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Tamar Mikeladze Grammar 29, 30 II - year students, group b 1.11.



introduces new information


Something exists

Something happens

Number or amount


There seems to be


are many chances. Theres a classical music concert on Monday. There are 22 students in your group. There could be a problem if you dont write a test. There seems to be extra copies of tests here.


Introduces new information

It Times, date, days Weather Opinions Adjectives Looks like It seems


refers back to something already mentioned. e.g. there is a lake in the mountains. It is deep. There can refer to a place. e.g. My friend used to live there.


Its ? Its ? Theyre ? Their ?

it is / it has

1. 2.

They are


inside, Out, outside In - contained by something - (counties, cities, streets, roads, the mirror, hole, crack, hand, armchair, the country, hospital, prison) On touching the surface of another thing (transport, chair, television, wall, injuries, left, right, side, pavement) To - verbs with motion


general location at the airport In name of a container with something/someone inside in the airport


the beginning At the front At school At home At work

Above means at a higher level that something else without touching it The plane was above the trees can be used without an object Below - physically lower than something else can be used without an object

Over the same as above when used to describe a position that is at higher level. However it can mean covering the surface something There was a thick snow over hillsneed an object Under means directly below something - need an object


to/beside - at the side of Near/by close to/ at the side of Opposite exactly on the other side of