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Producto: GEN SET ENGINE
Modelo: 3412 GEN SET ENGINE 81Z02545
Configuracin: 3412 ENGINE GENERATOR SET 81Z00001-04999
Operacin de Sistemas
3408B and 3412C Generator Set Engines
Nmero de medio -SENR2562-03 Fecha de publicacin -01/03/2001 Fecha de actualizacin -16/11/2001

i00730076
Fuel System
SMCS - 1250
S/N - 78Z1-UP
S/N - 81Z1-UP
These engines have a pressure type Iuel system. There is one injection pump and one injection nozzle
Ior each cylinder. The injection pumps are in the pump housing (4) on the top Iront oI the engine. The
Iuel injection nozzles are located in the Iuel injection adapters. The Iuel injection adapters are under
the valve covers.
The Iuel transIer pump (16) pulls the Iuel Irom the Iuel tank (10) through the primary Iuel Iilter (12).
The Iuel Ilows Irom the primary Iuel Iilter (12) to the Iuel priming pump (8) and through the main
Iuel Iilters (14). The Iuel then Ilows to the maniIold oI the injection pump housing. The Iuel in the
maniIold oI the injection pump housing Ilows to the injection pumps. The injection pumps are in time
with the engine. The injection pumps push Iuel at a very high pressure to the injection valves (6).
Illustration 1 g00332354
Fuel Ilow schematic 3412C shown
(1) Fuel inlet line Ior the injection pump housing. (2) Damper. (3) Restriction oriIice. (4) Injection pump housing. (5)
Fuel return line. (6) Injection valve. (7) Junction block. (8) Fuel priming pump. (9) Priming bypass valve. (10) Fuel tank.
(11) Fuel supply line. (12) Primary Iuel Iilter. (13) Fuel pressure gauge. (14) Main Iuel Iilters. (15) Pressure relieI valve.
(16) Fuel transIer pump.
A damper (2) is located on the inlet elbow oI the Iuel maniIold (19). The damper (2) reduces the
shock loads that are caused by the injection pumps. Some oI the Iuel in the Iuel maniIold is constantly
sent through a restriction oriIice (3). This removes air Irom the system. This restriction keeps the Iuel
pressure high. The restriction also controls the amount oI Iuel that goes back to the Iuel tank through
the Iuel return line (5).
Illustration 2 g00332357
Location oI the Iuel system components 3412C shown
(1) The Iuel inlet line Ior the injection pump housing. (2) Damper. (3) Adapter with oriIice. (5) Fuel return line. (11) Fuel
supply line. (16) Fuel transIer pump. (17) The Iuel outlet line Irom the transIer pump and the inlet line to the main Iilters.
(18) The nut Ior a Iuel injection line at the injection pump. (19) The Iuel maniIold across the injection pump housing.
(20) Adapter through the valve cover base.
The Iuel priming pump (8) is used to Iill the system with Iuel. The Iuel priming pump also removes
air Irom the low pressure side oI the Iuel system. The low pressure side oI the Iuel system consist oI
the Iuel Iilter, the Iuel lines and components.
Illustration 3 g00332494
The location oI the Iuel system components 3412C shown
(1) The Iuel inlet line to the injection pump housing. (5) The Iuel return line to the tank. (7) Junction block. (8) Fuel
priming pump. (11) Fuel supply line. (14) Main Iuel Iilters. (17) The Iuel outlet line Irom the transIer pump and the inlet
line to the main Iilters.
The Iuel transIer pump has a bypass valve and a check valve. The bypass valve controls the maximum
pressure oI the Iuel. The extra Iuel goes to the inlet oI the pump. The check valve allows the Iuel Irom
the tank to go around the transIer pump gears when the priming pump is used.
Illustration 4 g00332514
The location oI the Iuel system components 3412C shown
(1) The Iuel inlet line Ior the injection pump housing. (5) The Iuel return line. (7) Junction block. (8) Fuel priming pump.
(11) Fuel supply line. (14) Main Iuel Iilter. (17) The Iuel outlet line Irom the transIer pump and the inlet line to the main
Iilter.
Fuel Injection Pump
Illustration 5 g00332516
The cross section oI the Iuel injection pump housing
(1) Fuel maniIold. (2) Inlet passage. (3) Check valve. (4) Pressure relieI passage. (5) Pump plunger. (6) Spring. (7) Gear.
(8) Fuel rack (leIt). (9) LiIter. (10) Link. (11) Lever. (12) CamshaIt.
The rotation oI the cams on the camshaIt (12) cause the liIters (9) and the pump plungers (5) to move
up and down. The stroke oI each pump plunger is always the same length. The Iorce oI the springs (6)
hold the liIters (9) against the cams oI the camshaIt.
The pump housing is in a shape oI a V. The shape is similar to the engine cylinder block. There is the
same number oI pumps on each side.
When the pump plunger moves down, the Iuel Irom the Iuel maniIold (1) Ilows through the inlet
passage (2). The Iuel then Iills the chamber that is above the pump plunger (5). When the plunger
moves up, the plunger closes the inlet passage.
The pressure oI the Iuel in the chamber above the plunger increases until the pressure is high enough
to cause the check valve (3) to open. The high pressure Iuel Ilows through the check valve, to the
injection valve, through the Iuel line until the inlet passage opens into the pressure relieI passage (4)
in the plunger. The pressure in the chamber decreases and check valve (3) closes.
The amount oI Iuel Iorced through the check valve (3) is determined by the period oI time the inlet
passage (2) is closed. The pressure relieI passage (4) will control the amount oI time the inlet passage
is closed. The amount oI time the inlet passage is closed can be changed because oI the design oI the
passage. This can be changed by rotating the plunger. When the governor moves the Iuel racks (8),
the Iuel racks move the gears (7) that are Iastened to the plungers (5). This causes a rotation oI the
plungers.
The governor is connected to the leIt rack. The spring load, located on the lever (11), removes the
play between the racks and the link (10). The Iuel racks are connected by the link (10). The Iuel racks
move in opposite directions. When one rack moves in, the other rack moves out.
Fuel Injection Valves And Nozzles
The injection valves are located within the Iuel injection adapters. The Iuel injection adapters are
installed in the cylinder head.
The Iuel injection pump sends Iuel with high pressure to the Iuel injection valves. The Iuel injection
valves change the Iuel to the correct spray pattern Ior good combustion in the cylinders. The Iuel
injection valves will not open until a very high pressure is reached. Once this pressure is reached, the
Iuel injection valves open quickly. The Iuel is released directly into the engine cylinder through six
oriIices in the tip oI each nozzle.
Hydramechanical Governor With Dashpot
The governor controls the amount oI Iuel that is needed by the engine to maintain a desired rpm. The
governor maintains a constant rpm Ior variable engine loads.
When the engine is operating, the balance between the centriIugal Iorce oI the governor weights and
the Iorce oI the governor control on the governor spring, controls the movement oI a valve and
indirectly, the Iuel rack. The valve directs pressure oil to either side oI a rack positioning piston. The
position oI the valve controls the rack. The amount oI Iuel to the engine is controlled by the rack and
load conditions.
Illustration 6 g00332517
Hydramechanical governor with dashpot
(1) Collar. (2) Collar bolt. (3) Dashpot chamber. (4) Dashpot piston. (5) Lever assembly. (6) Dashpot spring. (7)
Governor spring. (8) Governor weights. (9) Valve. (10) Cylinder. (11) Drive assembly. (12) Pin. (13) Lever.
The governor has governor weights (8) that are driven by the engine through the drive assembly (11).
The governor has a governor spring (7), a valve (9) and a piston. The valve and the piston are
connected to one Iuel rack through pin (12) and lever (13) .
The governor control is connected to the governor control lever. The governor control controls the
compression oI the governor spring (7). The compression oI the spring gives more Iuel to the engine.
The centriIugal Iorce oI the governor weights (8) always pulls up to get a reduction oI Iuel to the
engine. When these two Iorces are in balance, the engine runs at a constant rpm.
Illustration 7 g00456122
(A) Pressure oil. (7) Governor spring. (8) Governor weights. (9) Valve. (10) Cylinder. (12) Pin. (14) The oil drain
passage Ior the piston. (15) The upper oil passage in the piston. (16) Piston. (17) The lower oil passage in the piston. (18)
The oil passage in the cylinder. (19) Sleeve.
Governor in increased load position
The governor oil pump is on top oI the Iuel injection pump housing. The governor oil pump sends
engine oil under pressure to the governor cylinder (10) through passage (18) around sleeve (19) .
When the load on the engine increases, the engine rpm decreases. This will cause a slower rotation oI
the governor weights (8). The governor weights will move toward each other. The governor spring (7)
moves valve (9). This will open the oil passages in piston (16). This will also close the oil drain
passage (14). This will allow the oil to Ilow Irom passage (17), around valve (9), and through passage
(15). This will Iill the chamber above piston (16). The pressure oil pushes down on piston (16) and
pin (12). This gives more Iuel to the engine. Engine rpm increases until the rotation oI the governor
weights is Iast enough to be in balance with the Iorce oI the governor spring.
Illustration 8 g00456195
(A) Pressure oil. (B) Drain oil. (7) Governor spring. (8) Governor weights. (9) Valve. (10) Cylinder. (12) Pin. (14) The
oil drain passage Ior the piston. (15) The upper oil passage in the piston. (16) Piston. (17) The lower oil passage in the
piston. (18) The oil passage in the cylinder. (19) Sleeve.
Governor in decreased load position
When there is a reduction in load on the engine, there will be an increase in engine rpm and the
rotation oI the governor weights (8) will increase. This will move valve (9) to a higher position. This
stops the oil Ilow Irom passage (17) and the oil pressure above piston (16) goes out around valve (9)
through the top oI the piston (16). The pressure between sleeve (19) and piston (16) pushes the piston
and pin (12) to a higher position. This causes a reduction in the amount oI Iuel to the engine. The
engine rpm decreases until the centriIugal Iorce oI the governor weights is in balance with the Iorce oI
the governor spring. When these two Iorces are in balance, the engine will run at a constant rpm.
When the engine rpm is at LOW IDLE, a spring loaded plunger in the lever assembly (5) is in contact
with a shoulder on the adjustment screw Ior low idle. To stop the engine, move the switch to the
"OFF" position. This will cause the shutoII solenoid to move the spring loaded plunger over the
shoulder on the low idle adjustment screw. This will move the Iuel racks to the Iuel shutoII position.
With no Iuel to the engine cylinders, the engine will stop. To stop the engine manually, turn the
shutoII lever on the governor housing to the shutoII position.
The oil Irom the governor pump lubricates the Iollowing components:
The governor weight support and gear
The thrust bearing under the governor spring
The drive gear bearing
The other parts oI the governor receive lubrication Irom splash lubrication. Splash lubrication is oil
that is thrown by other parts. The oil Ilows Irom the governor to the housing Ior the Iuel injection
pumps.
Electric set engines need a governor that has better control over the engine speed range. A standard
hydramechanical governor can not provide this Iunction. The Iollowing parts are added to the basic
hydramechanical governor.
A dashpot piston (4)
A dashpot spring (6)
A collar bolt (2)
An oil reservoir in the shutoII housing
Two adjustment screws (20) and (21)
These parts control the Ilow oI oil into the dashpot chamber (3) and out oI the dashpot chamber (3).
The dashpot chamber (3) is above the dashpot piston (4). The oil Ilows through internal oil passages.
The correct oil Ilow into the dashpot chamber (3) and out oI the dashpot chamber (3) causes a more
precise movement oI the governor spring seat. This allows the governor to accurately control the
engine speed.
Side View OI The Governor
Illustration 9 g00332522
Side view oI governor
(20) The adjustment screw Ior the dashpot. (21) Adjustment screw Ior supply oil to the reservoir.
The oil Ior the action oI the dashpot comes Irom the engine lubrication system. The adjustment screw
(21) controls the oil Ilow Irom the lubrication system into the reservoir. The reservoir has an oil
overIlow that sends the oil back to the mechanical area oI the governor. Too much oil Ilow to the
reservoir will Iill the governor with oil. This will decrease the engine perIormance. Too little oil Ilow
does not give enough oil to the reservoir. The decrease in oil will cause the governor to hunt (increase
and decrease engine speed constantly) as air gets into the dashpot chamber (3) and allows piston (4)
and the lower governor spring seat move Iaster.
The dashpot adjustment screw (20) causes a restriction to the oil Ilow into the dashpot chamber (3)
and out oI the dashpot chamber (3). Too much oil Ilow will allow the lower governor spring seat to
move Iaster. This will allow the governor to hunt. Too little oil Ilow causes a slower action by the
governor.
Automatic Timing Advance Unit
Illustration 10 g00332523
Automatic timing advance unit
(1) Flange. (2) Weight. (3) Springs. (4) Slide. (5) Drive gear. (6) CamshaIt.
The automatic timing advance unit is installed on the Iront oI the camshaIt (6) Ior the Iuel injection
pump. The timing gears drive the automatic timing advance unit. The drive gear (5) Ior the Iuel
injection pump is connected to the camshaIt (6) by the Iollowing components:
Two weights (2)
Springs (3)
Two slides (4)
Flange (1)
Each one oI the slides (4) is held on the drive gear (5) by a pin. The weights (2) in the timing advance
are driven by two slides (4). These slides (4) Iit into notches that are made on an angle in the weights
(2). When the centriIugal Iorce (rotation) moves the weights (2) outward against the springs (3), the
guides in the Ilange and the slides on the gear make the Ilange turn a little in relation to the gear.
Since the Ilange is connected to the camshaIt Ior the Iuel injection pump, the Iuel injection timing is
also changed.
The unit advances the Iuel injection pump camshaIt 2 between approximately low idle and 1100
rpm. No adjustment can be made in the advance unit.
Woodward PSG Governors
Illustration 11 g00332574
Schematic oI PSG governor
(1) Return spring. (2) Output shaIt. (3) Output shaIt lever. (4) Strut assembly. (5) Speeder spring. (6) Power piston. (7)
Flyweights. (8) Needle valve. (9) Thrust bearing. (10) Pilot valve compensating land. (11) BuIIer piston. (12) Pilot valve.
(13) Pilot valve bushing. (14) Control ports. (A) Chamber. (B) Chamber.
Introduction
The Woodward PSG (Pressure compensated Simple Governor) can operate as an isochronous
governor or a speed droop governor. This governor uses engine lubrication oil that has been increased
to a pressure oI 1200 kPa (175 psi). The pressure is increased by a gear type pump that is located
inside the governor. This pump gives the governor a hydramechanical speed control.
Pilot Valve Operation
A gear on the rear oI the Iuel injection pump camshaIt drives a vertical pinion shaIt. The pinion shaIt
turns the pilot valve bushing (13) counterclockwise as seen Irom the drive unit end oI the governor.
The pilot valve bushing is connected to a ballhead. The ballhead is driven by a spring. Flyweights (7)
are Iastened to the ballhead by pivot pins. The centriIugal Iorce caused by the rotation oI the ballhead
causes the Ilyweights to pivot out. This action oI the Ilyweights changes the centriIugal Iorce to axial
Iorce against the speeder spring (5). There is a thrust bearing (9) between the toes oI the Ilyweights
and the seat Ior the speeder spring. The pilot valve (12) is Iastened to the seat Ior the speeder spring.
Movement oI the pilot valve is controlled by the action oI the Ilyweights against the Iorce oI the
speeder spring.
The engine is at the governed rpm when the axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights is equal to the Iorce oI the
compression in the speeder spring. The Ilyweights will be in the shown position. The control ports
(14) will be closed by the pilot valve.
Fuel Increase
The pilot valve will move in the direction oI the drive unit when either oI the Iollowing conditions
exist.
The Iorce oI compression in the speeder spring increases (operator increases desired rpm)
The axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights decreases (load on the engine increases)
This opens control ports (14). The pressure oil Ilows through a passage in the chamber (B). The
increased pressure in the chamber (B) causes the power piston (6) to move. The power piston pushes
the strut assembly (4), which is connected to the output shaIt lever (3). The action oI the output shaIt
lever causes the clockwise rotation oI the output shaIt (2). This moves the Iuel control linkage (15) in
the "FUEL ON" direction.
Illustration 12 g00332576
PSG governor installed
(2) Output shaIt. (15) Fuel control linkage.
The volume oI chamber (A) increases as the power piston moves in the direction oI the return spring
(1). The pressure in chamber (A) decreases. This pulls the oil Irom the chamber inside the power
piston above the buIIer piston (11) into chamber (A). When the oil Ilows out Irom above the buIIer
piston (11), the oil Iills chamber (A). This causes the buIIer piston to move up in the bore oI the
power piston. Chamber (A) is connected to the chamber above the pilot valve compensation land (10).
Chamber (B) is connected to the chamber below the pilot valve compensation land (10). The pressure
diIIerence that is Ielt by the pilot valve compensation land, adds to the axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights
and moves the pilot valve up. This closes the control ports. When the Ilow oI pressure oil to chamber
(B) stops, the movement oI the Iuel control linkage stops.
Fuel Decrease
The pilot valve will move in the direction oI the speeder spring (5) when either oI the Iollowing
conditions exist.
The Iorce oI compression in the speeder spring decreases (operator decreases desired rpm)
The axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights increases (load on the engine decreases)
This opens the control ports (14). Oil Irom chamber (B) and pressure oil Irom the pump will dump
through the end oI the pilot valve bushing. The decreased pressure in chamber (B) will allow the
power piston to move in the direction oI the drive unit. The return spring (1) pushes against the strut
assembly (4). This moves the output shaIt lever (3). The action oI the output shaIt lever causes the
counterclockwise rotation oI the output shaIt (2). This moves the Iuel control linkage (15) in the
"FUEL OFF" direction.
Illustration 13 g00332577
Earlier PSG governor
(6) Power piston. (8) Needle valve. (10) Pilot valve compensating land. (11) BuIIer piston. (14) Control ports. (A)
Chamber. (B) Chamber.
As power piston (6) moves in the direction oI the drive unit the volume oI chamber (A) decreases.
This pushes the oil in chamber (A) into the chamber above the buIIer piston (11). When the oil Irom
chamber (A) Ilows into the power piston, the oil moves the buIIer piston down in the bore oI the
power piston. The pressure at chamber (A) is more than the pressure at chamber (B). Chamber (A) is
connected to the chamber above the pilot valve compensation land (10). Chamber (B) is connected to
the chamber below the pilot valve compensation land (10). The pressure diIIerence that is Ielt by the
pilot valve compensation land, adds to the Iorce oI the speeder spring and moves the pilot valve
down. This closes the control ports. When the Ilow oI pressure oil Irom chamber (B) stops, the
movement oI the Iuel control linkage stops.
Hunting
There is a moment between the time the Iuel control linkage stops its movement and the time the
engine actually stops its increase or decrease oI rpm. During this moment, the Iollowing two Iorces
are changed on the pilot valve
The pressure diIIerence at the pilot valve compensation land
The axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights
The axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights changes until the engine stops its increase or decrease oI rpm. The
pressure diIIerence at the pilot valve compensation land changes until the buIIer piston returns to the
original position. A needle valve (8) in a passage between chamber (A) and chamber (B) controls the
rate at which the pressure diIIerence changes. The pressure diIIerence makes compensation Ior the
change in the axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights until the engine stops its increase or decrease oI rpm. II the
Iorce on the pilot valve compensation land plus the axial Iorce oI the Ilyweights is not is not equal to
the Iorce oI the speeder spring, the pilot valve will move. This movement is known as hunting.
Hunting is the movement oI the pilot valve that is not the result oI a change in load or desired rpm oI
the engine.
The governor will hunt each time the engine actually stops its increase or decrease oI rpm at any other
rpm than the rpm that is desired. The governor will hunt more aIter a rapid or large change oI load or
desired rpm than aIter a gradual or small change.
Illustration 14 g00332579
PSG governor installed (typical example)
(8) Needle valve.
Speed Adjustment
Speed adjustments are made by a 24V DC reversible synchronizing motor (2). The motor is controlled
by a switch (1) that can be put in a remote location.
Illustration 15 g00332580
3 wire synchronizing motor shown
(1) Switch. (2) Motor.
The synchronizing motor drives the clutch assembly (3). The clutch assembly protects the motor iI the
motor is run against the adjustment stops. The link assembly (4) is pushed down by the clutch
assembly when the clutch assembly is turned clockwise. The Iorce oI the compression in the speeder
spring (5) is increased. This causes the pilot valve (6) to move down. ReIer to "Pilot Valve
Operation". The engine will increase speed and the engine will become stabilized at the new desired
rpm.
Illustration 16 g00332581
PSG governor
(2) Synchronizing motor. (3) Clutch assembly. (4) Link assembly. (5) Speeder spring. (6) Pilot valve.
When the clutch assembly is turned counterclockwise the link assembly moves up. The Iorce oI the
compression in the speeder spring is decreased. This causes the pilot valve to move up. The engine
will decrease speed and the engine will become stabilized at the new desired rpm.
Note: II necessary, the clutch assembly can be turned manually.
Speed Droop
Speed droop is the diIIerence between no load rpm and Iull load rpm. This diIIerence in rpm divided
by the Iull load rpm and multiplied by 100 is the percent oI speed droop
Illustration 17 g00332582
PSG governor
(1) Pivot pin. (2) Bracket Ior droop adjustment screw. (3) Output shaIts.
The speed droop oI the PSG governor can be adjusted. The governor is isochronous when adjusted so
that the no load and the Iull load rpm is equal. Speed droop permits load division between two or
more engines that drive generators. These generators can be connected in parallel or the generators
can be connected to a single shaIt.
The adjustment oI the speed droop on PSG governors is made by the movement oI pivot pin (1).
When the pivot pin is put in alignment with the output shaIts, movement oI the output shaIt lever will
not change the Iorce oI the speeder spring. When the Iorce oI the speeder spring is kept constant, the
desired rpm will be kept constant. ReIer to "Pilot Valve Operation". When the pivot pin is moved out
oI alignment with the output shaIts, movement oI the output shaIt lever will change. The change in
the Iorce oI the speeder spring is proportional to the load on the engine. When the Iorce oI the speeder
spring is changed, the desired rpm oI the engine will change.
An adjustment lever outside the governor is connected to the pivot pin (1) by link (4). This is used to
make an adjustment oI the speed droop.
Illustration 18 g00332615
Later PSG governor
(1) Pivot pin. (4) Link.
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Fri Feb 14 19:12:53 EST 2014