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MAKE IT RAIN MATERIALS: glass mayonnaise or canning jar plate hot water ice cubes PROCESS: 1.

: 1. Pour about two inches of very hot water into the glass jar. 2. Cover the jar with the plate and wait a few minutes before you start the next step. 3. Put the ice cubes on the plate. 4. Watch what happens.


a large metal or plastic bowl a pitcher or bucket a sheet of clear plastic wrap a dry ceramic mug (like a coffee mug) a long piece of string or large rubber band water

1. 2. Put the bowl in a sunny place outside. Using the pitcher or bucket, pour water into the bowl until it is about ! 3. full. 4. Place the mug in the center of the bowl. Be careful not to splash any water into it. 5. Cover the top of the bowl tightly with the plastic wrap. 6. Tie the string around the bowl to hold the plastic wrap in place. Watch the bowl to see what happens.

MAKE A THUNDERSTORM MATERIALS: clear, plastic container (size of shoebox) red food coloring ice cubes made with blue food coloring PROCESS: 1. Fill the plastic container two-thirds full with lukewarm water 2. Let the water sit for one minute. 3. Place a blue ice cube at one end of the plastic container. 4. Add three drops of red food coloring to the water at the other end of the plastic container. 5. Watch what happens.

MAKE THUNDER MATERIALS: brown paper lunch bag PROCESS: 1. Blow into the brown paper lunch bag and fill it up with air. 2. Twist the open end and close with your hand. 3. Quickly hit the bag with your free hand.

CREATE EVAPORATION MATERIALS: hand sanitizer PROCESS: 1. Pour some hand sanitizer on your hands and rub your hands together, as if you were washing your hands. 2. Your hands are now wet, so do your hands feel cooler? Answer: Yes! 3. After waiting a few seconds, are your hands now dry? Answer: Yes! 4. The hand sanitizer evaporated off your hands and your hands felt cool, therefore evaporation is a cooling process! 5. Repeat the steps above, but this time move your hands through the air. This simulates the wind. Do your hands feel even colder now? Answer: Yes!

WHAT'S IN THE WIND MATERIALS: a few plastic lids petroleum jelly/vaseline magnifying glass paper punch yarn windy day PROCESS: 1. Punch a hole at one end of each lid. 2. Thread each hole with a length of yarn and knot the ends of the yarn together to form a loop for hanging. 3. Spread petroleum jelly over one side of each lid. 4. Take the lids outdoors on a windy day and hang them in various areas. 5. Leave them outside for about an hour or two to collect what may be blowing in the wind. 6. Retrieve the lids and see what they have collected.

Make a cloud MATERIALS: a glass jar with a lid hot water ice cubes aerosol spray PROCESS: 1. Boil the water and put it in the jar. 2. Quickly put the lid on to trap the hot air. 3. Let the hot water sit for a minute. 4. Carefully take the lid off, turn it over and put it back on the jar upside down. 5. Fill the lid with ice and wait for a minute. 6. Then quickly take the lid off, spray aerosol in the jar and put the upside down lid back on. 7. What do you see? 8. After a minute or 2, take the lid off. What comes out of the jar?

HO T AIR BALLO ONS MATERIALS: a glass bottle with a long neck a bowel of very hot water A balloon PROCESS: 1. Place the empty balloon on the neck of the bottle. 2. Look at what the balloon it is flat and hanging down. 3. Now put the bottle in the bowel of hot water. 4. Watch what happens to the balloon as the air in the bottle heats up

EXPLANATION: What happens? The cold plate causes the moisture in the warm air, which is inside the jar to condense and form water droplets. This is the same thing that happens in the atmosphere. Warm, moist air rises and meets colder air high in the atmosphere. The water vapor condenses and forms precipitation that falls to the ground.

EXPLANATION: The "mist" that forms on the plastic wrap will change into larger drops of water that will begin to drip. (You can speed up the dripping by carefully moving the bowl don't splash! into the shade.) When this happens, continue watching for a few minutes, then carefully peel back the plastic. Is the coffee mug still empty? Water from the "ocean" of water in the bowl evaporated. It condensed to form misty "clouds" on the plastic wrap. When the clouds became saturated it "rained" into the mug! The sun's heat causes water to evaporate from streams, lakes, rivers, and oceans. The water vapor rises. When it reaches cooler air, it condenses to form clouds. When the clouds are full of water, or saturated, they release some of the water as rain. This is what happens to the water in our creeks, streams, rivers, lakes and oceans. The water evaporates into the air and rise with the heat of the sun. It condenses into small droplets into what we see as clouds. When the droplets become to heavy, they fall to the ground as rain or snow.


EXPLANATION: The blue and cold water sinks while the red and warm water rises. This happens because of convection. The blue water represents the cold air mass and the red water represents the warm, unstable air mass. A thunderstorm is caused by unstable air and convection plays an important part. A body of warm air is forced to rise by an approaching cold front therefore thunderstorms form.


Hitting the bag causes the air inside the bag to compress so quickly that the pressure breaks the bag. The air rushes out and pushes the air outside away from the bag. The air continues to move forward in a wave. When the moving air reaches your ear, you hear a sound. Thunder is produced in a similar way. As lightning strikes, energy is given off that heat the air through which it passes. This heated air quickly expands producing energetic waves of air resulting in a sound called thunder.

EXPLANATION: What happens? Again, evaporation is a cooling process and adding wind to the picture makes evaporation happen faster. This makes your hands feel even colder. This is why we have a "Wind Chill" factor. The wind causes moisture on your skin to evaporate at a faster rate, therefore making you feel colder.


EXPLANATION: Some of the items that may have been collected include insects, dirt, seeds and leaves. Use the magnifying glass for further observation.

EXPLANATION: The hot water in the jar, creates hot air. This air will rise to the fill the jar and water will evaporate. When the cold ice is on top, then cold air is sinking down. The aerosol shows what is happening when hot and cold air meet and form clouds.


EXPLANATION: As the air inside the balloon heats up it starts to expand. The molecules begin to move faster and further apart from each other. This is what makes the balloon stretch. There is still the same amount of air inside the balloon and bottle, it has just expanded as it heats up. It is a great way to show kids that hot air rises.

Make a cloud