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Steve Goddard

Engineering Science – Assignment 1

Static Engineering Systems

Simply Supported Beams and Beams & Columns Selection

1. A simply supported beam of length 6m supports a vertical point load


of 45kN a distance of 4m from one end. If maximum allowable bending
stress is 120Mpa:

1.1 Determine the reaction forces at either end.

4m

45k
N

R1 R2

6m

4 × 45 =180

180 = 6 × R2

R2 = 30

R1 = 45 − 30

R1 =15

Therefore the reaction forces at either end of the beam are R2 = 30 & R1 = 15

I can check this by making sure the values of the forces add up to 0

15 - 45 + 30 = 0

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Steve Goddard

1.2 Draw the shear force diagram

20

15
1.3 Make appropriate calculations and draw the bending moment
diagram

When x = Bending Moment =

10
0 0
1 15 x 1 = 15
2 15 x 2 = 30
3 15 x 3 = 45
4 15 x 4 = 60
5 15 x 5 – 45 x 1 = 30
6 15 x 6 – 45 x 2 = 0

0
0 0.5
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Steve Goddard

70

1.4 List suitable universal beam sections that will support the 45kN load
from the attached table and then select the lightest

Using the formula:

M σ
=
I y

60
Rearranging this means that:

M I
= =Ζ
σ y

Using my values

M 60 × 10 3 −3 10 6 cm 3
= = 0 . 5 × 10 m 3
× = 0.5 × 10 3 cm 3 = 500 cm 3
σ 120 × 10 6 m 3

Serial Size Mass (kg/m) Sectional/Elastic


(mm) Modulus

356 x 127
305 x 165
50 39
54
571.8
753.3
46 647.9
40 561.2
305 x 127 48 612.4
42 531.2
254 x 146 43 505.3

The lightest beam I can use would be:

356 x 127 section wit ha mass of 39 kg/m

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Steve Goddard

1.5 Recalculate the reaction forces at either end, taking into account the
actual weight of the beam as a UDL.

W = MG So: 39kg/m X 9.81 = 382.59 N/M

382.59 x 6m = 2295.54N

2295 .54 N
∴R3 = 15 KN + = 16 .147 KN
2

2295 .54 N
and R4 = 30 KN + = 31 .147 KN
2

1.6 Determine the actual maximum bending stress in the selected beam,
taking into account the actual weight of the beam as a UDL and check
whether your section is still appropriate by comparing this stress with
the maximum allowable bending stress.

The maximum bending moment is 4m from R3:

x 2W 4 2 × 0.383
So BM = xR1 − = ( 4 ×16 .147 ) − ( )
2 2
= (64 .6) − (3.064 ) = 61 .54 kN

61 .54 Nm × M 2
So Ζ = = 512 .83 cm 3
120 x10 6 N

This beam will still be appropriate.

1.7 Comment on how the bending moment diagram is modified by the


addition of a UDL, sketching the modified bending moment diagram and
giving reasons.

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Steve Goddard

70

60
In this problem the bending moment diagram is almost identical to the one
without the added UDL. This is because the mass of the beam as a UDL is very
small in the comparison to the point load of 45kN. On my graph I have shown an
exaggerated line to show it easier.
If the UDL was larger in comparison to the point load you would be able to see the
curve of the parabola more easily.

50

40
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Steve Goddard

1.8 If the beam has a Young’s Modulus of 200GPa:

Determine the radius of curvature

M σ E
≡ ≡
I y R

I = 85 .1 ×10 6 mm 4 = 85 .4 ×10 −6 m 4

61 .519 K 200 G
−6

85 .4 ×10 R

200 G
R≡ = 277 .638
7.204 ×10 8

2. Select the lightest wide flange section that can be used as a steel column 7m long to
support an axial load of 450kN with a factor of safety of 3. Use 200MPa as the limit of
elasticity, 200GPa as the modulus of elasticity, 200GPa as the modulus of elasticity
and assume that the column is simply supported.

To work out the second moment of area I used the formula:

π 2 EI
Pcr =
L2
I transposed this to make I the subject

Pcr × L2
I=
π 2E
Next I put my own values in and calculated the second moment of area.

(1350 × 10 3 ) × 49 N ×M 66150
I= 2
= = 33.512 M 4 = 3351 cm 4
1973.92 N /M 1973.92
Therefore looking at my table the most suitable flange section would be 254 x 254
with a mass per unit length of 73 Kg.

3. A solid circular shaft 40mm in diameter is subjected to a torque of


800Nm. Find:

3.1. The maximum stress due to torsion

First of all I worked out the area of the circle:

π × 20 2 =1256 .63 mm 2 =12 .5663 m 2

F 800 NM
σmax = = = 63 .662 MPa
A 12 .5663 M 2
3.2 The angle of twist over a 2m length of shaft, given that the modulus
of rigidity of the shaft material is 60GN/m2

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Steve Goddard

T τ Gθ To work out the second moment of area:


= =
J R L πD 4
J = = 2.513 ×10 −7
32
Therefore when rearranged

LT 2 ×800 1600
θ= = −6
= = 0.106 rads
GJ 60 ×10 (0.251 ×10 ) 15060
9

= 6.07 

4. A hollow, circular prop shaft has an external diameter of 120mm and


an internal diameter of 60mm. Calculate the maximum power that can
be transmitted by this shaft, if the maximum permissible shear tress is
60 MN/m2 and it is rotating at 100rpm.

Using the formula:

πJ
T =
R

I will use this formula for find J (Second moment of area)

π 3.142
J = (D 4 − d 4 ) = (0.12 4 − 0.06 4 ) = 1.9085 ×10 −5 mm 4
32 32

Putting J into my equation gives me:

60 M (1.9085 ×10 −5)


T = = 19 .085 ×10 3 Nm
0.06

Power = Angular Velocity × Torque

ω = 2πn

When n = revolutions per second


2π ×100
ω= = 10 .472 rad / s
60

Maximum power transmitted by shaft

(19 .085 ×10 3 ) ×(10 .472 ) =199 .86 kW

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Steve Goddard

Bibliography

http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Beams/Shear_Bending.html

http://people.arch.usyd.edu.au/~mike/Struct01/Structures01.html

Tooley and Dingle – Higher National Engineering

W Bolton – Higher Engineering Science

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