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Gii thiu Cng ngh Cu phn an

Mc lc 1. Tng quan cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an 1.1. Lch s pht trin cu BTCT phn an 1.2. Cc cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an 2. Cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an theo phng php ti ch: 2.1. Cng ngh b tng ti ch theo phng php c y 2.2. Cng ngh b tng ti ch theo phng php c hng cn bng 2.3. Cng ngh b tng ti ch theo phng php c tng nhp 2.4. Cng ngh b tng ti ch theo phng php c tun t 3. Cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an theo phng php c sn: 3.1. Cng ngh b tng c sn theo phng php lp y 3.2. Cng ngh b tng c sn theo phng php lp hng cn bng 3.3. Cng ngh b tng c sn theo phng php lp tng nhp 3.4. Cng ngh b tng c sn theo phng php lp tun t 4. H thng dn gio di ng: 4.1. H thng MSS loi chy di 4.2. H thng MSS loi chy gia 4.3. H thng MSS loi chy trn 4.4. Cc phn c bn ca h thng dn gio 4.5. Mt s vn lin quan n cng ngh

1. tng quan cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an:


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1.1. lch s pht trin cu btct phn an: Th k 19, nhng nh xy dng cu thp m ra phng php thi cng hng, lp tng thanh xut pht t tr cu khng cn dn gio, vt qua nhp ln. Do kt hp c kh nng chu nn ca b tng vi kh nng chu ko cao ca ct thp, c bit l ct thp cng cao cng vi u im d dng to mt ct kt cu chu lc hp l v gi thnh h, t cui th k th 19 kt cu BTCT v c bit vo nhng nm 50 ca th k 20 kt cu BTCT DL c p dng ch yu trong cc cng trnh cu nhp ln trn th gii , cng bt u vi phng php thi cng hng. Sau th chin th 2, cc nc trn th gii c nhu cu xy dng cu rt ln. Ti c, nu nm 1951 mi thi cng cu Ulrich theo phng php hng th n gia nhng nm 1960 c trn 300 cu b tng ng sut trc thi cng theo phng php ny. Chu u i tin phong trong cng ngh cu b tng phn an ti ch c hng cn bng. Theo phng php ny, khng cn dn gio c nh, b tng an sau nh nhng xe c neo vo an trc, cp c cng ban u chu ti trng bn thn v cc ti trng thi cng, sau cng tip chu hat ti v cc ti trng khc. Thi gian ny, dm hp l kt cu l tng. Vo gia nhng nm 60, nhp cu phn an bng dm hp ln n 150m. a s cc cng ngh thi cng v cc dng kt cu cu phn on hin nay c pht trin t 1960 n 1970. Sm nht l cc cu phn on thi cng hng hp long bng cht cho php cu c th bin dng tng thch vi nhng ti trng vt thit k. Nhng cc bin dng ny lu dI s nh hng n kh nng s dng ca cu, dn n phng php hp long lin tc (s lin tc nhiu nhp). Cu Bouguen xy dng Php vo nm 1963 l cu phn on u tin loi khung cng ny. S cu lin tc i hi yu cu pht trin l thuyt ng x ca b tng giai on do khi cu chu cc ti trng vt ti trng thit k v cc m hnh ton ca vt liu ph hp dng thit k. S pht trin cc m hnh d bo ng x ca vt liu v tnh trng hp vi s pht trin p dng cc chng trnh my tnh phn tch kt cu thit k cu phn on. Cu b tng phn on ti ch thi cng phng php hng bt u t Php v c lan ra ton th gii. Ti M, nm 1974 u tin xy dng cu Pine Valley California theo dng ny. Nhng yu cu ca kinh t hu chin i hi xy dng nhanh mt s lng ln kt cu b tng thc s a n mt cuc cch mng cho nghnh cu b tng, _ra i cng ngh c sn. Cu b tng phn on c sn c cc u im: _Cho php bo dng b tng tt hn, ni rng hn kim sot c cht lng b tng. _Khng ph thuc qu ln vo thi tit kh hu. _C th s dng mt s b phn m tr c sn, rt ngn thi gian thi cng. Nhiu cng ty xy dng ln u t thit b c sn, vn chuyn v thi cng cu phn on c sn. Vic nghin cu Epoxy lin kt tt cc on dm cng c pht trin. c bit xut hin cng ngh thi cng match cast gip cho vic lp cc on dm c sn chnh xc theo yu cu thit k hnh hc. Cu b tng phn on c sn u tin l cu Choisy-Le-Roi xy dng ti Paris vo nm 1964. . Mt s cng ngh thi cng c pht trin sau cng ngh hng: _Thi cng tng nhp (Span-by-Span) _Thi cng tun t (Progressive Placement) _Thi cng y (Incremental Launching) _Cu dy vng: cu b tng phn on dy vng u tin trn th gii l cu Lake Maracaibo ti Venezuela vo nm 1962, pht trin mnh chu u v chu M vo cui
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nhng nm 60 v u nhng nm 70. Hai cu ni ting M giai on ny l cu Pasco Kenewich ti Washington v cu East Huntington ti Virginia. _Cc cu dng khc: dm hp c thay bng cc dng khc. Nh cu phn on c sn dng vm Kirk ti Yougoslavia nm 1980 nhp 385m, cu phn on ti ch dng vm Van Staden ti Nam Phi nm 1970 nhp 195m. Nhng nm 80 v 90 l nhng thp k pht trin mnh cu b tng phn on trn ton th gii v s lng. Ti M, vo nhng nm 1980, cu b tng phn on ln t c cu thp. Nn kinh t chu tng trng nhanh vo nhng nm 1990 yu cu pht trin nhanh mng li ng cao tc v h thng ng trn cao. Pht trin nhng thit b thi cng c chng v cc bi c dm quy m ln phc v cho thi cng nhanh cc d n cu phn on nhp ln. V d nh d n ng cao tc Bang na ti Thi Lan vo nm 1990 di 50km gm 1500 nhp lin tc tr gi trn 1 t la. Nhng d n cu khng l nh cc cu Storaebelt v cu Oresund ti Danmark, cu Confederation ti Canada, cu Vnh San Francisco ti M pht trin cng ngh cu phn on khng l (mega), cc on b tng trn 450 tn vi lng b tng phn on ln hn 6800 tn, i hi cc thit b nng ln v cc bi c rng nhm lm gim thi gian thi cng. Cc thit b nng c bit ny cng c s dng nhiu ti chu u. Cuc cch mng tin hc vo nhng nm 1990 cho php thit k hn lm hn, internet cho php pht trin cng ngh cu b tng phn on trn ton cu v l cng c qun l cc d n quy m ln. Xu hng pht trin cu phn on: kt cu phi bn vng lu di, tng chi ph gi thnh xy dng- khai thc- bo tr phi nh, thm m v s dng tt. Nghin cu cc cng ngh mi nh s dng b tng nh nhng cng cao cho cc dm hp nhp 300m, cc vt liu c kh nng chng ng t, cng ngh cng cp, va chn Tm li, u im chung ca cu phn an: _Gi cnh tranh _Rt ngn thi gian thi cng _Bo v cnh quan mi trng xung quanh _Duy tr hin trng giao thng (ng b, ng thy) ang c sn _Thm m _Tn dng nhn cng v vt liu ti ch _Kim sat c cht lng thi cng _Chi ph bo tr nh nht _Hiu qu kinh t cao khi so snh c chi ph sut chu k tui th cng trnh Ni ring v mt kt cu, cu phn an c cc u im sau: _Bc siu tnh cao _Kh nng chu c tnh trng giao thng vt qu ti trng thit k _Chu mi, chng chy tt _Kim sat c bin dng ca cu _Bn vng _Kh nng chu ti trng ng t tt _S dng a dng cc lai kt cu : sn, dm, dn, vm, dy vng _Vt c nhp ln :
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Bt u vi nhng cu dm nhp t 24m n 46m thi cng bng phng php tng nhp, k lc c lp ti M (Florida, Texas) khi thi cng cu dm phn an c sn nhp 46m. Chiu di nhp cu dm phn an t ti 228m cho c sn (cu Houston Ship Channel, Texas) v 259m cho ti ch. D nhin, nhp ca cu dy vng cng tng dn theo nhp ca cu dm, thay i t 152m nh nht n 914m ln nht. 1.2. cc cng ngh thi cng cu btct phn an: Hin nay trn th gii thng s dng cc cng ngh sau y thi cng cu phn an: 1.2.1. CN. Hng (Cantilever): Nh trn trnh by, phng php hng xut hin kh sm. Thng nhng nhp gia thi cng theo phng php hng cn bng. Dng hai xe c, trin khai t tr ra hai pha, cui cng s hp long theo dng cht, dng khung lin tc hay ding dm eo. 1.2.2. CN. Tng nhp (Span- by- Span): Cc phn an ca c nhp c gi bi dn gio (dm/dn) cho n khi cng cp v cng t chu ti, dn gio s di chuyn n tr tip theo, chu k thi cng li c tip din.

1.2.3. CN. Tun t (Progressive Placement): Phng php thi cng cu phn an nhiu nhp, bt u t mt u, thng c cc tr tm nhm gim ng sut cho kt cu trong qu trnh lp dng. Phng php ny rt thch hp cho nhng cng trng thiu mt bng hay phi chu quy nh nghim ngt v mi trng. Cng ngh ny p dng u tin ti Phn Lan cho mt cu phn an ti ch. 1.2.4. CN. y (Incremental Launching): Tng phn an c thi cng v c y v pha trc nh cc thit b c bit, chu k tip tc cho n khi han chnh c nhp. Phng php ny p dng u tin ti cu Rio Caroni Venezuela vo nm 1963.

Ngai ra do cng tc b tng cu thng thi cng theo 2 phng php: Phng php c sn trong cng xng ( hoc ti cng trng ) Phng php b tng ti ch

M ngi ta cn chia chi tit ra cc cng ngh thi cng cu b tng phn an nh sau: _ b tng ti ch trn dn gio c nh _Cng ngh c y _Cng ngh c hng cn bng _Cng ngh c tng nhp _Cng ngh c tun t _Cng ngh lp y _Cng ngh lp hng cn bng _Cng ngh lp tng nhp _Cng ngh lp tun t Tu theo khu nhp, dng s kt cu cu, iu kin a hnh v a cht cng trnh, hin trng giao thng v mi trng, tin thi cng, cc yu cu khc m c th p dng cng ngh thi cng ph hp: 2. cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an theo pp. bt. Ti ch: 2.1. Phng php b tng ti ch trn dn gio c nh y l cng ngh lu i nht, i din in hnh cho phng php b tng ti ch. Vic c dm b tng c tin hnh trong vn khun l b phn kt cu c bng h thng gio c nh dng ti v tr mi nhp. Khi thi cng kt cu nhp tip theo th tt cc cng on tho lp b vn khun v h thng gio li phi tin hnh t u. Nhc im ca cng ngh tht hp lng sng, gim tnh khng giao thng khi xy dng v b chi phi bi l lt, mt khc do h thng gio c lp dng t trn a hnh t nhin do vy chu nh hng, chi phi ca a hnh v a cht khu vc. V th cng ngh ny ch p dng ch yu cho cc cu c kt cu tnh nh, c tit din ngang khng phc tp, b ngang hp vi khu nhp hp l 35m v cu t nhp. 2.2. Cng ngh c y c y thuc phng php b tng ti ch, h thng vn khun v b c thng c lp t, xy dng c nh ti v tr sau m. Chu trnh c c tin hnh theo tng phn on, khi phn on u tin hon thnh c ko y v pha trc nh cc h thng nh: kch thu lc, mi dn, tr y v dn hng v.vn v tr mi v bt u tin hnh c phn on tip theo c nh vy cho n khi c ht chiu di kt cu nhp. Mc d cng ngh c u im: thit b di chuyn cu kin kh n gin, to c tnh khng di cho cc cng trnh giao thng thu b di cu v khng chu nh hng ln ca l nhng cng trnh ph
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tr li pht sinh nhiu nh: b c, mi dn v tr lc v.v... Chiu cao dm v s lng b cp nhiu hn so vi dm thi cng bng cng ngh khc, mt khc chiu cao dm khng thay i to y dm lun phng nhm y trt trn cc tm trt ng thi chiu di kt cu nhp b hn ch do nng lc ca h thng ko y. Cu thi cng bng cng ngh ny c kt cu nhp lin tc vi khu nhp ln nht hp l khong t 35 60 m. Vi cng ngh ny kh nng ti s dng h thng vn khun, b c v ph tr cao. 2.3. Cng ngh c hng v c hng cn bng c hng thc cht thuc php php b tng ti ch nhng theo phn on trong vn khun di ng tng t treo u xe c. Cng ngh ny thng p dng cho kt cu c mt ct hnh hp vi khu nhp ln t 60200m . c im ca cng ngh l vic c cc t dm theo nguyn tc cn bng, sau c hp long bng cc cht gia, dm treo hoc lin tc ho, trong qu trnh thi cng trn mi tr t hai xe c, mi xe di chuyn v c mt na nhp mi bn theo phng dc cu. Ty theo nng lc ca mi xe m mi phn on c c th di t 5-10m v tng t s lp li cng ngh t t th nht m ch iu chnh vn khun. Cng ngh c hng ph hp trong cc trng hp cu c khu nhp v tnh khng di cu ln, vi cng ngh ny chiu cao dm v s lng b cp i hi cao hn, nhiu hn so vi dm thi cng bng cng ngh khc nhng tin thi cng nhanh, cng trng gn gng v thit b phc v thi cng khng i hi c bit. 2.4. Cng ngh c tng nhp H thng gio di ng c pht trin t h gio c nh truyn thng. i vi cu c kt cu nhp di v iu kin a cht, a hnh phc tp i hi xem xt v gi thnh lp dng, tho lp h thng gio v vn khun kt cu dm th vic p dng cng ngh ny gip gim ti a gi thnh lp dng v thi gian chu k thi cng bng vic di chuyn ton b h thng gio, vn khun t mt nhp n nhp tip theo. Cng ngh ny thuc phng php b tng ti ch. Sau khi thi cng xong mt nhp, ton b h thng vn khun v gio c lao y ti nhp tip theo v bt u cng on thi cng nh nhp trc, c nh vy theo chiu dc cu cho n khi hon thnh kt cu nhp. Vi cng ngh ny trong qu trnh thi cng ta vn to c tnh khng di cu cho giao thng cho thy b, mt khc khng chu nh hng ca iu kin a hnh, thu vn v a cht khu vc xy dng cu. Kt cu nhp cu c th thc hin theo s chu lc l dm gin n v lin tc nhiu nhp vi chiu cao dm c thay i hoc khng thay i. Chiu di nhp thc hin thun li v hp l trong phm vi t 3560 m. S lng nhp trong mt cu v nguyn tc l khng hn ch v ch cn lc y dc nh v khng ly tin qua cc nhp. Tuy nhin cc cng trnh ph tr ca cng ngh ny cn kh cng knh: Dn y, tr tm, mi dn nhng vi tnh cht vn nng ca cng ngh c th ci tin c nhc im ny nh ch to: dn cng chuyn dng dng cho nhiu nhp, nhiu kt cu, kt hp dn cng vi mi dn, thn tr tm lp ghp v di chuyn c. 2.5. Cng ngh c tun t

Bng tm tt c im ch yu cc cng ngh Khu nhp p dng S kt cu Tnh khng di Yu t t nhin nh Cng ngh hp l p dng cu khi thi cng hng n cng ngh (m) b tng ti ch trn a hnh, a cht, thu Gin n Khng m bo 35 gio c nh vn b tng ti ch theo Lin tc m bo a cht 35 60 phng php c y b tng ti ch theo Gin n, lin tc m bo 35 60 6

phng php tng nhp b tng ti ch theo Gin n, lin tc m bo 35 60 phng php tun t b tng ti ch theo phng php c hng Lin tc m bo 60 200 & c hng cn bng Ghi ch: Cc yu t t nhin nh hng n cng ngh c ngha l iu kin a hnh, thu vn v a cht nh hng n vic thc hin cng ngh hoc i hi bin php k thut ph tr cho cng ngh lm tng kinh ph xy dng cng trnh.

Mt s cu BTCT. PHN an p dng pp. ti ch TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ghi Ch: Cc cu nu trn cho cc v tr vt sng, cu cn trn ng st, ng b. Tn nc p dng Php CHLB c Thy S Nauy Nauy B o Nha B o Nha B Trung Quc Hng Kong i Loan Cng ho CSECH Tn cu Tng chiu di cu (m) 2.410 880 976 850 880 1.300 987 3.000 2.300 1.950 2.100 1.500 Mt ct 2 Hp Hp n Cu i, Double -Tee Hp n Hp n Double -Tee Double -Tee Hp n Hp n Hp n Hp n Mt ct c Chiu di nhp ln nht (m) 50 44 42 42 60 42.5 35 55 55 45 55 45

Sinn Bridge Obbola Bridge Bergen Bridge Menstad Bridge Lisboa - Faro Moita Tainan Interchange Nacha Bridge Truen Wan Ta Tu Bridge Ring Road Olomouc

3. cng ngh thi cng cu BTCT phn an theo pp. c sn: 3.1. Cng ngh lp y Lp y thuc phng php b tng c sn. Chu trnh lp c tin hnh theo tng phn on, khi phn on u tin c cu lp v ko y v pha trc nh cc h thng nh: kch thu lc, mi dn, v.vn v tr mi v bt u tin hnh cu lp phn on tip theo c nh vy cho n khi c ht chiu di kt cu nhp. Cu thi cng bng cng ngh ny c kt cu nhp lin tc vi khu nhp ln nht hp l khong t 35 60 m. Cng ngh ny ngai nhng u nhc im chung ging cng ngh c y, c thm u th ca cng ngh c sn nh kim sat c cht lng b tng, thi cng nhanh, khng ph thuc nhiu vo thi tit kh hu 3.2. Cng ngh lp hng v lp hng cn bng Cng ngh ny thng p dng cho kt cu c mt ct hnh hp vi khu nhp ln t 60200m . c im ca cng ngh l vic lp cc t dm theo nguyn tc cn bng, sau c hp long bng cc cht gia, dm treo hoc lin tc ho, trong qu trnh thi cng trn mi tr t dn gio di ng, di chuyn v lp mt na nhp mi bn theo phng dc cu. Ty theo nng lc ca thit b m mi phn on lp c th di t 5-10m. Cng ngh lp hng ph hp trong cc trng hp cu c khu nhp v tnh khng di cu ln, vi cng ngh ny chiu cao dm v s lng b cp i hi cao hn, nhiu hn so vi dm thi cng bng cng ngh khc nhng tin thi cng nhanh, cng trng gn gng v thit b phc v thi cng khng i hi c bit.
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3.3. Cng ngh lp tng nhp Cng ngh ny thuc phng php b tng c sn. Sau khi thi cng cu lp xong mt nhp, ton b h thng dn gio c lao y ti nhp tip theo v bt u cng on thi cng nh nhp trc, c nh vy theo chiu dc cu cho n khi hon thnh kt cu nhp. Kt cu nhp cu c th thc hin theo s chu lc l dm gin n v lin tc nhiu nhp vi chiu cao dm c thay i hoc khng thay i. Chiu di nhp thc hin thun li v hp l trong phm vi t 3560 m. S lng nhp trong mt cu v nguyn tc l khng hn ch v tI trng thi cng nh, khng ly tin qua cc nhp. V vy cng ngh ny rt ph hp cho vic thi cng cc cu vt (hoc cu dn) di c chiu dI nhp trung bnh. Tuy nhin cc cng trnh ph tr ca cng ngh ny cn kh cng knh: dn y, tr tm, mi dn, nhng vi tnh cht vn nng ca cng ngh c th ci tin c nhc im ny nh ch to: dn cng chuyn dng dng cho nhiu nhp, nhiu kt cu, kt hp dn cng vi mi dn, thn tr tm lp ghp v di chuyn c.

3.4. Cng ngh lp tun t

Bng tm tt c im ch yu cc cng ngh 9

Cng ngh Lp theo pp. y Lp theo pp. tng nhp

Khu nhp p dng hp l (m) 35 60 35 60

S kt cu p dng Lin tc Gin n, lin tc

Tnh khng di cu khi thi cng m bo m bo

Yu t t nhin nh hng n cng ngh a cht -

Lp theo pp. tun t Gin n, lin tc m bo 35 60 Lp theo pp. c hng & Lin tc m bo 60 200 c hng cn bng Ghi ch: Cc yu t t nhin nh hng n cng ngh c ngha l iu kin a hnh, thu vn v a cht nh hng n vic thc hin cng ngh hoc i hi bin php k thut ph tr cho cng ngh lm tng kinh ph xy dng cng trnh.

1.1.5. Tnh nng c bn ca cng ngh Vi c im trng lng nh, d dng tho lp trong qu trnh thi cng vi s tr gip c bit ca h thng thu lc, h thng nng h hon chnh. H thng gio di ng (MSS - Movable Scaffolding System ) c nhng tnh nng ni bt sau: - C kh nng s dng li h thng thit b t cng trnh ny n cng trnh khc c cng qui m. Tt nhin l c s thay i mt phn h thng vn khun cho ph hp vi mt ct kt cu nhp. - D dng p dng cho cc cu vi cc loi s kt cu nhp v cc loi mt ct ngang ( hp n, hp kp, Doube -T ...). ng thi c p dng cho cc loi dm vi chiu di nhp t 18 80 m trong chiu di p dng hp l 35 60m. - Chiu di cu thng c p dng t 500 vi kilmt. Trong trng hp chiu di cu ln, c th trin khai thi cng nhiu mi bng vic b tr thm nhiu h thng MSS. - Thi gian chu trnh thng thng thi cng mt nhp: 7 9 ngy. - C kh nng p dng cho cc cu nm trn ng cong vi bn knh nh nht Rmin = 250m. - dc dc ln nht ca cu: - dc ngang ln nht: - vng ln nht ca h thng MSS: imax = 5% imax = 5% Max.1/400

4. cc thit b ch yu thi cng cu bt. Phn an: thi cng cu b tng phn an, cn c mt s thit b c bit. Thit b chnh: Gantries and erection trusses Form travelers Straddle carriers

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Thit b ph: Falsework Lifting frames Stressing Platforms

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Khi p dng cng ngh thi cng cu BTCTDL c trn gio di ng, i vi mi loi hnh ca cng ngh i hi c thc hin trn c s nguyn tc chung nht v s kt cu v cc chu trnh chung thc hin cng ngh nh sau: S kt cu: 1. Chiu di nhp bin bng 0,8 chiu di nhip gia ( 0.8L ). 2. Chiu di mt tha on c bng 0.2 chiu di nhip gia ( 0.2L ). Trn c s kho st cng ngh thi cng dm BTCTDL c trn gio di ng cc hng ca CHLB c v Nauy thm nhp vo Vit Nam, da trn vic b tr cao ca h thng MSS so vi cao kt cu h vn khun , cng ngh c chia lm 3 loi: - H thng MSS loi chy di - H thng MSS loi chy gia - H thng MSS loi chy trn 4.1. H thng MSS loi chy di: 4.1.1. B tr h thng H dm chnh c b tr di h vn khun v cc kt cu ph tr ca chng. di chuyn h thng ln pha trc v h thng c th qua c v tr tr nn h vn khun c chia thnh 2 na dc theo tim kt cu nhp. Hai na ny s cng di chuyn theo phng ngang cu cng vi h dm chnh bng h bn trt ca h cng son. Trong trng hp cn ng vn chuyn thit b, vt liu trn kt cu dm c thi cng th khung trn c thit k vi chiu cao m bo tnh khng cho cc phng tin vn ti. 4.1.2. Chu trnh hot ng a). b tng kt cu nhp b tng, bo dng b tng kt cu nhp. Sau khi b tng t cng tin hnh cng ko thp d ng lc . H dm chnh c h thp xung bng cc kch chnh t ti v tr h cng xon pha trc v h treo pha sau ( Pha trc mi ni thi cng) ca nhp dm mi c thi cng. b). Chun b lao h thng MSS Tho d lin kt gia 2 phn dm ngang, di chuyn ngang cc dm chnh bng xe gong trn b cng xon theo hng xa kt cu tr, n v tr m cc dm ngang c th i qua v tr kt cu tr. c). Lao h thng MSS Tin hnh lao cc dm chnh n v tr b tng ca nhp tip theo bng h thng m t thu lc hoc h thng thy lc. Hai dm chnh c th c di chuyn c lp hoc ng thi n nhp tip theo. d). Sng h thng MSS vo v tr thi cng Hai dm chnh c di chuyn theo phng ngang theo hng gn tr bng xe gong trn b cng xon, lin kt cc h thng dm ngang . Lp dng khung treo ti v tr pha trc mi ni thi cng, H dm chnh c nng ln bng cc kch chnh t ti v tr h cng xon pha trc (Truyn lc xung kt cu mng tr) v h treo pha sau ca nhp dm chun c thi cng (Truyn lc vo sn ca kt cu dm) e). Chun b b tng nhp tip theo
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Lp rp, iu chnh h vn khun ngoi ng v tr yu cu. B tr, lp dng ct thp thng v ng ghen k c cp d ng lc. Di chuyn tng phn on vn khun trong vo v tr bng xe gong v iu chnh h vn khun bng cc xy lanh thu lc. 4.2. H thng MSS loi chy gia: 4.2.1. B tr h thng H vn khun ca kt cu phn trn c b tr gia 2 dm chnh ca h thng MSS. Kt cu ph tr c gi theo phng ngang bi h dm chnh. di chuyn h thng MSS ln pha trc, h vn khun c chia lm 2 na ring bit dc theo tim kt cu nhp v c di chuyn theo phng ngang theo hng xa tr trn dm cng vi dm chnh. i vi loi hnh ca cng ngh ny, th khong khng gian cn thit thc hin cng ngh nh hn loi chy di. Trong trng hp kt cu dm c th mt trong ca kt cu dm chnh c th ng thi c s dng nh l mt phn ca h vn khun. Cng nh loi chy di, trng hp cn ng vn chuyn thit b, vt liu trn kt cu dm c thi cng th khung treo c thit k vi chiu cao m bo tnh khng cho cc phng tin vn ti. 4.2.2. Chu trnh hot ng a). b tng kt cu nhp b tng, bo dng b tng kt cu nhp. Sau khi b tng t cng tin hnh cng ko thp d ng lc . H dm chnh c h thp xung bng cc kch chnh t ti v tr h cng xon pha trc v h treo pha sau ( Pha trc mi ni thi cng) ca nhp dm mi c thi cng. b). Chun b lao h thng MSS Tho d lin kt gia 2 phn dm ngang, di chuyn ngang cc dm chnh bng xe gong trn b cng xon theo hng xa kt cu tr, n v tr m cc dm ngang c th i qua v tr kt cu tr. c). Lao h thng MSS Tin hnh lao cc dm chnh n v tr b tng ca nhp tip theo bng h thng m t thu lc hoc h thng thy lc . Hai dm chnh c th c di chuyn c lp hoc ng thi n nhp tip theo. d). Sng h thng MSS vo v tr thi cng Hai dm chnh c di chuyn theo phng ngang theo hng gn tr bng xe gong trn b cng xon, lin kt cc h thng dm ngang . Lp dng khung treo ti v tr pha trc mi ni thi cng, H dm chnh c nng ln bng cc kch chnh t ti v tr h cng xon pha trc (Truyn lc xung kt cu mng tr )v h treo pha sau ca nhp dm chun c thi cng (Truyn lc vo sn ca kt cu dm) e). Chun b b tng nhp tip theo Lp rp, iu chnh h vn khun ngoi ng v tr yu cu. B tr, lp dng ct thp thng v ng ghen k c cp d ng lc. Di chuyn tng phn on vn khun trong vo v tr bng xe gong v iu chnh h vn khun bng cc xy lanh thu lc. 4.3. H thng MSS loi chy trn 4.3.1. B tr h thng
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H dm chnh c b tr pha trn kt cu nhp dm c xy dng. H vn khun c b tr thnh khung bao quanh kt cu phn trn v kt cu dm chnh thng qua kt cu dm ngang hoc kt cu khung. c th lao dm qua v tr tr, h vn khun c chia lm 2 na tch ri nhau c kh nng di chuyn ra ngoi phm vi khng gian ca tr. Lc ny h thng MSS mi c th bt u lao bng cch trt ( Ln ), trn h bn trt t trn tr c lin kt vi tr. i vi loi hnh ny ca cng ngh, th yu cu tnh khng di cu c p ng cao. Li th ca loi hnh ny l p dng xy dng nhng cu nm v tr sn i, sn ni hoc cc cu nm trn ng cong bn knh nh. Mt khc khu vc lm vic d dng bo v khi nh hng thi tit bng cc tm che ma. 4.3.2. Chu trnh hot ng a). b tng kt cu nhp b tng, bo dng b tng kt cu nhp. Sau khi b tng t cng tin hnh cng ko thp d ng lc . H dm chnh c h thp t trn bn trt lao dm bng cc kch chnh t ti v tr tr trc v sau nhp dm b tng b). Chun b lao h thng MSS Tho b lin kt h vn khun vi thanh treo cng . H thp h thng vn khun, tho b lin kt gia 2 phn ca h v a h vn khun ngoi n v tr thp nht m h vn khun c th i qua v tr kt cu tr. H thng MSS by gi sn sng chun b lao. c). Lao h thng MSS Tin hnh lao cc dm chnh n v tr b tng ca nhp tip theo bng h thng m t thu lc hoc h thng thy lc . d). Lp t khung treo Thi im ny khng c tr no ti v tr u dm chnh pha sau. Lp dng khung treo ti v tr pha trc mi ni thi cng( u dm chnh pha sau ). e). Chun b b tng nhp tip theo v tr b tng nhp tip theo, h vn khun c lp t v lin kt vo v tr thit k. Cc thanh treo cng cao c iu chnh. H dm chnh c nng ln bng cc kch chnh t ti v u dm chnh pha sau v tr pha trc n v tr b tng. B tr, lp dng ct thp thng v ng ghen k c cp d ng lc. Di chuyn tng phn on vn khun trong vo v tr bng xe gong v iu chnh h vn khun bng cc xy lanh thu lc.

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H thng MSS chy di


Vn khun

Xy lanh thu lc S n cng tc

0.2 L 0.8 L L

Dm chnh Kch chnh Dm ngang H b n tr t

H cng xon

Xe gong

H thng MSS chy gia


.
0.2 L 0,8 x L L
Dm chnh Dm ngang H

Sn cng tc Kch chnh

. .

Xe gong

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H thng MSS chy trn

Dm chnh Dm ngang H bn trt Tr

.
0.8L

0.2 L L

Vn khun ngoi

Hnh 1.1. B tr h thng MSS loi chy trn, chy gia, chy di
Giai on 1

Lb = 0.8 Lg

0.2Lg

Giai on 2

0.2Lg Lb = 0.8 Lg Lg

0.2Lg

Giai on 2

0.2Lg Lb = 0.8 Lg 0.2Lg Lg 0.8Lg

Hnh 1.2. V d mt chu trnh thi cng dm lin tc 3 nhp

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4.4. Cc phn c bn ca h thng gio Cc b phn c bn h thng MSS bao gm: 1. Dm chnh - Girders 2. Mi dn - Nose 3. Dm ngang - Tranverse beam 4. H thng bn trt lao dm - Launching Wagons 5. Khung treo - Suppension Gallows 6. Tr - Pier Support 7. H cng son - Supporting Brackets 8. H vn khun - Formwork 9. Sn cng tc - Platform 10. Thit b lao, thit b thu lc - Launching Equipment / Hydraulic Equipment 4.4.1. Dm chnh

Kt cu dm chnh c 2 loi: H dm thp hnh, bn t hp H dn thp


a) H dm thp hnh, bn t hp

H dm chnh c cu to theo kiu dm thp hnh, thp bn t hp v c chia thnh cc on c kch thc thch hp vn chuyn, c lin kt vi nhau bng bu lng cng cao. Cu to kt cu dm bao gm: 2 dm sn c lin kt vi nhau bng cc thanh ging, dm ngang v thanh ging c cu to tm phng cu to thnh dm chnh c mt ct hnh hp h hoc hnh hp h c h thanh ging chng xon. Cc thnh ging c cu to tm phng ngoi tc dng v mt kt cu cn c tc dng lm ng cng tc. Ti hai u dm c b ni kiu cht lin kt mi dn vi dm chnh.

Hnh 1.3. Dm chnh


Dm chnh

Trng lng mt n v kt cu ln nht l 1.5 tn, nh dm chnh c th c lp dng th cng bng cc cn cu quay bnh thng . B rng ng bao ca kt cu dm ln nht l 2.5 m, do vy h thng cho lp sn vn chuyn n cng trng tng phn on ca kt cu dm. Dm sn c cu to t dm dc cnh trn, di v cc tm sn c ch to sn vi chiu di tiu chun 2m, 4m v 6m , t c th lp rp thnh dm chnh c chiu di yu cu. H dm chnh gm 2 dm. Bn cnh di dm hp c gn cc ray, khi lao h thng MSS cc ray ny c trn bn trt lao dm. Trong qu trnh b tng h thng MSS c trn bn kch c t ti v tr khung treo v h thng bn trt lao dm trc, sau nhp dm cu ang thi cng. Dm chnh mang
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theo h vn khun ngoi v cc xylanh thu lc m bo thun tin cao nht cho vic tho, lp v iu chnh vn khun. i vi cng ngh CHLB c cc cu kin ca kt cu dm c thit k nh hnh ho ly tn gi kiu HV (Horizontal - Vertical). Tu theo chiu cao, kiu m dm chnh c m men chu lc t 3200 36000 kNm ( Trng hp c bit c th ln n 46000 kNm ). Trong trng hp cu trn ng cong tu kh nng chu xon ca dm ta c th xc nh lch tm cho php ca kt cu vi vng ca tm sn nh. Mt ct dm dc cnh thng, h u c kh nng cho php t cc lc cc b ln ti bt k im no ca dm.
b). Kt cu dm chnh kiu dn thp

Kiu kt cu dn thp cho dm chnh l h gio chuyn dng phc v thi cng cc nhp t 20m 30m c chp thun v s dng CHLB c, c cng ty Thyssenkrupt p dng lm dm chnh trong cng ngh gio y c tn gi l: Heavy Duty Truss 50 Kt cu dm chnh c t hp t cc phn on dn thp tam gic ch to sn, trong cc phn on u dm di 2.5m, 3.0m v cc phn on gia c chiu di 4.0m, 6.0m , mt khc tu theo cu to dm m u dn c lp cc thanh chng. S t hp cc phn on v cc thanh gia cng ph thuc vo chiu di v s kt cu m kt cu dm l gin n, lin tc hay mt tha m lp thm cc thanh tng cng thanh m trn, di v m di kt hp vi thanh chng u dm Kt cu dn bao gm cc thanh ging ngang c lin kt vi dn ch bng bu lng cng cao ti v tr cht, vi khong cch 2m trn m thng, m h.
4.4.2. Mi dn:

Nh l phn ko di ca kt cu dm chnh l phn mi dn hai u. Mi dn gm 2 phn. Phn u ca mi dn s c un cong theo chiu ng to gc theo phng ngang 4 5. Mt khc kh nng quay theo phng ngang ca bn trt lao dm c tc dng nh hng ca h thng MSS.

Hnh 1.5. H mi dn cho loi chy trn Hnh 1.4. H mi dn cho loi chy di Mi dn c lin kt vi dm ch bng bulng cng cao ti hin trng. Khp ni gia dm chnh v mi dn s cho php iu chnh phng ngang, khi khp ni theo phng ng gia mi dn phn I & II c s dng cho iu chnh dc dc ca h thng gio.

Kch thc chiu cao, b rng ca mi dn bng kch thc ca dm chnh. Mi dn c thit k nh l dn thp vi mt ct ch H hoc tam gic - v cc thanh xin. Mi dn c lp vi ray t ti thanh m di pha trong.
4.4.3. H thng bn trt lao dm

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H thng bn trt lao dm l h thng nh hng cho h thng gio di ng (MSS) v l phn ct yu ca h thng. Tu theo h thng MSS l loi chy trn, chy di m h bn trt c t trn tr hay h cng xon dm. Hnh 3.6. Lp t bn trt Hnh 3.7. Lp t bn trt

H thng bn trt lao dm chnh s h thng MSS trong qu trnh lao. Khi b tng kt cu nhp cu, dm chnh s c bng h thng kch thu lc. i vi MSS loi chy di, h bn trt lao dm c sng ngang nh cc xylanh thu lc v a dm chnh vo v tr b tng kt cu nhp. Nh gi h bn trt c kh nng xoay theo phng ngang do vy vic chnh hng lao ca dm chnh c thc hin d dng
C 2 loi h bn trt: H bn trt vi h thng lao bng m t thu lc v h bn trt vi h thng lao thu lc. i vi h bn trt th nht, m t thu lc truyn ng vo bnh xe ch ng c tc dng nh hng v y dm v chc nng ca cc bnh xe b ng pha ngoi c tc dng chng li s lch ca dm chnh nhm m bo an ton. Bnh xe ny s khng c lc tc dng khi hot ng bnh thng.

Vi h bn trt th hai xylanh thu lc truyn lc y vo tim trc dm chnh, dm c nh hng v lao trt trn cc tm Teflon hoc ln trn cc bnh xe ch. Trong bnh xe ch c tc dng chu lc chnh v bnh xe ph cc tc dng nh bnh xe b ng ca h bn trt th nht. i vi MSS chy di cc kch thu lc ca h thng bn trt cng vi cc thanh ko ca khung treo v vi MSS chy trn cc kch thu lc l cc vt h thng MSS ch yu khi b tng. Kinh nghim cho thy, i vi kt cu nhp cu 50m th ti trong trn mt kch vo khong 600 tn pha trc / 400 tn pha sau. Khi dm chnh vo v tr, tt c cc kch thu lc c t di im kch ca dm chnh, l im k trn cho kch ca h cng son. p lc du bt u nng trc y ca kch. Sau khi trc y ca kch chuyn ng khong 50mm, trc y ca kch tip xc mt di ca im kch v kch bt u nng h thng MSS. Khi t cao khi u , nt an ton ca kch c vn cht v p lc du c gim.
4.4.4. Khung treo

i vi h thng MSS loi chy di , khung treo bao gm khung chu lc bng thp v cc thanh treo bng thp cng cao, n c dng cho tt cc nhp dm, tr cc v tr nhp dm u tin v nhp dm c khe co gin. Khi b tng phn sau ca dm chnh c treo bi h thng khung treo v truyn lc xung phn kt cu dm cu BT kh nng chu lc. Khung chu lc bng thp hnh c trc tip ti cc v tr ca sn dm kt cu cu. H khung ny m bo cc b thanh treo i qua l cha sn trn bn mt cu, bc qua kt cu nhp dm. Khung treo c trn 2 kch thy lc cng loi vi kch trn h thng bn trt

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lao dm nhng kh nng nng thp hn ( Khong 400 tn ). Chiu cao ca khung treo tu thuc vo s cn thit tnh khng cho xe ti phc v thi cng hay khng. i vi h thng MSS loi chy trn, gi treo cng c kt cu tng t nh h thng MSS loi chy di. c lin kt vi dm ngang ti v tr u dm kt cu nhp cu v truyn lc phn lc kch vo dm ngang. Khi b tng kt cu nhp h 2 kch di gi treo kt hp vi 2 kch trn tr c tc dng chu ton b tnh ti kt cu v thit b thi cng. Ni chung gi treo ca cc loi h thng MSS c tc dng truyn tnh ti thi cng vo kt cu nhp dm BT kh nng chu lc, tit kim vt liu cho kt cu nhp chnh v s chu lc ca kt cu nhp dm cu trong thi cng tng ng vi giai on khai thc.
4.4.5. H cng son

H cng son c thit k truyn lc t trn dm chnh xung nn mng ca tr khi b tng v di chuyn cho h thng MSS loi chy di. Chng c b tr 2 mt bn ca tr, ngoi 2 cp h cng xon l cp th 3 rt cn thit cho tr tip theo khi lao dm.

H thng vn khun

H thng gio

Thanh PC 32

H thng gio

Hnh 1.8 . H gio H cng xon bao gm cc dm hng thp hnh t theo phng ngang cu v c bi cc thanh chng xin. Mt thanh ko thng ng truyn mt phn lc thanh ko ln dm hng thp hnh gn v tr thn tr. Thanh ngang ca h c t su vo trong thn tr thng qua hc trng ch sn v thanh ko bng thp cng cao dng lin kt cht hai h cng xon vi nhau. T h cng xon s truyn lc thng ng vo tr.

i vi h cng xon c kch thc ngang ln th h cn c lin kt vi h thanh treo ln nh tr. Vi h thng MSS theo cng ngh ca CHLB c, trong qu trnh lao dm th s di chuyn ca h cng xon cng c di chuyn theo ti cc v tr 2 tr ca nhp b tng v 1 ln cn theo chiu tin ca hng lao. Ngc li h cng xon theo cng ngh Nauy c lp t sn ti 3 v tr nh trn, khi lao dm th s tho lp lun chuyn c thc hin tun t.

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4.4.6. Tr

i vi h thng MSS loi chy trn, ging nh h cng son lao dm trong h thng MSS loi chy di, tr c t trn nh tr c thit k cng cc kch di khung treo truyn lc t trn dm chnh xung nn mng m tr v phc v cng tc lao h thng MSS. Tr thng c thit k bng kt cu thp hnh v thp bn lin hp v c lin kt vi tr cu bng cc thanh thp d ng lc nhm m bo an ton trong qu trnh lao h thng MSS. Trn tr c lin kt h bn trt, kch thu lc c tc dng nh hng, lao h thng n v tr qui nh. Tr ti v tr tr pha cui nhp dm c b tng trong qu trnh b tng nhp tip theo khng c tc dng lc. Lc ny khung treo di dm ngang u tin ti v tr cui nhp trc cng vi tr cui nhp mi s c tc dng chu ton b ti trng trong qu trnh thi cng b tngkt cu nhp. Giai on ny tr ny s c di chuyn, lp dng ti v tr tr u tin ca chu trnh mi.
4.4.7. H vn khun

H thng MSS c kh nng phc v b tng dm cu vi mt ct bt k, k c i vi kt cu c mt ct c vi chiu cao thay i. Ring i vi dm hp ( Rng ) cng ngh i hi mt ct ngang c chiu cao khng i c th c gii ho vic tho lp vn khun trong. nm bt c c im v nguyn tc h vn khun ca h thng MSS, lun vn ch m t h vn khun i vi kt cu dm hp bao gm h vn khun trong, ngoi di y. H vn khun trong bao gm:
Vn khun trn Vn khun thnh bn V h thng ph tr

H vn khun c chia thnh cc phn on ring bit theo phng ngang cu dc theo tim ca kt cu nhp, chiu di phn on khong 6m . Mi phn on cc tm vn khun trn, vn khun thnh v cc kt cu ph tr nh: x chu lc, xylanh thu lc . c lin kt vi xe gong chy bng m t thu lc. H thng ng ray phc v s di chuyn ca xe gong c t trn cc con k b tng c sn vi tng chiu di bng 1,5 ln chiu di nhp c v c lun chuyn trong qu trnh c kt cu t nhp ny n nhp tip theo.

Hnh 1.9. Vn khun trong

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Trong qu trnh di chuyn xe gong cc tm vn khun thnh, vn khun trn v kt cu ph tr c gp li, thu vo nh h thng cc xylanh thu lc, sao cho ng bao ca cc phn on c kch thc nh nht c th i qua cc v tr vch ngn ti nh tr ca kt cu nhp dm. Sau khi vn chuyn cc phn on vn khun vo v tr, h cc xylanh s ko, y trc tip cc tm vn khun trn, vn khun thnh nhm iu chnh h vn khun trong vo v tr hnh dng thit k. H thng cc xylanh thu lc c chia lm 2 phn chnh:
Phn th nht: cc xylanh c gn kt c nh vi xe gong c tc dng ko, y cc vn khun thnh, vn khun trn vo v tr v sau khi nh dng xong phn on vn khun trong, cc xylanh ny cng vi xe gong quay tr v v tr xut pht ban u ( Ni cung cp cc phn on vn khun ) chun b chuyn ch, lp t cc phn on vn khun tip theo. Phn th hai: l h cc xylanh lin kt cc tm vn khun thnh, vn khun trn vi nhau v chng kt hp vi cc kt cu ph tr gi n nh h vn khun trong sut qu trnh b tng kt cu nhp.

Cc phn on vn khun c lp t v lin kt tun t t xa n gn, theo triu tin ca qu trnh c dm vi s lng cho chiu di ln nht ca kt cu nhp cu. S lng cc xylanh thu lc phn mt khong t 10 12 v s lng cc xylanh thu lc phn hai ph thuc vo la chn thay th bng cc kt cu thanh chng sau khi c nh, iu chnh cao vn khun theo yu cu thit k. H vn khun ngoi bao gm:

Vn khun sn ( K c vn khun bn bn cnh) Vn khun y V h thng ph tr

H vn khun c chia thnh cc phn on ring bit theo phng ngang cu v dc theo tim ca kt cu nhp, chiu di phn on khong 6m tr phm vi tr. Cc phn on c lin kt vi dm chnh ca h thng MSS v di chuyn theo khi lao dm. Khi lao dm n v tr nhp b tng, vic a h vn khun vo v tr c thc hin bi vic sng ngang kt cu dm chnh bng h thng bn trt lao dm. Mi phn on vn khun sn c lin k vi h thng dm chnh bng cc xylanh thu lc v cc x chu lc. H thng xylanh c tc dng iu chnh v tr v cao vn khun sn theo yu cu thit k.
4.4.8. Thit b lao, thit b thu lc

Trong qu trnh b tng, h thng MSS c trn bn kch ch yu . Chng c t ti h cng xon trc v sau nhp chun b c ( v trn mt cu, bn di khung treo ). Kch c trang b c hm chu lc mt cch an ton v khp khuyn yn nga. Sau lao h thng MSS bn kch bt u hot ng. Dm chnh c nng ln khong 200mm pha trn kch. Khi t ti cao khi u, c hm an ton c vn cht v p lc du c gim xung.
4.5. mt s vn lin quan n cng ngh: 4.5.1. Ni thi cng dm

i vi cu BTCT DL lin tc nhiu nhp, cng ngh thi cng b tng trn gio di ng cng nh phn ln cc cng ngh thi cng khc u i hi mi ni trong qu trnh thi cng kt cu dm. Mi ni thi cng mt mt cho php thi cng tng on mt lin tip mt cch hiu qu nhng mt khc chng l im yu trong kt cu cng trnh.
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Hu nh tt c cc bin php thi cng u d kin t neo, ni cc b cp d ng lc ti mi ni thi cng v mt ct b tng tip tc gim yu gy ra bi h thng neo. Chnh v vy trong phm vi ny ct thp thng c b tr c bit cn thn. b li s gim cng chu ko ti mi ni thi cng th ct thp dc c t nh ct thp ni. Trong on mi b tng, ct thp c yu cu t song song cho mi ni chu ng sut ko sinh ra do co ngt. ng sut ko sinh ra do nhit ca qu trnh Hydrat ho, c bit vi cc b phn kt cu dy hn c th gi gi tr nh thng qua theo di gi nhit gii hn hp l. Nu cc cp d ng lc c neo ti mi ni thi cng, b tng ca cc on ln cn tip theo b hn ch ra khi nh hng ca bin dng do t bin ca on trc v ng sut nn ln ng sau neo. ng sut ko v th pht sinh cc v tr gn v sau neo, c th dn ti nt b tng nu cc ng sut ny khng c cn bng bi to ng sut trc lin tc. ng sut nn cng pht sinh v nhng l do tng t, nhng chng mc no chng c mt khi phm vi neo. Chnh v vy ct thp thng phi c b tr gn neo em li vt nt nh.
4.5.2. Mi ni cp d ng lc

Mi ni cp trc khi to d ng lc cho b cp c ni ( The Coupled Tendon) c c cu lm vic nh mi ni thi cng vi mt c cp neo. Sau khi to DL cho b cp th c cu lm vic cng nh vy nhng vi iu kin ngc li. Gn cc b cp hin tng tng ng sut nn xy ra v ch trong phm vi ng sut ko pht sinh cn b tr ct thp thng. Nhng ng sut ko ny cn li v cng nh nu cc b ni ( The Couplers) c phn b xa nhau bng tm m on b tng tip theo. Ton b DL c truyn vo b tng thng qua mi ni cp. Tt nhin tt nht l nn trnh b tr v tr ni cp trn cng mt mt ct.
Mi ni cp

Hnh 1.10 . Mi ni cp sut chiu cao dm trong sn hp

4300

4240

3200

C L Tr
860 3440

C L Tr
800 3200

C L Tr
2
80

450 330

80

Hnh 1.11. B tr ct thp dc cu

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