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REPORT ON VOCATIONAL TRAINING (H.T.

Undertaken at
CESC LIMITED

NAME OF THE STUDENT: ARITRA BHATTACHARYA

NAME OF THE ORGANIZATION: ST.THOMAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

BRANCH: ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

YEAR: 3rd, ROLL NO.-05

NAME OF THE SUB-STATION: KANKURGACHI DS

DURATION OF TRAINING: 31.12.2013 06.01.2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the end of such compassionately gruelling but informative training I felt myself much more confident and competitive. The entire credit goes to excellent and competent personnel of your esteemed company. Your training and guidance showered on me by Swapan kumar Chatterjee(assistant manager), Ashok Sarkar(assistant manager), Asim pal(senior assistant engineer), Pijus Mukherjee(senior assistant engineer), put me in solid rock to garner courage and expertise in facing any challenges in the years to come. I am thankful rather grateful for such whole hearted cooperation of not only them but also all members of CESCS who helped me with their patient & friendly behaviour throughout the training tenure to demonstrate & illustrate the plant & helping us in every single step & to bring up this report.

Signature

CESC AT A GLANCE:
Starting as India's first fully integrated electrical utility; cesc has been generating and distributing electrical power in Kolkata and Howrah since 1899. It is the sole distributor of electricity within an area of 567 sq km of Kolkata and Howrah serving 2.5 million consumers which includes domestic, industrial and commercial users. cesc owns and operate four thermal power plants generating 1225 MW of power. These are Budge Budge Generating Station (750 MW), Southern Generating Station (135 MW), Titagarh Generating Station (240 MW) and New Cossipore Generating Station (100 MW). More than 80% of customers electricity requirement is met from our own generating plants, balance electricity is purchased from third parties. About 50% of the coal requirement is sourced from captive mines. We own and operate the Transmission & Distribution system through which we supply electricity to consumers.

This system comprises of 474 km circuit of transmission lines linking the Company's generating and receiving stations with 85 distribution stations; 3,837 km circuit of HT lines further linking distribution stations with LT substations, large industrial consumers and 9,867 km circuit of LT lines connecting the LT substations to LT consumers.

CESC is in process of setting up a number of power stations in the country.CESC Limited is a flagship company of RP-Sanjiv Goenka Group, India's youngest business group born in 1820.

CESC CENTRAL DISTRICT(CCD)


District code: 03 L.T. districts: 10, Distribution area: 567 sqkm 6 commercial areas

L.T. districts:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Calcutta central district Calcutta south district Calcutta southwest district Calcutta west sub-urban district Calcutta Southern district Calcutta northern district Calcutta north district Calcutta north sub-urban district Howrah district

10.

Serampore district

H.T. department has three parts:


1. Utility cell 2. Breakdown, network & maintenance 3. Construction cell

General Construction - HT Cables upto 33 KV (Earthed System) Conductor: HT XLPE Power CablesThe conductors made from E.C. grade aluminium wires
are stranded together and compacted. All sizes of conductors of single or three core cables for HT cable are circular compacted.

Conductor Screening: Conductor screening is provided for all cables above 3.3KV grade
in the form of an extruded layer of semi conducting extrusion or semi conducting tape over the conductor.

XLPE Insulation: High quality XLPE unfilled insulating compound of natural colour is used
for insulation. Insulation is applied by extrusion process and is as per IS:7098/(Part-2) & IEC:60502.

Insulation Screening: The cables rated above 3.3 KV are provided with insulation
shielding over the insulation. The screening is provided with an extruded layer of semi conducting compound. Over the semi conducting covering, a metallic screen in the form of copper tape or wire is provided.

Core Shielding: XLPE insulation, conductor screening and insulation screening are all
extruded in one operation by a special process called Triple Extrusion i.e. all three layers in one operation. This process ensures perfect bonding of inner and outer shielding with insulation. The formation of voids/protrusions at the interface of the semiconducting layer and insulation, too is eliminated in the triple extrusion process. Core Identification.

Armouring: Armouring is applied over the inner sheath and normally comprises of
Galvanized Steel Strips for multi core cables and galvanized steel wire can be offered as per customer requirements. For Mining use and other special applications, double Wire/Strip armoured cables with Tinned Copper wires can also be offered. Single core armoured cables are provided with non-magnetic armour consisting of hard drawn flat or round aluminium wires to avoid magnetic hysteresis losses on A.C. System.

Outer Sheath : A tough Outer Sheath of Heat Resisting PVC compound (Type ST2) as per
IS:5831 is extruded over the armouring in case of armoured cables or over non-magnetic metallic tape covering the insulation screening in case of unarmoured single core cables. This is always black in color for best resistance to outdoor exposure. Outer sheath can be FR / FRLS depend upon customer requirement

Cable Laying 1 Drum Inspection and Mounting


Upon delivery, the cable drum should be visually inspected for damage, which may have occurred during transport. The manufacturers seal on the inner and outer cable ends should be examined and the condition of armouring, serving and sheath inspected for mechanical damage, corrosion and leakage of impregnating oil. If the cable is found defective it shall not be installed and the cable shall be returned to the supplier for replacement. During installation the cable should be carefully examined for any sign of damage as it leaves the drum. This is particularly important on the outer layers, where drum batten nails can cause damage. If it is necessary to roll the cable drum, it should be rolled in the direction indicated by the arrow on the drum. The drum should be mounted on jacks, cable trailer or cable stands such that the cable is preferably pulled from the top and always in the direction opposite to that indicated by the arrow. Lighter cables may be laid by mounting the cable drum on its side on a truckmounted turntable and laying the cable directly into the trench. When pulling from large drums, i.e. over 2m in diameter, the cable should be supported to prevent stressing the cable, from the drum to the trench on a suitable ramp. Alternatively, cables can be rolled directly into a trench from the drum mounted on an excavator moving along the trench.

To limit the chance of damage to the cable prior to removing the cable drum battens, a check should be done to ensure that the drum-spindle is level and permits even rotation of the drum. During pulling there is a tendency for cable slack to accumulate on the drum, slack shall be avoided and one possible method to achieve this is to limit drum rotation by using plank brake shoes against one or both flanges of the drum. If the inner end of the cable on the drum, referred to as the Z end, protrudes through the side of the drum, then it should be watched during pulling to ensure it is not damaged. It is advisable to tie a rope to the Z end, and pull through any slack cable that appears. Pulling through Z end prevents buckling, and possible damage to the inner coils on the drum.

2 Drum Positioning
Cable drums shall be positioned in line with the direction of cable pull.

3 Protection of Cables from Damage


Cables being drawn into place shall be kept clear of abrasive surfaces by suitable means, e.g. rollers, cable tiles, etc., to prevent any damage to the cable sheath be placed in the trench without sustaining abrasion damage, and without allowing rocks etc., to fall into the trench. If the cable is hand flaked directly from cable drum or coil into final position or other method that does not drag the cable over ground cable rollers are not required. On long cable runs where a cable changes direction, both horizontal and vertical, rollers shall be used to ensure a smooth pull and avoid damage to the cable. Cables, which are pulled into position by a winch, must use suitable cable stockings and swivels to prevent damage. When laying cable by directional drilling, it is essential the cable is not dragged over ground outside the drill hole or prepared trench, since abrasion is likely to damage the outer jacket and cause sheath faults.

4 Cable Pulling Tensions


The tensions of the pull shall not exceed that specified by the manufacturers for the particular type and size of cable being pulled and shall be smoothly and continuously applied. When stocking grips are used to install un-armoured cables. The trench or duct line should be set out so that any necessary deviations from a straight line occur over the largest possible radius. When pulling cable into duct lines incorporating bends lower maximum pulling tensions may be necessary to avoid the wire pulling rope cutting into the side of the duct. Any winch used to pull cables shall have either a facility to automatically limit the pulling tension applied to a cable or a continuous reading dynamometer incorporated in the pulling arrangement to enable the actual pulling tension to be monitored. Cable pulling pits are required at each significant change in cable route direction. The pits will be indicated on the design drawing.

5 Pulling Speed
To avoid damage due to overruns, the cable should be pulled just fast enough to keep the drum rotating smoothly. Higher speeds are possible when pulling small cables into straight trenches or ducts with good conditions at the feeding and pulling ends. Drums with long lengths of cable, however, should not be rotated rapidly as overrun can cause cable damage if pulling is slowed or stopped suddenly.

6 Cable bending Radii


A 3x1 core HV cable is to be laid to transformers or switchgear, the three twisted cores can be separated into three individual cores to reduce the minimum bending radius required

7 Laying to Poles
Where cables are to be laid to termination poles, a complete loop shall be buried on the property boundary side of the pole to allow sufficient slack for future replacement of the pole or failed cable termination. The loop shall have a radius not less than the maximum, being the radius of the cable. The cable shall be protected by cable slabbing and marker tape around the loop.

8 Bedding and Backfill


Cable shall be bedded in clean sand, which shall extend 100 mm around the cable. All cables shall be firmly and uniformly bedded on sand free from rocks or other hard formation. The cable shall be surrounded with a thickness of sand prior to backfilling, bottom by 150mm and two sides by 100mm, top by 300mm as shown in drawing UDS-6-1 in Appendix E. The upper 300mm of the backfill shall also meet the local government authoritys requirements.

9 Depth of Cover of Cables


The depth of cover of cables shall not be less than 750mm. However, the depth of cover of cables in nominal cable alignment shall be increased as required so that cables joints will have the necessary depth of cover.

10 Cable Cover and Marker Tape


Cable covers, if required, and PVC marker tape shall be laid at the required levels, as shown in drawing UDS-6-1 in Appendix E. The cable covers shall comply with the requirements of clauses 3.11.3.3 of AS/NZS 3000:2000. Where more than one cable is installed, the PVC maker tape or cable cover must be wide enough to fully cover the cables, otherwise additional maker tapes and covers shall be installed.

11 Cable Sealing
On completion of the pull, any pulling eyes fitted should be removed and the cable resealed unless about to do termination. Resealing is required to repair any damage that may have occurred to the cable seal through pulling.

Detection of faulty cable and replacing it with a new one (strengthening)


A fault was detected in a cable which comprised of two cables of different cross sectional area respectively 300sqmm-3 core-XLPE (Al)-11kv-grade cable and 50 sqmm 3 core PILC (Al) 11kv grade cable .That faulty cable was replaced with a new 300sqmm-3 core-XLPE (Al)11kv-grade cable by eliminating the PILC cable and by joining the two XLPE cables of same cross sectional area.

I only observed the process of determining the faulty cable among other cables using cat and genny and cutting it before the jointing process. Faults in cable
In an electric power system, a fault is any abnormal electric current. For example, a short circuit is a fault in which current bypasses the normal load. An open-circuit fault occurs if a circuit is interrupted by some failure.

The faults which are most likely to occur in the cables are:1. Ground or Earth Faults (Break-down of cable insulation):
When the insulation of the cable gets damaged, the current starts flowing from core to earth or to cable sheath.

2. Short Circuit Faults:


When the insulation between two cables or between two cores of a multicore cable gets damaged, the current starts flowing from one cable to another cable or from one core to another core of a multi-core cable directly (without passing through load)

3. Open Circuit Faults:


When the conductor of a cable is broken or joint is pulled out there is no current in the cable.

APROACH TO REPAIR A FAULTY CABLE


Fault Indication Disconnecting and Earthing Fault Analyses and Insulation Test Cable Fault Prelocation Cable Route Tracing

Precise Cable Fault Location (Pinpointing) Cable Identification Fault Marking and Repair Cable Testing and Diagnosis Switch on Power

Cable testing: To locate a fault in the cable, the cable must first be tested for faults. Cable
testing is therefore usually performed first in cable fault location. During the cable test, flash-overs are generated at the weak points in the cable, which can then be localised.

Locating the cable fault Fault classification


Insulation and resistance measurement provides information on the fault characteristics. An insulation test measures the insulation resistance between conductor and screen; from the periodic measurement of resistance you can derive the absorption properties of the insulating material.

Pre-location
Pre-location is used to determine the fault distance. There are predominantly two methods for this.

Pulse reflection method


A pulse induced at the starting end of the cable reaches the cable fault with a speed of v/2 and is there reflected back toward the starting end of the cable. The elapsed time multiplied by the diffusion speed v/2 gives the distance to the source of the fault

Transient method
In the transient method, a breakdown is triggered at the cable fault. This effects a lowresistance short circuit for a few milliseconds. This in turn produces two travelling waves diffusing in opposite directions. These waves are reflected at the cable ends so that they then travel toward each other again in the direction of the cable fault. The waves are unable to pass the fault because of the arc produced by the short circuit, so they are therefore reflected back again as with the pulse reflection method, which due to the burning short circuit results in a reversal of polarity. There are various ways to decouple and analyse these transients.

Route tracing and pinpointing

Route tracing is used to determine where the faulty cable lies and pinpointing is the process of determining the exact position of the cable fault.

Cable identification
In cable identification, the faulty cables are identified from the fault-free cables at the already determined site. We used CAT (Cable Avoidance Tool) & Genny for that purpose.

C.A.T Locator features


1. On/Off Press and hold to use C.A.T 2. Loudspeakers Detachable speaker for use in noisy environment.

3. Sensitivity control 4. Function switch Selects locate mode: Power, Radio, Genny. 5. Battery compartment To replace batteries, open the access cover using a screwdriver or coin. Use eight LR6 or AA alkaline batteries.

GENNY :
The features of the Genny Transmitter (Figure 2) are as follows: ON/OFF BUTTON (1) When the On/Off button is pressed with no accessory connected to the Genny an induction signal is radiated.

CONNECTION SOCKET (2) When an accessory is connected to the Genny Connection Socket the signal is applied via the accessory. Induction mode is automatically disabled. LOUDSPEAKER (3) To reduce the audio level press and hold the On/Off button at switch on. BATTERY COMPARTMENT (4) Open the access cover (using screwdriver/coin) to replace 4 LR20 (D) 1.5 V alkaline batteries.

MICRO TUNNELING FOR LAYING OF UNDERGROUND CABLES (300sqmm-3 core-XLPE (Al)-11kv-grade cable) Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), or Trenchless Construction has enabled pipelines and cables to be installed beneath highways and river systems around the world that would otherwise prove to be too expensive, difficult or environmentally destructive. Trenchless construction is a proven and recognized system that is environmentally friendly and imposes minimal disruption to the community and surrounding infrastructure.

HDD installation involves four main steps:


1) drilling a pilot hole; 2) expanding the pilot hole by reaming; and 3) pull back of cable

1 Drilling the Pilot Hole (Drilling the profile)


An HDD drill rig and supporting equipment are set-up at the drill entry location determined during the pre-site planning phase. A pilot hole is drilled along the predetermined drill path. Periodic readings from a probe situated close to the drill bit are used to determine the horizontal and vertical coordinates along the pilot hole in relation to the initial entry point; the pilot hole path may also be tracked using a surface monitoring system that determines the down hole probe location by taking measurements from a surface point. Drilling fluid which is the mixture of bentonite and water is injected under pressure ahead of the drill bit to provide hydraulic power to the down hole mud motor (if used), transport drill cuttings to the surface, clean build-up on the drill bit, cool the drill bit, reduce the friction between the drill and bore wall, and stabilize the bore hole.

2 Reaming of the Pilot Hole (Enlarging the hole)


The down hole assembly is removed from the drill string upon breaking the ground surface at the exit location and is replaced with a back reamer; The drill string is pulled back through the bore hole and the back reamer enlarges the diameter of the drill hole; The reamer may be pulled from the cable side of the HDD crossing if additional passes with the reamer are required to achieve the desired bore hole diameter; and The reaming stage may not be necessary during HDDs for small diameter cables where the bore hole created by the pilot hole drill is of adequate size to pull back the cable.

3 Pull back (Installing the cable)


Cable is connected to the drag section that is slightly longer than the length of the drill, on the exit side of the bore hole. The cable is pulled over rollers into the exit hole and the pullback continues until the entire cable has been pulled into the bore hole