail, yet there is nothing here that does not already
exist
La phrase you can never stamp brand loyalty too
young (ligne 21) peut attirer lattention : elle est
susceptible de poser des problmes de compr-
hension, elle exprime le noir dessein cach derrire
la gnrosit apparente des multinationales et en
consquence lopinion de celui qui souligne ce des-
sein, elle est aussi le signe de linterpellation directe
du lecteur par le narrateur.
Nanmoins, dans la mesure o lobjectif de lecture
ici nest pas lanalyse littraire pousse, qui rel-
verait dun niveau B2 de lecture, mais la mise en
vidence de ractions diverses quant au sponso-
ring, on pourra ne pas sarrter sur cette phrase. Le
sens des lignes 19-25 est accessible sans quil soit
ncessaire de lexaminer.
Lintroduction donne demble lidentit du narra-
teur du passage tudi ; la charge lexicale est tout
fait grable.
Blatant et state of the art, dont le sens exact ne
peut tre infr ici, sont donns en notes.
Make sense
1 Attirer lattention sur le mot sponsor(ed) : les
lves le connatront sans doute il est important
quils soient amens lexpliciter.
Lillustration pourra les mettre sur la voie.
Productions possibles :
The scene probably takes place in a school play-
ground.
- There are four teenagers playing basketball.
- We can see the word Adidas (a famous shoe brand)
written on the basket panel.
- Maybe the school got that basket from Adidas.
- This perhaps means Adidas agreed to pay for some
of the schools sports equipment provided the name
Adidas is clearly visible in the school.
- Maybe the school is sponsored by Adidas.
3
project8.indd 185 5/10/07 14:03:37
Think of football matches or the Tour de France:
what can you see on the players or cyclists jerseys?
- A sponsor is a person, or a company, who pays
people or nances activities (a concert or a sporting
event) in return for advertising.
Puis on peut amener les lves mettre des sup-
positions partir du titre et de lintroduction. On
pourra, comme repres, faire gurer au tableau : a
near future / school / sponsor.
Productions possibles :
We can suppose that the school receives money
from famous brands.
(Demander ici des exemples de famous brands
pour sassurer de la comprhension des termes.)
- Maybe the pupils can see brand-names everywhere
in their school, even in the classrooms.
- There are four characters, so we can suppose there
are different reactions / points of view about the role
of sponsors at school.
- Perhaps the adults dont like the school because
they dont like advertising.
3
- Maybe there are no school sponsors in Britain at the
moment, but it might change in the future: there will
be partnerships / contracts between schools and big
businesses.
2 a. Le but de ce reprage est de fournir aux
lves les premires cls pour rendre compte de
ce quils ont compris au cours de la mise en com-
mun. On peut, par exemple, proposer un surlignage
pais pour les brandnames et un surlignage plus n
pour leur rle au sein de lcole (au besoin, faire une
dmonstration au rtroprojecteur).
Les ractions des personnages seront sans doute
plus faciles trouver que leurs arguments : unbe-
lievable, horric, it doesnt bother me, indi-
gnant.
Soulign : the brand names and what they have to do
with the boysschool.
En gras : raction de Lily, la tante.
En italique : raction de lun des deux garons.
Encadr : raction apparente de loncle.
Lee showed us his homework recently: a classroom business course that teaches students the
value of work by demonstrating how McDonalds restaurants are run.
Lily was aghast. This is unbelievable, she said, but that was the least of it.
The children start their day not with a school assembly [] but go directly to their classrooms
and watch a news programme, current events for teens, interspersed with commercials. Then
they turn on their monitors, which greet them with the words, This computer was brought
to you by Kentucky Fried Chicken. Have a nice day.
This is horrific, Lily gasped.
Darling, I said, how many schools do you imagine have a state-of-the-art computer for
every single pupil? How could they afford it? []
The Nike swoosh is painted on the roof, [Lee] said. So that people in planes can see it.
That paid for all our sports kits.
Soda vending machines in the halls: thats how it began. Coca-Cola paid for a new gym, an
electronic scoreboard on the basketball court. Exclusive vending rights. You can never stamp
brand loyalty too young. With the next contract they offered more money to the school if it
exceeded consumption of a given quota of Coke products in a year. Machines were installed
along each corridor, on every landing. Pupils were allowed, encouraged, to drink Coke in the
classroom: one Monday morning they found can holders attached to their desks. []
Lily was indignant. She tried to rouse the boys to action, to assert their right to freedom from
such blatant propaganda.
Clint shrugged. It doesnt bother me, he said. Tim Pears, Wake Up (2002)
Lee showed us his homework recently: a classroom business course that teaches students the
value of work by demonstrating how McDonalds restaurants are run.
Lily was aghast. This is unbelievable, she said, but that was the least of it.
The children start their day not with a school assembly [] but go directly to their classrooms
and watch a news programme, current events for teens, interspersed with commercials. Then
they turn on their monitors, which greet them with the words, This computer was brought
to you by Kentucky Fried Chicken. Have a nice day.
This is horrific, Lily gasped.
Darling, I said, how many schools do you imagine have a state-of-the-art computer for
every single pupil? How could they afford it? []
The Nike swoosh is painted on the roof, [Lee] said. So that people in planes can see it.
That paid for all our sports kits.
Soda vending machines in the halls: thats how it began. Coca-Cola paid for a new gym, an
electronic scoreboard on the basketball court. Exclusive vending rights. You can never stamp
brand loyalty too young. With the next contract they offered more money to the school if it
exceeded consumption of a given quota of Coke products in a year. Machines were installed
along each corridor, on every landing. Pupils were allowed, encouraged, to drink Coke in the
classroom: one Monday morning they found can holders attached to their desks. []
Lily was indignant. She tried to rouse the boys to action, to assert their right to freedom from
such blatant propaganda.
Clint shrugged. It doesnt bother me, he said. Tim Pears, Wake Up (2002)
said, how many schools do you imagine have a state-of-the-art computer for

2. b. Commencer par les brand-names et, au cas
o la parole aurait du mal venir, demander : What
do you know about McDonalds? about KFC?
La trace crite des interventions devrait comporter
plusieurs sries de noms composs :
McDonalds and KFC are fast food restaurant chains,
so they shouldnt have a connection with schools.
- In fact, they are associated with Lees school because
the management of McDonalds restaurants is taught
3
in class, and KFC provided / paid for the schools com-
puters.
- The sports shoe company Nike paid for the schools
sports equipment. Their logo is visible on the roof of
the school R they paid for the sports kits just because
the school accepted to display their logo.
- Coca Cola is the biggest soft drink company in the
world. They contributed a lot to the school equipment
and gave them money.
186
project8.indd 186 5/10/07 14:03:39
- In the boys school, there are the Nike logo on the roof,
Coke vending machines everywhere (besides, the pupils
can drink Coke in class), computers promoting KFC
Passer ensuite aux ractions des personnages.
Tenir compte de ce que les lves proposeront et
mettre des repres au tableau. On pourra y faire un
tableau quatre lignes, une pour chacun des quatre
personnages, renseigner au fur et mesure que les
rponses sont donnes mme si ces rponses sont
errones. Sil est probable que les ractions de Lily
seront aisment mises en vidence, il est trs possi-
ble que les lignes 19-25 soient attribues Lee.
Who Reactions
Lily
Lee
Clint
narrator
Revenir ensuite sur ce qui a t propos en deman-
dant des justications dans le texte. Si les lignes 19-
25 ont t attribues Lee, attirer lattention sur
la ponctuation et faire remarquer quil ny a pas de
guillemets pour obtenir :
The narrator is explaining how the story began.
Dire aux lves : there are ve stages to the story,
read the lines again and nd the ve stages.
Productions possibles :
a) First there were machines in the hall.
b) Then Coca Cola paid for new sports equipment.
c) After that, they said the school would have more
money if the students consumption exceeded the quota
they had decided on. The more the students bought
Coke products, the more money the school could get.
d) So, the school encouraged the students to drink a
lot of coke.
e) In the end, the students were given permission to
drink coke during classes Can holders were atta-
ched to their desks
Attirer lattention sur la phrase You can never stamp
brand loyalty too young et lexpliciter :
Brands want consumers to be loyal: for instance,
Coca Cola wanted the students to drink only Coke and
not other drinks.
- To stamp means to mark for a long time.
- The narrator says that Coca Cola wanted their drink
to be a part of the studentslife / wanted the students
to be so used to Coke that they would never drink
another drink.
Revenir sur lopinion de loncle narrateur qui nest
donc pas entirement positive.
3
3
3
Rcapituler les ractions des personnages :
Lily thinks it is horrific / a nightmare / frightening /
unbearable.
- She is indignant / very angry / appalled.
- The children dont seem to care.
- Clint does not think it is a problem.
- Perhaps they are so used to seeing brand-names
everywhere that they dont see it as advertising at all.
- The narrator has mixed feelings: he says that only
sponsoring can buy good equipement for schools but he
also sees the dangers of having too much sponsoring.
Passer aux arguments.
Reprendre les ractions des personnages et les jus-
tier.
Who Reactions Reasons
Lily Is indignant /
very angry /
appalled
- Its propaganda:
sponsors are
turning pupils into
consumers, the
school into
a commercial place.
- The children
are manipulated
by brands so
that they are
conditioned to
buy their products.
Lee Has no
reaction
Not angry or
indignant
- Nike offered
the school sports
kits just because
the school displayed
their logo.
- KFC provided
the school with
computers.
- Coca Cola paid
for a gym and school
equipment.
Clint Doesnt care,
Not bothered,
is used to it,
doesnt see
where the
problem is
narrator mixed
feelings
- Schools dont have
enough money to pay
for good equipment, so
funds from sponsors
are really welcome.
- Schools are making
pupils brand loyal :
they only buy products
made by the sponsors.
3
187 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

project8.indd 187 5/10/07 14:03:42


188
Puis demander aux lves de ragir par rapport
ce quils ont dcouvert et de comparer avec leurs
premires hypothses :
Its really surprising / astonishing.
- At rst, I thought the school just received some
money from companies but actually they are omni-
present in the school.
- Children are regarded as consumers in the school.
c. Si les lves ne comprennent pas la consigne, la
reformuler autrement : What problem / question is
raised in the text?
The school receives money and equipment from
sponsors.
- But theres a price to pay: the pupils have to consume.
- Advertising becomes propaganda.
Il est impratif de faire rebondir les lves sur le mot
propaganda an quils en dgagent les implications :
Propaganda means that someone wants to manip-
ulate you, to make you believe things you dont think.
So when youre a victim of propaganda, you cant
think for yourself, youre like a slave or a sheep.
- So the text is about the positive and negative aspects
of schools association with sponsors. We have to see
the advantages and disavantages / drawbacks, to
weigh the pros and cons.
3 Faire ajouter par les lves, une fois quils
lont identi, le sujet dbattu dans la logpage (ren-
seigne p. 203 de ce guide).
Faire reproduire le tableau du manuel p. 102
pour classer les lments ports dans la colonne
reasons du tableau relatif au texte.
Pour conclure, demander aux lves de prendre posi-
tion sur la question (dans le cadre du texte, bien sr)
pour les entraner exprimer et dfendre un point de
vue et justier leur opinion. Au besoin, ils pourront
ajouter leurs propres arguments la logpage.
En aval, possibilit de faire lactivit sur le discours
indirect (cf. Language skills, activit 6, p. 106 du
manuel).
Over to you
Cette activit de prise de parole en interaction
mobilise beaucoup dexpressions du contraste et
de lopposition. Il est possible de faire faire lactivit
propose dans les Language skills sur ce point avant
ou aprs le Over to you. Cette activit sera en partie
descriptive, mais il faut inciter les lves ragir
aux diffrences quils vont dcouvrir.
Les photos composant ce Over to you sont toutes
extraites de la vido propose dans le Step 2. De cette
faon, cette activit constitue une premire phase
danticipation avant la dcouverte de la vido.
3
3
3
Productions possibles :
American children watch the news in class, whereas
in France we dont.
- Its a good idea to watch the news in class because
many youngsters never watch it at home.
- French school signboards only mention the name of
the school and the district; on the other hand, Ameri-
can school signboards advertise brands.
- Unlike American schools, French schools arent
sponsored.
- Unlike American schools, there are not vending
machines in French schools anymore. Its forbidden in
France now because snacks and soft drinks can cause
health problems.
- Children are easily inuenced by advertising
- If advertising urges them to eat bad food and drink
sweet drinks, it is difcult for them to resist.
Recap
Premier bilan des connaissances acquises par les
lves depuis le dbut du projet, le Recap constitue
galement un premier travail mthodologique en
matire de dbats, les lves devant ragir aux argu-
ments de chacun en essayant de les contredire.
On peut mener ce Recap en classe entire, sur la
base du volontariat, ou en demi-groupes en dsi-
gnant une poigne dlves. Ce dbat peut faire
lobjet dune valuation formative.
- En classe entire : travail dinter-correction clas-
sique + nommer ventuellement quatre secrtaires
pour faire la synthse des arguments.
- En demi-groupes : les lves ne participant pas
au yes, but game ont pour tche de relever 1) les
arguments avancs, 2) les erreurs de lexique et de
grammaire, 3) les erreurs de phonologie.
La phase de correction la n de lactivit est essen-
tielle pour que lvaluation soit rellement formative.
Droulement de lactivit :
Si elle est mene en classe entire, placer les tables
en U ; en demi-groupes, placer deux ou trois tables
face face pour les participants.
Donner aux lves 10 15 minutes de prparation
pendant laquelle ils peuvent saider de la logpage,
de la trace crite, du manuel et ajouter dautres
arguments au besoin. La production doit se faire
partir de notes et non de phrases rdiges.
Lactivit pourra durer entre 5 et 10 minutes : il ne
sagit pas ici de trouver ncessairement de nou-
veaux arguments mais de reprendre ceux qui ont
t vus. Lessentiel est que la parole circule et que
les lves ragissent le plus prcisment possible
aux arguments des uns et des autres.
3
project8.indd 188 5/10/07 14:03:43
189 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

Productions possibles :
I think advertising in schools is a bad idea because
pupils are regarded as consumers.
3
- Yes, but thanks to school ads, schools can receive
money and equipment.
- Yes, but in exchange, schools advertise brands
Schools are starting
to look like big ads
Book p. 103
Schools are starting
to look like big ads
Book p. 103
Book p. 103
STEP 2
Book p. 103
STEP 2
Start from what you know
1 Ces questions, auxquelles les lves appor-
teront peut-tre des rponses fantaisistes sont
ncessaires pour quils saisissent le contraste
entre le nancement de certaines coles amricai-
nes et celui des tablissements franais. On peut l
encore commencer par un warm-up classique en
sappuyant sur les fournitures scolaires de tel ou tel
lve de la classe (ex. : What a beautiful notebook!
Where did you get it?) pour amener progressive-
ment les lves vers lactivit.
Cette question donnera lieu lmission dhypoth-
ses, tandis que la rponse la seconde sera vi-
dente. Avant de commencer lactivit, sassurer que
les lves connaissent le sens du verbe own ; on
explicitera maintenanceet stationery aprs.
Productions possibles :
Im not quite sure / I dont really know
- Maybe the headmaster owns the school, its his / her
property. / It belongs to him.
- I think its the state or the regional council that pays
for the schools maintenance and equipment.
- But in fact the money they spend on education comes
from people who pay taxes = taxpayers.
- Its my parents who pay for my school things
because I dont have any money / havent got a job /
dont earn money yet.
3
Barme possible pour lvaluation
Collectif aux participants Individuel
Production orale en continu Recevabilit linguistique
Circulation de la parole
= 1, 2 ou 3 pts
Pertinence des arguments
= 1 ou 2 pts
Grammaire et lexique
= 1, 2 ou 3 pts
Socio-linguistique (courtoisie)
= 0 ou 1 pt
Pertinence des ractions
= 1 ou 2 pts
Auto / inter-correction
= 1 ou 2 pts
Capacit se faire comprendre
= 1 ou 2 pts
Qualit phonologique
= 1, 2 ou 3 pts
Spontanit
= 1 ou 2 pts

Analyse du document
Cette vido, extraite dun journal tlvis diffus
aux USA, a t coupe en raison de sa longueur
mais ces coupes ont t faites dans le souci de pr-
server lauthenticit de lenregistrement et viter
la didactisation. Lobjectif nest pas que les lves
comprennent toute la vido mais restituent ce quils
en ont saisi.
Cet extrait a les caractristiques de beaucoup de
reportages diffuss dans le cadre dun journal tl-
vis : surimpression de lidentit des personnes
interroges ou des lieux, commentaires du jour-
project8.indd 189 5/10/07 14:03:44
190
naliste, images illustrant les propos des uns et des
autres. Il convient ici de faire la part de ce que les
images explicitent et de ce que les personnes inter-
roges avancent.
Make sense
2 Travail danticipation indispensable : les lves
mettent des hypothses sur le contenu de la vido
pour mieux en apprhender le sens, puis ils vrie-
ront les hypothses lorsquils la visionneront.
Productions possibles :
Judging from the title, the video must be about the
relationship between American schools and sponsors /
companies.
It implies that companies advertise their products in
schools, so schools are not just educational places
anymore.
We expect to see vending machines in the school.
I think we will hear different / contradictory points of
view concerning school advertising.
I suppose there are advertisements everywhere.
3 Consigne trs ouverte an que tous les l-
ves, y compris les plus faibles, puissent exprimer ce
quils ont retenu du document et bien sr ragir
ce quils ont vu et / ou entendu. Cette premire
phase de dcouverte aura t facilite par lactivit
Over to you du Step 1.
Il faudra revoir pour lister
- ce qui peut tre produit partir de limage ;
- ce qui ne peut tre produit qu partir du son.
Pour cela, on peut demander une partie de la
classe de tourner le dos au tlviseur et de se
concentrer sur la bande son, tandis que lautre
visionnera lensemble de la vido en se concentrant
sur les images avant tout. Puis mettre les rensei-
gnements en commun, en incitant les lves se
poser mutuellement des questions sur ce quils ont
vu ou entendu.
Les lves ncoutant que la bande son devraient
pouvoir relever plusieurs informations cls, notam-
ment en se concentrant sur la voix off du reporter,
dont le dbit de parole est plus accessible que les
autres intervenants.
- There are several people speaking.
- 10 minutes, 40 % of the nations school, 2 minutes of
commercials.
- Channel One isnt about educating.
- The only news they see all day.
- Teenagers are exposed to thousands of commercial
messages a day.
- 5 years ago, Seattle public schools, embrace adver-
tising and private partnerships, new sources of reve-
nue.
3
- Products are unhealthy.
- Airborne Express, Starbucks Coffee.
- School menus, cookies and juice.
- Advertising affects chidren.
- Buy the products advertised on the programme.
- We ght for business support.
- Sponsored educational materials.
- Godfathers pizza.
De leur ct, les lves chargs de regarder les
images seront capables de dire :
- First we saw pupils in the classroom watching
television.
- They were watching a news programme, but there
was also a commercial for A.O.L.
- The programme also advertises for Channel One.
- The children seem to pay much attention to what
they see on TV, they are engrossed in the programme
(they dont seem to think about what they are wat-
ching).
- There is a man whose name is Michael Preston who
is from the Seattle School Board.
- Another one is Jeff Ballabon, who works for Chan-
nel One. There are a lot of TV sets behind him.
- We can also see children in the school corridors
drinking Coca Cola or buying snacks from vending
machines.
- Then we see a report saying that Channel One
viewers express a greater intent to buy the product
advertised on the programme.
- There is also an interview of the Seattle School
Superintedent, Joseph Wolchefske.
- He works in an ofce.
- In the last images, we can see the word pepsi on a
school signboards, candy bars and a huge pizza with
a paper reading Math by the Skill.
Une fois ce travail en groupes spars termin, on
pourra repasser la vido (image + son) lensem-
ble de la classe an que leurs productions saf-
nent grce aux changes de ltape prcdente.
Les inviter ragir et exprimer leur opinion sur le
contenu de la vido. Il pourra tre utile, de porter
au tableau les noms des personnes dont on entend
les voix (presenter / reporter / Jeff B., Michael P. et
Joseph W.) en mettant largement contribution les
lves qui ont vu les noms sinscrire lcran. On
pourra ainsi attribuer chacun ses propos.
Ceci permettra aux lves de commencer ordon-
ner leur restitution du sens et les aidera amorcer
par la suite lexpression de leur opinion person-
nelle : I think X is right / wrong / I agree dont
agree with Y, etc.
Productions possibles :
The scene takes place in Seattle (in Washington, USA).
- We can see schoolchildren who watch the news on
Channel One in class for 10 minutes. They are watch-
3
project8.indd 190 5/10/07 14:03:46
191 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

ing a news report about Afghanistan. However, they


also watch 2 minutes of commercials.
- I think the teacher should turn off the TV set before
the commercials, because they are a negative inu-
ence for children.
- But its true they learn a lot thanks to the news, so
maybe thats not a bad idea after all.
- Apparently, Michael Preston disapproves of school
advertising.
- So I think he wants to stop commercials on TV at
school.
- He says that schools are starting to look like big
ads, so they arent just places to educate children
anymore: they are commercial places, where children
are encouraged to buy.
- But he recognizes / acknowledges advertisements
help fund school activities.
- The commercials pay for the news programmes,
so if they ban the commercials, kids wont watch the
news at school anymore.
- Jeff Ballabon works for Channel One, so obviously /
of course hes in favour of broadcasting commercials
on TV at school.
- He says that kids see advertisements everyday any-
way. ( partir du dclencheur everyday?, on peut
amener les lves They are used to seeing ads,
because they are present everywhere.)
- At rst, the board of education of Seattle was in
favour of advertising and sponsoring in public schools.
Because it was a new source of revenue. But now,
many people think it is a bad idea R They used to think
, but not anymore, they have changed their minds
- Because of advertising and partnerships, pupils buy
products that are unhealthy for them (like soft drinks,
cookies).
- Many school events are sponsored by big companies
(Starbucks, Airborne Express).
- According to an ofcial report, advertising has a
real impact on children, because they want to buy the
products they see in commercials on Channel One.
- The school superintendent Joseph Wolchefske is in
favour of school advertising; he says schools need
support from corporations.
- Junk food companies, like Twix or Godfathers Pizza,
are also trying to create partnerships with schools, so
the students are encouraged to eat their products.
- We can see a huge pizza in the end; I dont under-
stand the link between a pizza and mathematics.
4 Cest partir de ce point que les lves recom-
menceront renseigner leur logpage ( moins quun
nombre sufsant darguments ait t dgag
ltape prcdente) : lessentiel de largumentation
for / against est contenue dans les propos des trois
intervenants :
Michael Preston is a member of the Seattle School
Board. He is strongly opposed to Channel One, because
to his mind, the only goal of Channel One is to deliver
advertisements to kids, not to inform them with their
news programmes. He says its wrong to encourage
students to buy products which are unhealthy. Hes
sorry schools are starting to look like big ads. He says
its not the role of schools to expose children to adver-
tisements.
- Jeff Balladon works for Channel One. He is in favour
of school advertsing. According to him, children see
a huge number of (umpteen) commercials and ads
every day, even on their clothes. So it wont change
anything if they watch a few ads on TV in class. Besi-
des, thanks to the commercials on Channel One, kids
can also watch news programmes.
- Joseph Wolchefske is the Seattle School Superin-
tendent; he says he (denitely) supports partnerships
between schools and businesses, and he is opposed to
any policiy limiting that partnership. He says schools
cant live without corporate business support.
p Voir logpage renseigne p. 203 de ce guide.
Over to you
5 Lessentiel de la vido tant lucid, les l-
ves doivent ragir, tout tour, et en justiant leurs
propos avec ce quils ont dcouvert dans la vido.
An de poursuivre lentranement des lves la
mthode du dbat, favoriser lexpression dopinions
contraires en demandant systmatiquement does
anybody disagree with what said?. Des notes
seront prises, et serviront de support la rcapitu-
lation et la synthse orales qui devront conclure
cette prise de parole. Elles pourront aussi servir de
base une rcapitulation crite.
Productions possibles :
Im really horrified by what Ive seen.
- Its outrageous pupils should be encouraged to con-
sume unhealthy products because of sponsors.
- I agree with Michael Preston because the situation
has degenerated / has become out of control.
- However, he should not forget that, thanks to cor-
porate partners, school can afford to buy new equip-
ment
3
3
project8.indd 191 5/10/07 14:03:46
192
Formes de travail
En classe entire pour la question 1.
En deux groupes (un texte par groupe) pour la ques-
tion 2.
En classe entire pour les questions 3 et 4.
Make sense
1 Ici encore, la phase danticipation permettra
aux lves de rebrasser certains arguments dga-
gs aux diffrentes tapes du projet mais appliqus
la problmatique du texte, dmettre des hypoth-
ses et de les vrier par la suite.
a. Productions possibles :
In the two texts, we have two contradictory opinions
about a motion.
- John Kellmayer is a school superintendent, so he is
directly involved in school administration.
- On the other hand, Emily Heath works for an asso-
ciation against commercialism in education, so shes
a kind of activist.
- The district of Brooklawn has struck a partnership
with a supermarket chain called ShopRite, because
that chain nanced their school equipment; so now,

3
the name of the company appears everywhere in the
school district; so pupils are constantly exposed to
advertising.
- So John and Emily are debating whether it was a
good idea or not to associate the school district with
the company.
b. cette tape, laisser les lves remplir la ligne
correspondante sur la logpage (voir p. 203 de ce
guide) :
Emily will probably say that students are encoura-
ged to consume unhealthy products.
- John will certainly say that corporate sponsors help
schools nance their activities
2 Diviser la classe en deux groupes, chacun
dcouvrant une seule opinion, favorisera linte-
raction orale entre les lves : un groupe expose
le point de vue quil a dcouvert, lautre groupe
demandera davantage de renseignements, de jus-
tications ou de clarications. ce stade, les l-
ves ne remplissent pas leur logpage : ce quils ont
compris doit tre restitu loral. Le surlignage du
texte, reproduit dans le logbook, p. 93, entranera
les lves faire la distinction entre arguments et
exemples.
3
FOR
John Kellmayer:
It brings money to schools
The Brooklawn (N.J.) board of education
recently sold the naming rights to its new
gymnasium to the owner of a supermarket
chain. The gym will be known as the ShopRite
of Brooklawn Gymnasium. As superintendent,
I was asked to do more than 40 interviews in the
days following the announcement. The story
attracted national media attention because
this is apparently the first time a public school
district has sold naming rights to a corporate
sponsor. [] The story even received a mention
in Sports Illustrated under the heading: Sign
of the Apocalypse.
Is it really the end of the world? Why so
much interest in the sale of naming rights by
one of New Jerseys smallest school districts
[] to a supermarket chain? []
It takes money to recruit and retain quality
teachers, and Brooklawn has a dedicated,
high-achieving faculty. It takes money to
[buy] current technologies, and Brooklawn
offers an outstanding technology program.
It takes money to maintain a 75-year-old
AGAINST
Emily Heath:
It sends a dangerous message
The Brooklawn districts recent decision to
sell the naming rights of its elementary school
gymnasium to the grocery store chainchain
ShopRite has once again brought the debate
around commercialism in public schools
to the forefront. [] Advertising for Coke,
Pepsi, Nike, Exxon, McDonalds and Shell Oil
has infiltrated our public school stadiums,
hallways, classrooms and textbooks. Such
companies regard students as potential
brand-loyal consumers. They care primarily
about profit, plain and simple.
[] Employing alternative methods, like
corporate sponsorship, to fund public education
will not force politicians and taxpayers to
adequately fund our public schools. Instead,
it sends the dangerous message that public
schools can and will find the money no
matter the cost to their students.
And the costs to the students are steep. If
students learn that soda is bad and water is
good during their first-period health class,
why is there a Coke machine in their school?
It is okay to sell school naming rights It is okay to sell school naming rights
FOR
John Kellmayer:
It brings money to schools
The Brooklawn (N.J.) board of education
recently sold the naming rights to its new
gymnasium to the owner of a supermarket
chain. The gym will be known as the ShopRite
of Brooklawn Gymnasium. As superintendent,
I was asked to do more than 40 interviews in the
days following the announcement. The story
attracted national media attention because
this is apparently the first time a public school
district has sold naming rights to a corporate
sponsor. [] The story even received a mention
in Sports Illustrated under the heading: Sign
of the Apocalypse.
Is it really the end of the world? Why so
much interest in the sale of naming rights by
one of New Jerseys smallest school districts
[] to a supermarket chain? []
It takes money to recruit and retain quality
teachers, and Brooklawn has a dedicated,
high-achieving faculty. It takes money to
[buy] current technologies, and Brooklawn
offers an outstanding technology program.
It takes money to maintain a 75-year-old
AGAINST
Emily Heath:
It sends a dangerous message
The Brooklawn districts recent decision to
sell the naming rights of its elementary school
gymnasium to the grocery store chainchain
ShopRite has once again brought the debate
around commercialism in public schools
to the forefront. [] Advertising for Coke,
Pepsi, Nike, Exxon, McDonalds and Shell Oil
has infiltrated our public school stadiums,
hallways, classrooms and textbooks. Such
companies regard students as potential
brand-loyal consumers. They care primarily
about profit, plain and simple.
[] Employing alternative methods, like
corporate sponsorship, to fund public education
will not force politicians and taxpayers to
adequately fund our public schools. Instead,
it sends the dangerous message that public
schools can and will find the money no
matter the cost to their students.
And the costs to the students are steep. If
students learn that soda is bad and water is
good during their first-period health class,
why is there a Coke machine in their school?
It is okay to sell school naming rights It is okay to sell school naming rights
It is okay to sell school
naming rights
Book p. 104
project8.indd 192 5/10/07 14:03:47
193 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

Il est essentiel que, dans leur compte-rendu oral, les


lves sefforcent de prendre la parole en continu et
de lier les ides entre elles pour mettre en vidence
la logique de largumentation.
Productions possibles :
John is in favour of / supports the partnership between
Brooklawn and ShopRite; since he is the superintendent,
he has a lot of responsibility in the partnership.
- According to him, this association is positive because
it enables schools to earn more money.
- Thanks to the extra money, Brooklawn schools can
recruit / hire more quality teachers and buy expensive
technological equipment.
- Without / But for the help of corporations, the state
of New Jersey would raise property taxes to equip
and maintain their schools, so that would be a disad-
vantage for elderly citizens.
- To Johns mind, its logical big corporations should
spend their money on the public system and not only
on big international events like the Olympics.
- Thats why he doesnt understand why public opinion
made a fuss over the partnership between Brooklawn
and ShopRite.
- According to Emily, the partnership between Broo-
klawn and ShopRite sends a dangerous message,
because it means that schools can nd other sources
of revenue; as a consequence, the state will probably
decrease its education budget.
- Besides, she says that advertising is harmful for stu-
dents, because companies view them as consumers
and not as pupils; they arent interested in educating
them, but making them buy.
- When Kellmayer says that children will make a dis-
tinction between education and advertising, she is very
skeptical, because children now see ads everywhere,
including at school. She says that schools should only
be concerned with educating children, not advertising
their partners brand-names.
3
- However, she ackowledges that corporations have
to help nance schools with donations but should not
interfere in the pupils education.
Passe cette tape, chaque groupe lit le texte quil
na pas tudi et demande lautre groupe dexplici-
ter ce quils ne comprennent pas au premier abord.
3 Aprs la mise en commun des informations
loral, les lves remplissent leur logpage (voir
p. 203 de ce guide) avec les nouveaux arguments
dgags et font part de leurs commentaires :
I was sure that John would say that
- I didnt expect her to say that
- I hadnt thought about the responsibility of the state
and taxpayers in education
- So John has a point when he says that
- Emily is right when she says that
4 La description de lillustration accompagnant les
deux textes est faire en n de parcours car la grande
part dimplicite quelle contient aura t en partie lu-
cide par la confrontation des deux opinions.
Productions possibles :
The illustration is divided into two parts.
- The left side, reading Brooklawn, refers to the
school district before its partnership with ShopRite.
It probably means schools were old-fashioned and
needed modernization. It gives the impression of a
respectable institution.
- The right side, reading Corp gym, refers to the school
district after its partnership. It gives an impression of
modernity. Its ashier than the left side; it almost
looks like the front of a casino. It also means theyre
only interested in results: the number 7,500 refers to
the pupils as if they were clients in a supermarket.
En aval, faire faire aux lves les activits des Lan-
guage skills (Reading, activits 10 et 11, p. 107 du
manuel) sur les questions rhtoriques.
3
3
school building, and Brooklawn is in the
process of renovating [] its physical plant.
New Jersey relies primarily on property taxes
to fund public school. Brooklawn has a large
population of senior citizens on fixed incomes.
We do not want to continue to raise taxes and
to force seniors out of their homes.
In an era of scarce resources, we have to take a
look at non-traditional ways to generate revenue
for our schools. American corporations spend
billions of dollars on the Olympics. All were
saying is: Why dont you spend some of that on
our public schools?
John Kellmayer is superintendent of the
Brooklawn, N.J., public schools
[] Where will children learn how to deal with
ads if they inundate every part of their lives?
Shouldnt our public schools be marketplaces
for ideas, not brand name products?
Our public education system obviously is
underfunded. [] Corporations
1
do have a
responsibility to the public. They can and should
donate money, time and needed materials to
our public schools. However, these donations
should not come in exchange for access to a
captive audience of students. [] Corporations
should help our schools without disrupting the
educational process and exploiting students.
Emily Heath is senior program director for the
Center for Commercial-Free Public Education
On Campus, March 2002
school building, and Brooklawn is in the
process of renovating [] its physical plant.
New Jersey relies primarily on property taxes
to fund public school. Brooklawn has a large
population of senior citizens on fixed incomes.
We do not want to continue to raise taxes and
to force seniors out of their homes.
In an era of scarce resources, we have to take a
look at non-traditional ways to generate revenue
for our schools. American corporations spend
billions of dollars on the Olympics. All were
saying is: Why dont you spend some of that on
our public schools?
John Kellmayer is superintendent of the
Brooklawn, N.J., public schools
[] Where will children learn how to deal with
ads if they inundate every part of their lives?
Shouldnt our public schools be marketplaces
for ideas, not brand name products?
Our public education system obviously is
underfunded. [] Corporations
1
do have a
responsibility to the public. They can and should
donate money, time and needed materials to
our public schools. However, these donations
should not come in exchange for access to a
captive audience of students. [] Corporations
should help our schools without disrupting the
educational process and exploiting students.
Emily Heath is senior program director for the
Center for Commercial-Free Public Education
On Campus, March 2002
project8.indd 193 5/10/07 14:03:59
194
Over to you
5 Ici encore, an dentraner les lves la tech-
nique du dbat, essayer dalterner les remarques
en faveur de John et celles en faveur dEmily par
les dclencheurs React, Do you agree?, de sorte
que les lves apprennent se contredire en justi-
ant leur dsaccord. En vue de lactivit suivante (6),
les lves pourront prendre en notes (sans rdiger
les noncs) les interventions de chacun.
Possible galement de sparer la classe en deux
groupes se faisant face (un pour / un contre). Alter-
ner les ractions de lun et de lautre groupe (travail
en zig-zag : I dont agree) ou bien les lves du mme
groupe compltent (travail en ligne : I agree).
6 Cette activit recoupe ce qui a t dit sur les
textes de John et Emily, plus la premire phase du
Over to you. Lobjectif est que les lves rdigent un
compte rendu structur et articul des deux textes
(ce qui sera facilit par lapprentissage de la trace
crite) et dveloppent leur opinion sur le school
sponsoring, tape indispensable la prparation du
projet nal. Cest pourquoi cette deuxime phase du
Over to you se prte trs bien une valuation. Si elle
est de type formatif, on autorisera les lves utili-
ser le texte It is okay to sell school naming rights et
leur logpage. Dans le cas dune valuation somma-
tive, autorise uniquement lutilisation de la logpage.
Barme possible :
- respect de la consigne et du nombre minimal de
mots (100-120) = 2 pts ;
- pertinence des propos restitus = de 4 6 pts ;
- qualit et pertinence de lopinion personnelle = de
4 8 pts ;
- qualit linguistique et lexicale = de 2 6 pts.
Recap
En amont de ce Recap on pourra demander aux l-
ves de confectionner des discussion cards rcapi-
tulant les amorces propres au dbat quils auront
dj utilises au cours des diffrents projets et plus
particulirement au cours de celui-ci. Ainsi on aura,
par exemple, une carte : dont you think that ... ? ;
une autre Do you mean that ..../ I dont fully agree
with you ... / I see your point but I cant help thinking
that ... / Youre absolutely right for example etc.,
en fonction des structures qui auront t manipu-
les par les lves. Le professeur regroupera len-
semble des cartes et les distribuera au hasard aux
lves, charge pour eux dutiliser les amorces qui
y gurent lors du dbat qui suivra.
Book p. 106-107
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Book p. 106-107
LANGUAGE SKILLS
Words (logbook p. 86-88)
A Verbes se terminant par /aiz/
advertize, compromize, realize, analyze
surprise, advise, despise, arise, baptize
k Les verbes de deux syllabes termins en <ise>
ou <ize> sont accentus sur la dernire syllabe, les
verbes de plus de deux syllabes sont accentus sur
lavant-avant-dernire syllabe (lantpnultime).
B Accentuation des mots se terminant par
-ion
education attention corporation information
option opinion
Les mots termins en ion saccentuent sur lavant-
dernire syllabe (la pnultime).
commercial peculiar media gymnasium sen-
ior
k Mme accentuation que les mots en -ion : laccent
de mot se trouve sur lavant-dernire syllabe.
Autres exemples lis au projet : inuential, junior,
audience
C Mots composs
- a school teacher = somebody who teaches in a school
= un enseignant
- a moviegoer = someone who loves going to the
cinema = un cinphile
- a web user = someone who often uses the internet =
un internaute
- a TV viewer = someone who watches television = un
tlspectateur
- a TV lover = someone who loves watching television
/ spends his / her time watching television = un accro
de la tl
- a cash dispenser = a machine that gives cash money
= un distributeur de billets
- a Coke drinker = a person who drinks coke = un
consommateur de Coca Cola
- a storyteller = a person who tells stories = un conteur
- a tax-payer = a person who pays taxes = un contri-
buable
project8.indd 194 5/10/07 14:04:05
195 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

- a supermarket owner = somebody who owns a


supermarket = un propritaire de supermarch
- an advertising controller = a person whose job is to
verify what advertisers say = un censeur de publi-
cits
D Dduire le sens des mots inconnus
Mot Nature Aides du contexte Traduction possible
interspersed verbe news programme + commercials entrecoups, suivis
aghast adj unbelievable sidre
current events adj + nom news programme actualits
greet verbe have a nice day saluer
gasped verbe this is horric sindigner
afford verbe how many pupil avoir les moyens de
swoosh nom Nike virgule, logo
roof nom planes can see it toit
E Word bank
argument convince free
Phrase(s) dans laquelle /
lesquelles jai rencontr
ce mot
One of Lilys argument
was that
Domaine auquel je peux
le rattacher
dbat, accord, dsaccord accord / dsaccord / dbat libert / gratuit
Nature du mot nom verbe adjectif
Dnition
!
Ne pas oublier !
2 sens : argument /
dispute, querelle
2 sens : libre /
gratuit
Prononciation /agjumnt/ /knvns/ /fri:/
Mots proches
synonymes
Quarrel, disagreement,
dispute, ght
Justication, explanation,
reasoning
Persuade, induce, make
certain
Independent,
autonomous
Without charge,
for nothing, gratis
Mots loigns
antonymes
discourage / dissuade Dependent
Paying
Quelques mots de la
mme famille (avec leur
nature et leur sens)
Argue, arguably, arguable
Argumentation,
counter-argument
Conviction, convincible,
convincingly
Freedom, freely
Ne pas confondre !
(homophones,
homonymes)
conviction = the fact of having
been found guilty in court
Collocation, tournures
idiomatiques
Specious argument
Strong argument
For free, give free
rein to, break free
Proverbes, dictons
For the sake of
argument.
Use soft words and hard
arguments.
We must convince by reason,
not prescribe by tradition.
The past is what you remember,
imagine you remember, convince
yourself you remember, or
pretend you remember. Harold
Pinter (English writer born 1930
- 2005 Nobel Prize for Literature)
If you cant convince them,
confuse them.
Harry S. Truman (1884-1972
President of the USA 1945-1953)
Its a free country.
The best things
in life are free.
!!
project8.indd 195 5/10/07 14:04:07
196
Listening
Intonation to express point of view
1 Dans le premier cas, lintonation est montante ;
dans le deuxime, lintonation est descendante.
The second speaker sounds more convincing than the
rst one.
When you use a rising intonation, you sound uncer-
tain, whereas when you use falling intonation, you
sound more convincing and categorical.
American Accent
2 a. La diphtongue / / (de snow) est sensible-
ment raccourcie et plus ouverte /o/.
Le <r> qui suit une voyelle est toujours prononc (on
lentend dans storm).
b. snow (deuxime fois), motorists, explosion,
North, New York, more, yesterday, twenty-four
Speaking
Expressing contrast and opposition
3 Rchir sur la langue : Contraste et opposi-
tion (logbook, p. 89)
b. 1. School advertising is common in the USA
whereas in France school advertising is forbidden.
2. I think this ad is funny while my friends think its
stupid.
lments
communs aux
deux propositions
(de quoi il sagit
dans les deux
propositions)
lments de contraste
(quelles ides opposes
sont exprimes)
school
advertising
in the USA / in France
common / forbidden
ad I / my friend
funny / stupid
Les conjonctions whereas et while servent expri-
mer un contraste entre deux propositions, deux
sujets.
c. 3. Unlike French schoolchildren, American pupils
can buy sweet drinks or snacks from vending machi-
nes.
4. Unlike American pupils, French pupils dont watch
the news in class.
Unlike signie en franais contrairement ,
la diffrence de (= pas comme)
Il est suivi dun groupe nominal.
Il ny a quune seule proposition.
Cest donc une prposition.
4 Outre whereas, while et unlike tudis dans le
logbook, les lves pourront utiliser des expres-
sions du type on the other hand, conversely, instead,
but actually, however
Imposing school uniform will encourage discipline
among pupils and among students, but on the other
hand their freedom of expression will be restricted.
Some say that school uniform will create a sense of
belonging and school pride, whereas others think that
it will not teach children how to socialize with people
belonging to different groups
Verbs ending in -ate
5 a. Its a news report about the debate over school
advertising. Some parents believe that children concen-
trate more on ads than on their schoolwork, although
advertising generates a lot of money for schools.
b. creating debate demonstrate generates
estimate concentrating appreciate educate
When the word ending in -ate is composed of two syl-
lables, it is stressed on the nal syllable. When it is
composed of more than two syllables, it is stressed
on the antepenultimate syllable.
c. creation demonstration generation concen-
tration appreciation education
When the word ends in -tion, it is stressed on the
penultimate syllable.
Indirect speech
6 Quelques verbes introducteurs de style indi-
rect : say, claim, assert, deny, maintain, declare,
argue, insist
Expressing consequences
7 Exprimer la consquence (logbook, p. 89)
b. 1. If French schools are sponsored, then pupils will
see ads everywhere.
2. The pupils will not concentrate in class if they
watch 10 minutes news on TV at the beginning of
each lesson.
La conjonction if introduit la condition. La principale
exprime le rsultat si cette condition est remplie.
c. Cette structure est trs utile dans un dbat car
elle permet denvisager les consquences de cer-
taines dcisions.
d. Les constructions sont identiques, mais les ver-
bes sont conjugus 1) au prtrit, 2) au conditionnel
au lieu du prsent et du futur. Cela veut dire quil
est moins probable que la condition introduite par
if soit remplie.
SIGNIFICATION SUBORDONNE PRINCIPALE
hypothse
ralisable
IF + prsent WILL
hypothse peu
ralisable
IF + prtrit WOULD
p p
project8.indd 196 5/10/07 14:04:09
197 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

8 Beaucoup dnoncs possibles, dans le but de


prparer les lves adapter leur discours sur le
school sponsoring au systme franais.
If companies give money to schools, the state will
spend their money on other areas.
If pupils saw ads everywhere at school, parents would
be outraged.
If pupils were allowed to drink Coke in class, they
would not pay attention to their lessons
Reading
Compound nouns
9 Beaucoup doccurrences l encore :
- school bus advertising: when you place advertise-
ments on the buses that take pupils to school
- school district: the area where all the schools are
managed by one authority
- marketing option: an option to market a product
- area schools : all the schools, in one area /
neighbourhood
- newspapers
- classroom business course
- school assembly
- news programme
- a state-of-the-art computer
- Nike swoosh
- sports kits
- soda vending machines
- scoreboard
- can holders
- a supermarket chain
- naming rights
- public school stadiums
- hallways
- textbooks
- Coke machine
- marketplaces
- public education system
- media attention
- quality teachers
- technology programme
- school building
- property taxes
- vending rights
- brand loyalty
- Coke products
- basketball court
- senior citizens
- elementary school gymnasium
- the forefront
- taxpayers
- rst-period health class
- Brooklawn school superintendent
- brandname advertising
- brand name products
- senior program director
Rhetorical questions
10 Questions rthoriques (logbook, p. 90)
b. Lnonciateur rpondrait of course not et atten-
drait la mme rponse de son interlocuteur.
c. Lnonciateur aurait pu dire :
- Its not the end of the world if we accept money
- They wont learn how to eat properly
- They wont be against school sponsoring.
d. Ce ne sont pas de vraies questions car la rponse
attendue est vidente.
e. Dans un dbat, ces questions permettent
lnonciateur dafrmer son point de vue par rap-
port son interlocuteur.
Les questions suivantes commencent toutes avec un
auxiliaire la forme ngative : ce sont des interro-
ngatives. On attendrait des rponses du type : of
course it is, of course we are.
En a. on attend une rponse ngative, en f. on attend
une rponse positive.
f. Lorsquil sagit de questions rhtoriques, linter-
rogative cache une ngation et linterro-ngative
une afrmation.
11 a. Questions relles : phrases 2, 3, 6 ; ques-
tions rhtoriques : 1, 4, 5, 7.
b. Questions rhtoriques dans les textes :
- How many schools do you imagine have a state-of-
the-art computer for every single pupil? How could
they afford it?
- Is it really the end of the world?
- Why dont you spend some of that on our public
schools?
- If students learn that soda is bad and water is good
during their rst-period health class, why is there a
Coke machine in their school?
- Where will children learn how to deal with ads if
they inundate every part of their lives?
- Shouldnt our public schools be marketplaces for
ideas, not brandname products?
Writing
Listening and taking notes
13 Voici un corrig possible de notes prises en
coutant les trois interlocuteurs de la vido. Lob-
jectif est que llve apprenne crire moins pour
dire plus.
project8.indd 197 5/10/07 14:04:10
198
Michael Preston
Channel 1 = deliver ad to kids =/= news
Company wants U to consume unhealthy products
Schools big ads R not right
Jeff Ballabon
Kids see 1,000s ads / day
Wear, eat, read them every day
+ 2 ads / a day = no big impact
Jeff Wolchefske
Wont support policy restricting business involvement
in schools
We ght for business
Cant live without business support
Book p. 108-109
YOUR PROJECT
Book p. 108-109
YOUR PROJECT
Cette tape nale sera plus facile mettre en uvre
en module : compter trois lves par quipe de dbat
(au-del, la parole risque de circuler plus difcile-
ment) ; les auditeurs doivent galement tre mis en
activit : valuer la qualit de largumentation et des
exemples, de la prononciation, de la grammaire et
du lexique, et prendre en notes le contenu du dbat,
la manire dun grefer lors dun tribunal.
En partant sur une base de 16 18 lves par
groupe, on obtient :
- quipe FOR : 3 lves
- quipe AGAINST : 3 lves
- synthse et valuation des arguments FOR : 3 l-
ves
- synthse et valuation des arguments AGAINST :
3 lves
- valuation de la grammaire et du lexique : 2 ou
3 lves
- valuation de la prononciation, de lattitude et de
limplication : 2 ou 3 lves
Lenseignant a bien sr le dernier mot en ce qui
concerne la note nale, nanmoins il est important
que les lves valuent aussi leurs camarades et
donnent leur opinion quant leur prestation ; il fau-
dra tenir compte de leurs remarques pour valoriser
la tche accomplie.
Le professeur peut se servir du barme suivant
pour valuer les dbats ; ce barme, spcique
lexpression orale, est adapt de la che dvalua-
tion de lpreuve dexpression orale au baccalaurat
technologique.
Suggestion de grille dvaluation (professeur) :
A. Prendre part une conversation B. Intelligibilit et recevabilit linguistique
Peut intervenir simplement, mais
la communication repose sur la
rptition et la reformulation
= 3 pts Langue partiellement comprhensible = 2 pts
Intervient et ragit de faon simple = 4-5-6 pts Langue comprhensible malgr un
vocabulaire peu vari et des erreurs
= 3-
4 pts
Prend sa part dans lchange et
sait, au besoin, se reprendre et
reformuler
= 7-8-9 pts Langue globalement correcte
(pour la morphosyntaxe comme la
prononciation) et vocabulaire appropri
= 5-
6 pts
Argumente, cherche convaincre,
ragit avec vivacit et pertinence
= 10-11-
12 pts
Langue correcte et uide = 7-
8 pts
Note A : / 12 Note B : / 8
Note nale et apprciations : / 20

project8.indd 198 5/10/07 14:04:10


199 Project 8 - Schools Inc.

Avant la phase de prparation, dsigner les diff-


rents groupes, en veillant une htrognit rai-
sonnable (demander des lves peu laise de
travailler avec des lves de niveau sensiblement,
mais pas largement, plus lev ; rpartir les trs
bons lves dans des groupes o seront prsents
des lves capables de ne pas seffacer devant eux,
etc.). Leur attribuer la position dfendre, indpen-
damment des opinions personnelles de chacun (for
ou against). Faire lire aux lves (et, au besoin, expli-
citer) les consignes donnes p. 108-109 (Contradic-
tory debates: how they are conducted et What you
have to bear in mind) : ce sont prcisment sur ces
critres quils seront valus, outre la recevabilit
linguistique.
Durant la phase de prparation de 20 minutes, lais-
ser les lves en autonomie en vitant de leur four-
nir trop de lexique : ils ont, a priori, tous les outils
ncessaires pour mener la tche bien. Bien insister
sur le fait que la motion propose sapplique leur
tablissement, et non un lyce amricain. Si les
lves peuvent se procurer dans leur tablissement,
avant la sance, des dpliants ou afches carac-
tre publicitaire (par exemple au CDI, linrmerie,
auprs du Conseiller dOrientation Psychologue),
les encourager les utiliser durant la prparation et
la prestation. la n des dix minutes, lenseignant
dsigne les deux quipes participant au dbat.
La prestation ne durera pas plus de 10 minutes,
pour laisser aux auditeurs le temps ncessaire
pour faire la synthse des arguments et formu-
ler des commentaires. Il est impratif que len-
seignant sefface tout au long de la prestation
(placer les tables face face, les auditeurs le
plus prs possibles des quipes), nintervenant
que pour encourager les lves plus timides
sexprimer pendant le dbat ; mieux encore, on
peut demander un auditeur darbitrer le dbat
(veiller la circulation de la parole, la courtoi-
sie). Les auditeurs ninterviennent pas. la fin
des dix minutes, lenseignant, ou larbitre, indique
the debate is over.
Aprs la prestation, les auditeurs commencent par
faire le point sur les critiques formuler (si possi-
ble en anglais: you said but you should have said
instead), puis la sance se termine par le rapport
des secrtaires (synthse des arguments), lequel
donnera lieu une trace crite construite.
Erratum
Dans la premire dition du logbook, nous avons
malencontreusement omis dinclure les prompts
and cues mentionns dans la rubrique Plan de la
double page du projet nal (Q.2b, p. 108 du manuel).
En voici une brve liste, l encore non exigible : les
lves seront libres dutiliser les amorces propo-
ses et de les complter avec dautres amorces
vues dans le chapitre ou dans les chapitres prc-
dents.
- What you said is right, but...
- Do you really think that...?
- I dont agree with you when you say that...
- True en