Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26




Lvan Pavlov ( 1849-1936) He was Russian physiologist
who won Nobel prize. He devoted his life to the study of physiology and sciences, making several remarkable discoveries and ideas that were passed on from generation to generation

Classical conditioning.
A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response.


F.B.SKINNER (1904-1990) Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.

A process of behavior modification in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior.

Changing of behavior by he use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner three types of operant that can change behavior are Neutral operant: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. Rein forcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Rein forcers can be either positive or negative. Punishers: Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.

Reflection on behaviorism
Behaviorism focuses on particular view of learning, a change in external behavior Accor through a large amount of repetition of desire actions, the reward of good habits and the discouragement of bad habits. In the behaviorist view of learning, the teacher is the dominant person in the classroom.

JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980)
Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology

Cognitive Development
The conscious and subconscious way the mind changes based on short or long term schemes (perceptions or experiences).


Sensorimotor (0-2years)

Preoperational (2-7)

Concrete operational (7-11)

Formal operational (adolescenceadulthood)

A schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information.
Assimilation is a term referring to another part of the adaptation process.. Through assimilation, we take in new information or experiences and incorporate them into our existing ideas. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs

Accommodation refers to part of the adaptation process. The process of accommodation involves altering one's existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process. EQUILIBRIUM Reduction of tension/frustration due to accommodation and assimilation

Cognitivism focused on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind.


JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980)

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)

John Dewey (1859-1952).

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
He believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of making meaning. Learners learn more through the interaction with the society.

Constructivist Base on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations in their daily life.