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# Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 1

## 1. Practical unit of power is horse power (hp)

1 HP = 746 W 1
2. The stress at which the specimen breaks or ruptures ultimately is called ultimate or tensile strength.1
3. When no exchange of heating energy is possible between the system and surrounding, the process
is adiabatic. Such processes are carried in (i) non-conducting cylinders, and (ii) at a fast pace. 1
4. The substance which can be stretched to large values of strain are called elastomers, e.g., elastic
tissue of aorta, the largest artery carrying blood from the heart.
5. The necessary and sufficient condition for motion to be simple harmonic is that the restoring for
must the linear, i.e., F = ky or torque, = c. 1
6. Joule is a unit of work.
Using the relation,
work = force displacement
= mass acceleration displacement
= mass
velocity
time
displacement
= mass
displacement
time time
displacement
= mass displacement
2
time
2
1
Unit of work, J = kg m
2
s
2
= kgm
2
s
2
. 1
7. If a ball is thrown up, the direction of motion of the body is the same as the direction of its velocity
whereas the acceleration due to gravity acts on it in the downward direction.
Thus, the direction in which an object moves is given by the direction of velocity and not by the
direction of acceleration. 1
8. Using, P =
2 2
P Q 2PQ cos + +
and tan =
Qsin
P Q cos

(a) R = A + Q and = 0
(b) R = P Q and = 0 to 180 depends on P > Q or Q > P.
(c) R =
2 2
P Q +
and =
1
Q
tan
P

Or
Component of force along horizontal.
F
x
= F cos 60
=
1
72
2
= 36 dyne 1
Using F
x
= ma
x
We get a
x
=
F
x
m
=
36
9
= 4 cms
2
. 1
SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER A
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2 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE) Physics, ClassXI
9. If there is only one propeller, the helicopter that will start rotaing in a direction opposite to that of
the rotation of the propeller so as to conserve angular momentum. 2
10. Sound waves are mechanial waves whose velocity
v = RT/M 1
Light waves are non-mechanical waves or electromagnetic waves for which c = m e
0 0
1/ , where
0
is absolute magnetic permeability of free space and
0
is absolute electrical permittivity of free
space. Therefore, v depends upon T, but c does not. 1
11. Here Y =
3
3
,
4
mgl
bd
g is constant
Maximum relative error in Y is given by
Y
Y

=
3 3
+ + + +

m l b d
m l b d

## Thus clearly m, l, b, d and introduce the maximum error in the measurement of Y.

12. (a) A lives closer to the school than B because B has to cover higher distance [OP < OQ]. 1
(b) A starts from the school earlier than B because t = 0 for A but B has some finite time.
(c) B walks faster than A because it covers more distance in less duration of time [slope of B is
grater than that of A]. 1
(d) A and B reach home at the same time.
(e) B overtakes A on the road once (at x, i.e., the point of intersection).
13. The position vector
( )

r
of the particle is

r
=
2

30 20 40 m + t i t j k
....(i)
(a) velocity

v
(t) of the particle is given by
( )

v t =

d r
dt
= ( )

d
r
dt
=
- +
2

(30 20 40 )
d
t i t j k
dt
=

3 4 0 + i t j ....(ii) 1
Also, acceleration

a
(t) of the particle is given by
( )

a t =

( ) d v t
dt
=
( )

d
v t
dt
=

(3 4 )
d
i t j
dt
[by using (ii)]
=

0 4 j
( )

a t =

4 j ....(iii)
(b) At time t, the veocity of the particle is given by using to equation (ii).
( )

v t =

3 4 i t j
At t = 2 s, v =

30 4 2 i j
=

30 80 i j
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Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 3
Its magnitude is
v =
2 2
3 ( 8) +
=
9 64 +
=
73
= 8544 ms
1

## and, direction of v is given by,

=
1
tan

_

,
y
x
v
v
=
1
8
tan
3

_

,
= 70 with x-axis.
14. Given, radius of circular bend, r = 30 m
Speed of train = v = 54 kmh
1
=
5
54
18

= 15 ms
1
1
Mass of train, m = 10
6
kg
Anlge of banking = = ?
The centripetal force is provided by the lateral thrust by the outer rail. According to Newtons
third law of motion, the train exerts (i.e., causes) an equal and opposite thrust on the outer rail
causing its wear and tear.
The angle of banking by formula,
tan =
2
v
rg

tan =
2
(15)
98
30

=
225
30 98
= 07653
tan = tan 37 25
= 3725 = 3742.
15. The ratio of relative velocity of separation after collision to the relative velocity of approach before
collision.
Coefficient of restitution, e =
2 1
1 2

v v
u u

where u
1
and u
2
are initial velocities of the two colliding bodies and v
1
, v
2
are their final velocities
after collision.
(i) For elastic collision, velocity of separation is equal to the velocity of approach.
e = 1
(ii) For inelastic collision, velocity of separation is not zero but always less than the velocity of
approach.
0 < e < 1
(iii) For perfectly inelastic collision, the colliding bodies do not separate out but move with same
velocity.
e = 0
16. Using Newtons second law of motion for a system of N particles, total force.
F

=
N
1
( )

i
i i
i
d
m v
dt
=
1 1 2 2
( .... ) + + +

n n
d
m v m v m v
dt
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AglaSem Schools
4 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE) Physics, ClassXI
Internal forces acting on the particles cancel out in pairs. Taking external force also to be zero.
i.e.,
F

= 0 1
We get
1 1 2 2 N N
( .... ) + + +

d
m v m v m v
dt
= 0
or
1 1 2 2 N N
( .... ) + + +

m v m v m v
= constant.
The above expression is called principles of conservation of linear momentum. 1
17. (a) No, from the formula v
e
=
2GM
R
, it is clear that escape velocity does not depend on the mass
of the body. 1
(b) The escape velocity depends upon the value of gravitational potential at the point from where
the body is projected. The gravitational potential energy of body E =
2G
R
m
is slightly different at
different points.
( the earth is not a perfect sphere and hence R is different at different points). Because of this
escape velocity depend slightly on the latitude of the place from where the body is projected. 1
(c) The escape velocity of a body does not depend upon its direction of projection.
(d) Since the gravitational potential energy at a point at the height h from the earth surface is
GM
(R ) +
m
h
, the escape velocity will be different for different value of h.
18. (a) Here at t = 0, OP makes an angle with x-axis. As motion is clockwise, so =
2
+
x-projection of OP at time t will give us the equation of S.H.M. given by,
x =
2
A cos
T

_
+

,
t

=
2
3 cos
T 2

_
+

,
t
, (. A = 3 cm, T = 2 s)
x = 3 cos
2

_
+

,
t
= 3 sin t (x is in cm)
x = sin t cm. 1
(b) T = 4 s, A = 2 m
At t = 0, OP makes an angle with the positive direction of x-axis, i.e., = + .
Hence, the x-projection of OP at time t will give us the equation of S.H.M.
As, x =
2
A cos
T

_
+

,
t

=
2
2 cos
T

_
+

,
= 2 cos
2

,
t
Or x = 2 cos
2

,
t m. 1
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Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 5
Or
If the particles of a medium vibrate in a direction normal to the direction of travel of wave, the
motion is called transverse wave motion, e.g., stretched strings of violin, guitar, sitar, sonometer
etc. Electromagnetic waves are also transverse in nature. 1
t

Crest
Through
Crests and troughts are formed when a transverse wave propagates. Distance between conscutive
troughs or crests is called wavelength. 1
19. (a) While deriving Bernoullis equation, we say that
Descrease in pressure energy per second = increase in K.E. /sec + increase in P.E. /sec
Consider that viscous forces are absent. Thus as the fluid flows from lower to upper edge there is
a fall of pressure energy due to the fall of pressure. If dissipating force are present, then a part of
this pressure energy will be used in overcoming these forces during the flow of fluid. Hence there
shall be greater drop of pressure as the fluid moves along the tube. 1
(b) Yes, the dissipative forces become more important as the fluid velocity increases.
From Newtons law of viscous drag we know that
F = A
dv
dx
Clearly as v increases, velocity gradient increases and hence, viscoucs drag i.e., dissipative force
also increases. 1
20. Equation of continuity : Consider a non-viscous liquid in steam line flow through a tube AB of
varying cross-section. Let a
1
, a
2
= area of cross-section of the tube at A and B respectively.
A
1
A
2
v
2
v
1
, v
2
= velocity of flow of liquid at A and B respectively.

1
,
2
= density of liquid at A and B respectively.
Volume of liquid entering per second at A
= a
1
v
1

= a
1
v
1

## Similarly, mass of liquid leaving per second at B

= a
2
v
2

2
If there is no loss liquid in the tube and the flow is steady, then
mass of liquid entering per second at A = mass of liquid leaving per second at B
Or a
1
v
1

1
= a
2
v
2

2
....(1)
If the liquid is incompressible, then

1
=
2
From (1), a
1
v
1
= a
2
v
2
Or av = a constant ....(2)
This is known as equation of continuity.
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AglaSem Schools
6 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE) Physics, ClassXI
From (2), v 1/. It means the larger is the area of cross-section, the smaller will be the velocity
of liquid flow and vice-versa. It is due to this reason that (a) deep water runs slow or slow water
runs deep, (b) the jet of falling water becomes narrow as it goes down. 1
21. (a) Monoatomic molecule :
A monoatomic molecule has N = 1 and I = 0
Degrees of freedom, f = 3N 1
= 3 1 0
= 3 1
(b) Diatomic molecule :
A diatomic molecule has N = 2 and I = 1
Degrees of freedom, f = 3N 1
= 3 2 1
= 5 1
(c) Triatomic molecule :
(i) Linear. A linear triatomic molecule has
N = 3 and I = 2 as shown
1 1
f = 3N I = 3 3 2 = 7
(ii) Non-linear. A non-linear triatomic molecules has N = 3 and I = 3.
1 1
1
f = 3 N 1
= 3 3 3 = 6. 1
22. (i) At the triple point, i.e., temperature = 566C and pressure = 511 atm, the vapour, liquid and
the solid phase = 511 atm, the vapour, liquid and the solid phase of CO
2
exist in equilibrium.
(ii) If the pressure decreases, both fusion of CO
2
in boiling points decreases.
(iii) The critical temperature and pressure of CO
2
are 311C and 730 atm respectively. If the
temperature of CO
2
is more than 311C, it cannot be liquidified, how soever large pressure we
(iv) (a) CO
2
will be a vapour at 70C at a pressure of 1 atm.
(b) CO
2
will be solid at 60C at a pressure of 10 atm.
(c) It will be liquid at 15C at a pressure of 56 atm.
23. (a) Navigator is a responsible citizen, he is duty minded, having presence of mind. 2
(b) Apparent frequency received by an enemy submarine,
v = {(v + v
0
)/v}
v = {(1450 + 100)/1450} 40 10
3
Hz
= 4,276 10
4
Hz.
This frequency is reflected by the enemy submarine (source) and is observed by SONAR (now
observer)
In this case apparent frequency v = {v/(v v
s
)} v
= [1450/1450 100)] 4.276 10
4
Hz = 45.9 kHz. 2
24. Derivation : By definition of acceleration, we know that
a =
2 1
2 1

v v
t t
Or v
2
v
1
= a(t
2
t
1
)
Or v
2
= v
1
+ a(t
2
t
1
) ....(i)
where v
1
and v
2
are the velocities of an object of times t
1
and t
2
respectively.
If v
1
= u (initial velocity of the object) at t
1
= 0
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Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 7
v
2
= v (final velocity of the object) at t
2
= t.
Then (i) reduces to v = u + at 1
(ii) v
2
u
2
= 2as
Derivation : We know that acceleration is given by
a =
2 1
2 1

v v
t t
, where v
1
and v
2
, t
1
and t
2
are as in (i),
Or t
2
t
1
=
2 1
v v
a
....(i)
Also we know that
x
2
x
1
=
2
1 1 2 2 1
1
( ) ( )
2
+ v t t a t t
....(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we get
x
2
x
1
=
2
2 1 2 1
1
1
2

1
+
1
]
v v v v
v a
a a
=
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 1 2
2
2
+
+
v v v v v v v
a a
=
2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 2
2 2 2
2
+ + v v v v v v v
a
=
2 2
2 1
2
v v
a
Or v
2
2
v
1
2
= 2a (x
2
x
1
) ....(iii)
Now if v
1
= u at t
1
= 0
v
2
= v at t
2
= t ....(iv)
x
2
x
1
= s
Then from (iii) and (iv), we get
v
2
u
2
= 2as ....(v) 2
(iii) s =
2
1
2
+ ut at
Derivation : Let
x
1
, v
1
= position and velocity of the object at time t
1
x
2
, v
2
= position and velocity of the object at time t
2
a = uniform acceleration of the object
Also let v
av
= average velocity in t
2
t
1
interval.
By definition,
v
av
=
2 1
2 1

x x
t t
Or x
2
x
1
= v
av
(t
2
t
1
) ....(i)
Also we know that v
av
=
1 2
2
v v
....(ii)
From eqns. (i) and (ii), we get
x
2
x
1
=
+
1 2
2
v v
(t
2
t
1
) ....(iii)
Also we know that v
2
= v
1
+ a (t
2
t
1
) ....(iv)
From eqns. (iii) and (iv), we get
v
2
x
1
=
+ + - -
1 1 2 1 2 1
1
[ ( ) ]( )
2
v v a t t t t
=
- + -
2
1 2 1 2 1
1
( ) ( )
2
v t t a t t
....(v)
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8 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE) Physics, ClassXI
Now, if x
1
= x
0
at t
1
= 0
x
2
= x at t
2
= t
v
1
= u at t
1
= 0 ....(iv)
v
2
= v at t
2
= t
From eqns. (v) and (vi), we get
x x
0
=
2
1
2
+ ut at
If x x
0
= S, then
s =
2
1
2
+ ut at
. 2
Or
(i) Let v
1
and v
2
= finishing velocities of car A and car B
and t
1
and t
2
= finishing time intervals for car A and car B
d = distance travelled by both cars acceleration to statement
v = v
1
v
2
....(i)
t = t
2
t
1
....(ii)
Let d = distance covered during race by each car.
Using eqn. s =
2
+
_

,
u v
t
For car A, d =
1
1
0
2
+
_

,
v
t
=
1 1
2
v t
, (Q u = 0) ....(iii)
For car B, d =
2
2
0
2
+
_

,
v
t
=
2 2
2
v t
, (Q u = 0) ....(iv)
From (iii) and (iv), we get
d =
1 1
2
v t
=
2 2
2
v t
v
1
=
1
2d
t
and v
2
=
2
2d
t
....(v)
Also using equ.
s =
2
1
2
+ ut at
d =
2
1 1
1
2
a t
=
2
2 2
1
2
a t
a
1
=
2
1
2d
t
and a
2
=
2
2
2d
t
....(vi)
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AglaSem Schools
Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 9
(ii) Since, a =
v
t
=
1 2
2 1

v v
t t
=
1 2
2 1
2 2

d d
t t
t t
=
2 1
1 2 2 1
2 ( )
( )

d t t
t t t t
=
1 2
2d
t t
=
2
2 1
2
_

,
d
t t
Or
v
t
=
2 2
1 2
2 2

d d
t t
=
1 2
a a
v =
1 2
. t a a . 1
(b) t =
3 + x
Or
x
= t 3 ....(i)
Squaring on both sides of equation (i), we get
x = (t 3)
2
....(ii)
= t
2
+ 9 6t
If v be the velocity of the particle, the
V =
dx
dt
= ( )
d
x
dt
=
2
( 6 ) +
d
t t a
dt
= 2t 6
When v = 0, 2t 6 = 0
Or t = 3 sec. ....(iii) 1
From equations (ii) and (iii), we get
x = 3
2
+ 9 6 3
= 18 18
x = 0. 1
25. Theorem of perpendicular axis :
According to this theorem, the moment of inertia of a plane lamina about any axis OZ to the
plane of the lamina is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia of the lamina about any two
mutually axes OX and OY in the plane of the lamina, meeting at a point of the lamina, meeting
at a point where the given axis OX passes through the lamina.
Suppose, the lamina is in XY plane. (as in figure)
Z
X
Y
O
x
1
m
1
r
1
y
1
I
x
= moment of inertia of the lamina about OX
I
y
= moment of inertia of the lamina about OY
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AglaSem Schools
10 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE) Physics, ClassXI
I
z
= moment of inertia of the lamina about OZ
According to this theorem,
I
z
= I
x
+ I
y
1
Proof : Suppose the lamina consists of n particles of masses m
1
, m
2
,...., m
n
at distances r
1
, r
2
,
r
3
,...., r
n
respectively from the axis OZ.
Suppose the corresponding distances of these particles from the axis OY are x
1
, x
2
, x
3
,...., x
n
and
from the axis OX are y
1
, y
2
, y
3
, y
4
,...., y
n
respectively.
I
x
= m
1
y
1
2
+ m
2
y
2
2
+ .... + m
n
y
n
2
=
2
1

i n
i i
i
m y
....(1)
I
y
= m
1
x
1
2
+ m
2
x
2
2
+ ....+ m
n
x
n
2
=
2
1

i n
i i
i
m x
....(2)
I
z
= m
1
r
1
2
+ m
2
r
2
2
+....+ m
n
r
n
2
=
2
1

i n
i i
i
m r ....(3)
Adding (1) and (2), we get
I
x
+ I
y
=
2 2
1 1

+

i n i n
i i i i
i i
m y m x
=
2 2
1
( )

i n
i i i
i
m y x
As clear from fig.,
r
i
2
= x
i
2
+ y
i
2
I
x
+ I
y
=
2
1

i n
i i
i
m r = I
z
I
x
+ I
y
= I
z
Now I
z
= I
x
+I
y
. 1
Or
Theorem of parallel axis : Acceleration to this theorem, the moment of inertia of a rigid body
about any axis AB is equal to moment of inertia of the body another axis KL passing through
centre of mass C of the body in a direction parallel to AB, plus the product of total mass m of the
body and square of the distance between the two parallel axes.
A K
B
L
O
C
m
1
r
1
h
If h is distance between the axis AB and KL, then aceleration to theorem of parallel axis.
I
AB
= I
KL
+ Kh
2
1
Proof : Suppose the rigid body is made up of n particles of masses m
1
, m
2
, m
3
,...., m
n
at t distances
r
1
, r
2
,...., r
n
respectively from the axis KL passing through centre of mass c of the body.
If r
1
is the distance of particle m
i
from KL, then
I
AB
=
=
=

2
1
i n
i i
i
m r
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Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 11
The distance of i
th
particle from the axis
KL = (r
i
+ h)
I
AB
=
2
1
( )

i n
i i
i
m r h
=
2 2
1
( 2 )

+ +

i n
i i i
i
m r h r h
I
AB
=
2 2
1 1 1
2

+ +

i n i n i n
i i i i i
i i i
m r m h h m r 1
As the body is balanced about the centre of mass, so
r
=
=
1
1
( )
i n
i
i
m r
= 0
Or
r
=
=

1
i n
i i
i
m r
= 0 or 0

=
=

1
i n
i i
i
m r = 0
1

i n
i
i
m
= M ....(2) 1
= total mass of the body
From eqn. (1) and eqn. (2), we get
I
AB
= I
KL
= ML
2
. 1
26. (a) Let,
W = water equivalent of calorimeter and stirrer
t
1
= initial temperature of water and calorimeter
m
1
= mass of water
m
2
= mass of substance
C = specific heat of the substance
t
2
= temperature of the substance
Rise in temperature of water and calorimeter
= (t t
1
)
Fall in temperature of substance = (t
2
t)
Heat gained by water and calorimeter
= (m
1
+ w) (t t
1
) ....(i) 1
Heat lost by the substance = C.m
1
(t
2
t) ....(ii) 1
If we assume that there is no stray loss of heat, then
Heat lost = Heat gained
Cm
2
.(t
2
t) = (m
1
+ W) (t t
1
)
C =
1 1
2 2
( W)( )
( )
+

m t t
m t t
1
(b) Consider a cube of six x and area of each face A. The opposite faces of the cube are maintained
at temperatures.
1
and
2
, where
1
>
2
. Heat yets conducted in the direction of the fall of
temperature.
Q A
Q (
1

2
)
Q t
Q
1
x

1 2
( ) A t
x

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AglaSem Schools
12 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE) Physics, ClassXI
Q =
q q -
1 2
KA( )t
x

1
2
Here K is a constant called the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of the cube and
t stands for time interval.
We can also write as
H = KA

1
1
] x

## Where H = Heat flow per second

x
= Heat current
T = , temperature
A = 1 m
2
(
1

2
) = 1C
t = 1 s
x = 1 cm
Then = K.
Or
The quantity
1 2

x
or
d
dx
respresents the rate of fall w.r. to d.
The quantity
d
dx
represents the rate of change of temperature w.r. to distance and is called
Q = KA

1
1
]
d
t
dx

Dimensions of K.
Q represents energy and its dimensions are
[Q] = [ML
2
T
2
]
[dx] = [L] [A] = [L
2
]
[d] = [] [t] = [T]
[K] =
q
2 2
2
[ML T ][L]
[L ][ ][T]
= [MLT
3

1
] 1
(b) Consider a compound wall (or a slab) made of two materials A and B of thickness d
1
and d
2
.
Let K
1
and K
2
be the coefficients of thermal conductivity of the
1
and
2
are the temperature of the
end faces (
1
>
2
) and is the temperature of the surface in contact.
For material A :
Q
1
=
1 1 1
1
K A ( )
d
....(i) 1
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AglaSem Schools
Sample Question Paper (Solved) | 13
For the material B :
Q
2
=
2 2 1
2
K A ( )
d
....(ii) 1
From eqns. (i) and (ii), we get
1 1 1
1
K A ( )
d
=
2 2 1
2
K A ( )
d

=
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
K
K K

+
+
d d
d d

## Subtracting the value of in eqn. (i),

=
1 2
1 2
1 2
( )
K K

+
A
d d
A B

d
1
d
2
In general for any number of walls,
=
1 1 2
( )
_

A
d
.
GG
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