Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

Amity Centre for eLearning

J-Block, Amity Campus

Sec-44, NOIDA (UP)
India 201303


1. Compare the three schools of management thought and discuss which

theory as per you is most important and why?


All managers perform the same managerial function regardless of their position in the
organizational hierarchy.

Different schools of thought have emerged and all of them define management in their own way :

Classical School :

• Management is ordering people to do the job.

• Management is designing job structure.
• To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate
and to control (Fayol)

Behavioural School :

• Management is managing men.

• Management is the development of people and not the direction.

Modern Definition : Management is a multipurpose organ of the society, which aims at utilizing
the resources of the country for creating a situation of plenty and comfort instead of scarcity and

However, another school of thought, led by eminent writer Oliver Sheldon, is of the view that
management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of the policies
formed by the top-body or administration. This school, narrows down the meaning of
management by stating that administration determines the corporate policy, co-ordination of
finance, and definition of goals, whereas, management uses the policies and strives towards the
The development of the theory of management is useful because it provides a broad basis for
approaching management problems. In the recent time, there has been a growing concern about
the proper role of a business firm within our society. Traditionally, this role was limited to
production and distribution of economic goods and services, in return for profits. However, the
term "social responsibility" is being referred to quite often in the present day situation. It has been
increasing felt that the social consequences of business organization cannot be ignored any

Management is a 'process comprising of series of actions that lead to accomplishment of

objectives. Since these actions are basically concerned with inter-personal relationships every
management decision has a social impact. Therefore, management can also be called a social
process. Is management and administration the same? According to one school of thought
'Management' is a comprehensive term embracing within its scope the entire process of planning,
policy-making, co-ordination of activities, maintaining discipline, as well as controlling the
operations so as to attain best possible results.

Thus, management activity can be classified into two broad heads -Administrative Management
and Operative Management. The former is primarily concerned with policy-decision making,
changing such decisions as and when necessary, preparing plans, fixing standards of
performance and verifying the actual performance vis-à-vis pre-determined standards. On the
other hand operative management is concerned with carrying out of these policies and plans to
achieve the organizational objectives.

Best School of Management According to me:-

I agree with the Behavioral School that management means managing men & the development of

• According to me Behavioral School is the best and most updated with the
today’s beliefs and most efficient in the actual work scenario.
• Management efforts are to provide an atmosphere in which efficiency and
accomplishment are recognized and rewarded, employee self-development is emphasized, and
employees' rights and privileges are fulfilled.
• The growth of the organization is a cumulative effect of the growth of the
people working in the organization.

Behavioral School of management gives utmost importance to the most useful resource in any
organization and that is human resource. It’s the human in organization that have to perform the
task right from minor to major tasks.

Behavioral School guides to manage and develop the men of the organization which is the base
of any organization and when the base is strong then the organization is strong too…So I believe
in strength of Behavioral School of Management,

Because the persons working in an organization should be developed & should be aware of latest
technologies then only they can contribute towards the betterment of the organization. Which
requires time to time up gradation & motivation of the employee. Actually Management is
managing the men only not the process, because process is always running.
In the management of a small team, the human factor is crucial to success. Lets consider
possible motivators and a simple framework for dealing with people.

When you are struggling with a deadline or dealing with delicate decisions, the last thing you want
to deal with is "people". When the fight is really on and the battle is undecided, you want your
team to act co-operatively, quickly, rationally; you do not want a disgruntled employee bitching
about life, you do not want a worker who avoids work, you do not want your key engineer being
tired all day because the baby cries all night. But this is what happens, and as a manager you
have to deal with it. Few "people problems" can be solved quickly, some are totally beyond your
control and can only be contained; but you do have influence over many factors which affect your
people and so it is your responsibility to ensure that your influence is a positive one.

You can only underestimate the impact which you personally have upon the habits and
effectiveness of your group. As the leader of a team, you have the authority to sanction,
encourage or restrict most aspects of their working day, and this places you in a position of power
-and responsibility. This article looks briefly at your behavior and at what motivates people,
because by under- standing these you can adapt yourself and the work environment so that your
team and the company are both enriched. Since human psychology is a vast and complex
subject, we do not even pretend to explain it. Instead, the article then outlines a simple model of
behavior and a systematic approach to analyzing how you can exert your influence to help your
team to work.

Actually Management means to Evaluate & control all the process of an Organization in addition
giving the feedback to ADMINISTRATION to find the other resources for the betterment of
organization for continual growth of organization as well as the employee. Because Employee
can only be benefitted if the income of the organization is to be increased by means of evaluating
& modifying the existing infrastructure time to time as per the demand of rapidly changing the
technology, which can be only updated with the efforts of a good management.

Effective general management includes the ability to communicate, to be approachable, to

encourage and respond to the upward flow of ideas, and to adopt great behavioural flexibility.

We hear that firms are 'over-managed' and 'under-led'; leading to an unfortunate distinction
between management and leadership with the pernicious implication that good management is
some- how inferior and less important than leadership. The distinction can cause great mischief
when embodied in the belief that a senior executive need only be a good leader rather than an
effective manager.

Influential leaders who did not know how to manage have done much damage in human affairs
as they raised expectations without the ability to deliver on them. And no effective number-two
executive officer/chief operating officer/executive vice-president type can totally compensate for
the destructive effects of a charismatic leader who has no aptitude for the nitty-gritty of actual

Of course, the good manager/non-leader can be boringly bureaucratic. In the long run such
narrow people can also reduce human liberties and spirit, as adherence to rules becomes an end
instead of a means. The worldwide skepticism about government-run business reflects this
unhappy experience.
The effective general executive does not need to be an improbable philosopher-king, but does
need an ability to uncover vision and convert it into action. The chief executive alone does not
have .to be the creator of the unifying vision. The vision may be more collective in origin than one
individual, but clearly it must be shared and converted into management practice.

2. Discuss the 14 general principles of management given by Fayol. Which

principle do you think is the most important?


Henri Fayol - Process Management theory: Fayol wrote a book called "General and Industrial

Fayol stressed on managerial aspects and he regarded elements of management as its functions
- planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. His observations are still valid
after 7 -8 decades. Throughout his study he stressed on the universality of the principles. He
repeatedly pointed out that the principles apply not only to business but also to political, religious,
philanthropic, military and other undertakings. Fayol is also called the real father of modern
management theory; According to Fayol there are 14 general principles of management.
These principles are flexible not absolute.

1. Division of work - Fayol applies this principle to all kinds of work, managerial as well as
2. Authority and responsibility - Fayol found these are related, with the latter arising from the
3. Discipline - Fayol said discipline requires good superiors at all levels.
4. Unity of command - Single superior should give orders.
5. Unity of Direction - Each group of activities with the same objective must have one head and
one plan.
6. Subordination of individual to general interest.
7. Remuneration - Must be fair giving maximum possible satisfaction to employees and
8. Centralization - Fayol says individual circumstances will determine the degree to which
authority is concentrated or dispersed.
9. Scalar chain - Fayol believed that "chain of superiors" from highest to lowest ranks should
not be departed from needlessly but can be short-circuited when the need be.
10. Order - "A place for everything and everyone"
11. Equity - Loyalty can be elicited from personnel by combination of kindliness and justice.
12. Stability of tenure - Unnecessary turnover can have high danger and costs.
13. Initiative - Managers must sacrifice personal vanity to permit subordinates to exercise
14. Espirit-De-Corps -" In union there is strength" emphasizing the need for teamwork "and
importance of communication in obtaining it.
Fayol concluded by saying that his list was not exhaustive but some kind of codification of
principles appeared to be indispensable in every undertaking. Taylor & Fayol's work is
complementary to a large extent.

Actually all these principles are general & should be present in all organizations. In the absence
of any one can disturb the routine process of any organization.

Most important principle according to me:-

• According to me the most important principle would be INITIATIVE because it’s

the initiative that can achieve wonders out of people.
• Hidden potentials are unfolded if the workers are allowed to take initiative.
• When people are allowed to take initiative their moral would not be boosted to
work to their best but also they would feel like they are given importance by the organization and
the organization trusts on their efforts.

3. "Decision making is the most critical managerial task." Discuss the above
statement in light of decision-making steps.


It is the selection of the appropriate alternative from a set
of alternative courses of action. It is the core of planning.
Decision making has been identified as the primary
responsibility of any manager. Decision making is at the
core of all planned activities. Effective decision making
must be rational, i.e., for effective decision making the
decision maker must generate all the possible
alternatives, he must also have all the relevant
information, be able to analyze and evaluate alternatives
and must have a desire to achieve the best solution.
Seldom can 100% rationality be achieved as future
entails uncertainties so the manager must settle for
limited rationality. Limitations are in terms of information,
time and certainty.

Alternatives are evaluated based on quantitative and

qualitative factors. Selection is done based on
experience, experimentation or research and analysis.
The decision may be Programmed (structured) i.e., repetitive and routine or Non-programmed
(unstructured) i.e., unique, strategic. Decisions are made under different conditions: Certainty
conditions - Cause effect known , means decision maker is sure what are the effects of
that decision.

Risk condition - Probabilities can be drawn, means Decision maker is not sure what would be
the affected areas of that decision. So its better to draw all the possible probabilities after the
decision & then to select the right decision.

Uncertainty condition - Meager database unsure whether situation will change or not. Better is
to make some database or if possible can consult his colleagues before taking any final decision.

Decision making process requires a structured approach involving six steps:

1. Identify and select the problem: A 'problem' is a deviation between the ACTUAL results and
the TARGET level at which the results should be, or an OPPORTUNITY level at which the
results could be. A problem statement should be written based on the measurements taken.
The most serious problems are those the customer experiences. Implement holding action, if
necessary, while solving the problem.
2. Analyze the causes of the problem: Brainstorm all potential causes of the deviation.
Usually, there are several causes of a problem that require analyzing and prioritizing. This will
require collecting data which provides the facts needed rather than opinions. Determine the
root causes.
3. Generate potential decisions: For most problems there are usually several solutions. The
first idea is not always the best. 'Brainstorming' and 'building' on ideas are the most effective
ways to find the right solutions. Use competitive benchmarking to adopt other's ideas.
4. Select and plan the decision to be implemented: Prioritize the solutions identified using
cost-benefit analysis together with the timetable demanded by the urgency of the problem. A
specific ACTION PLAN must be prepared identifying the key activities with start and finish
dates, and the named individuals who will carry them out. The proposed plan is then
presented to the next higher manager for approval, giving opportunity for team 'recognition'.
5. Decide and implement: The Project Teams are responsible for implementing the decision.
Regular review of the Project is essential to control progress and costs, ensuring that the
benefits are gained. Contingency plans may need to be activated to overcome practical
difficulties arising.
6. Evaluating the decision: Following successful implementation, the project must be
monitored and evaluated. Has the problem been solved? Is the customer satisfied? What
added value has been achieved? It may be necessary to use the Decision Making Process
again. Also evaluation can be done by collecting the feedback.

4. Which party bears more responsibility in the communication process-

sender, receiver or both'? Justify your answer.


Communication is defined as "the sharing, transfer (exchange) of messages, facts" opinion, ideas
or attitudes and emotions between a sender (manager) and receiver (employee) or between two
or more people. Sharing or exchange is a two way process.

• Real communication in the context of a work organization is not a one way

• Communication involves both sender and receiver and it also involves the medium
and feedback.
• Communication is a two way process where sender and receiver are equally
responsible for effective communication.
• Proper understanding (the way it is intended by sender) of message/ information
by the receiver is equally important. If this does not happen the very purpose of
communication is defeated.

Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that
the sender intended to transmit.

The responsibility of affective communication lies with both the sender and listener.

Communication is very important Process in an organization. A two way Communication is

required to enable the smooth operation & getting proper feed back of any organization. Actually
sender becomes receiver if he wants the feedback & receiver becomes the sender for proper
feedback to the previous.

A message has NOT been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver.

By two-way communication or feedback only we can decide that communication is effective. This
feedback will tell the sender that the receiver understood the message, its level of importance,
and what must be done with it.

Communication is an exchange, not

just to give, all parties must
participate to complete the
information exchange. Which can be
best understood with the help of fig.
shown :

Source and Encoder: Information

source is the origin of the message.
Sender is the source of some
thought. Need or information to be
transmitted. He is also the encoder.
The message is put into a code
before it is transmitted. Language is a popular code.

Message: Spoken words, printed words, graphic drawing, facial expression, gesture etc., are all

Channel: Medium used to transfer message, sight and sound, phone, newspaper, tv etc., The
best communication channel is face to face interaction. The channel links sender with the
receiver. Proper channel is vital for effective communication.

Decoder and Receiver: Receiver decodes message and attaches meaning to it. But he should
be ready for it. Communication is not complete unless it is understood.
5. "Planning is charting the future course of action at present." Do you agree?
Discuss the advantage of planning as a management process.


Planning is the process by which managers examine their internal and external environments and
ask fundamental questions about their organization's mission, goals, and objectives. If group
effort has to be effective, people must know what they are expected to accomplish. Therefore, it
is the first and the most important management function.
Planning requires selecting
missions and objectives and
the actions to achieve
Planning is deciding in
advance who will do what,
at a certain time and what is
to be achieved. In business,
planning is an ongoing effort since
changes are continuous. A plan is a
predetermined course of action to
achieve a specified aim or goal. It is a
blueprint of action. Planning is an analytical
thought process that covers:

Assessment of future

Determination of objectives and


Development of alternative courses of action

Selection of best course of action

Planning precedes all other functions -All plans must contribute to purpose and objectives. It is
all pervasive activity -all levels of managers have to do planning. Plans are effective if they
achieve their purpose at a reasonable cost (in terms of time and money). Planning has to be
systematic to ensures a timely, orderly, and cost-effective process to achieve specific objectives.
Planning should involve everyone - centralized planning occurs when responsibility rests with top-
level executives. Decentralized planning occurs when responsibilities rest with managers and
workers who actually execute the tasks.

Benefits of Planning: Planning can be very beneficial in four major areas:

Coordination of Effort

Preparation for Change

Development of Performance Standards

Development of Managers

1. Integrated, constant and purposeful action is more easily achieved. All efforts are directed
towards desired objectives or results. Unproductive work and waste of resources can be
minimized. Through planning managers can relate decisions to each other and to goals of the
2. Planning enables a company to be competitive with other rivals. Progressive management
likes to be proactive rather than reactive.
3. Through planning adverse situations can be anticipated and mistakes or delays avoided.
Trouble can be more often easily corrected in its earlier stages than after a crisis "Forewarned
is forearmed".
4. Planning helps to plan for changes and also helps in managing change effectively.
5. Planning leads to systematic and thorough investigation of alternative methods.
6. Plans are based on adequate information of the past, present and intelligent forecasting of the
7. Plans give control standards.
8. Planning facilitates effective delegation of authority and removes communication difficulties


1. Management can be defined as "a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge, skill
habit and attitudes of the employees 'in an organization". Discuss.


Management is universal in modern industrial world. Every organization requires the making of decisions, the
coordination of activities, handling of people, and the evaluation of the performance directed towards organizational
objectives. Specialization and increase in the scale of operations have increased the importance of management.

Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in
groups accomplish effectively selected aims. If we expand this definition we understanding that:

• Management is present in any kind of organization (business or non-business).

• Its aim is to create a surplus, i.e., management is concerned with productivity which is measured through
effectiveness and efficiency.
• A manager works in coordination with both the internal and external environment.
• It is essentially decision making under various constraints.
• It is an integrated as well as continuous process.
• It is use of means to accomplish given ends.

For achieving the objectives the Managers have to assume responsibility, achieve a balance among competing (and
often conflicting) goals, and have to be conceptual thinkers. The term management is often used to refer to a group of
managerial personnel of an enterprise. Sometimes, this term is used as a way of referring to the process of managing.
On other occasions it is used as a substantive to describe the subject, the body of knowledge and practice as a whole,
the discipline. Strictly speaking, management is a functional concept and does not include persons who practice
management. Such persons are designated as Managers, Executives, etc. However, in our daily transaction we
generally include the practitioners within the scope of this term.

The managerial process is a complex social activity. It is a process because it comprises of a series of actions that
lead to accomplishment of objectives. It is known as a social process because these actions are concerned with
relations between people, i.e., inter-personal relationship. It is a continuous process, there is always fresh minds to
stimulate, newer area and approaches to explore, and ever changing situations to tackle. Management is a mental or
intellectual process involving thought, judgement and decision, the fundamental aim being achievement of certain

Technological development has continuously changed the setting of management. However, the chief characteristics
of management are the integration and application of the knowledge and analytical approaches developed by
numerous disciplines. This involves:

1. Formation of policy and its translation into plans,

2. Execution and implementation of plans, and
3. Exercising administrative control over the plans.

Utilisation of resources has been one of the most common and yet perhaps the most complex management activity.
Maximum return and utility from limited available resources has been the main aim of any manager. Traditionally, only
three factors of production were recognised i.e., Man, Machine, and Material. However, with the development of
thought, a fourth factor of production was recognised, in the absence of which the other three factors could be
rendered useless. This fourth vital factor of production was entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur could be a person
having his own resources or a custodian of someone else's resources, organising it with a view to attain maximum
output and efficiency with minimum input. As such, Management can also be defined as a process through which all
the resources are organised and utilised to attain maximum output and efficiency through minimum input.

A liberal point of view is not merely a sum of number of narrow approaches. Its emphasis is on freedom to choose
from widest range of possibilities already available or newly evolved. The stress is on expanding the mental horizon
with utmost freedom with an effort to strive towards an ultimate in life. The paradox of management is that it is based
on identifiable and rigorous framework of concepts, but at the same time it continues to strive towards breaking out of
any set discipline.

The characteristics of a good manager may be described in broad terms as initiative, intelli- gence, judgement,
dependability, integrity, perseverance, and so on.

Thus, management can also be defined as a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge, skill,
habits, and attitudes of the employees in an organization. In other words it refers to development of people in the
organization. Management involves improvement in knowledge factors, attitude factors, and ability factors of the
employee in an organization.

• Knowledge factors refer to ideas, concepts, or principles that are conscious, able to be expressed, and are
accepted because they are subject to logical proof.
• Attitude factors relates to those beliefs, feelings, desires, and values that may be based on emotions and
may not be subject to conscious verbalization. interest in ones work, desire to accept responsibilities, respect
for the dignity of one's associates, and desire for creative contribution are some of the attitude factors.
• Ability factors are too often treated as being unaffected by environment. Skill, art, judgement and wisdom are
the four most important ability factors required in management. Although these are abstract, but nevertheless
they can be developed and sharpened through practice.

2. Which are the various types of plans you are familier with? Discuss the steps involved in the
planning process.


Types of Planning : Type of planning is determined by three factors, namely – Scope (The range of activities
covered), Time frame (the period covered by the plan) and Level of Detail (the specificity of the plan). Depending upon
these factors, planning could be:

1. Strategic planning - comprehensive, long-term, and relatively general planning.

2. Operational planning - focused, short-term, and specific planning.
3. Tactical planning - more narrow, intermediate-term planning, more specific than strategic planning, but not as
narrow as operational planning.

Types of Plans : As opposed to the various types of planning, different types of plans could be:

1. Purpose or Mission - Basic function assigned by society to the organization:

2. Objectives / Goals - Ends towards which activity is aimed and end point of the organization.
3. Strategies - Broad areas of an enterprise operation, normally its in light of competitors. The firm has to decide
on its growth goal and desired profitability. Form a framework for guiding, thinking and action.
4. Policies - General statements that guide decision-making. Policies encourage discretion and initiative within
5. Procedures - Establish a required method of handling future activities, they are guides to action.
6. Rules - Specific required action, allowing no discretion.
7. Programs - Complex of goals, policies, procedures, rules, tasks, assignments steps to be taken, resources to
be employed and other elements necessary.
8. Budget - Statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms i.e., numerical program

Steps in the Planning Process: Planning process involves four steps and then gives way to the implementation
phase. These steps are:

1. Assess Current Conditions: Determine the current situation, including examination of re- sources, market
trends, economic indicators, and competitors.
2. Determining Goals and Objectives: Goals are future states or conditions that contribute to the fulfillment of
the organization's mission. Objectives are short-term, specific, measurable targets that must be reached to
accomplish organizational goals.
3. Establishing an Action Plan: An action plan is a specific set of behavior that will lead to the attainment of an
4. Allocate Resources: Resources include people, money, and time.TFP - (Total Factor Productivity) is a
measure of a firm's effectiveness in using its resources to create product values. A budget is a predetermined
amount of resources allocated to an activity which includes budgeting organizational resources for each step in
the process.
5. Implementation: The commitment of organizational resources through the delegation of tasks, objective-
driven actions, and feedback of data.
6. Control the Implementation: The continuous management of plans to ensure that they meet objectives in the
correct time horizon.

3. Departmentalization is grouping activities and people into departments. Which are the various
forms seen in the industry?



After reviewing the plans, usually the first step in the organizing process is
departmentalization. Once jobs have been classified through work specialization, they
are grouped so those common tasks can be coordinated. Departmentalization is the
basis on which work or individuals are grouped into manageable units.
In other words we can say that departmentalization is grouping activities and people into departments. It helps to
expand organizations. There is no ideal way of Departmentalization applicable to all situations and organizations.
Various forms are seen in the industry, such as:

Departmentalization by simple numbers (Only useful at the lowest level).

1. Departmentalization by time (Very old systems -shifts seen in organizations where normal working day does
not suffice e.g., Hospitals).
2. Departmentalization by enterprise function (Grouping of activities in accordance with the functions of an
enterprise -example -Production, selling, financing etc.).
3. Functional Departmentalization (It is the most widely employed basis for organizing activities and is at
present seen in almost every enterprise).
4. Departmentalization by territory (Based on geographical territories).
5. Customer Departmentalization (Grouping of activities to reflect a primary interest in customers is common in
services industries).
6. Process Departmentalization (Seen in manufacturing firms).
7. Product Departmentalization (In multi-line large-scale enterprises).

Coordination may be achieved through rules, procedures, planning, organizational hierarchy, personal contacts and
sometimes through the Liaison department.

Case Study


When Mr. Ram Bansal took over the handbag department at RK & Company New Delhi, he established several
important goals for the department. One was to increase sales without increasing the number of salespeople or the
way they were paid. Unlike some retail supervisors, Mr. Bansal was not in a position to use commissions to reward
improved performance. All his employees were paid a straight wage without commissions and all members of the staff
were union led. He also wanted to improve customer service and employee satisfaction.

This arrangement offered few motivational options and had a negative effect on employee attitudes. In other
departments of the company, customers were often shown a dressing room "cop" who asked how many garments
were included and gave them the appropriately coloured tag.
The original sales clerk rarely appeared for additional customer service. Many sales people in the company were
painfully aware of the lack of personal commitment to their job and customers. One employee commented, "There's a
lot of talk about increasing customers." Mr. Bansal knew he had to make some changes in order to improve the sales
production in the department.

His first step was to give fulltime employees their own counter area and their own line of merchandise. He also
increased the responsibility of the sales staff for managing their own inventory and their own line of merchandise. Any
sales person who needed information was encouraged to off the buying staff suggestions, was encouraged to talk
with buyer of handbags.
Previously, the sales staff had felt they were not supposed to talk to buyers.

Every week, Mr.Bansal brings the staff together for a meeting. At these meetings, he emphasizes the importance of
customer service 'and reviews any change in departmental policies and procedures. He also encourages employees
to discuss problems and ask questions. These meetings provide Mr. Bansal with an opportunity to publicly recognize
the accomplishments of employees.


1. What motivational need did Mr. Bansal satisfy for his fulltime employees?


Mr. Bansal gave fulltime employees their own counter area & their own line of merchandise. He also increased the
responsibility of the sales staff for managing their own inventory & their own line of merchandise. So he gave them

He gave them their own counter area and their own line of merchandise.

He increased responsibility of staff by:

Making them to manage their own inventory, and

Manage their own line of merchandise.

Sales person were allowed to talk directly to the buying staff and the customers regarding for any additional

Mr. Bansal developed intrinsic or true work motivation i.e. sales person were in a position where they can shape their
own social environment. True creativity or productivity comes into being only when learning is free from external

Employees were able to make decisions on what they did everyday.

When a person is allowed to exercise choice with respect to some given activity, it could be that the person's sense of
self-determination is enhanced not only in relation to that activity, but that there is an overall increase in his sense of
personal autonomy.

2. Discuss these needs with reference to Maslow's hierarchy of needs.


Mr. Bansal gave Self – actualization

& Esteem needs to employees by changing the
working condition , quality of supervision,
interpersonal relation, company policies,
quality of policy. Which are called as META needs
or growth needs as per Maslow’s Hierarchy of

Abraham Maslow Developed the Hierarchy of

Needs model in 1940-50's USA, and the
Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today
for understanding human motivation,
management training, and personal

3. Mr. Bansal achieved significant productivity gains because of a positive change in employee's
attitudes. What motivational strategies did he use to achieve this success?

Mr. Bansal observed the working conditions & policies & administrative practices & Supervision hygiene or
dissatisfiers, Mr. Bansal changed the policies & procedures of departmental store, Also he discuss with employees
about their problem, he started weekly meeting with employees, through which he recognize the accomplishments of

• He gave them their own counter area and their own line of merchandise.
• He increased responsibility of staff by:
o Making them to manage their own inventory, and
o Manage their own line of merchandise.
• Encouraged effective communication from his side to sales person regarding goals and departmental polices.
From Sales person to himself regarding any problem or query, hence emphasizing organizational interests to
all time and again.
• Publicly recognized achievements of sales person in meetings which boosts moral of sales person and further
motivates them to work better.
• Sales person were allowed to talk directly to the buying staff and the customers regarding for any additional