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Tekla Structures

Modeling Manual

Product version 15.0 February 2009


2009 Tekla Corporation

2009 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. All information set forth in this manual is provided with the warranty set forth in the License Agreement. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. Tekla does not guarantee that the text is free of technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Tekla reserves the right to make changes and additions to this manual due to changes in the software or otherwise. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xroad, Xpower, Xsteel, and Xstreet are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a third-party product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: D-Cubed 2D DCM 2008 Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software III (GB) Ltd. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Project Data Control Library 2006 - 2007 DlhSoft. All rights reserved. DWGdirect, DGNdirect and OpenDWG Toolkit/Viewkit libraries 1998-2005 Open Design Alliance. All rights reserved. FLEXnet Copyright 2006 Acresso Software Inc. All Rights Reserved. This product contains proprietary and confidential technology provided by and owned by Acresso Software Inc. Of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Any use, copying, publication, distribution, display, modification, or transmission of such technology in whole or in part in any form or by any means without the prior express written permission of Acresso Software Inc. is strictly prohibited. Except where expressly provided by Acresso Software Inc. in writing, possession of this technology shall not be construed to confer any license or rights under any of Acresso Softwares intellectual property rights, whether by estoppel, implication, or otherwise. The software is protected by U.S. Patent 7,302,368. Also elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries including U.S. patent applications 2004031231, 2004267695, 2005285881, 2006000484 and 200613639.

Contents
Preface .............................................................................................................17
Audience ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 Additional help resources .................................................................................................................................. 17 Conventions used in this guide ......................................................................................................................... 18 Related guides .................................................................................................................................................. 19

Basics of Tekla Structures ..................................................................... 21


1.1 About Tekla Structures ......................................................................................................................... 21 Main features ................................................................................................................................... Configurations.................................................................................................................................. Roles ................................................................................................................................................ Languages ....................................................................................................................................... Environments ................................................................................................................................... Single-user mode vs multi-user mode.............................................................................................. 1.2 Starting Tekla Structures.................................................................................................................. Exiting Tekla Structures ................................................................................................................... Changing the language of the user interface ................................................................................... Tekla Structures editors ................................................................................................................... Toolbars ........................................................................................................................................... Moving a toolbar ........................................................................................................................ Mini Toolbar ..................................................................................................................................... Customizing Mini Toolbar .......................................................................................................... Dialog boxes .................................................................................................................................... Dialog box elements .................................................................................................................. Common buttons ....................................................................................................................... Tabs .......................................................................................................................................... Save, Load, Save as ................................................................................................................. Saving dialog box properties ..................................................................................................... Loading dialog box properties ................................................................................................... Tooltips............................................................................................................................................. Status bar......................................................................................................................................... Warning messages .......................................................................................................................... 1.3 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 34

Interface overview................................................................................................................................. 24

Using commands .................................................................................................................................. 34

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

Running a command ........................................................................................................................ 34 Repeating a command ..................................................................................................................... 34 Ending a command .......................................................................................................................... 35 1.4 Creating and modifying objects............................................................................................................. 35 Setting object properties................................................................................................................... Creating an object ............................................................................................................................ Modifying an object .......................................................................................................................... Deleting an object............................................................................................................................. 1.5 Switching rollover highlight on or off................................................................................................. Selection switches............................................................................................................................ Model Editor selection switches ................................................................................................. Drawing Editor selection switches ............................................................................................. Selecting single objects.................................................................................................................... Selecting multiple objects................................................................................................................. Selecting handles ............................................................................................................................. Selecting assemblies and cast units ................................................................................................ Selecting nested assemblies and components ................................................................................ Modifying the selection..................................................................................................................... Interrupting object selection ............................................................................................................. 1.6 Duplicate objects .............................................................................................................................. Copying an object............................................................................................................................. Copying an object using coordinates ......................................................................................... Copying an object linearly to a new position .............................................................................. Copying an object using drag-and-drop ..................................................................................... Copying an object to another plane ........................................................................................... Copying an object to another object .......................................................................................... Copying objects from another model ......................................................................................... Moving an object .............................................................................................................................. Moving an object using coordinates .......................................................................................... Moving an object linearly to a new position ............................................................................... Moving an object using drag-and-drop ...................................................................................... Moving an object to another plane ............................................................................................. Moving an object to another object ............................................................................................ Rotating objects................................................................................................................................ Rotating an object on the work plane ........................................................................................ Rotating an object in the z direction ........................................................................................... Mirroring an object............................................................................................................................ 1.7 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 40 40 42 42 43 43 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 50

Selecting objects................................................................................................................................... 36

Copying and moving objects................................................................................................................. 43

Snapping to positions............................................................................................................................ 50 Snap zone ........................................................................................................................................ 50 Snap depth ....................................................................................................................................... 51

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Snap switches.................................................................................................................................. Main snap switches ................................................................................................................... Other snap switches .................................................................................................................. Overriding the current snap switch ............................................................................................ Switching Xsnap on or off .......................................................................................................... Snapping in orthogonal directions.................................................................................................... Snapping to part extension lines ...................................................................................................... Creating a temporary reference point .............................................................................................. Locking a coordinate ........................................................................................................................ Snapping to a position using coordinates ........................................................................................ Tracking ..................................................................................................................................... Coordinate input options ........................................................................................................... Defining a snap grid .........................................................................................................................

51 51 52 53 53 53 54 55 55 56 56 57 58

Setting up the Workspace ...................................................................... 59


2.1 Creating 3D models .............................................................................................................................. 59 What is a 3D model.......................................................................................................................... Creating a new model ...................................................................................................................... Updating project information ............................................................................................................ Opening a model.............................................................................................................................. Saving a model ................................................................................................................................ Saving a model with a different name or location ...................................................................... Model templates............................................................................................................................... Creating a model template ........................................................................................................ 2.2 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 64

Screen layout........................................................................................................................................ 65 Changing the background color ....................................................................................................... 66 Background color examples............................................................................................................. 66

2.3

Work area ............................................................................................................................................. 68 Defining the work area ..................................................................................................................... 69 Hiding the work area ........................................................................................................................ 69

2.4

Work plane............................................................................................................................................ 70 Shifting the work plane..................................................................................................................... 70 Restoring the default work plane...................................................................................................... 71 Changing the color of the work plane grid........................................................................................ 71

2.5 2.6

Coordinate system................................................................................................................................ 71 Grids ..................................................................................................................................................... 72 Grid coordinates............................................................................................................................... Grid labels ........................................................................................................................................ Creating a grid.................................................................................................................................. Modifying a grid................................................................................................................................ Deleting a grid .................................................................................................................................. 73 73 73 74 74

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Changing the grid color .................................................................................................................... Grid lines .......................................................................................................................................... Creating a single grid line .......................................................................................................... Modifying a single grid line ........................................................................................................ Deleting a single grid line ........................................................................................................... 2.7 View type.......................................................................................................................................... Representation options in rendered views ....................................................................................... View planes ...................................................................................................................................... Moving a view plane .................................................................................................................. Creating a view................................................................................................................................. About naming views ................................................................................................................... Creating grid views .................................................................................................................... Opening a view................................................................................................................................. Modifying a view............................................................................................................................... Deleting a view ................................................................................................................................. Switching between open views ........................................................................................................ Switching between 3D and plane view............................................................................................. Refreshing views .............................................................................................................................. Arranging views................................................................................................................................ 2.8

74 74 75 75 75 77 77 79 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 83 83

Views..................................................................................................................................................... 76

Construction objects.............................................................................................................................. 84 Creating a construction plane........................................................................................................... 84 Creating a construction line.............................................................................................................. 85 Creating a construction circle ........................................................................................................... 85

2.9

Points .................................................................................................................................................... 85 Point properties ................................................................................................................................ 86 Creating a point ................................................................................................................................ 86 Importing points................................................................................................................................ 86

2.10 Reference models................................................................................................................................. 87 Inserting a reference model.............................................................................................................. Modifying reference model properties .............................................................................................. Selecting a reference model............................................................................................................. Hiding a reference model ................................................................................................................. Highlighting a reference model......................................................................................................... Updating reference models .............................................................................................................. Detecting changes in a reference model.......................................................................................... Splitting a reference model into reference model objects ................................................................ Reference model objects ........................................................................................................... Selecting a reference model object ........................................................................................... Supported DGN objects ................................................................................................................... 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 90 91 92 92

3
6

Creating and Modifying Structures ....................................................... 95


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3.1

Parts ..................................................................................................................................................... 95 Part types......................................................................................................................................... 96 Profiles ............................................................................................................................................. 96 Standard profiles ....................................................................................................................... 97 Parametric profiles .................................................................................................................... 97 User-defined profiles ................................................................................................................. 97 Changing the profile of a part .................................................................................................... 97 Materials........................................................................................................................................... 98 Changing the material of a part ................................................................................................. 98 Colors............................................................................................................................................... 99 User-defined attributes..................................................................................................................... 99 Part labels ...................................................................................................................................... 100 Showing part labels in a view .................................................................................................. 101

3.2

Part position........................................................................................................................................ 101 Moving a part using handles .......................................................................................................... Showing part reference lines in model views ................................................................................. Modifying the position of a part ...................................................................................................... Position on the work plane ...................................................................................................... Rotation ................................................................................................................................... Position depth .......................................................................................................................... Vertical position ....................................................................................................................... Horizontal position ................................................................................................................... End offsets .............................................................................................................................. Levels ...................................................................................................................................... Bending ................................................................................................................................... 101 102 102 102 103 104 105 105 106 107 108 109 110 110 111 111 112 112 113 113 114 115 115 116 116 116

3.3

Steel parts........................................................................................................................................... 109 Creating a steel beam .................................................................................................................... Creating an orthogonal beam......................................................................................................... Creating a curved beam................................................................................................................. Creating a steel polybeam ............................................................................................................. Creating a steel column ................................................................................................................. Creating a twin profile .................................................................................................................... Creating a contour plate................................................................................................................. Creating a round contour plate.......................................................................................................

3.4

Assemblies ......................................................................................................................................... 113 Assembly examples ....................................................................................................................... Assembly hierarchy........................................................................................................................ Creating an assembly .................................................................................................................... Creating a sub-assembly ............................................................................................................... Adding objects to assemblies......................................................................................................... Adding parts to an assembly ................................................................................................... Creating a nested assembly ....................................................................................................

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Joining assemblies .................................................................................................................. Highlighting objects in an assembly ............................................................................................... Removing objects from an assembly ............................................................................................. Exploding an assembly .................................................................................................................. Changing the assembly main part.................................................................................................. Changing the main assembly ......................................................................................................... 3.5 Creating a pad footing .................................................................................................................... Creating a strip footing ................................................................................................................... Creating a concrete column ........................................................................................................... Creating a concrete beam .............................................................................................................. Creating a concrete polybeam ....................................................................................................... Creating a concrete slab ................................................................................................................ Creating a round slab ..................................................................................................................... Creating a concrete panel .............................................................................................................. 3.6 Creating a cast unit ........................................................................................................................ Adding concrete objects to a cast unit............................................................................................ Adding non-concrete objects to a cast unit .................................................................................... Removing objects from a cast unit ................................................................................................. Highlighting objects in a cast unit ................................................................................................... Exploding a cast unit ...................................................................................................................... Copying a cast unit......................................................................................................................... Defining the cast unit type .............................................................................................................. Casting direction............................................................................................................................. Defining the casting direction of a part .................................................................................... Showing the top-in-form face ................................................................................................... Changing the cast unit main part....................................................................................................

116 117 117 117 118 118 118 119 119 120 120 120 121 121 122 122 122 123 123 123 123 124 124 124 124 125

Concrete parts..................................................................................................................................... 118

Cast units ............................................................................................................................................ 122

Detailing Structures .............................................................................. 127


4.1 Bolts .................................................................................................................................................... 127 Bolt group shape ............................................................................................................................ Bolt group position.......................................................................................................................... Bolt length ...................................................................................................................................... Bolt offsets...................................................................................................................................... Bolt catalog..................................................................................................................................... Creating a bolt group...................................................................................................................... Creating a single bolt...................................................................................................................... Creating new bolts by modifying existing ....................................................................................... Changing or adding bolted parts .................................................................................................... Using bolts to create assemblies.................................................................................................... Bolting sub-assemblies to an existing assembly ..................................................................... 128 128 129 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133

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4.2

Holes................................................................................................................................................... 133 Creating round holes...................................................................................................................... 134 Creating slotted holes .................................................................................................................... 134 Creating oversized holes................................................................................................................ 135

4.3

Welds.................................................................................................................................................. 135 Weld position.................................................................................................................................. Weld size prefixes .......................................................................................................................... Creating a weld between parts....................................................................................................... Creating a polygon weld................................................................................................................. Creating a weld to a part................................................................................................................ Weld preparation............................................................................................................................ Preparing parts for welding ..................................................................................................... Using welds to create assemblies.................................................................................................. Welding sub-assemblies to an existing assembly ................................................................... 136 137 138 138 139 139 140 140 140 141 142 142 142 142 143 143 144 145 145 146 146 149 149 150 150 151 152 153 153 154 154 154 155 155 156

4.4

Surface treatment ............................................................................................................................... 141 Modifying surface treatment properties.......................................................................................... Adding surface treatment to a selected area ................................................................................. Adding surface treatment to a part face ......................................................................................... Adding surface treatment to all faces of a part............................................................................... Adding surface treatment to cut faces............................................................................................ Surface treatment on chamfered parts........................................................................................... Surface treatment on parts with openings and recesses ............................................................... Creating new surface treatment options ........................................................................................ Tiled surface treatment .................................................................................................................. Tile pattern definitions ............................................................................................................. Tile pattern elements ............................................................................................................... Example pattern definition ....................................................................................................... Creating new tile patterns ........................................................................................................

4.5

Fine-tuning part shape........................................................................................................................ 149 Chamfers........................................................................................................................................ Chamfering part corners .......................................................................................................... Corner chamfer types and dimensions .................................................................................... Chamfering part edges ............................................................................................................ Polybeam chamfers ................................................................................................................. Fittings............................................................................................................................................ Creating a fitting ...................................................................................................................... Cuts................................................................................................................................................ Line cuts .................................................................................................................................. Cutting parts with a line ........................................................................................................... Polygon cuts ............................................................................................................................ Cutting parts with a polygon .................................................................................................... Part cuts ..................................................................................................................................

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Cutting parts with another part ................................................................................................. Modifying the shape of a polygon................................................................................................... Combining parts ............................................................................................................................. Combining two parts into one .................................................................................................. Attaching a part to another part ............................................................................................... Splitting parts.................................................................................................................................. Splitting a straight or curved part ............................................................................................. Splitting a plate or slab ............................................................................................................ Warping concrete parts .................................................................................................................. Warping a beam using deformation angles ............................................................................. Warping a concrete slab by moving chamfers ......................................................................... Warping a Floor Bay (66) slab ................................................................................................. Cambering parts............................................................................................................................. Cambering a part ..................................................................................................................... Shortening parts in drawings.......................................................................................................... Shortening a part ..................................................................................................................... Lengthening a part ...................................................................................................................

156 157 157 158 158 158 159 159 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 162 163

Examining the Model ............................................................................ 165


5.1 Viewing the model............................................................................................................................... 165 Zooming the model......................................................................................................................... Zoom settings .......................................................................................................................... Zooming with keyboard shortcuts ............................................................................................ Zooming with Magnifier ............................................................................................................ Rotating the model ......................................................................................................................... Moving the model ........................................................................................................................... Flying through the model................................................................................................................ Creating a clip plane....................................................................................................................... Creating a screenshot .................................................................................................................... Creating a screenshot in Windows Vista ................................................................................. Saving a screenshot in bitmap format ..................................................................................... Printing a screenshot ............................................................................................................... 5.2 Inquiring object properties .............................................................................................................. Object property report templates ............................................................................................. Using the Custom Inquiry tool ........................................................................................................ Modifying the contents of Custom Inquiry tool ......................................................................... Adding attributes to Custom Inquiry tool .................................................................................. 5.3 165 166 166 166 167 168 168 169 170 170 171 171 171 172 172 172 173

Inquiring the model.............................................................................................................................. 171

Filtering objects................................................................................................................................... 173 Filtering objects using a view filter.................................................................................................. 174 Filtering objects using a selection filter........................................................................................... 174 Creating a view filter....................................................................................................................... 174

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Creating a selection filter................................................................................................................ Filtering examples .......................................................................................................................... Filtering beams and columns .................................................................................................. Filtering parts in specific phases ............................................................................................. Filtering out parts that have a certain profile ........................................................................... Filtering out reference models ................................................................................................. Wildcards ....................................................................................................................................... Possible values in filtering.............................................................................................................. Template attributes in filtering ........................................................................................................ Assembly types in filtering.............................................................................................................. Bolts and welds in filtering.............................................................................................................. Copying a filter to another model ................................................................................................... Deleting a filter ............................................................................................................................... 5.4 Defining which objects are displayed ............................................................................................. Hiding parts.................................................................................................................................... Hiding selected parts ............................................................................................................... Hiding unselected parts ........................................................................................................... Showing parts with exact lines ................................................................................................ Showing and hiding assemblies .............................................................................................. Showing and hiding components ............................................................................................ Object groups................................................................................................................................. Creating an object group ......................................................................................................... Copying an object group to another model ............................................................................. Deleting an object group ......................................................................................................... Object representation settings ....................................................................................................... Creating object representation settings ................................................................................... Copying object representation settings to another model ....................................................... Deleting object representation settings ................................................................................... 5.5 Creating a visualization .................................................................................................................. Copying visualization settings to another model ............................................................................ Deleting visualization settings ........................................................................................................ Project status visualization example .............................................................................................. Example: Defining an erection schedule ................................................................................. Example: Creating object groups ............................................................................................ Example: Creating object representation settings ................................................................... Example: Creating visualization settings ................................................................................. Example: Visualizing the erection schedule ............................................................................ 5.6

175 175 175 175 176 176 176 177 177 178 178 178 179 179 179 180 180 180 180 181 181 181 182 182 182 183 184 184 184 185 185 185 185 186 186 187 187

Showing and hiding objects ................................................................................................................ 179

Visualizing project status .................................................................................................................... 184

Checking the model ............................................................................................................................ 190 Measuring objects .......................................................................................................................... 190 Measuring distances ............................................................................................................... 191

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11

Measuring angles .................................................................................................................... Measuring bolt spacing ............................................................................................................ Detecting clashes ........................................................................................................................... Finding clashes in a model ...................................................................................................... Defining a clash check clearance area for bolts ...................................................................... Reference model clash checking ............................................................................................. Reverting to the old clash checking functionality ..................................................................... Comparing parts or assemblies...................................................................................................... Finding distant objects....................................................................................................................

191 191 192 192 193 193 194 194 194

Numbering the Model............................................................................ 195


6.1 6.2 What is numbering .............................................................................................................................. 195 What affects numbering ...................................................................................................................... 195 Identical parts ................................................................................................................................. 196 Identical reinforcements ................................................................................................................. 196 User-defined attributes in numbering ............................................................................................. 197 6.3 Numbering objects .............................................................................................................................. 197 Numbering assemblies and cast units............................................................................................ Assembly position numbers ..................................................................................................... Numbering reinforcements ............................................................................................................. Saving preliminary numbers........................................................................................................... Control numbers............................................................................................................................. Assigning control numbers to parts ......................................................................................... Locking and unlocking control numbers .................................................................................. Example: Numbering identical beams............................................................................................ 6.4 Assigning a numbering series to a part .......................................................................................... Family numbers.............................................................................................................................. Assigning family numbers ........................................................................................................ Changing the family number of an object ................................................................................ Family numbering example ...................................................................................................... Overlapping numbering series ....................................................................................................... 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 198 198 198 198 199 199 200 200 201 201 201 202 202 203

Numbering series................................................................................................................................ 201

Changing numbers.............................................................................................................................. 204 Clearing numbers................................................................................................................................ 204 Viewing the numbering history............................................................................................................ 204 Creating a standard part model........................................................................................................... 205

Advanced Modeling .............................................................................. 207


7.1 Organizing the model.......................................................................................................................... 207 Creating logical areas..................................................................................................................... 208

12

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Creating object type categories...................................................................................................... Modifying logical areas and object type categories........................................................................ Viewing logical areas and object type categories .......................................................................... Deleting logical areas and object type categories.......................................................................... 7.2

209 209 210 210

Phases................................................................................................................................................ 211 Dividing the model into phases ...................................................................................................... 211 Custom phase properties ............................................................................................................... 211

7.3

Sequences.......................................................................................................................................... 211 Creating a sequence ...................................................................................................................... Adding parts to a sequence ........................................................................................................... Checking the sequence of a part ................................................................................................... Modifying the sequence number of a part...................................................................................... Deleting a sequence ...................................................................................................................... 212 212 213 213 213 214 214 215 215 215 216 216 216 216 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 220 220 221 221 221 222 222 222
13

7.4

Lotting ................................................................................................................................................. 214 Creating a lot.................................................................................................................................. Adding parts to a lot ....................................................................................................................... Removing parts from a lot .............................................................................................................. Deleting a lot ..................................................................................................................................

7.5

Sketched cross sections ..................................................................................................................... 215 Cross section sketch editor ............................................................................................................ Opening the cross section sketch editor ................................................................................. Creating sketches .......................................................................................................................... Sketching a polyline ................................................................................................................ Sketching an arc ...................................................................................................................... Sketching a circle .................................................................................................................... Adding constraints to a sketch ....................................................................................................... Adding a parallel constraint ..................................................................................................... Adding a perpendicular constraint ........................................................................................... Adding a coincident constraint ................................................................................................ Adding a fixed constraint ......................................................................................................... Adding a horizontal constraint ................................................................................................. Adding a vertical constraint ..................................................................................................... Deleting a constraint from a sketch................................................................................................ Adding dimensions to a sketch ...................................................................................................... Adding a radial dimension ....................................................................................................... Adding an angle dimension ..................................................................................................... Adding a dimension between two points in a sketch ............................................................... Adding a horizontal dimension to a sketch .............................................................................. Adding a vertical dimension to a sketch .................................................................................. Defining positioning planes of sketched cross sections ................................................................. Part positioning planes ............................................................................................................ Connection positioning planes ................................................................................................
TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

Showing and hiding part positioning planes ............................................................................ Showing and hiding connection positioning planes ................................................................. Moving positioning planes ....................................................................................................... Reverting to the default part positioning planes ....................................................................... Reverting to the default connection positioning planes ........................................................... Modifying sketched cross sections................................................................................................. Modifying chamfers in a sketch ............................................................................................... Sketch Browser ........................................................................................................................ Setting the sketch thickness .................................................................................................... Cross section extrusion types .................................................................................................. Using variables to define cross section properties ......................................................................... Example: Creating a symmetric C-shaped cross section ........................................................ Saving a sketched cross section .................................................................................................... Testing a sketched cross section ................................................................................................... Using sketched cross sections in a model ..................................................................................... Creating a picture of a sketched cross section............................................................................... Importing and exporting sketched cross sections .......................................................................... Exporting sketched cross sections .......................................................................................... Importing sketched cross sections ........................................................................................... 7.6

223 223 224 224 225 225 226 226 226 227 228 229 230 231 231 232 232 232 233

Parametric modeling ........................................................................................................................... 233 Creating dependencies .................................................................................................................. 234 Creating variables .......................................................................................................................... 234 Parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures ........................................................................... 235

Modeling Settings ................................................................................. 241


8.1 General settings.................................................................................................................................. 241 Grid properties................................................................................................................................ Grid line properties ......................................................................................................................... Rotation settings............................................................................................................................. Color settings ................................................................................................................................. Transparency settings .................................................................................................................... Screenshot settings........................................................................................................................ 8.2 241 242 242 242 243 243

View settings....................................................................................................................................... 244 View properties............................................................................................................................... 244 Grid view properties ....................................................................................................................... 245 Display settings .............................................................................................................................. 245

8.3

Part properties..................................................................................................................................... 247 Steel column properties.................................................................................................................. Steel beam properties .................................................................................................................... Contour plate properties................................................................................................................. Orthogonal beam properties........................................................................................................... 247 247 248 249

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Twin profile properties.................................................................................................................... Pad footing properties.................................................................................................................... Strip footing properties ................................................................................................................... Concrete column properties ........................................................................................................... Concrete beam properties.............................................................................................................. Concrete slab properties ................................................................................................................ Concrete panel properties.............................................................................................................. 8.4 Bolt properties................................................................................................................................ Weld properties .............................................................................................................................. Weld types ..................................................................................................................................... Corner chamfer properties ............................................................................................................. Edge chamfer properties................................................................................................................ 8.5

250 250 251 252 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259

Detail properties.................................................................................................................................. 255

Numbering settings............................................................................................................................. 259 General numbering settings ........................................................................................................... 259 Weld numbering settings................................................................................................................ 260 Control number settings ................................................................................................................. 261

Modeling Tips ........................................................................................ 263


9.1 General modeling tips......................................................................................................................... 263 Copying and moving efficiently ...................................................................................................... 263 Activating an overlapping view....................................................................................................... 263 Finding RGB values for colors ....................................................................................................... 264 9.2 Part positioning tips ............................................................................................................................ 264 Modifying part length...................................................................................................................... Creating horizontal parts ................................................................................................................ Optional ways of placing objects in a model .................................................................................. Positioning objects in a radial or circular pattern............................................................................ 264 264 265 265

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

15

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Preface

Tekla Structures includes complete documentation in an accessible help system. Our online help is a detailed guide to Tekla Structures concepts, tools, commands, and features, with plenty of examples. The documentation is also available in PDF format. Topics in the Preface are:

Audience (p. 17) Additional help resources (p. 17) Conventions used in this guide (p. 18) Related guides (p. 19)

Audience
This guide is aimed at structural engineers, detailers and designers who model, analyze, and design concrete and steel structures. We assume that you are familiar with the processes of structural engineering.

Additional help resources


The following resources also provide information about Tekla Structures:
Web site E-mail

http://www.tekla.com Contact your local helpdesk via e-mail:

Area office China Finland

E-mail address TeklaStructures.Support.CHI@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.FI@Tekla.com

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

17

Area office France Germany India Japan Malaysia Middle East Sweden UK US

E-mail address TeklaStructures.Support.FR@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.GER@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.IN@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.JPN@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.MY@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.ME@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.SWE@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.UK@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.US@Tekla.com

If you believe you have discovered a problem with this software, please report it to your Tekla Structures Reseller using the maintenance request form provided at Help > Tekla on the Web > Maintenance request.... Please send any comments or suggestions about Tekla Structures documentation to BetC_Documentation@tekla.com.
Tekla Extranet

Anyone with a current maintenance contract can use Tekla Extranet. Register now to get free access to our online discussion forums, hints & tips, software downloads, tutorials, and more. To register, go to https://extranet.tekla.com. You can also access Tekla Extranet from Tekla Structures by clicking Help > Online Support > Tekla Extranet.

Conventions used in this guide


Typefaces

We use different typefaces for different items in this guide. In most cases the meaning is obvious from the context. If you are not sure what a certain typeface represents, you can check it here.

Convention Bold

Usage Bold indicates the names of keyboard keys. Bold is also used for general emphasis in text.

Arial bold

Any text that you see in the user interface appears in Arial bold. Items such as window and dialog box titles, field and button names, combo box options, and list box items are displayed in this typeface. New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time. Extracts of Tekla Structuress program code, HTML, or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor, appears in monospaced font. Filenames and folder paths appear in monospace. Also all the text you enter yourself appears in monospaced font.

Italic bold Monospace

Noteboxes

We use several types of noteboxes, marked by different icons. Their functions are shown below:

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A tip might introduce a shortcut, or suggest alternative ways of doing things. A tip never contains information that is absolutely necessary.

A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful.

You should always read very important notes and warnings, like this one. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes, or wasting your time.

This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technically-oriented readers. You are never required to understand this kind of information.

Related guides
Tekla Structures includes a comprehensive help system in a series of online books. You will also receive a printed installation guide with your Tekla Structures installation DVD.

Modeling Manual How to create a physical model. Analysis Manual How to create loads and run structural analysis. Detailing Manual How to create reinforcement, connections, and details. Drawing Manual How to create and edit drawings. System Manual Covers advanced features and how to maintain the Tekla Structures environment. Task Manager User Guide How to create, store, and manage scheduled tasks, and link the tasks to their corresponding model objects. This guide is available in English on the Tekla Extranet.

TplEd Users Guide

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19

How to create and edit report and drawing templates.

SymEd Users Guide How to use the SymEd graphical interface to manipulate symbols. Installation Troubleshooting Guide Printed booklet explaining how to install Tekla Structures.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

Basics of Tekla Structures

This section provides an overview of the Tekla Structures user interface and its basic features. It also explains how to use common commands.
Contents

About Tekla Structures (p. 21) Interface overview (p. 24) Using commands (p. 34) Creating and modifying objects (p. 35) Selecting objects (p. 36) Copying and moving objects (p. 43) Snapping to positions (p. 50)

1.1 About Tekla Structures


Tekla Structures is a tool for structural engineers, detailers, and fabricators. It is an integrated model-based 3D solution for managing multi-material databases (steel, concrete, timber, etc.). Tekla Structures features interactive modeling, structural analysis and design, and automatic drawing creation. You can automatically produce drawings and reports from the 3D model, at any time. Drawings and reports react to modifications in the model, and are always up to date. Tekla Structures includes a wide range of standard drawing and report templates. You can also create your own templates using the Template Editor. Tekla Structures supports multiple users working on the same project. You and your partners can work together on the same model, at the same time, even in different locations. This increases accuracy and quality, because you always use the most up-to-date information.
See also

What is a 3D model (p. 59)

Main features
Tekla Structures includes the following features:

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21

Easy modeling of basic structures, such as beams, columns, and slabs. Useful modeling aids, such as 3D grids and an adjustable work area. Catalogs of available material grades, profiles, and bolts. Modeling tools to create complex structures, such as staircases and trusses. Intelligent connections, such as end plates and clip angles, to automatically connect main members. A custom component editor that you can use to create your own parametric connections, details, and parts. Links to transfer data between Tekla Structures and other software, such as AutoCAD, STAAD, and MicroStation. Drawing tools to create several drawings with one click. Data output for CNC machines. Capability to undo and redo changes you have made, so that you can test solutions, and revert to the original if needed. Tekla Structures is available in a wide range of languages, and adapted to local standards and requirements.

Configurations
Tekla Structures is available in different configurations to suit the various players in the construction industry:

When you log in to Tekla Structures, select the configuration you want to use.
See also

For details of what each configuration contains, see Tekla Structures configurations

Roles
In some environments, when you start Tekla Structures 15.0, you can select a role you want to use. The user interface has been customized for each role. The list of roles may be different in each environment, but typically the following roles are available:

All Contractor Engineer Multimaterial Detailer Precast Concrete Detailer Steel Detailer

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All is a combination of all roles. Multimaterial Detailer combines the roles of Precast Concrete Detailer and Steel Detailer. See also

Starting Tekla Structures (p. 25)

Languages
When you install Tekla Structures, you can choose the languages you want to use. The default language for the user interface is the language in which in which you installed Tekla Structures. Tekla Structures 15.0 software is available in the following languages:


See also

Chinese simplified (chs) Chinese traditional (cht) Czech (csy) Dutch (nld) English (enu) French (fra) German (deu) Hungarian (hun) Italian (ita) Japanese (jpn) Polish (plk) Portuguese (ptg) Portuguese Brazilian (ptb) Russian (rus) Spanish (esp)

Some language-dependent file and folder names include the abbreviations listed above. Changing the language of the user interface (p. 25)

Environments
The environment means region-specific settings and information. It defines which profiles, material grades, default values, connections, wizards, variables, reports, and templates you use. When you install Tekla Structures, you can choose the environments you want to use. The environments available in Tekla Structures 15.0 are:

Default environment Australasia Austria Brazil China Czech Finland France Germany Greece Hungary

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India Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Russia South Africa South America South-East Asia Spain Sweden Switzerland (French) Switzerland (German) Switzerland (Italian) Taiwan United Kingdom United States (Imperial) United States (Metric)

Single-user mode vs multi-user mode


Tekla Structures can be used in either single-user or multi-user mode. When one user at a time is to work with a model, Tekla Structures should be run in single-user mode. In single-user mode, only one user can work with each model at any time. If several users will work with a model simultaneously, you can choose to run Tekla Structures in multi-user mode. We recommend that you only run Tekla Structures in multi-user mode if the users will make use of the additional features of multi-user mode. To run Tekla Structures in multi-user mode, one machine in the network has to be set up as a server running the Tekla Structures server program.
See also

Multi-user mode

1.2 Interface overview


This section provides an overview of the Tekla Structures user interface and its basic features.
See also

Tekla Structures editors (p. 25) Toolbars (p. 26) Mini Toolbar (p. 27) Dialog boxes (p. 28) Tooltips (p. 32)

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Status bar (p. 33) Warning messages (p. 34)

Starting Tekla Structures


Once you have installed Tekla Structures you are ready to start using it. To start Tekla Structures: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Windows Start button. Click All Programs. Go to the Tekla Structures 15.0 menu item and click the Tekla Structures 15.0 icon. Wait for the login dialog box to appear. Select the environment, role, and license you want to use. Click OK.

Exiting Tekla Structures


To exit Tekla Structures, do one of the following: Click the Close button Click File > Exit. A confirmation dialog box appears and you can choose whether or not to save the model. in the upper-right corner of the Tekla Structures window.

Changing the language of the user interface


You can change the language of the Tekla Structures user interface at any time. The languages you can switch between are the languages you chose when you installed Tekla Structures. To change the language of the user interface: 1. 2. 3. 4.
See also

Click Tools > Change Language... Select a language from the Language list box. Click OK. Restart Tekla Structures for the change to take effect.

Languages (p. 23)

Tekla Structures editors


Tekla Structures includes the following editors:

Model Editor The Model Editor is the main and starting mode of Tekla Structures. You create and analyze models, and initiate drawing and report creation using the Model Editor.

Drawing Editor In the Drawing Editor, you work with drawings. Tekla Structures opens the Drawing Editor when you open any drawing.

Custom Component Editor

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In the Custom Component Editor, you can create your own connections, details, and parts, and define their properties. You can build in dependencies between objects to make custom components parametric and have them adapt to changes in the model. To open the Custom Component Editor, select a component and click Detailing > Edit custom component.

Symbol Editor In the Symbol Editor (SymEd), you can create and modify symbols used in drawings, reports, and templates. To open the Symbol Editor, click Tools > Symbols... in the Model or Drawing Editor.

Template Editor Use the Template Editor (TplEd) to create and modify templates used in drawings and reports. To open the Template Editor, click Tools > Templates... in the Model or Drawing Editor.

Toolbars
The toolbars contain buttons that give easy access to some of the most frequently-used commands. For example, the General toolbar contains basic commands for creating, opening and saving a model, printing, creating reports, creating views, copying and moving objects, and so on.

To show or hide a toolbar, click Tools > Toolbars and click the toolbar name. Visible toolbars have a check mark beside their name.

See also

Creating a user-defined toolbar

Moving a toolbar
Toolbars can either be floating or docked, i.e. located at the edge of the program window. To move a toolbar, do any of the following:

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To Move a toolbar

Do this Click the handle on the left or upper edge of a docked toolbar (or the title bar of a floating toolbar), and drag the toolbar to a new location. Hold down the Ctrl key while dragging the toolbar. The toolbar remains floating. Hold the mouse pointer over an edge of the toolbar until the pointer changes into a double-ended arrow, and then drag the edge of the toolbar.

Drag a toolbar beyond the program window Resize a floating toolbar

See also

Toolbars (p. 26)

Mini Toolbar
The Mini Toolbar appears next to the mouse pointer when you select an object in a model. The Mini Toolbar contains commands for modifying the most common object properties. You can customize the toolbar by hiding commands, and adding macros and user-defined attributes.

To show or hide the Mini Toolbar, click Tools > Options > Mini Toolbar.
See also

Customizing Mini Toolbar (p. 27)

Customizing Mini Toolbar


You can customize the Mini Toolbar by selecting which commands are visible, and by adding macros and user-defined attributes to the toolbar. To customize the Mini Toolbar: 1. 2. 3. Select an object and move the mouse pointer on the Mini Toolbar. Click to open the Customize Mini Toolbar dialog box.

Select the elements you wish to show or hide. The Preview field shows what the toolbar will look like.

4.

Include macros and user-defined attributes in the Mini Toolbar. a Select a macro or user-defined attribute in the list of macros and user-defined attributes. b Click Add to Mini Toolbar after each selected macro and user-defined attribute. The added macros and user-defined attributes are shown in the list of visible elements. c To remove macros and user-defined attributes from the Mini Toolbar, unselect them in the list of visible elements.

5.
See also

Click OK.

Mini Toolbar (p. 27) Changing user-defined fields

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Dialog boxes
You can use dialog boxes to modify object properties. If you click any command or a button that has three dots in its name, for example Select..., Tekla Structures displays the appropriate dialog box. The following image illustrates the most common elements in dialog boxes:

List box for saved properties Tabs Modify filter check boxes Retains the properties and closes the dialog box Retains the properties without closing the dialog box

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Modifies the selected objects without retaining the properties Fills the dialog box with the properties of the selected object Toggles all the modify filter check boxes on and off Closes the dialog box without retaining the properties or modifying the objects Buttons Fields

Dialog box elements


Dialog boxes may have the following elements:

Element Button Field

Example

Description Click the button to run a command immediately. Use to display, enter, and modify information. Click the field to activate it. An I-shaped blinking cursor appears at the beginning of the field and marks your typing position. Related settings that allow only one selection at a time. To select an option, click the appropriate button. A collection of options in a list. To select an option, point to the list you want to display, click, drag the pointer to highlight the desired option, and then single-click. Settings that can be set in any combination are usually displayed as small square buttons.

Radio button

List box

Check box

Modify filter check box

The check boxes located in front of the dialog box fields indicate the properties that are modified when you click the Modify button. When a check box is selected, Tekla Structures changes only the corresponding value of the selected objects.

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Element Filter

Example

Description Use to filter object names. Enter characters from the name of the object you are looking for, and then click the Filter button to find the matching names. A list of options. The list can have both horizontal and vertical scrollbars for scrolling the visible portion of the list items. When you select a list item, it is highlighted. There are two ways to select an item on the list:

Multiple selection list

Point to the item you want to select and click. Use the Down and Up arrow keys to move the highlight to the item you want to select, and press Enter.

Common buttons
Most of the Tekla Structures dialog boxes contain common buttons. These buttons mean the same thing in all dialog boxes. The common buttons are:

Button

Description Retains the properties in the dialog box without closing the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next time you create an object of this type. Closes the dialog box without retaining the properties in the dialog box or modifying objects. Creates a new object using the properties in the dialog box. Fills the dialog box with the properties of the selected object. When you select several objects, Tekla Structures takes the properties at random from one of the selected objects. Displays the help topics for the dialog box. Modifies the selected objects using the properties in the dialog box, but does not retain the properties in the dialog box. Retains the properties in the dialog box and closes the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next time you create an object of this type. Toggles all the modify filter check boxes in the dialog box on and off.

See also

Dialog box elements (p. 29)

Tabs
Information in some Tekla Structures dialog boxes has been divided up on several tabs. This makes the dialog boxes easier to use. Moving from tab to tab does not affect the information they contain.

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The common buttons located at the top and bottom of a dialog box affect all the tabs in the dialog box. For example, when you click Save before closing the dialog box, Tekla Structures saves all information on all tabs to the designated file.

Press Ctrl+Tab to switch between tabs.

See also

Common buttons (p. 30)

Save, Load, Save as


Many Tekla Structures dialog boxes have the Save, Load, and Save as buttons. You can use these buttons to save the information from the dialog box to a file, and reload it later from the file.

Button
Save as

Description Stores the dialog box properties with the name given in the field. The Save as button also updates the Load list box. This is important if you add or delete files manually. Tekla Structures stores the properties files in the model folder. The files also include the properties in subdialog boxes. The file extensions are different for different dialog boxes. For more information, see File extensions.

Load

Loads all previously stored properties to the dialog box. Tekla Structures also loads the properties of subdialog boxes, even if they are not open. You can select the name of the file you want to use from the list box. Stores the modifications of properties. Tekla Structures saves the properties in the file shown in the list box.

Save

See also

Saving dialog box properties (p. 31) Loading dialog box properties (p. 32)

Saving dialog box properties


To save the properties of a dialog box: 1. 2. 3. In the dialog box, enter the properties you want to save. In the field next to the Save as button, enter a name for the set of properties. Click Save as.

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To overwrite an existing set of properties, click Save. Tekla Structures saves the properties in the file shown in the list box.

See also

Loading dialog box properties (p. 32) Save, Load, Save as (p. 31)

Loading dialog box properties


To load a previously stored set of properties to the dialog box: 1. 2.
See also

In the list box next to the Load button, select the set of properties you want to load. Click Load.

Saving dialog box properties (p. 31) Save, Load, Save as (p. 31)

Tooltips
When you move the mouse pointer over an icon, a tooltip appears. Tekla Structures contains three types of tooltips:
Basic tooltips

Basic tooltips only display the name of the command. If the enhanced tooltips are switched on, the basic tooltips are not displayed.

Enhanced tooltips

Enhanced tooltips give more information about the command and how it can be executed. They also give examples, hints and tips. The enhanced tooltips are switched on by default. On the basis of the information in the enhanced tooltip you are able to decide whether the command is the one that you need for your current task. You can also open the related online help topic by clicking the More... button. To show or hide the enhanced tooltips, click Tools > Options > Enhanced Tooltips.

Menu tooltips

Menu tooltips provide the same functionality as the enhanced tooltips, but for menu commands. The menu tooltips are displayed in a separate window, which you can drag and drop to any position on the screen. To display the corresponding menu tooltip, move the mouse pointer over a menu command.

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To show or hide the menu tooltips window, click Tools > Options > Menu Tooltips.

Status bar
Tekla Structures displays instructions and messages on the status bar located at the bottom of the Tekla Structures window. Follow the instructions on the status bar when you use commands. For example, when you are creating a beam, always check the status bar as Tekla Structures will prompt you on how to continue.

The status bar also displays the following information:

The status of Xsnap (T), SmartSelect (S), and Drag and drop (D) The level in assembly or component hierarchy (09) The middle mouse button mode (Pan or Scroll) The current phase The number of selected objects and handles Error messages

To view the status bar message history, click Tools > Toolbars > Message Panel. A message panel appears at the bottom of the Tekla Structures window.

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Warning messages
Tekla Structures displays warning messages when necessary, for example when you are about to copy or move objects outside the work area.

To prevent Tekla Structures from displaying the warning messages again, select the Do not show this message again check box. To re-display the warning messages, press Shift when the warning message should appear, for example when you are copying or moving objects outside the work area, and Tekla Structures displays the warning message again.

1.3 Using commands


This section explains how to run, repeat, and end commands. You can use some Tekla Structures commands simultaneously. This means that you can use these commands while another command is still running. For example, you can use the Zoom commands while creating objects. To get more information about a command and how it can be executed, use the enhanced tooltips and menu tooltips, and follow the instructions on the status bar.

Running a command
To run a command in Tekla Structures, do one of the following: Click the toolbar button of the command you want to run. For example, click to create bolts.

Click a menu title and then select the command. For example, click Detailing > Bolts > Create Bolts.

Click the right mouse button to open a pop-up menu, and then select a command. When you select an object, the commands on the pop-up menu relate to that object.

The command runs until you end it or use another command.


See also

Repeating a command (p. 34) Ending a command (p. 35)

Repeating a command
To repeat the last command, do one of the following:


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Click Edit > Repeat Last Command. Press Enter.

See also

Running a command (p. 34)

Ending a command
To cancel or end a command, do one of the following:


See also

Click Edit > Interrupt. Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu. Press Esc.

Running a command (p. 34)

1.4 Creating and modifying objects


This section explains how to create and modify objects in Tekla Structures. As you become familiar with Tekla Structures, you will find that there are several ways to create and modify objects. This section introduces most of the ways. Later in this manual, we refer to this section or present only the ways most useful for a first-time user. After some practice, you may choose a different way.

Setting object properties


To set the properties of an object: 1. Open the object properties dialog box.

To display the properties of an existing object, double-click the object or use the Mini Toolbar. To display the current properties of the object type, double-click a toolbar button, or hold down Shift and select a menu command. For example, to display the beam properties, double-click Shift and click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Beam. , or hold down

2. 3.
See also

Modify the properties. Click Apply or OK.

Part properties (p. 247) Mini Toolbar (p. 27)

Creating an object
To create an object: 1. Optional: Modify the object properties. If you do not modify the properties, Tekla Structures creates the object using the current properties of the object type. 2. 3. Click a toolbar button or a menu command. Pick points to place the object in the model.

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To create several objects with the same properties, pick multiple points. The command runs until you end it or use another command.

When you create a new model object and pick the starting point for it, Tekla Structures displays the dimensions and dimension lines for the object. The displayed dimensions make it easier to create objects of desired lenght.
See also

Setting object properties (p. 35)

Modifying an object
To modify an object: 1. 2. Select the objects you want to modify. Open the object properties dialog box. For example, double-click a part to display the current properties of the object type. 3. Modify the properties.

Use the modify filter check boxes to indicate which properties should be changed.

4.
See also

Click Modify.

Setting object properties (p. 35)

Deleting an object
To delete an object: 1. 2. Select the object you want to delete. Do one of the following:

Click Edit > Delete. Right-click and select Delete from the pop-up menu.. Press Delete.

1.5 Selecting objects


You need to select objects to carry out many Tekla Structures commands. You can select objects as a sequence of single selections and/or area selections. Tekla Structures highlights the selected objects. The number of selected objects and handles is displayed in the bottom right corner of the status bar. For example: Also dimensions and dimension lines are displayed when you select a column or a beam.

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To show or hide the dimensions, click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Model View, and set the variable XS_DISPLAY_DIMENSIONS_WHEN_SELECTING_OBJECTS to TRUE or FALSE.

Switching rollover highlight on or off


When you move the mouse pointer over objects in rendered model views, Tekla Structures highlights the objects in yellow, so that you can easily see which objects you can select.

To switch rollover highlight on or off, do one of the following: Press H. Click Tools > Options > Rollover Highlight.

Selection switches
The selection switches are special commands that control the selection of objects. Use the selection switches to define which object types can be selected. For example, if only the Select welds switch is active, Tekla Structures only selects welds, even if you select the entire model area.

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Selection filter settings also affect which objects you can select.

Model Editor selection switches


The main selection switches control whether you can select objects in a component or assembly hierarchy. These switches have the highest priority.

The other selection switches control which object types can be selected. For example, you might decide to select only bolts.

For more information on how to use each switch, see the corresponding enhanced tooltip.

Drawing Editor selection switches


The selection switches control which object types can be selected. The selection switches in the Drawing Editor work in the same way as the ones in the Model Editor, but the actual switches differ. The following selection switches are available in the Drawing Editor:

For more information on how to use each switch, see the corresponding enhanced tooltip.

Selecting single objects


To select a single object, do one of the following: To select an object, click it with the left mouse button. To select an object and open its pop-up menu, click the object with the right mouse button.

You can select objects with the right mouse button only if you have switched on the following options on the Tools > Options menu:

Select on Right-Click Rollover Highlight

Selecting multiple objects


To select multiple objects (area selection), do one of the following: Hold down the mouse button and drag the mouse from left to right to select the objects that are completely within that rectangular area.

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Hold down the mouse button and drag the mouse from right to left to select the objects that are completely or partly within that rectangular area.

To define how area selection works, click Tools > Options > Crossing Selection. When the option is off, the dragging direction affects the selection of objects, as described above. By default, the option is off. When the option is on, all objects that fall at least partially inside the rectangular area are selected, regardless of the dragging direction.

Selecting handles
To select only the handles of a part: 1. Drag the mouse from left to right to select the part.

2.

Hold down the Alt key and drag the mouse from left to right to select the part again.

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See also

Part position (p. 101)

Selecting assemblies and cast units


To select an assembly or cast unit: 1. 2.
See also

Hold down the Alt key. Select a part. Tekla Structures selects the entire cast unit or assembly that contains the part.

Assemblies (p. 113) Cast units (p. 122)

Selecting nested assemblies and components


The active select switch defines on which level you start and toward which direction you move in the component or assembly hierarchy. The status bar shows the steps you take in the hierarchy. To select and examine nested assemblies or components: 1. 2. Hold down the Shift key. Scroll with the mouse wheel. An orange box indicates the assembly or component that you can select.

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Example

If the Select assemblies switch is active, you can select objects in the assembly hierarchy, starting from the assemblies on the highest level, move to their sub-assemblies, and finally select single parts, bolts, and so on.

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If the Select objects in assemblies switch is active, you start selecting from single objects and move to bigger and bigger nested assemblies.
See also

Assembly hierarchy (p. 114)

Modifying the selection


To modify the current selection, do any of the following:

To Add objects to the current selection Toggle the selection of an object on or off

Do this Press the Shift key and select the objects. Press the Ctrl key during the selection. Tekla Structures deselects the objects that were already selected and selects those that were previously not selected.

Interrupting object selection


This section is for advanced users.

You can have Tekla Structures interrupt the object selection process if the selection takes over a defined period of time. For example, if you are working on a large model and you accidentally select all or part of the model, you can interrupt the selection if it takes over 5000 milliseconds (5 seconds) to complete. To interrupt object selection: 1. Optional: Define the time after which Tekla Structures asks if you want to interrupt object selection. a Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Modeling Properties. b Modify the variable XS_OBJECT_SELECTION_CONFIRMATION. The default value is 5000 milliseconds. c 2. 3.
See also

Click OK.

Select all or part of the model. When Tekla Structures asks if you want to interrupt object selection, click Cancel.

XS_OBJECT_SELECTION_CONFIRMATION

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1.6 Copying and moving objects


You can copy and move objects linearly, with rotation, and with mirroring. Copying creates a new object, leaving the existing object in its original position. Moving relocates the existing object. If you copy or move objects from an assembly or cast unit, Tekla Structures copies the assembly structure as well, if possible. For example, sub-assemblies are copied as subassemblies if a parent object is found. If you copy or move reinforcements or surface treatments and want them to adapt to the part they are copied or moved to:


Limitations

The reinforcement or surface treatment handles must be in part corners. The parts between which you copy or move must have the same number of cross section corners. Circular parts must have the same cross section dimensions.

Tekla Structures cannot create mirrored copies of connection properties. The Copy Special > Mirror... command does not fully mirror objects if they include connections that contain, for example, asymmetrically positioned parts.

Duplicate objects
When you copy or move objects, Tekla Structures checks for duplicate objects in the location where you are about to copy or move the objects to. Tekla Structures also checks for duplicates if you create new parts in the same location as an existing part. Two objects are considered duplicates if they have the same orientation and the same size of bounding box. If duplicates are found, you can choose whether to keep or delete the duplicate objects. Use the variable XS_DUPLICATE_CHECK_LIMIT_FOR_COPY_AND_MOVE to define the maximum number of objects that can be counted as duplicates while copying or moving objects.
Limitations

Tekla Structures does not check for duplicates when you copy objects using a modeling tool, such as the Array of Objects (29) component.

Copying an object
To copy an object: 1. 2. 3. Select the object you want to copy. Click Edit > Copy, or right-click and select Copy from the pop-up menu. Pick the origin for copying.

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4.

Pick one or more destination points.

The objects are copied immediately. 5. 6. To undo the latest copy operation, click Edit > Undo. The Copy command still remains active. To stop copying, click Edit > Interrupt.

Tekla Structures copies all the objects that are connected to the object you copy. Tekla Structures also tries to copy connections. The connections must be surrounded by similar parts to be copied successfully.

Copying an object using coordinates


You can use coordinates when placing objects in a new position at a specified distance from the origin. Use the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box to specify the coordinates. To copy an object to a new position using coordinates: 1. 2. Ensure that Xsnap is switched on. Select the objects you want to copy.

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3. 4. 5. 6.

Click Edit > Copy. Pick the origin for copying. Move the cursor in the direction you want to copy the objects, but do not pick the point. Type the distance. When you start typing, Tekla Structures displays the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box automatically.

7.
See also

Click OK.

Snapping to a position using coordinates (p. 56) Switching Xsnap on or off (p. 53)

Copying an object linearly to a new position


Use the Copy Special > Linear... command to create multiple copies of an object in the same linear direction. To copy an object linearly to a new position: 1. 2. 3. Select the objects you want to copy. Click Edit > Copy Special > Linear.... Pick two points in the model, or enter the coordinates in the dX, dY, and dZ fields. You can also use a formula to calculate the x, y, and z displacements. For example:

4. 5.

Enter the number of copies. Click Copy.

If the dialog box is open but the command is not active anymore, click the Pick button to re-activate the command.

Copying an object using drag-and-drop


To copy an object using drag-and-drop: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Options > Drag and Drop to activate the command. Select the objects you want to copy. Hold down the Ctrl key and the mouse button, and drag the objects to the new position.

Copying an object to another plane


You can copy objects from the first plane you specify to the second (and third, etc.) plane you specify. The position of the copied objects relative to the second (and third, etc.) plane remains the same as the position of the original objects relative to the first plane. To copy an object to another plane: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the objects you want to copy. Click Edit > Copy Special > To Another Plane. Pick the point of origin of the first plane. Pick a point on the first plane in the positive x direction.

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5. 6.

Pick a point on the first plane in the positive y direction. Repeat steps 35 for all destination planes.

Copying an object to another object


You can copy objects from an object to other similar objects. This is useful, for example, when you detail previously modeled parts. The objects that you can copy between can have different dimensions, length, and rotation. To copy an object to another object: 1. 2. 3. 4.
See also

Select the objects you want to copy. Right-click and select Copy Special > To Another Object from the pop-up menu. Select the object to copy from (source object). Select the objects to copy to (target object).

Copying and moving objects (p. 43)

Copying objects from another model


To copy objects from another model: 1. 2. 3. Click Edit > Copy Special > From Another Model.... Select the model to copy from in the Model directories list. Enter the numbers of the phases from which to copy objects, separated by spaces. For example, 2 7. 4. 5.
Limitations

Click Copy. Close the dialog box.

You cannot import drawings with the model. Tekla Structures only copies secondary parts from the model if they belong to the same phase as their main part. This applies to both model and component parts.

See also

Phases (p. 211)

Moving an object
To move an object: 1. 2. 3. Select the object you want to move. Click Edit > Move, or right-click and select Move from the pop-up menu. Pick the origin for moving.

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4.

Pick a destination point.

The object is moved immediately. The Move command does not remain active.

Tekla Structures also moves the objects that are connected to the object you move. For example, if you move points, Tekla Structures also moves the parts or assemblies that use those points.

Moving an object using coordinates


You can use coordinates when placing objects in a new position at a specified distance from the origin. Use the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box to specify the coordinates. To move an object to a new position using coordinates: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure that Xsnap is switched on. Select the objects you want to move. Click Edit > Move. Pick the origin for moving. Move the cursor in the direction you want to move the objects, but do not pick the point.

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47

6.

Type the distance. When you start typing, Tekla Structures displays the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box automatically.

7.
See also

Click OK.

Snapping to a position using coordinates (p. 56) Switching Xsnap on or off (p. 53)

Moving an object linearly to a new position


To move an object linearly to a new position: 1. 2. 3. Select the objects you want to move. Click Edit > Move Special > Linear.... Pick two points in the model, or enter the coordinates in the dX, dY, and dZ fields.. You can also use a formula to calculate the x, y, and z displacements. For example:

4.

Click Move.

If the dialog box is open but the command is not active anymore, click the Pick button to re-activate the command.

Moving an object using drag-and-drop


To move an object using drag-and-drop: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Options > Drag and Drop to activate the command. Select the objects you want to move. Do one of the following:

To move the objects, hold down the mouse button and drag the objects to the new position. To move the end of an object, select the handle, hold down the mouse button, and drag the handle to the new position.

Moving an object to another plane


You can move objects from the first plane you specify to another plane, which you specify by picking three points. The moved objects remain in the same position on the second plane as the original objects on the first plane. To move an object to another plane: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the objects you want to move. Click Edit > Move Special > To Another Plane. Pick the point of origin of the first plane. Pick a point on the first plane in the positive x direction. Pick a point on the first plane in the positive y direction. Repeat steps 35 for the destination plane.

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Moving an object to another object


You can move objects from an object to other, similar objects. This is useful, for example, when you detail previously modeled parts. The objects that you move between can have different dimensions, length, and rotation. To move an object to another object: 1. 2. 3. 4.
See also

Select the objects you want to move. Right-click and select Move Special > To Another Object from the pop-up menu. Select the object to move from (source object). Select the objects to move to (target object).

Copying and moving objects (p. 43)

Rotating objects
When you copy or move an object, you can rotate it around a given line, either on the work plane, or in the work plane z direction. Positive rotation is according to the right hand rule (clockwise when looking from the starting point of the rotation axis).
See also

Rotating an object on the work plane (p. 49) Rotating an object in the z direction (p. 49)

Rotating an object on the work plane


To rotate an object around a line on the work plane: 1. 2. Select the objects you want to copy or move. Activate the rotation command.


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
See also

To copy and rotate the objects, click Edit > Copy Special > Rotate... To move and rotate the objects, click Edit > Move Special > Rotate...

Select line in the Around list box. Pick the starting point of the rotation axis, or enter its coordinates. Pick the end point of the rotation axis, or enter its coordinates. Enter the number of copies. Optional: Enter the dZ value, which is the difference in position between the original and copied object in the z direction. Enter the rotation angle. Click Copy or Move.

Rotation settings (p. 242)

Rotating an object in the z direction


To rotate an object around a line in the work plane z direction: 1. 2. Select the objects you want to copy or move. Activate the rotation command.


3. 4.

To copy and rotate the objects, click Edit > Copy Special > Rotate... To move and rotate the objects, click Edit > Move Special > Rotate...

Select Z in the Around list box. Pick a point, or enter the coordinates of the rotation axis.

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49

5. 6. 7. 8.
See also

Enter the number of copies. Optional: Enter the dZ value, which is the difference in position between the original and copied object in the z direction.. Enter the rotation angle. Click Copy or Move.

Rotation settings (p. 242)

Mirroring an object
When you copy or move an object, you can mirror it through a plane that is perpendicular to the work plane and passes through a line you specify. To mirror an object: 1. 2. Select the objects you want to copy or move. Activate the mirroring command.


3. 4. 5.

To copy and mirror the objects, click Edit > Copy Special > Mirror... To move and mirror the objects, click Edit > Move Special > Mirror...

Pick the starting point of the mirroring plane, or enter its coordinates and angle. Pick the end point of the mirroring plane, or enter its coordinates and angle. Click Copy or Move.

1.7 Snapping to positions


Most Tekla Structures commands ask you to pick points to position objects in a model. Snap priority, snap switches, and snap depth all affect picking. When you move the mouse pointer over objects, Tekla Structures displays snap symbols for the available snap points. Tekla Structures also displays snap dimensions, which means you can easily create objects of a desired length.

See also

XS_DISPLAY_DIMENSIONS_WHEN_CREATING_OBJECTS

Snap zone
Each object has a snap zone. It defines how close you need to pick to hit a position. When you pick within the snap zone of an object, Tekla Structures automatically snaps to the closest pickable point on that object.

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You can set the snap zone using the variable XS_PIXEL_TOLERANCE. Enter the snap zone dimension in pixels.

Snap depth
The first list box on the Snapping toolbar defines the depth of each position you pick. The following options are available:

Plane

You can snap to positions either on the view plane or the work plane, depending on what you have selected in the second list box on the Snapping toolbar.

3D

You can snap to positions in the entire 3D space.


Auto

In perspective views, this option works like the 3D option. In non-perspective views, it works like the Plane option.
See also

View planes (p. 79) Work plane (p. 70)

Snap switches
Snap switches specify exact locations on objects, for example, end points, midpoints, and intersections. Snap switches help you to pick points to position objects precisely without having to know the coordinates or create additional lines or points. You can use snap switches any time Tekla Structures prompts you to specify a point, for example, if you are creating a beam. Snap switches also define the snap priority of positions. If you pick and hit several positions simultaneously, Tekla Structures snaps to the position with the highest snap priority. To control which positions you can pick, use the snap switches.

If there is more than one point available to snap to, press the Tab key to cycle forward through the snap points, and Shift+Tab to cycle backwards through them. Click the left mouse button to select the appropriate point.

Main snap switches


The two main snap switches illustrated in the following table define whether you can snap to reference points or any other points on objects, for example part corners. These switches have the highest priority. If both these switches are off, you cannot snap to any positions, even if all the other switches are on.

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Button

Snap positions Reference lines and points

Description You can snap to object reference points (points that have handles).

Symbol Large

Geometry lines and points

You can snap to any points on objects.

Small

Other snap switches


The following table lists the remaining snap switches. You can have Tekla Structures display the snap symbols in the model when you move the mouse pointer over objects. The snap symbol is green for objects inside components, and yellow for model objects.

Button

Snap positions Points

Description Snaps to points and grid line intersections. Snaps to end points of lines, polyline segments, and arcs. Snaps to centers of circles and arcs. Snaps to midpoints of lines, polyline segments, and arcs. Snaps to intersections of lines, polyline segments, arcs, and circles. Snaps to points on objects that form a perpendicular alignment with another object.

Symbol

End points

Centers

Midpoints

Intersections

Perpendicular

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Button

Snap positions Nearest point

Description Snaps to the nearest points on objects, e.g. any point on part edges or lines. Snaps to the line extensions of nearby objects. Snaps to any position.

Symbol

Line extensions

Free

To show or hide the snap symbols, click Tools > Options > Options... > Mouse settings, and select or clear the Display snap symbol check box.

Overriding the current snap switch


To temporarily override the current snap switch settings, do one of the following: Right-click and select the appropriate snap option from the pop-up menu. Click a button on the Snap Override toolbar.

To show or hide the Snap Override toolbar, click Tools > Toolbars > Snap Override.

Switching Xsnap on or off


To make it easier to snap to points and position, you can have Tekla Structures display visual cues when you snap to positions. To switch Xsnap on or off:

Click Tools > Options > Xsnap. The cursor turns into a green cross. When you move the mouse pointer over objects, you can see it snap to positions.

Snapping in orthogonal directions


When you use the Ortho tool for snapping, the mouse pointer locks to the closest orthogonal point on the plane (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees, and so on). The mouse pointer automatically snaps to positions at even distances in the given direction. The snapping precision depends on the current zoom level. To snap to a position in an orthogonal direction: 1. 2. Press O or click Tools > Ortho to activate orthogonal snapping. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. For example, create a beam. Tekla Structures displays an angle symbol to indicate the direction of snapping.

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Snapping to part extension lines


You can snap to the extension lines of nearby objects. This can be useful, for example, when you want to align objects with one another. When snapping in orthogonal directions, the mouse pointer automatically snaps to positions at even distances in the given direction. The snapping precision depends on the current zoom level. To snap to the extension line of another object: 1. 2. Ensure that the Snap to line extensions snap switch is active.

Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. For example, create a beam. Tekla Structures displays line extensions in blue color. For example:

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Creating a temporary reference point


You can create a temporary reference point to use as a local origin when snapping in models or drawings. Temporary reference points can be used in combination with other snapping tools, such as snap switches and orthogonal snapping. To create a temporary reference point: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Ortho to activate orthogonal snapping. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. For example, create a beam. Pick the starting point. Hold down the Ctrl key and pick a position. A green cross indicates that this position is now a temporary reference point.

5. 6.

Repeat step 4 to create as many reference points as needed. Release the Ctrl key and pick the end point. Tekla Structures creates the part between the starting point and the end point.

Locking a coordinate
You can lock the x, y, and z coordinates on a line. This is useful when you need to determine a point to pick and the needed point does not exist on the line. When a coordinate is locked, you can snap to points only in that direction. To lock the pointer in the x direction: 1. 2. 3. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. For example, create a beam. To lock the x coordinate, press X. You can snap to points only in the x direction. To unlock the coordinate, press X again.

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Snapping to a position using coordinates


You can use coordinates when snapping to a position. Use the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box to specify the coordinates. To snap to a position using coordinates: 1. 2. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. For example, create a beam. Do one of the following:

Click Tools > Enter a Numeric Location and select an option. Start entering the coordinates using the keyboard. When you start typing, Tekla Structures displays the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box automatically.

The negative sign (-) does not cause the dialog box to open.

3.
See also

After entering the coordinates, press Enter or click OK to snap to the position.

Coordinate input options (p. 57) Copying an object using coordinates (p. 44) Moving an object using coordinates (p. 47)

Tracking
Tracking means that you follow a line and pick a point at a specified distance along the line. You usually use tracking in combination with numeric coordinates and other snapping tools, such as snap switches and orthogonal snapping. When you have snap switches on and you use a command that requires you to pick positions, the mouse pointer locks onto a snap point. Tekla Structures displays a green line between the last point picked and the snap point.

You can track along the line towards a snap point, and use the Enter a Numeric Location dialog box to specify the distance from the last point picked.
Tracking along a line

In the illustration below, we snapped to a grid line midpoint and tracked along the tentative line for 1000 units when creating a beam.

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Tracking beyond the snap point

You can also track beyond the snap point, for example, 4000 units from the last point picked.

Tracking in the opposite direction

Track in the opposite direction by entering a negative value, for example, -1000.

Coordinate input options


The table below explains the types of information you can enter in the Enter a Numeric
Location dialog box.

Tekla Structures has two snapping modes, relative and absolute. Use the variable XS_KEYIN_DEFAULT_MODE to indicate the default snapping mode.

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57

You can enter One coordinate Two coordinates Three coordinates

Description A distance to an indicated direction. If you omit the last coordinate (z) or angle, Tekla Structures assumes that the value is 0. In drawings, Tekla Structures ignores the third coordinate.

Special character

Cartesian coordinates

The x, y, and z coordinates of a position separated by commas. For example, 100,-50,200.

, (comma)

Polar coordinates

A distance, an angle on the xy plane, and an angle from the xy plane separated by angle brackets. For example, 1000<90<45. Angles increase in the counterclockwise direction.

<

Absolute coordinates

The coordinates based on the origin of the work plane.

Define the character with the variable XS_KEYIN_ABSO LUTE_PREFIX Define the character with the variable XS_KEYIN_RELA TIVE_PREFIX

Relative coordinates

The coordinates relative to the last position picked. For example, @1000,500 or @500<30.

See also

Snapping to a position using coordinates (p. 56) XS_KEYIN_DEFAULT_MODE

Defining a snap grid


Use a snap grid when you pick points using the Snap to any position To define a snap grid: 1. 2. Click Tools > Options > Options... > Mouse settings. Define the grid spacing intervals in the Spacing fields. For example, if the spacing of the x coordinate is 500, you are able to snap to positions at intervals of 500 units in the x direction. 3. 4. Optional: Define offsets for the snap grid origin in the Origin fields. To activate the snap grid, select the Activate snap grid when free snap is on check box. snap switch.

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Setting up the Workspace

This section explains how to set up the workspace so that you can start modeling. It also presents some basic Tekla Structures vocabulary and concepts that are needed when working with 3D models.
Contents

Creating 3D models (p. 59) Screen layout (p. 65) Work area (p. 68) Work plane (p. 70) Coordinate system (p. 71) Grids (p. 72) Views (p. 76) Construction objects (p. 84) Points (p. 85) Reference models (p. 87)

2.1 Creating 3D models


This section explains how to open, create, and save models in Tekla Structures.
See also

Creating a new model (p. 60) Opening a model (p. 62) Saving a model (p. 63)

What is a 3D model
Using Tekla Structures, you can create a real-life model of any structure. The 3D model contains all the information that is needed to manufacture and construct the structure, including:

Geometry and dimensions

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59

Profiles and cross sections Connection types Materials

The 3D model is the single source of information for drawings and other outputs, such as reports and NC data files. This ensures that the information in drawings and reports is always up to date, as they react to modifications in the model.

Creating a new model


You need to create a model for each Tekla Structures project. This model contains all the information about the project. Each model is stored in its own folder in the TeklaStructuresModels folder. To create a new model: 1. Click File > New... or .

You can only have one model open at a time. If you already have a model open, Tekla Structures prompts you to save that model. 2. Define where to save the new model.


3.

To select a folder, click Browse. To save the model in a recently used model folder, use the Save in list box. To define the location manually, type the path in the Save in field, followed by the \ character. Do not enter the model name in this field.

Type a unique name in the Model name field. Do not use special characters (/ \ ; : | ).

4. 5.

Optional: In the Model template list box, select the template you want to use. In the Model type list box, define whether the model may be used by one person or shared by many.


6.

Single-user: model will be used by one person. Multi-user: model is stored on a server and may be used by several people. Also enter the name of the server in the Server field.

Click OK.

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Tekla Structures creates the model and opens the default model view.

Updating project information


You will use project information, such as the project number and name, many times during a project. Update the project information at the beginning of the project to make reports and drawings display the correct information automatically. To update the project information: 1. Click File > Project Properties.... The Project Properties dialog box appears. It contains some sample entries, which you can overwrite. 2. 3. Enter the project information you want to use. All the fields are optional. In the Description field, enter a description that helps you identify the model when you next need to open it. The description appears in the Open dialog box. 4. 5. Optional: To define user-defined attributes, click User-defined attributes.... Click OK to save your changes. You can now use the project properties in drawings and reports. 6. To save the project properties as the default properties for this project, click Tools > Defaults > Save Defaults..

The names in the image below refer to template fields, which you can use when designing your own reports and templates.

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PROJECT_NUMBER PROJECT_NAME BUILDER PROJECT_OBJECT ADDRESS DESIGNER START_DATE END_DATE INFO1 INFO2

Opening a model
To open a Tekla Structures model: 1. Click File > Open... or .

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You can only have one model open at a time. If you already have a model open, Tekla Structures prompts you to save that model. 2. In the Open dialog box, select the model.


3.

To open a recently used model, use the Model name list box. To open a recently used model folder, use the Look in list box. To search for models in another folder, click Browse...

Click OK to open the model. If no views are visible after you have opened a model, Tekla Structures prompts you to select one.

You can sort models by clicking the column titles. When the models are sorted alphabetically by their names, you can use the keyboard to select models. For example, when you type N, Tekla Structures selects the first model starting with an N.

Saving a model
To save a model, do one of the following: Click .

Click File > Save.

Tekla Structures automatically saves the model at set intervals. For more information on setting the interval, see Autosave.

See also

Saving a model with a different name or location (p. 63) Saving in multi-user mode

Saving a model with a different name or location


To save a copy of a model under a different name or in a different location: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click File > Save As... In the Save as dialog box, browse to the folder where you want to save the model. In the Model name field, type a new name. Click OK. Tekla Structures creates a new copy with a different name, but the original version of the model remains intact.

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63

Model templates
This section is for advanced users.

You can save the desired settings in a model and use that model as a template when you create new models. The location of model templates is defined by the variable XS_MODEL_TEMPLATE_DIRECTORY. For example, you can set this variable to point to the same location as the variable XS_FIRM. By default, the variable points to the folder ..\TeklaStructures\<version>\environments\default\model_templat es\. Any model under the defined folder will be available as a model template if the file TeklaStructuresModel.xml in the model folder contains the setting <IsTemplate>TRUE</IsTemplate>. The default value is FALSE.

Creating a model template


When you create a model template, always start by creating a new empty model. This is because old models cannot be completely cleaned and they might contain quite a lot of information even if you delete all objects from the model. To create a model template: 1. Create a new model and give it a unique name. For example, Steel framework. 2. 3. 4. Add the desired profiles, custom components, and so on, in the model. Save and close the model. Move the whole model folder in the location pointed by the variable
XS_MODEL_TEMPLATE_DIRECTORY.

By default, the variable points to the folder ..\TeklaStructures\<version>\environments\default\model_te mplates\. 5. In the new template model folder, open the TeklaStructuresModel.xml file using any standard text editor.

Do not edit the TeklaStructuresModels.xml file that is located in the TeklaStructuresModels folder or in the place pointed by the variable XS_RUNPATH.

6. 7.

Set the IsTemplate element to TRUE. Save the file.

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2.2 Screen layout


When you start Tekla Structures, a new window appears on the screen. Initially, most of the menu options and all the icons are gray indicating that they are inactive. When you open or create a model, the icons and available menu options will become active. The following illustration identifies the various areas of the Tekla Structures Model Editor window:

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65

Status bar displays instructions, and the status of some settings Snap settings control which points you can snap to and pick Select switches determine the selectable objects Pull-down menus contain all the commands Steel beams, columns, and plates Concrete footings, beams, and columns Commands for creating views Toolbars can be either docked or floating

Changing the background color


You can define the background color of model views using RGB values. You can control the color of each corner of the background separately. To change the background color in rendered views: 1. 2. Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Model View. Modify the background color using the following variables:

XS_BACKGROUND_COLOR1 XS_BACKGROUND_COLOR2 XS_BACKGROUND_COLOR3 XS_BACKGROUND_COLOR4

To use a single-colored background, set the same value for all four corners of the background. To use the default background color, leave the variable fields empty. 3.
See also

Close and reopen the view for the change to take effect.

Finding RGB values for colors (p. 264) Background color examples (p. 66)

Background color examples


Below are some examples of possible background colors that you can define. The first RGB value refers to the variable XS_BACKGROUND_COLOR1, the second value to the variable XS_BACKGROUND_COLOR2, and so on.

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RGB values
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Result

0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

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RGB values
0.3 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Result

0.0 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.8 0.7 0.0 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.8 0.7

See also

Changing the background color (p. 66) Finding RGB values for colors (p. 264)

2.3 Work area


Tekla Structures indicates the work area of a view using green, dashed lines.

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You can define the work area to suit particular situations, for example, to concentrate on a particular area of the model. Defining the work area makes it faster and easier to work with the model. Objects outside the work area still exist, but they are not visible.
See also

Defining the work area (p. 69)

Defining the work area


You can shrink and expand the work area by picking the corner points of the new work area, or size the work area to include selected parts, or all model objects. You can define the work area in a selected view, or in all visible views. To define the work area: 1. Select a command from View > Fit Work Area. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 2.
See also

Define the work area by following the instructions on the status bar.

Work area (p. 68)

Hiding the work area


If you want, you can hide the green work area box. This can be useful, for example, when creating screenshots for presentations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Model View. Set the XS_HIDE_WORKAREA variable to TRUE. Click OK or Apply. Click View > Redraw All. Tekla Structures hides the work area. To make the work area visible again, set the variable to FALSE.

Alternatively, hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys when clicking View > Redraw All to hide the green work area box. To make the box visible again, click View > Redraw All again.

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2.4 Work plane


The red coordinate arrow symbol indicates the work plane, which is the local coordinate system of the model. The work plane also has its own grid, which can be used for positioning parts. Tekla Structures displays the work plane grid in dark red color. To display the work plane grid, select Work plane from the second list box on the Snapping toolbar.

The red arrow symbol shows the xy plane. The z direction follows the right-hand rule:

Most of the commands that are dependent on the coordinate system use work plane coordinates. For example creating points, part positioning, and copying always comply with the work plane coordinate system. The current work plane is model-specific, so it is the same in all views.
See also

Shifting the work plane (p. 70) Changing the color of the work plane grid (p. 71)

Shifting the work plane


You can shift the work plane to any position by picking points, parallel to one of the global basic planes, or on a part or view plane. When modeling sloped parts, shifting the work plane helps you to place parts accurately. For example, to model horizontal bracing and purlins in a sloped roof, you need to shift the work plane to the slope of the roof. To shift the work plane: 1. Click View > Set Work Plane and select one of the commands. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 2. Shift the work plane by following the instructions on the status bar.

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3.

Optional: In the second list box on the Snapping toolbar, select Work plane to display the work plane grid.

See also

Work plane (p. 70)

Restoring the default work plane


Remember to change back to the default work plane when you have finished modeling sloped structures. To restore the default work plane: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click View > Set Work Plane > Parallel to XY(Z) Plane... Set Plane to XY. Set Depth coordinate to 0. Click Change.

Changing the color of the work plane grid


To change the color of the work plane grid: 1. 2. Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Model View. Modify the variable XS_GRID_COLOR_FOR_WORK_PLANE. Define the color using RGB values on a scale of 0 to 1. For example, to change the color to red, set the value to 1.0 0.0 0.0. 3. 4.
See also

Click OK. Close and reopen the view for the change to take effect.

Finding RGB values for colors (p. 264)

2.5 Coordinate system


The symbol with three axes (x, y, and z) represents the local coordinate system and indicates the direction of the model. It is located in the lower right corner of the model view. The coordinate symbol follows the work plane.

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In wire frame views, the green cube represents the global coordinate system and lies at the global point of origin.

2.6 Grids
Grids are used as an aid in locating objects in a Tekla Structures model. A grid represents a three-dimensional complex of horizontal and vertical planes. The grid is shown on the view plane using dash-and-dot lines.

Grid origin is the point where the zero points of each coordinate axis intersect Grid line extensions define how far the grid lines extend in each direction Grid labels are the names of the grid lines shown in views You can make grids and grid lines act magnetically so that the objects on the grid lines follow if you move the grid line.

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You can have more than one grid in a model. So that you can easily locate objects in your model, we strongly advise that you create a modular grid. You can create a large-scale grid for the entire structure, and smaller grids for some detailed sections. You can also create single grid lines and attach them to an existing grid.

Grid coordinates
The x and y coordinates of a grid are relative. This means that the entries for x and y are always relative to the previous entry. The z coordinates are absolute , which means that entries for z are absolute distances from the work plane origin. There are two ways to enter the x or y coordinates of grid lines:

Define the coordinates individually. For example, 0 4000 4000. Define several grid lines with equal spacing. For example, 0 2*4000.

Both methods create three lines with the spacing of 4000.

Use a zero at the start to represent a grid on the 0,0 coordinate and spaces as separators for coordinates. You can have a maximum of 1024 characters in the coordinates field.

Grid labels
Labels are the names of the grid lines shown in views. The names in the X field are associated with the grid lines parallel to the y axis and vice versa. The Z field is for the names of levels parallel to the work plane. If you wish, you can leave the label fields empty.

When working with very large grids, always having the grid labels visible might slow down Tekla Structures. To hide the grid labels when you zoom in, use the variable XS_ADJUST_GRID_LABELS.

Creating a grid
When you create a new model, Tekla Structures automatically creates a grid and a view according to the saved standard properties. You can also create grids manually. To manually create a grid: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Modeling > Create Grid... Modify the grid properties. Optional: To bind objects to the grid lines, select the Magnetic grid plane check box. Optional: When prompted, pick a point to indicate the origin of the grid. The coordinates of the picked point appear in the Grid dialog box as X0, Y0, and Z0. If you do not pick a point, Tekla Structures positions the origin according to the values you entered for X0, Y0, and Z0. 5.
See also

Click Create.

Grid properties (p. 241)

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Modifying a grid
To modify a grid: 1. 2. 3. Ensure that the Select grid selection switch is selected.

Double-click a grid line. The Grid dialog box appears. Modify the grid properties.

If you have attached additional grid lines to the grid and you want to preserve them, clear the check boxes next to the coordinate fields in the Grid dialog box. If the coordinate check boxes are selected, Tekla Structures deletes all single grid lines attached to the grid. 4.
See also

Click Modify to save the changes.

Grid properties (p. 241)

Deleting a grid
To delete a grid: 1. 2. 3. Ensure that the Select grid selection switch Select a grid line. Right-click and select Delete from the pop-up menu. is selected.

When you delete a grid, ensure that you do not have any other objects selected. If you have also other objects selected, Tekla Structures only deletes the objects, not the grid.

Changing the grid color


To change the color of the grid in rendered views: 1. 2. Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Model View. Modify the variable XS_GRID_COLOR. Define the color using RGB values on a scale of 0 to 1. For example, to change the color to red, set the value to 1.0 0.0 0.0. 3. 4.
See also

Click OK. Close and reopen the view for the change to take effect.

Finding RGB values for colors (p. 264)

Grid lines
You can attach single grid lines to an existing grid.

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Single grid lines have handles. When you select a grid line, the handles appear in magenta. You can use handles to move the grid lines.

If you want to move the grid lines using the handles to make a skewed grid, you can do this only on the local XY plane of the grid.

Creating a single grid line


To create a single grid line: 1. 2. 3. 4.
See also

Click Modeling > Add Grid Line. Select an existing grid to attach the grid line to. Pick the starting point of the grid line. Pick the end point of the grid line.

Grid line properties (p. 242)

Modifying a single grid line


To modify a single grid line: 1. 2. 3. 4.
See also

Ensure that the Select grid line selection switch

is selected.

Double-click a grid line. The Grid Line Properties dialog box appears. Modify the grid line properties. Click Modify to save the changes.

Grid line properties (p. 242)

Deleting a single grid line


To delete a single grid line: 1. Ensure that the Select grid line selection switch is selected.

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2. 3.

Select the grid line you want to delete. Right-click and select Delete from the pop-up menu.

When you delete a grid line, ensure that you do not have any other objects selected. If you also have other objects selected, Tekla Structures only deletes the objects, not the grid line.

2.7 Views
A view is a representation of a model from a specific location. Each view is displayed in its own window inside the Tekla Structures window. There are several ways to create views in Tekla Structures. For example, you can create views:

of the entire structure of selected parts and components of selected cast units and assemblies along the grid lines

Create a basic part view when you need to see a specific part clearly. This places the part in the center of the view.

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Each view has properties that define its appearance. You can change the appearance of a view after you create it. You can open the view properties dialog box for each view to view or modify the properties. You can have up to nine views on the screen at the same time. If you try to open more than nine views, Tekla Structures displays a warning. If the view does not appear, check how many views you have open.

View type
The view type defines the appearance of the view. It also affects what methods you can use to rotate the model. The view type options are:

Wire frame Objects are transparent and their outlines are displayed. You cannot rotate the model with the mouse in wire frame views.

Rendered Objects look more realistic because they are non-transparent and their surfaces are displayed. However, you can also choose the Wireframe or Shaded Wireframe representation option in the rendered views.

Representation options in rendered views


In rendered views, you can define separately how Tekla Structures displays parts and component objects. The following options are available:

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Option
Wireframe

Description Part outlines are displayed, surfaces are not, i.e. parts are transparent.

Example

In this example, component objects are displayed as Rendered.


Shaded Wireframe

Part outlines are displayed. Parts are transparent, and their surfaces are shaded.

In this example, component objects are displayed as Rendered.


Hidden Lines

Parts are not transparent, i.e. underlying parts are not visible.

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Option
Rendered

Description Part surfaces are displayed, i.e. parts are not transparent.

Example

Show Only Selected

Selected parts are displayed. Other parts are almost completely transparent. This option is useful, for example, when viewing clash check results in a large model.

Use the shortcuts Ctrl+1...5 and Shift+1...5 to set the desired representation for parts in the model and components.

View planes
Each view has a view plane on which the grids are visible and points are represented as yellow crosses. Points that are located outside the view plane are red.
Basic views

Basic views are those parallel to the global basic planes (xy, xz, and zy). In basic views, two axes always define the view plane and the axes appear in the plane name. The third axis is perpendicular to the view plane. It does not appear in the plane name. In the basic plane view, the model is shown from the direction of the third axis. The view plane options for basic views are:

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Plane: XY

Plane: XZ

Plane: ZY

For basic views, you also define the distance the view plane is from the global origin in the direction of the third axis. The view plane coordinate equals this distance.
Other views

For view types other than basic views, you either define the view plane and coordinate by picking points, or the points are defined automatically, depending on the creation method.

Moving a view plane


You can change the view plane by moving it like any other object. When you move a view plane, Tekla Structures only uses the vector that is perpendicular to the view plane. To move the view plane: 1. 2. 3. Click the view. Right-click and select Move Special > Linear... from the pop-up menu. Pick the starting point of the translation vector, or enter its coordinates.

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4. 5.

Pick the end point of the translation vector, or enter its coordinates. Click Move.

If the Move - Linear dialog box is open but the command is not active anymore, click the Pick button to re-activate the command.

Creating a view
To create a new view: 1. Select a view command from the View menu. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 2. 3. Create the view by following the instructions on the status bar. Optional: Save the view. a Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. b Type a unique name in the Name field.

Temporary views have a default name in parentheses. Do not use parentheses when naming a view, or the view will not be saved for later use.

c
See also

Click Modify.

View settings (p. 244)

About naming views


Tekla Structures numbers views in order of creation, so you do not have to give each view a specific name. You should give each view a unique name if you need to open it in later sessions. When you exit the model, Tekla Structures only saves the named views. Temporary views, which have a default name in parentheses, disappear when you close them.

In multi-user mode, it is very important to give views unique names. If several users have different views with the same name, the view settings of one user may randomly override the settings of another user.

Creating grid views


Grid views are views along the grid lines. You can define how many views Tekla Structures will create, how it will name the views, and which view properties it will use. Before you start, create a view that contains a grid. To create grid views: 1. Select the grid.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Click View > Create View of Model > Along Grid Lines... Modify the grid properties. Click Create. The Views dialog box appears. Click the arrow buttons to show or hide the grid views. The grid views will not be visible until you move them to the visible views in the Views dialog box.

See also

Grid view properties (p. 245)

Opening a view
To view and open an existing view: 1. Click View > View List.... The Views dialog box appears. Tekla Structures lists all invisible named views on the left, and all visible views on the right. 2. Select a view and use the arrows between the lists, or double-click a view to open it.

To open multiple views, use the Shift and Ctrl keys when you select views from the list.

Modifying a view
To modify an existing view: 1. 2. 3.
See also

Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. Modify the view properties. Click Modify.

View settings (p. 244)

Deleting a view
To delete a named view: 1. Click View > View List.... The Views dialog box appears. Tekla Structures lists all invisible named views on the left, and all visible views on the right. 2. 3. Select the view you want to delete. Click Delete.

To delete multiple views, use the Shift and Ctrl keys when you select views from the list.

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Switching between open views


To switch between open views, do one of the following: Use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Tab. On the Window menu, select a view from the list.

Switching between 3D and plane view


To switch between the 3D and the plane view, do one of the following: Press Ctrl+P. Click View > Switch to 3D / Plane. In the View Properties dialog box, select an option from the Angle list box, and then click Modify.

Refreshing views
To refresh the screen display, do any of the following:

To Redraw the contents of the active view Redraw the contents of all the views

Do this Right-click the view and select Redraw View from the pop-up menu. Click View > Redraw All.

Arranging views
Your Tekla Structures workspace can contain many open views. Only one view is active at a time, but Tekla Structures may also produce information in the inactive views. To arrange the views, do any of the following:

To Arrange all open views in a stack Arrange all open views horizontally Arrange all open views vertically Close all the views

Do this Click Windows > Cascade. Click Windows > Tile Horizontally. Click Windows > Tile Vertically. Click View > Close All.

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You cannot use the Cascade, Tile Horizontally, and Tile Vertically commands for views that you can move outside the Tekla Structures window. For more information on how to move part and component basic views and zoom windows across the entire Windows desktop, see XS_MDIVIEWPARENT, XS_MDIZOOMPARENT, and XS_MDIBASICVIEWPARENT.

2.8 Construction objects


Construction planes, lines, and circles help you place other objects. For example, you can easily pick the points at intersections of construction lines and circles. The snap priority of construction objects is the same as with the other lines. Construction objects remain in the model when you update or redraw views and windows. They do not appear in drawings. You can also create magnetic construction lines or planes to bind and move groups of objects. For example, rather than binding lots of handles and chamfers to faces, simply create a construction plane that goes through all the handles and chamfers. Then make this plane magnetic and bind the plane to the appropriate face. When you move the plane, the attached handles and chamfers move with it.

Creating a construction plane


To create a construction plane: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click Modeling > Add Construction Plane. Pick four points. Click the middle mouse button. Tekla Structures draws the plane. Double-click the plane in the model. The Construction Plane Properties dialog box appears. Type a name for the plane. Optional: To make the construction plane magnetic, select the Magnetic check box. Click Modify.

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Creating a construction line


To create a construction line: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Modeling > Add Construction Line. Pick the starting point of the construction line. Pick the end point of the construction line. Optional: Make the construction line magnetic. a Double-click the line in the model. b c Select the Magnetic check box. Click Modify.

Creating a construction circle


To create a construction circle: 1. Select a command from Modeling > Add Construction Circle. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 2. Create the construction circle by following the instructions on the status bar.

2.9 Points
You can create points to make it easier to place objects at positions where no lines or objects intersect. There are many ways to create points in Tekla Structures. Which method is the most convenient at each time depends on what you have already created in the model and which locations you can easily pick. When you create points, Tekla Structures always places them according to the work plane coordinate system. Points located on the view plane are yellow and points outside the view plane are red.

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Point properties
The point information you are most probably interested in is the local (work plane) and global x, y, and z coordinates of a point. Checking them convinces you of the correct location of the point or some other object related to it. Each point also has a phase number, and an ID number that is used in log files. You can filter objects by their phase and ID numbers.

Creating a point
To create a point: 1. Use the icons on the Points toolbar, or select a command from Modeling > Add Points. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 2. Create the point by following the instructions on the status bar.

Importing points
This section is for advanced users.

You can import points to specific locations in an open Tekla Structures model using the point creation import macro. You need to specify the point coordinates in a text file. In some cases this file is generated by another software package. To import points from a file: 1. Create a point import file. a Create a text file that consists of single lines for each point. Use commas or tabs as delimiters for the three point coordinates on a line. For example:
100,500,1000 300,700,1500

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b 2. 3. 4. 5.

Save the file.

Press Ctrl + F to open the Component Catalog. Type point in the Search field and click Search. Double-click Point Creation Import (8). Type the ASCII file name. Include the full path and the file extension. If you do not specify the path, Tekla Structures looks for the file in the current model folder.

6. 7.

Define the origin of the imported points by entering the coordinates. Click Create.

During the import process, Tekla Structures ignores all lines in the import file which do not consist of valid values delimited by tabs or commas.

2.10 Reference models


A reference model is a file which helps you to build a Tekla Structures model. A reference model is created in Tekla Structures or another software or modeling tool and imported to Tekla Structures. For example, an architectural model, a plant design model, or a heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) model can be used as a reference model. Reference models can also be simple 2D drawings that are imported and then used as a layout to directly build the model on. The following file types are supported:

AutoCAD (*.dxf) AutoCAD (*.dwg) MicroStation (*.dgn, *.prp) Cadmatic models (*.3dd) IFC files (*.IFC) Tekla WebViewer XML files (*.xml)

You can snap to reference model geometry. Tekla Structures loads the reference model from the file each time you open your model. It does not save the reference model when you save the current model. The filename extension of a saved reference model properties file is *.rop.

Inserting a reference model


To insert a reference model in a Tekla Structures model: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open a Tekla Structures model. Check the work plane position, as it determines the rotation of the reference model in the Tekla Structures model. Click File > Insert Reference Model... Click the Browse... button to browse for the reference model file.

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5. 6. 7.

Set the scale of the reference model, if it is different to the one in the Tekla Structures model (for example, if it uses different measurement units). Click Apply or OK to save the current reference model properties. Pick a position to define the reference model origin.

If you do not define a reference model file to use, the file does not exist, or you forget to click Apply, Tekla Structures displays a default reference model. The default reference model is a white cross:

Modifying reference model properties


To modify the properties of a reference model: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click File > Reference Model List... Double-click the reference model to open the Reference Model Properties dialog box. Click User-defined attributes. Modify the properties and then click Modify.

You can define user-defined attributes in the objects.inp file. For more information on user-defined attributes, see Adding properties.

Selecting a reference model


To select a reference model: 1. 2. Activate the Select component Select the reference model. switch.

Hiding a reference model


To hide a reference model: 1. 2. Click File > Reference Model List... Select Hidden from the Visibility list box.

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Highlighting a reference model


To check which reference models are included in the model, you can highlight them. To highlight a reference model: 1. 2. Click File > Reference Model List... Select a reference model from the list. The reference model is highlighted in the Tekla Structures model.

Updating reference models


You can update the reference models in your Tekla Structures model in case there have been changes in the original reference models after you have brought them into Tekla Structures. To update all reference models: 1. 2. Click File > Reference Model List... Click Reload all. Tekla Structures goes through all the reference models and regenerates the cache for the reference models that have a newer modified date than the one already in the cache.

Detecting changes in a reference model


Reference models are often updated, but the changes are rarely documented. You can see the changes between an old and a new reference model in Tekla Structures by using the commands in the Reference Model Properties dialog box. You can detect changes in reference models that are of the following file formats:


1.

IFC (.ifc) Cadmatic (.3dd) WebViewer (.xml) 3D DWG (.dwg)

To view changes in a reference model: Double-click the reference model.

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2. 3.

In the Reference Model Properties dialog box, browse for the name of the old file by clicking the Browse... button next to the Old file name field. Select an option in the Show list box in the Change detection section. For example, select Inserted to see the added objects.

4.

Click Display. Tekla Structures highlights the inserted reference model objects.

Splitting a reference model into reference model objects


You can quickly split reference models into reference model objects. To split a reference model into reference model objects: 1. 2. Select the reference model and double-click it to display the Reference Model
Properties dialog box.

Click Subdivide.

The reference model objects are read-only.

The variable XS_USE_EXACT_EXTREMA_FOR_REFERENCE_MODELS is not compatible with this feature.

Example

After you have split the reference model into reference model objects, you can use the ID number and attributes of the reference model objects for example in filtering and reports. When doing this, set the Category to Template and use EXTERNAL as the property value prefix in the Object Group - Representation dialog box.

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When you have split the reference model into reference model objects, the ID numbers of all the reference model objects are visible in the model database, even if you remove the reference model object and update the reference model.
See also

Filtering objects (p. 173) Creating reports

Reference model objects


You can split reference models into separate reference model objects. Reference model objects can have separate user-defined attributes that can be used for reports and the view and selection filters.
Limitations

The use of this functionality depends on the file format and file structure. You can use it for example for IFC and for DWG files that include any of the following objects:

block table

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polyface mesh polygon mesh proxy object (for example, ADT) ACIS objects (3DSolid, Body, Region)

You cannot use this functionality for DGN files.

Selecting a reference model object


To select a reference model object: 1. 2. Activate the Select objects in components Select the desired object in the reference model. switch.

Supported DGN objects


Tekla Structures can display the following DGN objects in reference models:

Line Elements (Type 3) Line String (Type 4) Shape (Type 6) Text Nodes (Type 7) Curve (Type 11) Complex Chains (Type 12) Complex Shapes (Type 14) Elliptic Elements (Type 15) Arc Elements (Type 16) Text Elements (Type 17) Surfaces (Type 18) Solids (Type 19) Point String Elements (Type 22) Cone Elements (Type 23) B-spline Surfaces (Type 24) B-spline Curves (Type 27) Shared Cells (Type 34, 35) Mesh Elements (Type 105), subtype "Indexed Face Loops"

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The following DGN objects are not supported:

Dimension Elements (Type 33) Multiline Elements (Type 36) Mesh Elements (Type 105), other subtypes than "Indexed Face Loops"

SmartSolid elements are supported as WireFrame only.

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Creating and Modifying Structures

This section explains how to create and modify parts using different materials and profiles. It also includes a general description of part properties and step-by-step instructions for all the part commands.
Contents

Parts (p. 95) Part position (p. 101) Steel parts (p. 109) Assemblies (p. 113) Concrete parts (p. 118) Cast units (p. 122)

3.1 Parts
In Tekla Structures, the term part refers to the basic building objects that can be modeled and detailed further. These are the building blocks of the physical model. Every part has properties that define it, such as material, profile, and location. You can use part properties in view and selection filters. For example, you can select, modify, and hide parts based on their properties. You can also include part properties and user-defined attributes in drawing and report templates. Each part has the following properties:

Property
Name

Description The name of the part is user-definable. Tekla Structures uses part names in reports and drawing lists, and to identify parts of the same type, e.g. beams or columns. See Profiles (p. 96). See Materials (p. 98).

Profile Material

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Property
Finish

Description Finish is user-definable. It describes how the part surface has been treated, e.g. with anti-corrosive paint, hot galvanized, fire retardant coating, etc. Use Class to group parts. For example, you can display parts of different classes in different colors.

Class

Part types
The main concrete parts are:

beam polybeam column pad footing strip footing panel slab

The main steel parts are: beam curved beam orthogonal beam polybeam column twin profile contour plate

Profiles
Tekla Structures contains standard, parametric, and user-defined profiles. When you create or modify a part, you can select the profile from a tree that contains all the profiles available in the profile catalog. The profiles are grouped according to rules that you can define and modify. For user-defined profiles Tekla Structures also displays cross section information.

Icon

Description A standard profile. A parametric profile.

For more information on how to modify the profile catalog and rules, and how to associate profile types with materials, see The profile catalog and Working with rules.
See also

Standard profiles (p. 97)

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Parametric profiles (p. 97) User-defined profiles (p. 97)

Standard profiles
When you first start Tekla Structures, the profile catalog contains standard, environmentspecific profiles. The properties of these library profiles conform to industry standards, so you should not edit them. You can add profiles to the profile catalog.

Parametric profiles
You can use parametric profiles to model profiles that are standard in a specific environment, but do not exist in the Tekla Structures profile catalog. Parametric profiles are partly userdefinable and they have a predefined shape, but you determine their size by giving one or more parameters. Parametric profile names have specific prefixes and they include dimension values. Dimension values in parametric profile names are separated by the standard separators -, X, /, and *. You can define alternative prefixes for parametric profiles. You can also define additional separators using the variables XS_PARAMETRIC_PROFILE_SEPARATOR and XS_USER_DEFINED_PARAMETRIC_PROFILE_SEPARATORS .

User-defined profiles
You can create your own profiles and save them in the profile catalog. For example, you could create a pitched user-defined profile, with different cross sections at the beginning and end of the profile. For more information on creating your own profiles, see Sketched cross sections (p. 215) and Adding a standard (fixed) user-defined profile.

Changing the profile of a part


To change the profile of a part: 1. 2. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Click Select... next to the Profile field. The Select Profile dialog box appears. By default, only the profile types that are relevant to the material of the part are shown. 3. Optional: Define what profile information you want to see.


4.

To display all the profiles of the profile catalog in the tree, select the Show all
profiles check box.

To see all the properties of profiles, select the Show details check box. To select a recently used profile, use the Profile name list box. If you select a parametric profile, enter the profile dimensions in the Value column.

Select a profile from the list.


5. 6.

Click Apply or OK. Click Modify.

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You can also enter a profile name in the Profile field in the part properties dialog box.

Materials
When you create or modify a part, you can select the material and grade from a tree that contains all the materials available in the material catalog. Each material has the following properties:

Property Alias

Description Aliases are alternative names. For example, they can be former names, or names used in different countries or standards. Tekla Structures automatically translates aliases into the standard name when you select a material grade.

Analysis information

The Analysis tab contains information about the properties used in structural analysis, including the modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio, and thermal dilatation coefficient. The Design tab contains information about design-specific properties, such as strengths, partial safety factors, and so on. Use the User attributes tab to view or modify the userdefined properties of materials. For example, this tab could contain the maximum grain size, porosity, or surface quality class of a concrete material type, or country-specific properties.

Design information User attributes

For more information on how to modify the material catalog, see The material catalog.

Changing the material of a part


To change the material of a part: 1. 2. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Click Select... next to the Material field. The Select Material dialog box appears. 3. Optional: Define what material information you want to see.


4. 5. 6.

To include aliases for material grades in the tree, select the Show aliases check box. To see all the properties of materials, select the Show details check box.

Select a material from the list. Click Apply or OK. Click Modify.

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You can also enter a material name in the Material field in the part properties dialog box.

Colors
You can change the color of some model objects by modifying their class in the part properties dialog box. You can also use the object representation settings to specify colors for defined object groups.

Class

Color black

1 2 or 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

light gray or white red bright green blue cyan yellow magenta gray pink lime aqua lilac orange light blue

User-defined attributes
User-defined attributes provide extra information about a part. Attributes can consist of numbers, text, or lists. The following table gives some examples of what you can use attributes for:

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Attribute
Comment Shorten

Can be used... In part and weld marks in Tekla Structures drawings, or in projects. When drawings of the parts are created, Tekla Structures decreases the true length of the part by this value. This is useful when creating assembly drawings of bracing bars that should always be under tension. In part marks in Tekla Structures drawings. To obtain preliminary marks for parts in reports. To protect objects from being accidentally changed. To save reaction forces for AutoDefaults. You can enter forces separately for each end of a part. User-defined fields. You can change the names of these fields and add new user-defined fields. When importing information on connection types into Tekla Structures. You can then use the connection codes as rules in AutoConnection and AutoDefaults. Each end of a part can have a different connection code.

Camber Preliminary mark Locked Shear, Tension, and Moment User field 1...4 Connection code

For more information on how to define attributes, see Adding properties.

Part labels
You can display selected part properties, user-defined attributes, and template attributes in a model view by using part labels.

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Showing part labels in a view


To show part labels in a view: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. Click Display... In the Display dialog box, go to the Advanced tab. Select the Part label check box. Define which part properties to display in part labels. a Select a property in the Properties list. b 6. Click Add to add the property to the Part label list.

Optional: Define which user-defined attribute or template attribute to display in part labels. a Select User-defined attribute in the Properties list. b c Click Add. The Part label dialog box appears. Enter the attribute name and click OK.

7.

Click Modify.

3.2 Part position


When you create a part, you position it by picking points. The points form the part reference line. You can use part reference lines to help snap to the middle points of parts, for example. Tekla Structures indicates the direction of a part with handles. When you select a part, Tekla Structures highlights the handles. The handle of the first end point is yellow, the rest are magenta.

The handles also symbolize the part reference points. The position of a part is always relative to its reference points.
See also

Selecting handles (p. 39) Moving a part using handles (p. 101) Showing part reference lines in model views (p. 102) XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES

Moving a part using handles


To move a part using the handles: 1. Select the part. Tekla Structures displays the handles.

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2. 3.

Click the handle you want to move. Tekla Structures highlights the handle. Move the handle like any other object. If Drag and Drop is switched on, just drag the handle to a new position.

See also

Copying and moving objects (p. 43)

Showing part reference lines in model views


To see the part reference line in the model: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click View > View Properties... Click Display... to open the Display dialog box. On the Advanced tab, select the Part reference line check box. Click Modify and OK.

Modifying the position of a part


To modify the position of a part: 1. 2. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. On the Position tab, modify the desired position settings. For example, you can define the part to be positioned 200 units above its reference points. 3. Click Modify.

Positioning of parts is easier in the plane view. Press Ctrl+P to switch between the 3D view and the plane view.

Position on the work plane


When you define the position of a part on the work plane, you have the following options:

Middle Right Left

You can also define the distance of a part from its original reference line. To do this, type a distance in the field next to the On plane check box.
Examples

Position
Middle

Example

Right

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Position
Left

Example

Middle 200

Right 200

Left 200

Rotation
When you define the rotation of a part around its axis on the work plane, you have the following options:

Front Top Back Below

You can also define the angle of rotation. Tekla Structures measures positive values clockwise around the local x axis.
Examples

Position
Front

Example

Top

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Position
Back

Example

Below

Position depth
When you define the position of a part in terms of its depth, perpendicular to the work plane, you have the following options:


Examples

Middle Front Behind

Position
Middle

Example

Front

Behind

Middle 100

Front 100

Behind 100

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Vertical position
When you define the vertical position of a part, relative to its reference point, you have the following options:


Examples

Middle Down Up

Position
Middle

Example

Down

Up

Middle 100

Down 100

Up 100

Horizontal position
When you define the horizontal position of a part, relative to its reference point, you have the following options:

Middle Left Right

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Examples

Position
Middle

Example

Left

Right

Middle 100

Left 100

Right 100

End offsets
You can use end offsets to move the ends of a part, relative to its reference line. You can enter positive and negative values. You have the following options:

Field
Dx Dy Dz

Description Changes the length of the part by moving the part end point along the reference line. Moves the part end perpendicular to the reference line. Moves the part end in the z direction of the work plane.

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Examples

Position
Dx

Example

End point: 200

Dx

End point: -200

Dy

End point: 300

Dy

End point: -300

Dz

End point: 400

Dz

End point: -400

Levels
For parts that you create by picking only one point (such as columns), you can enter the positions of the part ends, relative to the picked point, in the global z direction Tekla Structures creates the part at the level that you defined in the part properties dialog box, not at the level you picked. You have the following options:

Option
Bottom Top

Description Use to define the position of the first end. Use to define the position of the second end.

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Example

In this example, the concrete columns form a two-story structure. To position the upper columns correctly, you must modify their bottom level position.

Top level = 1000, Bottom level = 0 Top level = 1700, Bottom level = 1200 Slab thickness = 200

Bending
You can create curved parts by defining a radius and the plane of curvature. When you initiate a command that creates a curved part, for example a curved beam, Tekla Structures prompts you to pick three points to define the radius. Alternatively, you can define the radius in the part properties dialog box. To have Tekla Structures draw a curved part, you need to specify the number of segments. Tekla Structures does not show curved surfaces exactly in views, instead the number of segments determines how realistic the curved part looks: the more segments, the less angular the part appears.

The number of segments affects the speed of many operations, such as numbering and the creation of drawings.

You can also define the plane of curvature, which is relative to the current work plane. The options are:

XZ plane XY plane

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Examples

Number of segments: 2

Number of segments: 5

Number of segments: 15

3.3 Steel parts


This section explains how to create steel parts.
See also

Creating and modifying objects (p. 35) Part position (p. 101)

Creating a steel beam


To create a steel beam: 1. 2. 3. 4. Optional: Modify the steel beam properties. Click the Create beam icon. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point.

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See also

Steel beam properties (p. 247)

Creating an orthogonal beam


To create a steel beam that is orthogonal to the work plane: 1. 2. 3. Optional: Modify the orthogonal beam properties. Click Modeling > Steel Parts > Orthogonal Beam... Pick the position of the beam.

See also

Orthogonal beam properties (p. 249)

Creating a curved beam


To create a curved steel beam: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Optional: Modify the steel beam properties. Click the Create curved beam icon. Pick the starting point (1). Pick a point on the arc (2). Pick the end point (3).

See also

Steel beam properties (p. 247)

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Creating a steel polybeam


A polybeam can contain straight and curved segments. You can also create bent plates with this command. To create a steel polybeam: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Optional: Modify the steel beam properties. Click the Create polybeam icon. Pick the points you want the beam to go through. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Optional: To create curved segments, chamfer the corners of the polybeam.

See also

Polybeam chamfers (p. 152) Steel beam properties (p. 247) Polybeam length calculation

Creating a steel column


To create a steel column: 1. 2. 3. Optional: Modify the steel column properties. Click the Create column icon. Pick the position of the column. Tekla Structures creates the column at the level that you defined in the Column Properties dialog box.

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Use the Orthogonal Beam Properties dialog box to correct the position of a column, if the upper and lower levels were switched when the column was copied and mirrored. Remember to change the part name to COLUMN.
See also

Steel column properties (p. 247) Levels (p. 107)

Creating a twin profile


A twin profile consists of two identical beams. You define the positions of both beams by selecting the twin profile type and setting the clearance between the beams in two directions. To create a twin steel profile: 1. 2. 3. 4. Optional: Modify the twin profile properties. Click Modeling > Create Steel Part > Twin Profile. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point.

See also

Twin profile properties (p. 250)

Creating a contour plate


When you create a contour plate, the profile you use defines the thickness of the plate and the picked points define the shape. The corners of the contour plate can be chamfered. To create a contour plate: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Optional: Modify the contour plate properties. Click the Create contour plate icon. Pick the starting point. Pick the corner points of the contour plate. Pick the starting point again, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

See also

Contour plate properties (p. 248)

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Creating a round contour plate


To create a round contour plate: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Create a square contour plate with its sides equal to the diameter of the round plate you want to create. Select the plate. Double-click a handle to display the Chamfer Properties dialog box. Select the round chamfer symbol Type the chamfer radius in the x field. Click Modify. Repeat steps 35 for each corner. from the list box.

See also

Creating a contour plate (p. 112) Contour plate properties (p. 248) Chamfers (p. 149)

3.4 Assemblies
Tekla Structures creates basic assemblies of steel parts when you use a workshop weld or bolt to join parts together. Assemblies and their main parts are automatically defined when you:

Create single workshop welds or bolts. Apply automatic connections which create workshop welds or bolts.

You can also create nested assemblies by adding sub-assemblies to existing assemblies, or by joining assemblies together. The main part in a steel assembly has other parts welded or bolted to it. By default, the main part is not welded or bolted to any other parts. You can change the main part in an assembly.
See also

Selecting nested assemblies and components (p. 40)

Assembly examples
Column corbel

A column corbel is fabricated in one workshop, and then attached to the column in another workshop. Model the corbel as a sub-assembly of the column. Then create an assembly drawing for each workshop: one assembly drawing showing how the corbel is welded together, another assembly drawing showing how the corbel and the other part are welded to the column.

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Drawing 2, Workshop 2 Drawing 1, Workshop 1


Complex truss

Model the halves of a complex truss as assemblies. Create assembly drawings for the workshop to fabricate the truss halves. Then create another assembly drawing showing how the halves should be joined on site. In a frame of built-up columns and beams, each built-up profile can be a sub-assembly. You can create an assembly drawing showing the entire frame, and separate drawings showing how the columns and beams are constructed.

Built-up profile

Assembly hierarchy
You can work on any level of a nested assembly, from single parts and bolts, through the basic and sub-assemblies, up to the highest level of the nested assembly. To work with nested assemblies, you need to know how to use the Shift key and mouse scrolling to select objects on different levels in assembly hierarchy.

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Assembly hierarchy in nested assemblies affects drawings and reports. You can create separate drawings and reports of the sub-assemblies and the nested assembly, and still produce dimensions, marks, fabrication information, etc. for all assembly levels.
See also

Selecting nested assemblies and components (p. 40)

Creating an assembly
To create an assembly: 1. 2. 3. Ensure that the Select assemblies selection switch is active. Select the parts and/or assemblies that you want to join together. Right-click and select Make into Assembly from the pop-up menu.

Creating a sub-assembly
To create a sub-assembly of parts that are already in an assembly: 1. 2. 3. Ensure that the Select objects in assemblies selection switch is active. Select the parts you want to include in the sub-assembly. Right-click and select Make into Sub-Assembly from the pop-up menu.

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Adding objects to assemblies


You can add objects to assemblies in the following ways:

To Create a basic assembly

Do this Do one of the following:


Create a nested assembly

Add parts to an existing assembly as secondary parts. Bolt or weld parts to an existing assembly as secondary parts.

Do one of the following:

Add parts to an existing assembly as secondary parts. Bolt or weld assemblies to an existing assembly as sub-assemblies. Add assemblies to an existing assembly as subassemblies. Join existing assemblies together without adding any loose parts.

Sub-assemblies in a nested assembly retain their own assembly information and main part. You can also define properties separately for the sub-assemblies and the nested assembly by using the part properties dialog box.

Adding parts to an assembly


To add secondary parts to a basic assembly or to any level of a nested assembly: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure that the Select objects in assemblies selection switch is active. Select the part you want to add. Right-click and select Assembly > Add to Assembly from the pop-up menu. Select the assembly to add to.

Creating a nested assembly


To create a nested assembly: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure that the Select assemblies selection switch is active. Select the assemblies you want to add to another assembly. They will become subassemblies in the nested assembly. Right-click and select Assembly > Add as sub-assembly from the pop-up menu. Select the assembly to add to.

Joining assemblies
To join existing assemblies without adding any loose parts: 1. Ensure that the Select assemblies selection switch is active.

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2. 3.

Select the assemblies you want to join. Right-click and select Assembly > Make into Assembly from the pop-up menu. The assembly with the largest volume becomes the main assembly.

Highlighting objects in an assembly


Use the Inquire tool to check which objects belong to a particular assembly. To highlight objects in an assembly: 1. 2. Click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects. Select a part that belongs to an assembly. Tekla Structures highlights the other parts that belong to the same assembly. The following colors are used:

Object type Concrete - main part Concrete - secondary part Reinforcement Steel part - main part Steel part - secondary part

Highlight color magenta cyan blue orange yellow

Removing objects from an assembly


To remove objects from an assembly: 1. 2. Select the part or sub-assembly you want to remove. Right-click and select Assembly > Remove from Assembly from the pop-up menu.

Exploding an assembly
When you explode a nested assembly, Tekla Structures breaks the assembly hierarchy level by level, always starting from the highest level. You need to use the Explode command several times to break a nested assembly back to single parts. You can also explode sub-assemblies to single parts without breaking the entire assembly hierarchy. To explode an assembly: 1. 2. Select the assembly or sub-assembly you want to explode. Do one of the following:

To explode the entire assembly, right-click and select Assembly > Explode from the pop-up menu. To only explode the sub-assembly, right-click and select Assembly > Explode
Sub-Assembly from the pop-up menu.

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Changing the assembly main part


To change the main part in an assembly: 1. Check what is currently the main part of the assembly. a Ensure that the Select assemblies selection switch is active. b c Click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects. Select the assembly. Tekla Structures highlights the main and secondary parts in different colors. 2. 3. 4. Ensure that the Select objects in assemblies selection switch is active. Click Modeling > Assembly > Set as New Main Object of Assembly. Select the new main part. Tekla Structures changes the main part.

Changing the main assembly


When you join two or more assemblies together, the assembly with the largest volume becomes the main assembly. You can change the main assembly at any time. To change the main assembly in a nested assembly: 1. 2. Select the new main assembly. Right-click and select Assembly > Set as New Main Sub-Assembly from the pop-up menu.

3.5 Concrete parts


This section explains how to create concrete parts.
See also

Creating and modifying objects (p. 35) Part position (p. 101)

Creating a pad footing


To create a pad footing: 1. 2. 3. Optional: Modify the pad footing properties. Click the Create pad footing icon. Pick the pad footing position.

See also

Pad footing properties (p. 250)

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Creating a strip footing


To create a strip footing: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Optional: Modify the strip footing properties. Click the Create strip footing icon. Pick the points you want the footing to go through. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Optional: To create curved segments, chamfer the corners of the footing.

See also

Strip footing properties (p. 251)

Creating a concrete column


To create a concrete column: 1. 2. 3. Optional: Modify the concrete column properties. Click the Create concrete column icon. Pick the position of the column. Tekla Structures creates the column at the level that you defined in the Concrete Column Properties dialog box.

See also

Concrete column properties (p. 252)

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Creating a concrete beam


To create a concrete beam: 1. 2. 3. 4. Optional: Modify the concrete beam properties. Click the Create concrete beam icon. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point.

See also

Concrete beam properties (p. 252)

Creating a concrete polybeam


A polybeam can contain straight and curved segments. You can also create concrete bent plates with this command. To create a concrete polybeam: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Optional: Modify the concrete beam properties. Click the Create concrete polybeam icon. Pick the points you want the beam to go through. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Optional: To create curved segments, chamfer the corners of the polybeam.

See also

Polybeam chamfers (p. 152) Concrete beam properties (p. 252) Polybeam length calculation

Creating a concrete slab


When you create a concrete slab, the profile you use defines the thickness of the slab and the picked points define the shape. The corners of the slab can be chamfered.

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To create a concrete slab: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Optional: Modify the concrete slab properties. Click the Create concrete slab icon. Pick the starting point. Pick the corner points of the slab. Pick the starting point again, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

See also

Concrete slab properties (p. 253)

Creating a round slab


To create a round slab: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Create a square slab with sides equal to the diameter of the round slab you want to create. Select the slab. Double-click a handle to display the Chamfer Properties dialog box. Select the round chamfer symbol Type the chamfer radius in the x field. Click Modify. Repeat steps 35 for each corner. from the list box.

See also

Creating a concrete slab (p. 120) Concrete slab properties (p. 253) Chamfers (p. 149)

Creating a concrete panel


To create a concrete panel: 1. 2. Optional: Modify the concrete panel properties. Click the Create concrete panel icon.

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3. 4. 5.

Pick the points you want the panel to go through. Double-click the end point, or click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Optional: To create curved segments, chamfer the corners of the panel.

See also

Concrete panel properties Chamfers (p. 149)

3.6 Cast units


The concrete structures in Tekla Structures are modeled as single parts. By default, each part is considered a separate cast unit. For construction purposes you may need to merge several concrete parts into one cast unit. For example, a single cast unit could consist of a column with corbels. You need to specify which parts form the cast unit. Cast units can include reinforcement, as well as concrete parts. The main part in a concrete cast unit is the one with the largest volume of concrete. You can change the main part in a cast unit.

Creating a cast unit


To create a cast unit: 1. 2. 3. Click Modeling > Cast Unit > Create. Select the objects you want to include in the cast unit. Click the middle mouse button to create the cast unit.

Adding concrete objects to a cast unit


To add concrete objects to a cast unit: 1. 2. 3. Click Modeling > Cast Unit > Add to. Select the objects you want to add. Select an object in the cast unit.

Adding non-concrete objects to a cast unit


Use the Add as Sub-Assembly command when adding non-concrete objects to a cast unit. This applies to anything that is not concrete, such as steel parts and insulation.

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To add a non-concrete part to a cast unit: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure that the Select components selection switch is active. Click Modeling > Assembly > Add as Sub-Assembly. Select the non-concrete part you want to add. Select the cast unit to which you want to add the part.

Removing objects from a cast unit


To remove objects from a cast unit: 1. 2. Click Modeling > Cast Unit > Remove From. Select the objects you want to remove.

Highlighting objects in a cast unit


Use the Inquire tool to check which objects belong to a particular cast unit. To highlight objects in a cast unit: 1. 2. Click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects. Select a part that belongs to a cast unit. Tekla Structures highlights the other parts that belong to the same cast unit. The following colors are used:

Object type Concrete - main part Concrete - secondary part Reinforcement Steel part - main part Steel part - secondary part

Highlight color magenta cyan blue orange yellow

Exploding a cast unit


To explode a cast unit: 1. 2. Click Modeling > Cast Unit > Explode. Select an object in the cast unit you want to explode.

Copying a cast unit


To copy a cast unit: 1. 2.
See also

Ensure that the Select assemblies selection switch is active. Copy the cast unit like any other object in Tekla Structures.

Copying and moving objects (p. 43)

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Defining the cast unit type


Tekla Structures checks the cast unit type of the cast unit main part each time you create or modify a cast unit. Tekla Structures does not mix precast and cast-in-place parts inside a cast unit. To define whether a concrete part is precast or cast in place: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click a concrete part to open the concrete part properties dialog box. Go to the Cast unit tab. In the Cast unit type list box, select Precast or Cast in place. Click Modify to save the changes.

Casting direction
To indicate the casting direction of a concrete part, you can define which part face you want to have on top of the casting form. The top-in-form face is displayed in the front view of a drawing. Tekla Structures highlights the top-in-form face in red:

In drawings, use the Fixed coordinate system to show the top-in-form face in the front view.

Defining the casting direction of a part


To define the casting direction of a concrete part: 1. 2. 3. Select a concrete part. Right-click and select Cast Unit > Set Top in Form Face. Select the part face that will face upwards in the form.

Showing the top-in-form face


To display the top-in-form face of a concrete part: 1. 2. Select a concrete part. Right-click and select Cast Unit > Show Top in Form Face.

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To hide the top-in-form face again, right-click the view and select Update Window from the pop-up menu.

Changing the cast unit main part


To change the main part in a cast unit: 1. 2. 3. Optional: To check what is currently the main part of the cast unit, click Tools > Inquire > Assembly Objects. Select the new main part. Right-click and select Assembly > Set as New Main Part of Assembly from the pop-up menu.

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Detailing Structures

This section explains how to create details using Tekla Structures. It also gives you some techniques for fine-tuning part shapes.
Contents

Bolts (p. 127) Holes (p. 133) Welds (p. 135) Surface treatment (p. 141) Fine-tuning part shape (p. 149)

4.1 Bolts
To create bolts, you can either create a single bolt group or apply a component that automatically creates bolt groups.

For more information on using components to automatically create bolt groups, see Defining bolts and welds in the Detailing Manual.

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You can create different part marks for holes and bolts in drawings. You cannot use bolt elements (such as screws, washers, and nuts) while creating holes, as Tekla Structures uses the same command for creating bolts and holes.

Bolt group shape


You have the following options for bolt group shape:

Array for rectangular xy list for any shape Circle for circular

Tekla Structures uses the values of the Bolt dist X and Bolt dist Y fields to determine how many bolts the bolt group contains, as shown in the table below:

Shape
Array xy list Circle

Bolt dist X Spacing between bolts, in the x direction of the bolt group. x coordinate of each bolt, from the bolt group point of origin. Number of bolts.

Bolt dist Y Spacing between bolts, in the y direction of the bolt group. y coordinate of each bolt, from the bolt group point of origin. Diameter of the bolt group.

Bolt group position


Tekla Structures determines the location of the bolt group using the following values:

Bolt group x axis Work plane

Dimensions are relative to the bolt group origin, which is the first point you pick when creating a bolt group. Tekla Structures sets the x direction of a bolt group using the second point picked. It is important that the points you pick to create the bolt group are close enough to the parts you want to connect.
Examples

The picked points are shown as crosses in the examples below. The dashed line indicates the x direction.

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Bolt group shape


Array

Dimensions
Bold dist X: 150 Bold dist Y: 100

Picture

xy list

Bold dist X: 75 175 Bold dist Y: 100 100

Bolt length
Tekla Structures calculates bolt length automatically, using the material thicknesses of the connected parts, and other factors. The following settings in the Bolt Properties dialog box affect bolt length calculation:

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Field
Thread in material

Description Indicates if the thread of the bolt can be inside the bolted parts. Tekla Structures does not use this value when calculating the length of full-threaded bolts. Indicates the area Tekla Structures should search for parts that belong to the bolt group. Using cut length you can determine whether the bolt will go through one flange or two. In the illustration below, A is the cut length and B is the bolt origin. Tekla Structures calculates the search area as A/2 in both directions from point B.

Cut length

Tekla Structures warns you if the cut length is too small (i.e. the bolt group contains no parts) and makes the bolt length 100 mm.
Extra length

Increases the material thickness that Tekla Structures uses when calculating bolt length. For example, you might need extra bolt length to allow for painting. You can also build additional lengths into bolt assemblies.

If you want to force a bolt to be a certain length, enter a negative value for cut length (e.g. -150).

If there are large gaps between the connected parts, the gap is added to the length of the bolt. Tekla Structures calculates bolt length using the the total distance between the first and last surfaces.

Bolt offsets
You can use offsets to change the position of the bolt group. Offsets move the bolt group by moving the x axis of the bolt group.

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The starting point values Dx, Dy and Dz move the first end of the bolt group, relative to the bolt group x axis. The end point values move the second end of the bolt group.


Example

A positive Dx value moves the starting point towards the end point.
Dy moves the end point perpendicular to the bolt group x axis on the current work plane. Dz moves the end point perpendicular to the current work plane.

An example bolt group:

The bolts were created using the following bolt properties:

Shape = Array Bolt dist X = 100 100 Bolt dist Y = 200 Slotted hole X = 28 Bolt size = 20 Tolerance = 2 (overall dimension = 50) Dx Start point = 100.0

Bolt catalog
Tekla Structures treats bolts as pre-defined assemblies made up of individual elements (bolts, washers, nuts, etc.). Tekla Structures stores bolt assemblies in the bolt assembly catalog. The individual elements (bolts of different size and length, nuts, washers, etc.) are contained in the bolt catalog.

Creating a bolt group


To create a bolt group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
See also

Optional: Modify the bolt properties. Click Detailing > Bolts > Create Bolts. Select the primary part, to which the secondary parts will be bolted. Select the secondary parts. Click the middle mouse button to finish selecting parts. Pick a point, which is the bolt group origin. Pick a second point to indicate the bolt group x direction.

Bolt properties (p. 255)

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Creating a single bolt


To create a single bolt: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
See also

Double-click the Create bolts icon to open the Bolt Properties dialog box. Under Bolt group, select Array from the Shape list box. In the Bolt dist X and Bolt dist Y fields, type 0. Click Apply to save the changes. Create the bolt the same way you would create a bolt group. Follow the instructions on the status bar.

Bolt properties (p. 255)

Creating new bolts by modifying existing


You can also create a new bolt group by modifying an existing one. In most cases it is easier to create bolt groups by applying a component that includes bolt groups. To create new bolts by modifying an existing bolt group: 1. 2. 3. Apply a component. Explode the component. Modify the bolt group.

Changing or adding bolted parts


To change the parts a bolt group connects to: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Bolts > Edit Bolted Parts. When prompted, reselect the main and secondary parts. Tekla Structures automatically updates bolt length to suit these changes.

Using bolts to create assemblies


You can use bolts to create and connect assemblies. You can create nested assemblies by connecting sub-assemblies to an existing assembly, or you can just connect more parts to assemblies using bolts. To control how Tekla Structures creates assemblies, use the Connect part/assembly and Bolt type list boxes in the Bolt Properties dialog box. The order in which you select parts when creating the connection determines the main and secondary parts of the assembly or the assembly hierarchy.

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Connect part/ assembly


As sub-assembly

Bolt type
Workshop or Site

Result Nested assembly with the assembly you are bolting as a sub-assembly. The first part you pick determines the assembly to which you are bolting.

As secondary part

Workshop

Basic assembly with the part you are bolting as a secondary part. The first part you pick usually becomes the main part in the assembly.

As secondary part

Site

No assembly created.

Bolting sub-assemblies to an existing assembly


To bolt sub-assemblies to an existing assembly: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Double-click the Create bolts icon to open the Bolt Properties dialog box. In the Connect part/assembly list box, select As sub-assembly. Click Apply or OK. Select a part in the assembly to bolt to. Select a part in the sub-assembly to be bolted. Pick the bolt group origin. Pick a point to indicate the bolt group x direction.

4.2 Holes
Tekla Structures uses the same command for creating bolts and holes. Before creating holes, you need to change some of the properties in the Bolt Properties dialog box. If you want to create only holes without any bolts, clear all the Include in bolt assembly check boxes:

You can create the following types of holes:

Round Oversized Slotted

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Tapped

Creating round holes


Tekla Structures calculates the diameter of a round hole as the sum of Bolt size and Tolerance. To create round holes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
See also

Double-click the Create bolts icon to open the Bolt Properties dialog box. Optional: Modify the hole properties. If you do not want to create any bolts, clear all the Include in bolt assembly check boxes. Click Apply to save the changes. Create the holes the same way you would create a bolt group. Follow the instructions on the status bar.

Bolt properties (p. 255)

Creating slotted holes


To create slotted holes: 1. 2. Double-click the Create bolts icon to open the Bolt Properties dialog box. To indicate which parts should be slotted, select the desired Parts with slotted holes check boxes. Tekla Structures counts the pieces of steel from the head of the bolt down. For example, if you select the second check box from the head of the bolt, Tekla Structures slots the second piece of steel from the head of the bolt. 3. 4. 5. If you do not want to create any bolts, clear all the Include in bolt assembly check boxes. In the Hole type list box, select Slotted. Enter the allowance for the slotted hole in the x and y directions of the hole group using the Slotted hole X or Slotted hole Y fields.

Tolerance Slotted hole X or Y Bolt size 6. Optional: In the Rotate slots list box, select Even or Odd to rotate alternate holes by 90 degrees.

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Crossing slotted holes to odd or even parts Parallel slotted holes 7. 8.


See also

Click Apply to save the changes. Create the holes the same way you would create a bolt group. Follow the instructions on the status bar.

Bolt properties (p. 255)

Creating oversized holes


To create oversized holes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Double-click the Create bolts icon to open the Bolt Properties dialog box. Select the desired Parts with slotted holes check boxes to indicate which plies of the connection get oversized holes. If you do not want to create any bolts, clear all the Include in bolt assembly check boxes. In the Hole type list box, select Oversized. In the Oversize field, enter the allowance for the oversized hole. You can also use a negative value to create smaller (tapped) holes. 6. 7.
See also

Click Apply to save the changes. Create the holes the same way you would create a bolt group. Follow the instructions on the status bar.

Bolt properties (p. 255)

4.3 Welds
To create welds in Tekla Structures, you can create single welds, or apply components that automatically create welds. You can create the following types of welds:

Regular welds Tekla Structures welds the two parts together using the weld position in the Weld Properties dialog box. The length of the weld depends on the length of the connection between the welded parts.

Polygon welds You define the exact position of the weld by picking the points you want the weld to traverse.

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If you move welded parts, polygon welds move with the primary part.

Single part welds

Weld position
You define the position of a weld relative to the work plane. The type and position of the parts to be welded affect the position of the weld. The options for weld position are:

x y z

These can all be in a positive or negative direction. Tekla Structures creates the weld on the face or side of the part that faces in the selected direction (x, y, or z).
Examples

The following images show welds in different positions. If there are no faces that touch in the specified direction, Tekla Structures places the weld relative to the center point of the secondary part.

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Secondary part Main part Secondary part Main part Assembly main part Assembly main part Welding order secondary primary

Weld size prefixes


The weld size prefix is shown in drawings, but only if the Size checkbox is also selected. The following table describes the standard ISO 2553 prefixes:

Prefix a s z

Description Design throat thickness Penetration throat thickness Leg length

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Creating a weld between parts


To weld parts together: 1. 2. 3. Optional: Modify the weld properties. Click Detailing > Weld > Create Weld between Parts. Select the part to weld to. If you are creating a workshop weld, this is the primary part. 4. Select the part to be welded. If you are creating a workshop weld, this is the secondary part. 5.
See also

Optional: Create a drawing to check that the weld marks look correct.

Weld properties (p. 256)

Creating a polygon weld


To weld parts together using a polygon: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Weld > Create Polygon Weld. Select the part to weld to. If you are creating a workshop weld, this is the primary part. 3. Select the part to be welded. If you are creating a workshop weld, this is the secondary part. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pick the corners of a polygon. To undo the last pick, press Backspace or click Edit > Undo Last Polygon Pick. To finish picking, click the middle mouse button or click Edit > Finish Polygon Input. Optional: Create a drawing to check that the weld marks look correct.

If you move the welded parts, the polygon weld moves with the primary part.

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Creating a weld to a part


To create a weld to a part, without connecting any other parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Example

Click Detailing > Weld > Create Weld to Part. Select the part that you want to weld. Pick the points you want the weld to pass through. To finish picking, click the middle mouse button or click Edit > Finish Polygon Input. Optional: Create a drawing to check that the weld marks look correct.

Use the Create Weld to Part command to weld seams in tubular sections:

To model tubular sections with visible seams, use the SPD profile.

Weld preparation
When parts are prepared for welding, their edges can be beveled to produce a groove for the weld. You can define the angle of bevels and grooves. When preparing welds, Tekla Structures bevels the parts to be welded using an anti-material cutting part. Tekla Structures subsequently deletes this cutting part. Tekla Structures displays weld preparations using cyan dash-and-dot lines. Some weld types and connections also automatically prepare the parts to be welded.

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To prevent automatic weld preparation, set the variable XS_DISABLE_WELD_PREP_SOLID to TRUE.

Preparing parts for welding


To manually prepare parts to be welded: 1. 2. 3. Click Detailing > Weld > Prepare Part for Welding. Select the part that you want to cut. Select the cutting part.

Using welds to create assemblies


Tekla Structures forms assemblies based on where the weld should be made. You can create workshop welds and site welds. The order in which you select parts when creating the connection determines the main and secondary parts of the assembly or the assembly hierarchy. The first part you select becomes the primary part of the assembly. Tekla Structures dimensions secondary parts relative to the primary part in assembly drawings. The largest primary part in the weld becomes the main part of the assembly. When you connect assemblies, the first part you select determines the assembly to which you weld sub-assemblies. To control how Tekla Structures creates assemblies, use the Connect part/assembly and Workshop/Site list boxes in the Weld Properties dialog box.

Connect part/ assembly


As sub-assembly

Workshop/Site
Workshop or Site

Result Nested assembly with the assembly you are welding as a sub-assembly. The first part you pick determines the assembly to which you are welding.

As secondary part

Workshop

Basic assembly with the part you are welding as a secondary part. The first part you pick usually becomes the main part in the assembly.

As secondary part

Site

No assembly created.

Welding sub-assemblies to an existing assembly


To weld sub-assemblies to an existing assembly: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the Create weld between parts icon to open the Weld Properties dialog box. In the Connect part/assembly list box, select As sub-assembly. Click Apply or OK. Select a part in the assembly to weld to.

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5. 6.

Select a part in the sub-assembly to be welded. Optional: Create a drawing to check that the weld marks look correct.

4.4 Surface treatment


Use the surface treatment tools to add surface treatment to parts. Surface treatment for concrete parts include flat finishes, surface mixes, and tiles. Surface treatment for steel parts include fire-proofing and unpainted areas, for example. Surface treatments are visible only in rendered views. When you redefine the properties of a part (e.g. you change the size of a part), Tekla Structures automatically modifies the surface treatment to fit the part.

When you create overlapping surface treatments, the smaller surface treatment overrides the larger one. The overlapping area is recognized in reports: only the topmost (visible) surface treatment is calculated.

Modifying surface treatment properties


To define the properties of a surface treatment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Detailing > Properties > Surface Treatment... to open the Surface Treatment Properties dialog box. In the Type list box, select the type of surface treatment to use. In the Surface treatment name list box, select the specific surface treatment. Click the Select... to select a material from the catalog. Enter the Thickness of the surface treatment.

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6. 7. 8.

Set the Color to use to display the surface treatment in rendered views. In the At depth list box, select the location of the surface treatment. The options are Middle, Front, and Behind. Optional: To define the properties of a tiled surface treatment: a On the Attributes tab, select Tile surface from the Type list box. b c On the Pattern tab, select the pattern from the Pattern type list box. The Definition table lists the properties of the pattern type.

9.

Click Apply or OK to save the surface treatment properties.

Adding surface treatment to a selected area


To add surface treatment to a selected area on the face of a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Create Surface Treatment > To Selected Area on Part Face. Pick the origin of the surface treatment. Pick a point to indicate the direction of the surface treatment. Select an area of the part face to apply the surface treatment to. a Move the mouse cursor over a part. The faces that you can select appear in blue. b c Select the part face. Pick three or more points on the part face to define a polygonal area.

Adding surface treatment to a part face


To add surface treatment to the entire face of a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Create Surface Treatment > To Part Face. Pick the origin of the surface treatment. Pick a point to indicate the direction of the surface treatment. Select the part to apply the surface treatment to. a Move the mouse cursor over a part. The faces that you can select appear in blue. b Select the part face.

Adding surface treatment to all faces of a part


To add surface treatment to all faces of a part: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Create Surface Treatment > To All Faces of Part. Select the part to apply the surface treatment to.

Adding surface treatment to cut faces


To add surface treatment to cut faces: 1. 2. 3. Click Detailing > Create Surface Treatment, and then select either To Part Face or To Selected Area on Part Face. Pick the origin of the surface treatment. Pick the direction.

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4.

Select the cut face to apply the surface treatment to:

5.

If you are using the To Selected Area on Part Face command, pick the points to define the area of the surface treatment.

Surface treatment on chamfered parts


Take these things into account when adding surface treatment to chamfered parts:

Surface treatment does not work on sketched profiles with chamfers. Add surface treatment before chamfering the part. If surface treatment is applied to a chamfered part, the surface treatment chamfer cannot be modified later on. The chamfers for the main part and surface treatment are separate. Modifying the main part chamfer does not affect the surface treatment chamfer. The orientation of unsymmetric chamfers depends on the face where it was created (such as top, bottom, left, or right). To change the orientation of an unsymmetric chamfer, you must swap the chamfer's x and y values.

Surface treatment on parts with openings and recesses


To force Tekla Structures to consider openings and recesses in parts when adding surface treatment, select the Cut by father part cuts checkbox in the Surface Treatment Properties dialog box.

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The green surface treatment has the Cut by father part cuts check box selected The tiled surface treatment is not cut by the cut in the part: Cut by father part cuts is not selected.

If you use the To All Faces of Part command and select the Cut by father part cuts checkbox, Tekla Structures automatically adds surface treatment also to the cut faces.

Creating new surface treatment options


This section is for advanced users.

You can add new options to the Surface treatment name list box in the Surface Treatment Properties dialog box. To create new surface treatment options: 1. Open the product_finishes.dat file using any text editor. The file is located in the ..\environments\<your_environment>\system folder. The first section of the file defines the available types of surface treatment. Do not edit this section:

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// Product finishes // ------------------------// // Type : Type of surfacing // 1 = concrete finish // 2 = special mix // 3 = tile surface // 4 = steel finishes

2.

Go to the sections that define the options for each type of surface treatment:

// // // // // 1 1 1

========================================= *** Concrete Finish ========================================= WET FINISH ---------MF "Magnesium Float" SMF "Smooth Magnesium Float" WT "Wet Trowel"

3.

Add rows to define new options. a Define the surface treatment type. For example, 1 for concrete finish. b c Define a code for the surface treatment option. For example, MF for Magnesium Float. Define the full name of the surface treatment option. For example, Magnesium
Float. Remember to enclose the name in double quotes " ".

4.

Save the file.

Tiled surface treatment


This section is for advanced users.

Tekla Structures includes complex tile and brick surface treatment options, such as basketweave and herringbone patterns. Tiled surface treatment options are based on repeating tile patterns that are stored in XML format.

Tile pattern definitions


The predefined tile patterns that are available in the Surface Treatment Properties dialog box are stored in the following files:

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File TilePatternCatalog.xml

Description

Contains the tile pattern definitions. Located in the ..\environments\<your_environment >\system folder. Document Type Declaration (DTD) file that defines the elements allowed in the TilePatternCatalog.xml file. Located in the same folder as the TilePatternCatalog.xml file. The images that appear in the Picture field in the Surface Treatment Properties dialog box. Located in the ..\nt\bitmaps folder. Filenames identify the pattern types. For example, herringbone.bmp illustrates the herringbone pattern type.

TilePatternCatalog.dtd

Thumbnail images

Tile pattern elements


The TilePatternCatalog.xml file can contain the following elements:

Element
TilePatternCatalog TilePattern HOffset VOffset Tile Color Parameter Label TileOrigin

Description The container for tile patterns. Required. Tile pattern element. Required. This element can contain the following elements listed in this table. Horizontal offset of the tile pattern. Required. Vertical offset of the tile pattern. Required. The individual tiles used in a tile pattern. At least one required. Color of the tile or mortar, defined by the RGB values (0 255). Optional. Creates an attribute for any element in the TilePattern. Optional. The label that identifies a parameter in the dialog box. Optional. The origin of an individual tile, defined from the origin of the pattern. Optional.

Example pattern definition


This example explains how the Basketweave tile pattern is defined in the TilePatternCatalog.xml file. The Basketweave pattern block is made up of eight tiles:

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Tile width Mortar width VOffset HOffset Red marks indicate TileOrigin. Angle value for vertical tiles is 90 Tile height Mortar height The pattern is repeated in the x and y direction of the surface treatment, starting from the origin of the surface treatment. You can run the pattern in different x directions:

In the TilePatternCatalog.xml file, the pattern is defined as follows:

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The name of the pattern The size of the pattern block in the x direction, after which the pattern repeats The size of the pattern block in the y direction, after which the pattern repeats The definition file uses the same symbols as the pattern definition table in the Surface Treatment Properties dialog box:

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Creating new tile patterns


To create new tile patterns: 1. Open the TilePatternCatalog.xml file using any text editor. The file is located in the ..\environments\<your_environment>\system folder. 2. Add a new <TilePattern> element to the file. The <TilePattern> element must have <HOffset> and <VOffset> elements and at least one <Tile> element. Other elements are optional.

You may find it easier to copy one of the existing elements, and then modify it to suit your needs.

3. 4.

Repeat adding <TilePattern> elements for all the patterns you want to define. Save the TilePatternCatalog.xml file.

4.5 Fine-tuning part shape


This section describes the various tools you can use to fine-tune the shape of a part.
See also

Creating and Modifying Structures (p. 95)

Chamfers
Chamfers are modeling details that can be used to refine the shape of parts for aesthetic, practical, and manufacturing reasons. In Tekla Structures, you can chamfer part corners and part edges.
Limitations

Only the following parts have corner chamfers: contour plates, concrete slabs, and parts that you create by picking more than two points (strip footings, steel and concrete polybeams, and concrete panels). The end points of a part do not have corner chamfers. The handles that you select must be at corner points or between two segments of a part.

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Chamfering part corners


When Tekla Structures creates a part, by default it has a rectangular chamfer at each corner, which does not change the geometry of the part. You can modify the default chamfers.

To modify a corner chamfer: 1. 2. Select the part. Double-click the handle of any part corner. The Chamfer Properties dialog box is displayed. 3. 4. 5.
See also

Modify the chamfer properties. Select the handles of the part corners you want to modify. Click Modify.

Corner chamfer properties (p. 258)

Corner chamfer types and dimensions


Straight chamfers can have different dimensions in two directions. Tekla Structures only uses one dimension for curved chamfers. The coordinates follow the parts local coordinate system. The table below describes the chamfer types and dimensions used with the Create Chamfer > For Part Corner command.

Type
None

Icon

Dimensions x: not used y: not used

Line

x:the distance in the x coordinate direction from the corner y: the distance in the y coordinate direction from the corner

Rounding

x: the radius y: not used

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Type
Arc

Icon

Dimensions x: the radius y: not used

Arc point

x: not used y: not used

Square

The chamfer is perpendicular to the edges. x: the distance in the x coordinate direction from the corner y: the distance in the y coordinate direction from the corner

Square parallel

The chamfer is parallel to the opposite edge. x: the distance in the x coordinate direction from the corner y: the distance in the y coordinate direction from the corner

Line and arc

x (if smaller than y): the arc radius x (if bigger than y): the distance in the x coordinate direction from the corner y (if smaller than x): the arc radius y (if bigger than x): the distance in the y coordinate direction from the corner

Chamfering part edges


To chamfer the edge of a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Create Chamfer > For Part Edge. Select the part you want to chamfer. Pick a point where you want the chamfer to start on the part edge. Pick a second point where you want the chamfer to end on the part edge. Tekla Structures displays the chamfer in light blue color. 5. Optional: Modify the chamfer. a Double-click the chamfer to open the Edge Chamfer Properties dialog box. b c 6. Modify the chamfer properties. Click OK.

Right-click the view and select Redraw View. Tekla Structures removes the chamfered edge.

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See also

Edge chamfer properties (p. 259)

Polybeam chamfers
By default, Tekla Structures places a rectangular corner chamfer between each polybeam segment. You can modify the default chamfers. Tekla Structures shows the status of polybeam chamfers using the following colors:

Color Magenta

Description Correct chamfer

Example

Yellow

Correct chamfer that cannot be unfolded

Red

Incorrect chamfer

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To see the chamfer lines of polybeams, set the variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to CHAMFERS.

Fittings
You can fit the end of a part to a plane by creating a straight cutting line between two points you pick. You can use fittings to extend or shorten parts inside a component, which makes it easier to create connections, details, and so on. Do not use fittings to otherwise change the length of a part in the model. A fitting adjusts the end of a beam on a plane, perpendicular to the view plane, which passes through the cutting line you pick. Tekla Structures displays the fitting in the model using a blue fitting symbol. Fittings cannot be used on contour plates.

Fitting symbol

Creating a fitting
To create a fitting: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Fit Part End. Select the part you want to cut with a fitting. Pick the first point of the cutting line. Pick the second point of the cutting line.

Do not apply a second fitting on the same part end, because then Tekla Structures will ignore the first fitting. This happens if you use the Fit Part End command for cutting and try to make two cuts on the same part end. In situations like this, use the Cut Part commands instead.

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Cuts
You can use cuts to shape a part. Do not use cuts for cutting the entire part end. You can create the following types of cuts in Tekla Structures:

Line cuts (p. 154) Polygon cuts (p. 155) Part cuts (p. 156)

Line cuts
A line cut cuts the end of a beam on a plane, perpendicular to the view plane, which passes through the cutting line you pick. Tekla Structures displays the cut in the model using a blue cut symbol.

Exact representation (without cut symbol) Fast representation (with cut symbol) By default, line cuts do not affect beam length in NC files. For more information on how to change this, see Fittings affect NC data.

Cutting parts with a line


Use line cuts to shape the end of a beam or column. To cut a part with a line: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Line. Select the part you want to cut. Pick the first point of the cutting line. Pick the second point of the cutting line. Pick the side you want to remove.

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Polygon cuts
A polygon cut cuts a part using a polygonal shape. Tekla Structures displays the cut using dotdash lines. You must create cuts in a plane view.

Exact representation (without symbol) Fast representation Polygon-shaped cut

You should always define the polygon so that there is some tolerance between the edges. If the edge of a cutting polygon is in exactly the same position as the edge of the part to be cut, it can be unclear whether the edge should be cut away.

Cutting parts with a polygon


To cut a part using a polygonal shape: 1. Ensure that the work plane is on the plane you are cutting on.

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For example, if you are creating a polygonal cut on the yz plane, you should temporarily set your work plane to the yz plane as well. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Polygon. Select the part you want to cut. Pick positions to outline the polygon to be used for cutting.

To undo the last pick, click Edit > Undo Last Polygon Pick.

5.

To close the polygon, click the middle mouse button or click Edit > Finish Polygon
Input.

Tekla Structures displays the cut as an anti-material part shown in dot-dash lines.

Part cuts
You can cut a part using another part. Tekla Structures displays the cutting part using dot-dash lines. You can cut parts that already have cuts. This can be useful, for example, when you want to create more sophisticated cut shapes.

Cuts are displayed using dot-dash lines Cut lines can be hidden in a view

Do not create cuts with the same planes or vertices. This makes it unclear what should be cut away.

Cutting parts with another part


Before you start, create a cutting part and position it through the part you want to cut. To cut a part with another part: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Cut Part > With Another Part Select the part you want to cut.

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3.

Select the cutting part. Tekla Structures cuts the selected main part. The part cut does not affect other parts.

4.

Delete the cutting part. a Ensure that the Select cuts and fittings selection switch is off. b Select the cutting part and press Delete.

Modifying the shape of a polygon


You can modify the shape of the following polygonal parts: steel and concrete polybeams, contour plates, concrete slabs, concrete panels, and strip footings. To modify the shape of a polygonal part: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the part you want to modify. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape. Pick an existing corner (1). Pick new corners for the polygon (2, 3). Pick another existing corner (4). Pick the corner to remove (5).

You can also use drag-and-drop to modify the shape of a polygon: 1. 2. 3. Press D to activate drag-and-drop. Select a chamfer. Click the selected chamfer, hold down the mouse button, and drag the chamfer to a new position.

Combining parts
You can combine existing parts in Tekla Structures. This can be useful when you want to model complex parts (such as folded plates) that are otherwise difficult to model, or when you want to model prefabricated parts that are delivered to the workshop already attached to profiles.

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When you select the parts you want to combine, the part properties of the part that is selected first are used for the combined part. You can add the new combined part to another combined part. Cuts and fittings can also be applied to combined parts.

Combining two parts into one


To combine two parts into one: 1. 2. 3. Click Edit > Combine. Select the first part. Select the second part.

If the centerlines of the part are not in line with each other, the centerlines are combined by taking the largest distance between the start and end points from both parts.

Combining does not work for contour plates or polybeams.

When you combine parts, Tekla Structures retains the attached objects and connections. Tekla Structures does not recreate connections in the part that was selected first.

Attaching a part to another part


To attach a part to another part: 1. 2. 3. Click Detailing > Attach Part. Select the part to attach to. Select the part you want to attach.

Splitting parts
You can split a part into two parts in Tekla Structures.

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You can use splitting with straight parts, curved beams without offsets, or normal and tapered reinforcing bar groups. You can also split plates and slabs by using a polygon. You cannot split polybeams.

Splitting a straight or curved part


To split a straight or curved part: 1. 2. 3. Click Edit > Split. Select the part you want to split. Pick a point for the dividing line.

Splitting a plate or slab


To split a plate or slab by using a polygon: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Edit > Split. Select the part you want to split. Pick positions to outline the polygon to be used for splitting. Click the middle mouse button to close the polygon and to split the part.

When you pick the corner points of the polygon to be used for splitting, make sure the starting and end points are:

outside of the part, and on the same side of the part.

If you split contour plates that have bolts, welds or surface treatments, check the result after splitting.

Warping concrete parts


Use the following methods to warp concrete parts:

To Warp a concrete beam Warp a concrete slab


See also

Do this Use the deforming options in the part properties dialog box. Move the chamfers.

Warping a beam using deformation angles (p. 159) Warping a concrete slab by moving chamfers (p. 160) Warping a Floor Bay (66) slab (p. 160)

Warping a beam using deformation angles


To warp a beam: 1. Double-click the beam to open the Beam properties dialog box.

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2. 3. 4.

Go to the Deforming tab. In the Start field, enter the angle of the beam at its start point, relative to the part reference line. In the End field, enter the angle of the beam at its end point, relative to the part reference line. For example, to warp the beam 45 degrees at the end point, type 0 in the Start angle field and 45 in the End angle field.

5. 6.

Click Modify to warp the beam. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Warping a concrete slab by moving chamfers


Before you start, create a concrete slab by using the Create concrete slab command. To warp a concrete slab by moving the chamfers: 1. 2. Double-click a chamfer to open the Chamfer Properties dialog box. Modify the chamfer properties.


3. 4.

To move the upper corner of the chamfer, use the dz1 field. To move the lower corner of the chamfer, use the dz2 field.

Click Modify to warp the slab. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Warping a Floor Bay (66) slab


Before you start, create a concrete slab by using the Modeling of floor bay (66) component. To warp a Floor Bay (66) slab by moving chamfers: 1. 2. Ensure that the Select components selection switch is on. Select the chamfer you want to move. For example, select the corner point of a slab component to warp that end of the slab:

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3. 4.

Right-click and select Move Special > Linear from the pop-up menu. In the Move - Linear dialog box, type a value in the appropriate direction field. For example, type 100 in the dZ field to lift that corner up 100 mm.

5.

Click Move. Tekla Structures moves the point in the direction you selected, which warps the slabs.

6. 7. 8.

Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu to finish. Ensure that the Select objects in components selection switch is on. To see the warping angle of a single slab, double-click a slab to open the Beam properties dialog box, and go to the Deforming tab.

The Start field shows the warping angle at the start point of the part. The End field shows the warping angle at the end point of the part.

Cambering parts
You can use cambering to pre-camber parts, in other words, to curve long heavy sections that will settle on site and become flat. Use cambering to show the natural camber of a prestressed part in a model. Cambering affects the position of cuts, skews, and embeds in the model. Tekla Structures cambers parts in the local z direction.

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The cambering functionality is available only in the Full and Precast Concrete Detailing configurations.

Cambering a part
To camber a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Go to the Deforming tab. In the Cambering field, define the degree of camber. Click Modify.

Shortening parts in drawings


Use the shortening functionality to make the drawing of a part longer or shorter than the part in the model. This can be useful for adding length to concrete precast parts in the cast condition while the model stays in the erected state. The most common use for this is to account for prestressing elastic shortening, where the part actually shrinks a fraction of an inch after casting and after the strands are cut. When drawings are created, Tekla Structures decreases the true length of the part by the value defined in the Shortening field. Shortening is applied linearly along the length in drawings. Shortening affects the dimensions of the part and dimensions to objects inside the part. Shortening does not affect the geometry of the actual objects inside the part, including the template output.

The shortening functionality is available only in the Full and Precast Concrete Detailing configurations.

Shortening a part
To shorten a part in drawings: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Go to the Deforming tab. In the Shortening field, define the degree of shortening. Click Modify.

To have a concrete part lengthened in cast unit drawings, type a negative value in the Shortening field.

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Lengthening a part
To have a concrete part lengthened in cast unit drawings, you must enter a negative value for shortening in the part properties dialog box. To lengthen a part in drawings: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Go to the Deforming tab. In the Shortening field, enter a negative value. For example, -20 would result in a part that is cast 20 units longer than the part in the model. 4. Click Modify.

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Examining the Model

This section describes a variety of tools you can use to view your model and ensure it does not contain errors. It also explains how to inquire object properties, filter objects, and show and hide objects in a view.
Contents

Viewing the model (p. 165) Inquiring the model (p. 171) Filtering objects (p. 173) Showing and hiding objects (p. 179) Visualizing project status (p. 184) Checking the model (p. 190)

5.1 Viewing the model


To see your Tekla Structures model from virtually any angle, you can move and rotate the model.
See also

Checking the model (p. 190)

Zooming the model


The commands on the View > Zoom menu allow you to focus in on a particular area, or pull out for a wider view. You can use a mouse, keyboard shortcuts, or a combination of both. To zoom in or out in a model:

Scroll with the mouse wheel. Scroll forward to zoom in, and backward to zoom out.

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If you do not have a wheel mouse, use the commands on the View > Zoom menu to zoom in or out in the model. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip.

Zoom settings
To modify zoom settings, do any of the following:

To Keep the center point of the view in the middle of the view window

Do this Click Tools > Options > Centered Zooms. If this option is off, the mouse pointer position determines the center point of zooming. Use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO. Use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO_IN_MOUSEWHEE L_MODE. Use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO_IN_SCROLL_MO DE.

Define the zoom ratio when using a 3-button mouse Define the zoom ratio when scrolling

Define the zoom ratio when scrolling and holding down the wheel

Zooming with keyboard shortcuts


To zoom by using keyboard shortcuts: 1. 2. Place the mouse pointer over the model. Do one of the following:

To zoom in, press Page Up. To zoom out, press Page Down.

Zooming with Magnifier


The Magnifier tool is useful when you need to keep a general view of the model open, and examine particular areas in detail at the same time. Magnifier works only in wire frame views. To zoom by using Magnifier: 1. 2. Open a wire frame view of the model. Create a zoom window. a Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. b c d e 3. In the View type list box, select Wire frame. Click Modify. Click View > Zoom > Create Zoom Window. Click a starting corner for the zoom window, and then drag the pointer to size the window.

Click the Magnifier icon.

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As you move the pointer in the general view, the zoom window displays the area around the pointer in detail. 4. To change the level of magnification, zoom in and out in the zoom window.

Rotating the model


You can use the mouse, keyboard shortcuts, menu commands, or a combination of these techniques to rotate the model in rendered views. In wire frame views, only menu commands and keyboard shortcuts can be used to rotate the model. To rotate the model, use any of the following methods:

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To Rotate using the middle mouse button

Do this 1. 2. Hold down the Ctrl key and click and drag with the middle mouse button to rotate the model. To relocate the center of rotation, press v, and then pick a position in the view. Tekla Structures rotates the model around this view point.

Rotate using the left mouse button

1. 2.

Press Ctrl + R. Pick a position in the view. Tekla Structures rotates the model around this view point.

3. Rotate using menu commands or keyboard shortcuts 1.

Click and drag with the left mouse button to rotate the model. Click View > Rotate and select one of the commands. The center of rotation is fixed in the center of the work area. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip.

Moving the model


To move the entire model, use any of the following methods:

To Move the model using the middle mouse button Move the model using the Pan command

Do this Hold down the middle mouse button and drag the model anywhere within the view window. 1. Press P or click View > Move > Pan to activate dynamic panning, The mouse pointer changes to a hand. 2. 3. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the mouse anywhere within the view window. To stop panning, press Esc.

Move the model using keyboard shortcuts or menu commands

Do one of the following:

Use the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard. Click View > Move and then select one of the commands.

Flying through the model


Using the Fly command, you can travel through a model, changing direction and varying the speed as you go. You can also adjust the field of view setting, which can be useful when flying in a tight space.

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To fly through a model: 1. Set view projection to Perspective. a Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. b c 2. In the Projection list box, select Perspective. Click Modify.

Optional: Adjust the field of view setting. a Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Model View. b c Modify the variable XS_RENDERED_FIELD_OF_VIEW. Click OK.

3. 4.

Click View > Fly. Select a view. The mouse pointer changes into an arrow and a cross. The arrow indicates the current flying direction.

5.

Drag the mouse to move around in the model.

To change the flying direction, drag the mouse in the desired direction. The flying speed grows exponentially when you are approaching the model from a distance.


6.
See also

To move up or down, hold down Ctrl and drag the mouse forward or backward. To change the camera angle, scroll with the mouse wheel. To fly in the in the direction of the camera angle, hold down Shift and scroll forward or backward.

To stop flying, press Esc.

XS_RENDERED_FIELD_OF_VIEW

Creating a clip plane


Clip planes enable you to focus in on the required detail in the model. You can create up to six clip planes in any rendered model view. To create a clip plane: 1. 2. Click View > Create Clip Plane. Select a plane. The clip plane symbol appears in the model:

3. 4.

To finish creating clip planes, press Esc. To move the clip plane, click the clip plane symbol and drag it to a new location.

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5.

To delete a clip plane, click the clip plane symbol and press Delete.

Creating a screenshot
A screenshot is a picture of a dialog box, view, or the entire Tekla Structures window. You can use screenshots in posters, brochures, or other material to show projects carried out using Tekla Structures. To create a high resolution screenshot of a rendered view: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
See also

Ensure that the view type is set to Rendered. Click Tools > Screenshot > Custom... To define which view to create the screenshot from, click Pick view and select a view. Under Capture, select Rendered view. Click Options... The Screenshot Options dialog box appears. Set the desired properties and click OK. Click Capture.

Screenshot settings (p. 243)

Creating a screenshot in Windows Vista


Due to a performance problem in Windows Vista, the screenshot commands might not always work properly. Use any of the following workarounds to solve this problem: Use the command Tools > Screenshot > Custom... Adjust the visual effects for best performance in the Performance Options dialog box in Windows Vista. Use the built-in Snipping Tool in Windows Vista to capture screenshots.

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Saving a screenshot in bitmap format


By default, screenshots are created as Portable Network Graphics (.png) files. You can also save a screenshot in bitmap (.bmp) format to use it, for example, as a custom component thumbnail. To save a screenshot in bitmap format: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Screenshot > Custom... Select Place on clipboard. Click Capture. Paste the screenshot in your graphics editor and save it in .bmp format.

The software that you use to open the screenshot may have a limit for the number of pixels.

Printing a screenshot
You can have Tekla Structures automatically print out a screenshot using the default printer. To print a screenshot: 1. 2. Click Tools > Screenshot > Print Screenshot to activate automatic printing. Click Tools > Screenshot and select one of the commands:

To capture the entire Tekla Structures window, select Main Frame. To capture the last dialog box displayed, select Dialog. To capture the active view, select View. To capture the active view without borders, select View without Borders.

5.2 Inquiring the model


Use the commands on the Tools > Inquire menu to display information about model objects and model size.
See also

Part properties (p. 247)

Inquiring object properties


Use the Inquire object command to display the properties of a particular object, or a group of objects, within the model. To inquire object properties: 1. 2. Click Tools > Inquire > Object. Select an object. Tekla Structures displays the object properties in a separate window.

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Object property report templates


When you view object properties using the Inquire object command, Tekla Structures uses the following report templates:

Part type Parts Assemblies Cast units Welds Reference models

Template TS_Report_Inquire_Part.rpt TS_Report_Inquire_Assembly.rpt TS_Report_Inquire_Cast_Unit.rpt TS_Report_Inquire_Welding.rpt TS_Report_Inquire_Reference.rpt

You can modify these templates according to your needs. For more information on how to use templates, see the Template Editor user documentation.

Using the Custom Inquiry tool


Use the Custom Inquiry tool to display information of the selected model object in a separate window that you can drag and drop to any position on the screen. By default, the tool shows the total area, weight, and length of the selected model object. To display object properties using the Custom Inquiry tool: 1. Click Tools > Inquire > Custom Inquiry.... The Custom Inquiry dialog box appears. 2. Select a part. Tekla Structures displays the part properties in the tool window.

Modifying the contents of Custom Inquiry tool


You can define what information is displayed in the Custom Inquiry dialog box. To modify the contents of the tool window: 1. Click Tools > Inquire > Custom Inquiry.... The Custom Inquiry dialog box appears. 2. Click Manage contents... The Manage Contents dialog box appears. The Attributes list contains all of the available attributes. The Contents of Custom Inquiry list contains the attributes that are displayed in the tool window. 3. Optional: Define which attributes are shown in the Attributes list.


4.

To modify the default attributes, edit the InquiryTool.config file in the ..\environments\common\macros\modeling\InquiryToolAttri butes folder. To create new calculated attributes, click Add. You can use standard mathematical symbols (+, -, *, and /) to form equations. To modify the calculated attributes, click Edit.... To add more attributes to the tool window, click an item in the Attributes list and then click the right arrow button.

Define which attributes are shown in the tool window.

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To remove attributes from the tool window, click an item in the Contents of Custom Inquiry list and then click the left arrow button. To change the order of the attributes, use the Up and Down buttons. To change the formula of an attribute, click the down arrow and select a different formula (SUM, AVERAGE, MAX, or MIN) from the list box.

Adding attributes to Custom Inquiry tool


This section is for advanced users.

Use the InquiryTool.config file to control which attributes are shown as default attributes in the Manage Contents dialog box in the Custom Inquiry tool. By default, the file contains 65 attributes. The attributes refer to the contentattributes_global.lst file located in the ..\TeklaStructures\<version>\nt\TplEd\settings folder. To add new attributes to the InquiryTool.config file: 1. Open the InquiryTool.config file in any standard text editor. The file is located in the ..\environments\common\macros\modeling\InquiryToolAttribut es folder. 2. 3. Copy the entire contents of [ATTR_CONTENT_??] to the end of the file. Change the position number of the new attribute. For example, change [ATTR_CONTENT_??] to [ATTR_CONTENT_66]. 4. Modify the NAME, DISPLAY_NAME, DATATYPE, UNIT, and DECIMAL values of the new attribute. Use the attribute names and definitions that are included in the contentattributes_global.lst file. Change the TOTAL_ATTR_CONTENT value to reflect the total number of attributes in the file. For example, change TOTAL_ATTR_CONTENT=65 to TOTAL_ATTR_CONTENT=66. 6. Save the file.

5.

5.3 Filtering objects


Use filtering when you want to perform an operation on several objects or properties at the same time. Filters are particularly useful for complicated models that contain a large number of objects. You can create two types of filters: view filters and selection filters. Tekla Structures contains several standard filters you can use.
Example

Create a selection filter for a rule set in the Master Drawing Catalog to automatically create drawings of desired objects. For example, if you only want to produce drawings of the beams in the model, use a selection filter to select the beams.

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Filtering objects using a view filter


View filters define which objects are displayed in a view, based on object properties. The work area, view depth, view setup, and object representation settings also affect the visibility of objects. To filter objects using a view filter: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. Select a filter from the Visible object group list box. Click Modify. Only objects allowed by the filter are displayed.

Filtering objects using a selection filter


Selection filters help you select objects in a model. To use selection filters on an object, the object must be visible in the relevant view. The selection switches also affect which objects you can select. To filter objects using a selection filter: 1. Select a filter from the Available selection filters list box:

2.

Select all or part of the objects in the model. Only objects allowed by the filter can be selected.

Creating a view filter


To create a view filter: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. Click Object group... to open the Object Group - View Filter dialog box. Modify the filter settings. a Click Add row. b c d 4. Select options from the Category, Property, and Condition list boxes. In the Value list box, type a value or select one from the model. Add more rows, and use the And/Or options or parentheses to create more complex rules.

Select the check boxes next to all filter rows that you want to enable. The check boxes define which rows of the filter are enabled and effective.

5.

Type a unique name in the field next to the Save as button.

To have the filter appear at the top of the list, right after the standard filter, use capital letters in the filter name.

6.

Click Save as to save the filter.

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Creating a selection filter


To create a selection filter: 1. 2. Click Edit > Selection Filter... to open the Object Group - Selection Filter dialog box. Modify the filter settings. a Click Add row. b c d 3. Select options from the Category, Property, and Condition list boxes. In the Value list box, type a value or select one from the model. Add more rows, and use the And/Or options or parentheses to create more complex rules.

Select the check boxes next to all filter rows that you want to enable. The check boxes define which rows of the filter are enabled and effective.

4.

Type a unique name in the field next to the Save as button.

To have the filter appear at the top of the list, right after the standard filter, use capital letters in the filter name.

5.

Click Save as to save the filter.

Filtering examples
This section gives some examples of filters that you can create. The same filtering techniques can be used for both view and selection filters. You can use wildcards to shorten filter strings.
See also

Wildcards (p. 176)

Filtering beams and columns


Before you start, create an empty view or selection filter. To filter beams and columns: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Add row twice to add two new rows. Fill in the part names, BEAM and COLUMN. Select the Or option. The filter is now looking for an object that has the Name BEAM or COLUMN. Enter a unique name in the field next to the Save as button. Click Save as.

Filtering parts in specific phases


Before you start, create an empty view or selection filter. To filter parts in specific phases:

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Click Add row. Fill in the part phases, 1 and 2. Separate the strings with a blank space. Enter a unique name in the field next to the Save as button. Click Save as.

Filtering out parts that have a certain profile


If you only want to select certain parts, create a complement filter to filter out the remaining parts. Before you start, create an empty view or selection filter. To filter out parts that have the profile BL200*20: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Add row. Fill in the profile, BL200*20. Select Does not equal from the Condition list box. Enter a unique name in the field next to the Save as button. Click Save as.

Filtering out reference models


Before you start, create an empty view filter. To hide certain reference models using a view filter: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Add row. In the Category list box, select Reference object. In the Property list box, select Id number. In the Condition list box, select Does not equal. In the Value list box, enter the ID numbers of the reference models you want to hide. To hide several reference models, separate their IDs with spaces. 6. 7. Enter a unique name in the field next to the Save as button. Click Save as.

Wildcards
You can use wildcards to shorten filter strings. A wildcard is a symbol that stands for one or more characters. Tekla Structures uses the following wildcards:

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Wildcard * (asterisk)

Description Matches any number or characters

Example HE* matches all parts with a profile name that begins with the characters "HE". You can also this symbol at the beginning of a word: *BRAC*.

? (question mark)

Matches a single character

HE?400 matches parts with profile names such as HEA400, HEB400, and HEC400 L[78]X4X1/2 matches parts with the profile names L7X4X1/2 and L8X4X1/2

[ ] (square brackets)

Matches whatever is enclosed in the brackets

The characters * and ? can also be used in object names. If the object name you want to filter contains * or ?, enclose * or ? in square brackets. For example, to find the profile P100*10, enter P100[*]10 in the filter field.

Possible values in filtering


You can create filters that contain several properties. You can also have multiple filtering values for each property. If you use multiple values, separate the strings with blank spaces (for example, 12 5). If a value consists of multiple strings, enclose the entire value in quotation marks (for example, "custom panel"). By using conditions, parentheses, and the And/Or option you can create filters that can be as complex as needed.

When you create rules between objects that represent different categories, use the And option when possible to avoid potential problems with more complex rules.

Empty values are matched to empty properties in filtering.

Template attributes in filtering


This section is for advanced users.

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You can select objects according to template attributes. To do this, select Template from the Category list box, and then select the desired template attribute from the Property list box. Use the following units when filtering template attributes, even when using the US Imperial environment:

mm for length mm2 for area kg for weight degree for angle

To check which unit Tekla Structures uses for a particular template attribute, use the Select from model... option in the Value list box.

Assembly types in filtering


If the category you have selected is Assembly, the property you have selected is Assembly type, and you select the option Select from model... in the Value list box, Tekla Structures returns the value as a number. The number indicates the type of assembly in question. The following table lists the numbers and the corresponding assembly types:

Value 0 1 2 3 6

Assembly type precast cast in place steel timber miscellaneous

Bolts and welds in filtering


Tekla Structures follows these principles when filtering bolts or welds:

If the category you have selected is Bolt or Weld, Tekla Structures uses the phase number of the actual bolt or weld in filtering. If the category you have selected is Assembly or Object, Tekla Structures also uses the phase number of the secondary part for filtering bolts and welds. If the bolt or weld is connected only to one part, Tekla Structures uses the phase of that part in filtering.

Copying a filter to another model


To copy a filter to another model: 1. Select the filter you want to copy.

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The filters you have created are located in the models attributes folder. View filters have the file name extension *.VObjGrp, and selection filters have the file name extension *.SObjGrp. 2. Select where you want to copy the filter.


3.

To make the filter available in another model, copy the file to the attributes folder of the destination model. To make the filter available in all models, copy the file to the system folder.

Restart Tekla Structures.

Deleting a filter
To delete a filter: 1. Delete the filter file located in the models attributes folder. View filters have the file name extension *.VObjGrp, and selection filters have the file name extension *.SObjGrp. 2. Restart Tekla Structures.

5.4 Showing and hiding objects


The visibility of objects in a view depends on the following settings:

work area view depth view settings view filter object representation settings

Work area and view depth are like two virtual boxes. Objects that have their reference line partially or totally inside both boxes are visible. Newly created objects are also visible outside the view depth but never outside the work area. When you redraw a view, only the objects inside the view depth are displayed.

Defining which objects are displayed


To define which objects are visible and how they are displayed in a view: 1. 2. 3.
See also

Double-click the view to open the View Properties dialog box. Click Display... The Display dialog box appears. Select or clear check boxes to specify which objects are visible in the view.

Display settings (p. 245)

Hiding parts
You can quickly hide selected parts in a view. This can be useful, for example, when you want to temporarily hide parts in order to see the parts behind them.

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Hiding selected parts


To hide selected parts: 1. 2. Click View > Hide Part. Select the parts you want to hide. The parts are shown as sticks.

To completely hide the parts, hold down the Shift key when selecting the command and the parts.

3.

To make the parts visible again, do one of the following:

Click View > Redraw All. Right-click the parts and select Show with Exact Lines.

Hiding unselected parts


To hide all unselected parts in a view: 1. 2. Select the parts that you want to keep visible. Right-click and select Show Only Selected. The unselected parts become almost transparent.

To completely hide the unselected parts, hold down the Shift key when selecting the command. To show the unselected parts as sticks, hold down the Ctrl key when selecting the command. 3. To make the parts visible again, do one of the following:

Click View > Redraw All. Right-click the parts and select Show with Exact Lines.

Showing parts with exact lines


Use the Show Part with Exact Lines command to temporarily display a part with exact lines even if you are using the Fast representation option for parts. To display a part with exact lines: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the part. Click View > Representation > Short Part with Exact Lines. Click the view in which you want to display exact lines. To clear the exact lines effect, click View > Redraw All.

Showing and hiding assemblies


Do any of the following:

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To Display the contents of an assembly

Do this

Right-click the assembly and select Assembly > Show Assembly from the pop-up menu. Tekla Structures displays all parts, bolts, welds, cuts, fittings, and other details belonging to the assembly, even if you had defined them as hidden in the view properties.

Hide an assembly

1. 2.

Select the assembly you want to hide. Right-click and select Assembly > Hide from the pop-up menu.

Make a hidden assembly visible again

Do one of the following:

Right-click and select Redraw View. Click View > Redraw All.

See also

Refreshing views (p. 83)

Showing and hiding components


Do any of the following:

To Display the contents of a component

Do this

Click View > Representation > Show Component Content and select a component. Tekla Structures displays all bolts, welds, and other details belonging to the component, even if you had defined them as hidden in the view properties.

Hide a component Make a hidden component visible again

1. 2.

Select the component you want to hide. Right-click and select Hide from the pop-up menu.

Do one of the following:

Right-click and select Redraw View. Click View > Redraw All.

See also

Refreshing views (p. 83)

Object groups
Object groups are sets of rules that can be used to group objects based on selected properties and conditions. Use object groups to control the transparency and coloring of model objects. Object groups are also used in project status visualizations.

Creating an object group


To create an object group: 1. 2. Click View > Representation > Object Representation... to open the Object Representation dialog box. Click Object group... to open the Object Group - Representation dialog box.

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3.

Modify the object group settings. a Click Add row. b c d Select options from the Category, Property, and Condition list boxes. In the Value list box, type a value or select one from the model. Add more rows, and use the And/Or options or parentheses to create more complex rules.

4.

Select the check boxes next to all object group rules that you want to enable. The check boxes define which rules are enabled and effective.

5. 6.

Type a unique name in the field next to the Save as button. Click Save as to save the object group.

Copying an object group to another model


To copy an object group to another model: 1. Select the object group you want to copy. The object groups you have created are located in the models attributes folder, and they have the file name extension *.PObjGrp. 2. Select where you want to copy the object group.


3.

To make an object group available in another model, copy the file to the attributes folder of the destination model. To make an object group available in all models, copy the file to the system folder.

Restart Tekla Structures.

Deleting an object group


To delete an object group: 1. Delete the object group file located in the models attributes folder. Object groups have the file name extension *.PObjGrp. 2. Restart Tekla Structures.

Object representation settings


Use object representation settings to modify the color and transparency of objects in the model view, and to create customized presentations of defined objects. For example, the following images show the same model with different object representation settings:

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Standard object representation Only parts whose profile name starts with IPE* or HEA* are visible Objects whose user-defined attribute Planned erection date is set to 01/05/2009 are displayed in blue, while all other parts are 90% transparent

Creating object representation settings


Create object representation settings to define the color and transparency of objects in a model. To create object representation settings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click View > Representation > Object Representation... Click Add row. Select a predefined object group from the Object group list box. Use the Color list box to define the color of the objects in the object group. Use the Transparency list box to define the transparency of the objects in the object group. Repeat steps 35 for each row you add. Use the Move up and Move down buttons to change to order of the rows. If an object belongs to several object groups, the coloring and visibility of the objects defined on the top row is applied to that object. 8. 9. Type a unique name in the field next to the Save as button Click Save as to save the set of object representation settings.

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If your object representation setting does not contain the group All, Tekla Structures adds that row to the bottom of the list when you click Modify, Apply, or OK.

See also

Color settings (p. 242) Transparency settings (p. 243)

Copying object representation settings to another model


To copy object representation settings to another model: 1. Select the object representation settings you want to copy. The settings you have created are located in the models attributes folder, and they have the file name extension *.rep. 2. Select where you want to copy the settings.


3.

To make the settings available in another model, copy them to the attributes folder of the destination model. To make the settings available in all models, copy them to the system folder.

Restart Tekla Structures.

Deleting object representation settings


To delete object representation settings: 1. Delete the object representation file located in the models attributes folder. Object representation settings have the file name extension *.rep. 2. Restart Tekla Structures.

5.5 Visualizing project status


Use the Project Status Visualization tool to review the status of modeling objects in a specific time frame. For example, use this tool to:

display the erection schedule for groups of parts using different colors identify the parts that are scheduled to be fabricated during a specific time period.

To create project status visualizations, you need to have predefined object representation settings that include object groups based on date rules.

Creating a visualization
To create a project status visualization: 1. 2. Click Tools > Project Status Visualization... to open the Project Status Visualization dialog box. Modify the visualization settings. a In the Object representation list box, select one of the predefined object representation settings.

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b c 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define a start and end date for the time scale slider. Define the length of the time step.

Select the Refresh view automatically check box. Type a unique name in the field next to the Save as button. Click Save as to save the visualization settings. To view the visualization in the model, click the step buttons.

Copying visualization settings to another model


To copy project status visualization settings to another model: 1. Select the visualization settings you want to copy. The settings you have created are located in the models attributes folder, and they have the file name extension *.4d. 2. Select where you want to copy the settings.


3.

To make the settings available in another model, copy them to the attributes folder of the destination model. To make the settings available in all models, copy them to the system folder.

Include a copy of the object representation settings file (*.rep) and object group files (*.PObjGrp) in the attributes and system folders to ensure that all the files will work correctly. Restart Tekla Structures.

4.

Deleting visualization settings


To delete project status visualization settings: 1. Delete the visualization file located in the models attributes folder. Project status visualization settings have the file name extension *.4d. 2. Restart Tekla Structures.

Project status visualization example


This section explains how to visualize erection schedules using the project status visualization tool available in Tekla Structures. In the following example, you will first define an erection schedule for parts using a specific user-defined attribute. After that, you will create object groups to define which objects are shown in the model, and object representation settings to define how the objects are shown in the model. Finally, you will visualize the erection schedule using the project status visualization tool.

Example: Defining an erection schedule


In this example, you will define an erection schedule for parts using the user-defined attribute Planned erection date. To define an erection schedule: 1. 2. Double-click a part to open the part properties dialog box. Modify the value of the user-defined attribute Planned erection date on the Status tab.

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3. 4. 5.

Ensure that all the check boxes are cleared. Select the Planned erection date check box. Select all the parts for which you want to use the same erection date.

To make it easier to select parts, create a separate selection filter for each group of parts.

6. 7.

Click Modify. Repeat steps 17 for each group of parts in your model.

Example: Creating object groups


In this example, you will create an object group to define which objects are shown in the model. To create the object group: 1. 2. 3. Click View > Representation > Object representation.... In the Object Representation dialog box, click Object group.... In the Object Group - Representation dialog box, create an object group that includes all objects whose user-defined attribute Planned erection date is earlier than or equal to the review date. a In the Category list box, select Object. b c d e 4. 5. In the Property list box, select Planned erection date. In the Condition list box, select Earlier than or equal. In the Value list box, select Select date... The Select Date dialog box appears. Select Review date and click OK.

In the field next to the Save as button, type a name for the group. For example, plan_same_or_before_review_date. Click Save as.

Example: Creating object representation settings


In this example, you will create object representation settings to define how the objects are shown in the model. To create object representation settings: 1. 2. Click View > Representation > Object Representation... to open the Object Representation dialog box. Define the color and transparency settings for the object group that you created in Example: Creating object groups (p. 186). a Click Add row. b c d In the Object group list box, select the object group you just created. In the Color list box, select Color by class. In the Transparency list box, select Visible.

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3.

Define the color and transparency settings for the object group All. a Click Add row. b c d In the Object group list box, select the object group All. In the Color list box, select Color by class. In the Transparency list box, select Hidden.

4. 5.

In the field next to the Save as button, type a name for the object representation settings. Click Save as.

Example: Creating visualization settings


In this example, you will create project status visualization settings. To create visualization settings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click Tools > Project Status Visualization... to open the Project Status Visualization dialog box. Define the length of the time step. Define a start and end date for the time scale slider. In the Object representation list box, select the object representation setting you created in Example: Creating object representation settings (p. 186). Select the Refresh view automatically check box. In the field next to the Save as button, type a name for the visualization. Click Save as to save the visualization settings.

Example: Visualizing the erection schedule


In this example, you will visualize the erection schedule using the Project Status
Visualization tool.

To visualize the erection schedule: 1. Click Tools > Project Status Visualization... to open the Project Status Visualization dialog box.

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2. 3. 4.

In the list box next to the Load button, select the visualization setting you created in Example: Creating visualization settings (p. 187). Click Load. To view the visualization in the model, click the step buttons. The images below show how the objects are shown when you change the review date:

Review date November 02

Visualization

November 05

November 08

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Review date November 11

Visualization

November 14

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Review date November 17

Visualization

November 20

5.6 Checking the model


When the model is complete, it is useful to check the model for errors.
See also

Measuring objects (p. 190) Detecting clashes (p. 192) Comparing parts or assemblies (p. 194) Finding distant objects (p. 194)

Measuring objects
Use the Measure tool to measure angles, the distance between two points and between bolts.

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All measurements are temporary. The measurements appear in the rendered view window until you update or redraw the window.

Measuring distances
To measure horizontal, vertical and user-defined distances: 1. 2. Press Ctrl+P to switch to the plane view. Click Tools > Measure and select a command that measures distances. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 3. 4. 5. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point. Pick a point to indicate on which side of the dimension line you want the number to appear.

Measuring angles
To measure angles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Measure > Angle. Pick the center point. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point.

Measuring bolt spacing


You can measure distances between bolts in a bolt group. Tekla Structures also gives you the edge distances between the bolts and a selected part. To measure bolt spacing: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Measure > Bolt Spacing. Select a bolt group. Select a part.

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Detecting clashes
When you have completed your model, use the Clash Check tool to find parts, bolts, or reference model objects that collide. Clashes of objects that are only touching one another are not included in the clash check log. The clash check progress is displayed on the status bar. You can continue working during the clash check. If you start clash checking while another clash check is still running, you can choose whether to continue checking, restart the operation and check the currently selected parts, or stop checking.

Finding clashes in a model


To find clashes in a model: 1. 2. Select the objects you want to check. Click Tools > Clash Check. If parts, bolts, or reference model objects collide, Tekla Structures highlights them in yellow and displays the clash check log in the List dialog box. 3. To quickly locate and view colliding parts, select a row in the List dialog box. Tekla Structures highlights the corresponding parts in the model.

To have Tekla Structures automatically fit the work area to include only the selected parts, hold down F while selecting a line.

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Defining a clash check clearance area for bolts


To check if bolts collide with profiles and if there is enough space to fix the bolt, you can define a clash check clearance area for bolts. To define a clearance area for bolts: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Options > Options... In the Options dialog box, go to the Clash check page. Modify the bolt clearance values. If the fields are empty, Tekla Structures uses the default value 1.00.

d is the larger value of the bolt head or nut diameters Clash check clearance area 4. Ensure that you have selected the check box in front of each field. If you clear the check boxes, the clearance will be zero. 5. Click Apply or OK.

If Tekla Structures cannot find the bolt head or nut diameter in the bolt catalog, it uses the shank diameter instead.

Reference model clash checking


If you are checking a reference model for clashes, ensure that all the parts of the reference model are selected. The following reference model file types are supported in clash checking:

IFC DWG DGN

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Reverting to the old clash checking functionality


If you are working on a large model, running the clash check may sometimes be slow. In that case you can use the old clash checking functionality, which does not recognize clashes with reference models.

In the Viewer and Drafter configurations, only the old clash checking functionality is available.

For more information on the old clash checking functionality, see XS_USE_NEW_CLASH_CHECK and XS_CLASH_CHECK_BETWEEN_REFERENCES.

Comparing parts or assemblies


To compare two parts or assemblies: 1. Select the objects you want to compare.


2.

To compare parts, select two parts in the model. To compare assemblies, select a part in each assembly.

Click Tools > Compare, and then select either Parts or Assemblies. Tekla Structures displays the results on the status bar.

Finding distant objects


When the work area is huge, the model may contain some distant objects that are not easy to find. Use the Find Distant Objects command to find these objects.

You cannot use this command to find parts (such as beams, columns or plates).

To find distant objects: 1. Click Tools > Diagnose & Repair Model > Find Distant Objects. Tekla Structures displays a list of object IDs. 2. 3. Select an object in the list. Right-click and select a command from the pop-up menu. You can, for example, inquire or delete the object.
See also

XS_DISTANT_OBJECT_FINDER_TOLERANCE

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Numbering the Model

This section explains how to change numbering settings and apply numbering in Tekla Structures.
Contents

What is numbering (p. 195) What affects numbering (p. 195) Numbering objects (p. 197) Numbering series (p. 201) Changing numbers (p. 204) Clearing numbers (p. 204) Viewing the numbering history (p. 204) Creating a standard part model (p. 205)

6.1 What is numbering


Tekla Structures uses numbers to identify parts, cast units, and assemblies when producing drawings and reports, and exporting models. You must have Tekla Structures number the model before you can create single-part, assembly, cast unit, and multi-drawings, or export files from a model. Tekla Structures uses part numbers in many tasks, for example to:

connect a drawing with the right part, cast unit, or assembly report the properties of identical parts, cast units, and assemblies identify part information when exporting parts to another software.

6.2 What affects numbering


Tekla Structures treats objects as different, and therefore numbers them differently, if the following properties differ:

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Beam orientation Column orientation Reinforcement Cast-in embeds Surface treatment (affects only assemblies) Pop marks Shortening User-defined attributes

To define which properties affect numbering in your model, modify the settings in the
Numbering Setup dialog box. For example, if two otherwise identical concrete parts have different names and you select the Part name check box, Tekla Structures gives the parts

different numbers. By default, a part retains its number, as long as only one part has that particular number, regardless of the settings in the Numbering Setup dialog box.

Identical parts
Tekla Structures gives parts the same number if the parts are identical in the fabrication or casting. If a part is deformed after fabrication or casting (for example if the part is cambered, shortened, or warped), the final geometry on site and in the model may be different. Tekla Structures treats parts as identical and gives them the same number if the following basic part properties are the same:

Part geometry Numbering series Profile Material Finish

You can set the degree of tolerance for part geometry in the Numbering Setup dialog box. If the geometry of parts differs within this degree of tolerance, Tekla Structures treats the parts as identical for numbering purposes. Class and phase do not affect numbering. Tekla Structures gives the same number to identical parts that belong to different classes or phases.

Identical reinforcements
Tekla Structures treats reinforcing bars as identical, and gives them the same number, if the following properties are the same:

Bar geometry Numbering series Size Grade Bending radius

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Tekla Structures uses the values of the rebar_config.inp file located in the ..\environments\<your_environment>\system\ folder to round bar dimensions up or down. For example, if you set the rounding accuracy for bar dimensions to 5 and the rounding direction to up, Tekla Structures rounds all bar dimensions up to the nearest 5 mm. In that case, two bars with dimensions of 131 mm and 133 mm would both round up to 135 mm. This gives them identical bar geometry. Class does not affect numbering. Tekla Structures gives the same number to identical reinforcing bars that belong to different classes.

User-defined attributes in numbering


Tekla Structures treats parts and reinforcing bars as different, and therefore numbers them differently, if the values of a user-defined attribute differ.
Parts Reinforcements

If a user-defined attribute has the variable special_flag set to yes, Tekla Structures takes this user-defined attribute into account when numbering parts. If a user-defined attribute has the variable consider_in_numbering set to yes, Tekla Structures takes this user-defined attribute into account when numbering reinforcements.

6.3 Numbering objects


Tekla Structures keeps a list of objects that have been modified or created since numbering was last carried out. When you number the model, you can choose whether you want to number all the objects or only the new and modified objects.

Always carry out full numbering on the model after you have changed the numbering settings.

To number objects in a model: 1. Optional: Modify the numbering settings. a Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Numbering Settings... to open the Numbering Setup dialog box. b c 2. Modify the settings. Click Apply or OK. To number all the objects, select Number All Objects (Full Numbering). To number only the new and modified objects, select Number Modified Objects. To number the welds, select Number Welds...

Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering and select one of the commands.

If the Renumber all option is selected in the Numbering Setup dialog box, Tekla Structures will always carry out full renumbering.

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See also

General numbering settings (p. 259) Weld numbering settings (p. 260)

Numbering assemblies and cast units


Part numbering does not affect cast unit and assembly numbering. However, Tekla Structures numbers assemblies and cast units in the same way as it does parts. The default starting number is 1. The prefix varies based on the part type. Surface treatments affect the numbering of assemblies, if you select the Surface treatment check box in the Numbering Setup dialog box.

Assembly and cast unit numbering may affect part numbering, if the variable XS_USE_ASSEMBLY_NUMBER_FOR is set.

Assembly position numbers


Use the options in the Numbering Setup dialog box to sort the order in which assemblies are given their position numbers. Sorting by user-defined attributes or by location does not affect the part position. The sort order can be based on the following criteria:

The x, y or z coordinates of the main part of the assembly The sorting is based on the center of gravity of the reference axis. The user-defined attribute of an assembly or the main part If your sorting is based on user-defined attributes, Tekla Structures displays a list box that includes all the available user-defined attributes.

If you add new parts, objects that have already been numbered are not renumbered to suit the sorting order by, for example, the x coordinate. In this case you should renumber the parts.

Numbering reinforcements
Part numbering and cast unit numbering do not affect the numbering of reinforcements. However, Tekla Structures numbers reinforcements in the same way as it does parts. To force Tekla Structures to give otherwise identical concrete parts and cast units different numbers if they have different reinforcements, select the Reinforcing bars check box in the Numbering Setup dialog box.

Saving preliminary numbers


A preliminary mark is a user-defined attribute that defines the part position number. You can save the current part position numbers as preliminary marks for selected parts. The previous preliminary numbers are overriden. To save part position numbers for preliminary marks:

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1. 2.

Select the parts. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Save Preliminary Numbers.

Control numbers
Control numbers are properties that identify the location of parts in a model. You can assign consecutive control numbers to all the parts or only selected parts. When you assign control numbers, you can specify in what order to assign control numbers, according to the location of each part on the global coordinate system. The options are:

None X -X Z -Z Y -Y

With positive directions (such as X), the parts with the lowest coordinate value are numbered first. With negative directions (such as -X), the parts with the highest coordinate value are numbered first. For example, if First direction is -X, Second direction is Y, and Third direction is Z, numbering starts from the parts that have the highest x coordinate value. If multiple parts have the same x coordinate, their y coordinates are also compared. If multiple parts have the same x and y coordinates, their z coordinates are also compared.
Example

In the following example, the sort order is X Y Z.

Assigning control numbers to parts


Before you start, number the model. To assign control numbers to parts: 1. 2. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Assign Control Numbers... to open the Create control numbers dialog box. Indicate which parts to consider.


3.

To consider all parts in the model, do not select any parts. To only consider specific parts, select the parts.

In the Numbering list box, specify which parts get control numbers.

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4. 5.

If you are assigning control numbers to parts in a specific numbering series, type the prefix and start number in the corresponding fields. Define the control numbers to be used. a In the Start number of control numbers field, type the first control number to be used. b In the Step value field, define the interval. For example, to assign the control numbers 2, 5, 8, 11, etc., type 2 in the Start
number of control numbers field and 3 in the Step value field.

6. 7. 8.
See also

In the Renumber list box, specify how to treat parts that already have control numbers. Use the direction list boxes to specify in what order to assign control numbers. Click Apply, and then click Create.

Control number settings (p. 261)

Locking and unlocking control numbers


To prevent Tekla Structures from renumbering the control numbers of all parts, or specific parts, use the Lock/Unlock Control Numbers command. To lock or unlock control numbers: 1. 2. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Lock/Unlock Control Numbers to open the Lock/Unlock control numbers (S10) dialog box. Define which parts control numbers to lock or unlock.


3. 4.

To lock or unlock the control numbers of all parts, do not select any parts in the model. To lock or unlock the control numbers of specific parts, select the parts in the model.

In the Status list box, select Lock or Unlock in the Status. Click Apply, and then click Create.

Example: Numbering identical beams


This example explains how different numbering settings result in different part numbers when you modify a part. To number identical beams: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create three identical beams with the numbering series prefix P and start number 1. Number the model. All the beams have the part position number P1. Modify one of the beams. Number the model. You should now have two beams P1 and one P2. Change beam P2 to be identical to the others. Number the model. Depending on the numbering settings in the Numbering Setup dialog box, Tekla Structures assigns one of the following part position numbers to the modified part:

Compare to old: P1 Keep number if possible: P2 Take new number: P3

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6.4 Numbering series


You can use a numbering series to divide steel parts, cast units, and assemblies into groups. For example, you can allocate a separate numbering series to different phases or part types. The name of a numbering series consists of a prefix and a starting number. By default, the steel part mark prefix is P, the concrete part prefix is C, and the starting number is 1. You do not have to specify a part prefix (for example, you may want to omit the part prefix for minor parts). When you run numbering, Tekla Structures compares parts that belong to the same series with each other. All identical parts in the same numbering series are given the same part number.
Example

For example, if you define a numbering series with the prefix P and starting number 1001, Tekla Structures numbers that series P1001, P1002, P1003, ...

Assigning a numbering series to a part


You can assign a numbering series to any part or assembly. To assign a numbering series to a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. If you are modifying the properties of a concrete part, go to the Cast unit tab. Under Numbering series, define a part prefix and a starting number. Click Modify.

Family numbers
With family numbering you can group objects within the same numbering series into different families. This can be used, for example, to find similar cast units that can be cast in the same bed. When you use family numbering, the cast unit position numbers consist of a family number and a qualifier. For example:

Family number Qualifier Assemblies and cast units that match the comparison criteria you define in the Numbering Setup dialog box get the same family number. However, if they have the same family number but different part geometry or materials, they get unique qualifier numbers.

Assigning family numbers


To assign family numbers to numbering series:

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1. 2. 3.

Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Numbering Settings... to open the Numbering Setup dialog box. Go to the Family numbering tab. Define which numbering series to assign family numbers to. a Click Add series to open the Add series dialog box. Tekla Structures displays all the assembly and cast unit numbering series in the model. b Select a numbering series from the list, and then click Add. The numbering series appears in the family numbering list.

4.

Under Compare, select the properties that need to be identical for the members of the same family. Define comparison criteria for each numbering series separately. Select at least one check box, but not all of them. If you select all the check boxes, the family number will be the same as the normal assembly position, and the qualifier number will be 1 for all. If you do not select any check boxes, only one family number per series is assigned.

5.

Click Apply. Tekla Structures stores the settings in the numbering database file (<model_name>.db2) in the current model folder the next time you save the model.

6. 7.

If you are assigning family numbers to parts that have already been numbered, clear the existing numbers. Update numbering in the model. Tekla Structures assigns a family number to all objects in the numbering series.

See also

Clearing numbers (p. 204)

Changing the family number of an object


To change the family number and/or family qualifier of an object: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the objects whose family numbers you want to change. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Change Number > Family Number... In the Assign Family Number dialog box, type the desired values in the Family number and Family qualifier fields. Click Assign.

Family numbering example


In this example, the following four beams have the numbering series prefix B and the start number 1. The parts have the same main profile, and each pair has the same length, but the holes are different.

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Assembly position: B/1 Assembly position: B/2 Assembly position: B/3 Assembly position: B/4 We use the following family numbering settings:

Numbering series: B/1 Compare: Main part profile and Overall length

With the given family numbering criteria, Tekla Structures divides the beams into two families. All beams have the same profile, but each pair has a different length. Within both families the beams get different qualifiers because they have different holes.

The first beam gets the assembly position number B/1-1 The second beam gets the assembly position number B/1-2 The third beam gets the assembly position number B/2-1 The fourth beam gets the assembly position number B/2-2

Overlapping numbering series


When you plan numbering, ensure that you reserve enough numbers for each series. If a series overlaps another, Tekla Structures might allocate the same number to different parts. Tekla Structures warns you about series overlaps. View the numbering history log to check which numbers overlap.

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6.5 Changing numbers


Use the Change Number command to change part, assembly, multi-position, or family numbers after you run numbering. All objects with the same number will be given the number you specified. This command does not change the numbering series. To change the position numbers: 1. 2. Select an object. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Change Number and select one of the commands. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip. 3. Set the desired properties. The options you have vary depending on your selection in step 2. If the number you specified is already in use, Tekla Structures displays a warning and does not change the number.Tekla Structures also displays a warning if the position number is higher than the highest current number. This is for information only and the number is still changed. 4. Click Assign.

6.6 Clearing numbers


Use the Clear Numbers command to permanently delete the assigned position numbers of objects. Next time you run numbering, Tekla Structures assigns new numbers to the objects, irrespective of what their previous numbers were. To clear the position numbers: 1. 2. Select the objects whose numbers you want to clear. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Clear Numbers and select one of the commands. For more information on each command, see the corresponding menu tooltip.

6.7 Viewing the numbering history


To view the numbering history:

Click Tools > Display Log File > Numbering History.... Tekla Structures displays the numbering log file.

For information on how to interpret the log file, see Numbering history log.

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6.8 Creating a standard part model


A standard part model contains only standard parts with specific part prefixes. You can have Tekla Structures use these prefixes when numbering parts in another model. To create a standard part model: 1. Create a new model and give it a descriptive name. For example, StandardParts. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create the objects you want to have as standard parts. Explode all components. Delete all unnecessary items. Give the objects prefixes that are not used elsewhere (for example, STD1, STD2, and so on). Ensure that the standard part model does not contain duplicate prefixes. 6. 7. 8. 9. Save the standard part model. Open another model. Click Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Numbering. Check that the variable XS_STD_PART_MODEL is set, and that it points to the correct standard part model. For example:
XS_STD_PART_MODEL=C:\Tekla StructuresModels\StandardParts

10. 11. 12. 13.

Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Numbering Settings... to display the Numbering Setup dialog box. If you have selected the Part name check box, ensure that the project model has the same part names as the standard part model. Click Check for standard parts and Apply. Number the model. As Tekla Structures carries out the numbering, it compares all of the parts in the model to the standard part model. The numbering applies any part position numbers (only the part prefix) found in the standard part model to all identical parts found in the project model.

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Advanced Modeling

This chapter explains some advanced modeling techniques available in Tekla Structures.
Contents

Phases (p. 211) Organizing the model (p. 207) Sequences (p. 211) Lotting (p. 214) Sketched cross sections (p. 215) Parametric modeling (p. 233)

7.1 Organizing the model


Use the Model Organizer to manage and view different logical areas and object types in your model. You can classify information according to your needs.
Model Organizer can be used in construction planning and management. You can divide a large model into logical sections and floors to help create building schedules, lots, and erection sequences, and categorize object types, for example, based on purchasing contracts. You can categorize both native Tekla Structures objects and reference objects.

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Model Organizer is included in the Full and Construction Management configurations only.

Creating logical areas


Logical areas may already have been defined for the model. You can create new logical areas for your own needs. To create logical areas using Model Organizer: 1. 2. Click Tools > Model Organizer.... Create a path structure. a Right-click Logical Areas. b Click New Building.

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c d

Click New Section. Click New Story. You may create as many sections and storys as you need. Note that sections and storys are both created under buildings.

3. 4.

Select a section or story in Model Organizer. In the model, select the area for the section or the story. Each model object can belong to only one section and one story.

5.

In Model Organizer, right-click the selected section or story, and select Add Selected to Category.

In large projects, you can create sites for your project by right-clicking Logical Areas and selecting Show Site(s). You can hide the sites by selecting Hide Site(s).

Creating object type categories


Object types may already have been defined for the model. You can create new object type categories for your own needs. To create object type categories using Model Organizer: 1. 2. Click Tools > Model Organizer.... Create object type categories. a Right-click Object Types. b Click New Object Type. You can also create subtypes for object types. 3. In the model, select the objects you want to add to an object type category.

To make it easier to view and select parts, create a separate view or selection filter for each group of parts.

4.

In Model Organizer, right-click the object type category and select Add Selected to Category .

Modifying logical areas and object type categories


To modify logical areas or object type categories, do any of the following:

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To Rename logical areas and object type categories Redefine a logical area

Do this Right-click the name in Model Organizer and select Rename. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. Select the new area in the model. Right-click the area name in Model Organizer and select Add Selected to Category. Select the object type category in Model Organizer. Drag the category to another location. Select the objects in the model. Right-click the category name in Model Organizer and select Add Selected to Category. Select the object type category in Model Organizer. Hold down the Ctrl key and select the objects in the window on the right. Drag the objects to another category. Select the object type category in Model Organizer. Hold down the Ctrl key and select the objects in the window on the right. Right-click and select Delete.

Move categories Add objects

Move objects

Remove objects

1. 2. 3.

Viewing logical areas and object type categories


To view logical areas and object type categories in the model: 1. 2. Click Tools > Model Organizer.... Select a logical area or an object type category. The logical area or objects belonging to the selected object type category are highlighted in the model. To view more than one logical area or object type category at a time, hold down the Ctrl key and select the logical areas and object type categories you want to view. 3. To view the classification information of an object, right-click the object in the model and select Model Classification > Show Related Classification, or in the Model
Organizer, select an object and click

Deleting logical areas and object type categories


To delete a logical area or an object type category using Model Organizer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Model Organizer.... Select a category under Logical Areas or Object Types. Right-click and select Delete. Click OK to confirm.

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7.2 Phases
Use phases to break up a model into sections. Phases are often used to indicate erection sequences. You can create reports and views, hide objects, and copy objects from other models, according to their phase number. For example, you might have a large project which several users work on simultaneously in single-user mode. First create a basic model that includes, for example, the columns. This is phase 1. You then copy this basic model to all users. Each user then works on a separate part of the building. When a part of the model is completed, you can copy it back to the basic model as a separate phase (phase 2, 3, etc.).

Dividing the model into phases


To divide a model into phases: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Phase Manager.... The Phase Manager dialog box appears. Click Add to create new phases. Click Set current to make the selected phase the current phase. From now on, Tekla Structures assigns all objects you create to the current phase. The @ character in front of the phase number indicates the current phase. 4. Divide the model into phases. a To identify the phase of an object, select an object and click Phases by objects. Tekla Structures selects the phase of the object. b To see which objects belong to a certain phase, select a phase from the list and then click Objects by phases. Tekla Structures highlights the corresponding objects in the model. c 5. To change the phase of one or more objects, select the objects, select a phase from the list, and then click Modify phase.

Click OK to save your changes.

Custom phase properties


You can add custom phase properties, which will appear as extra columns in the Phase
Manager dialog box.

Define the names of phase properties in the objects.inp file. To use phase properties in reports and templates, use the syntax PHASE.ATTRIBUTE_NAME in the phase property field name.

7.3 Sequences
Use the Sequencer tool to name sequences and assign incremental numbers to parts. For example, you can define the order in which to erect parts by creating erection sequences. You can define several sequences for different purposes, and a part can belong to several sequences at the same time.

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Sequencer works by assigning a sequence number to a user-defined attribute of a part. The sequence name that you enter in the Sequencer Properties dialog box is the name of the userdefined attribute defined in the objects.inp file. Limitations See also

Sequencer does not work for objects that are inside a reference model. Lotting (p. 214)

Creating a sequence
Use the Sequencer tool to assign sequence numbers to parts. If you want to view and modify the sequence number afterwards, you must first create a user-defined attribute to which you assign sequence numbers. To create a new sequence: 1. Create a user-defined attribute to which you assign sequence numbers. a Open the objects.inp file in any standard text editor. b In the Part attributes section, add a new user-defined attribute. The value_type must be integer, and the field_format must be %d. For example:
attribute("MY_INFO_1", "My Info 1", integer, "%d", no, none, "0.0", "0.0")

c d 2. 3.

Save the file. Restart Tekla Structures.

Click Tools > Sequencer to display the Sequencer Properties dialog box. Type a name for the sequence. Use exactly the same name as in the objects.inp file. For example, MY_INFO_1.

4. 5.

Click Apply. Select the parts you want to include in the sequence. The first part gets the sequence number 1, the second part number 2, and so on. If you select a part that has already been included in the sequence, Tekla Structures asks if you want to override the existing number. If you click Yes, Tekla Structures gives the next available number to the part.

6.

To finish adding parts to the sequence, click Edit > Interrupt or press Esc.

Adding parts to a sequence


To add parts to an existing sequence: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Tools > Sequencer to display the Sequencer Properties dialog box. Select a sequence name from the list. Click OK or Apply. Select the parts you want to add to the sequence. To finish adding parts to the sequence, click Edit > Interrupt or press Esc.

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You cannot add new parts to a sequence, unless the new part is at the end of the sequence. If the sequence changes, you must redefine the whole sequence.

Checking the sequence of a part


You can check the sequence name and number of a part by using the Inquire tool. To check the sequence of a part: 1. 2. Click Tools > Inquire > Object. Select a part. Tekla Structures displays the properties of the part. The sequence name and number are displayed under More. For example:

Modifying the sequence number of a part


Before you start, assign a sequence number to a user-defined attribute of a part. To modify the sequence number of a part: 1. 2. Double-click a part to open the part properties dialog box. Click User-defined attributes... The current sequence number is displayed next to the user-defined attribute to which you assigned the sequence number. For example, MY_INFO_1. 3. 4. Modify the sequence number. Click Modify.

Deleting a sequence
To delete a sequence: 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Sequencer.... Select a sequence name from the list. Click Delete and then click Yes.

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7.4 Lotting
With lots you can group assemblies for transporting to site. Lotting means that you evaluate specific model parts with respect to the number of units that can be carried by a transfer vehicle. For example, you can calculate how many concrete truck deliveries are needed to pour the footings or slabs for a specific portion of the model. With this information, it is easier to determine area requirements and create an erection schedule. When you define lots, you must take into account the load-carrying capacity of the vehicle, because a lot cannot exceed the maximum total load capacity. You can calculate truck load sizes based on material weights and model quantities. For most model parts, the weight is based on the size, length, and material of the part.

To view the properties of a part, right-click the part and then select Inquire > Part or Properties...

You can use lotting in conjunction with the Sequencer tool. For example, you can load each part of the model onto a specific truck based on the erection sequence of the part. The basic lotting process is the same for steel and concrete parts. However, if you are using cast-in-place concrete, remember that the concrete is transported in a volumetric container (for example, in a ten-cubic-yard truck). In that case, you must calculate the weight-carrying capacity of the concrete vehicle before defining the number of lots.
See also

Sequences (p. 211)

Creating a lot
To create a lot: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Click Properties... to display the Lot Properties dialog box. Type a name in the field at the bottom of the dialog box. Type a lot number in the Number field. Type the maximum weight of the lot in the Max weight field. Click Add. Tekla Structures creates an empty lot with the defined properties.

Adding parts to a lot


After you have created the needed lots, you must select each part of the model and assign them to a lot until the total load weight of the lot reaches the specified target. To add parts to a lot: 1. 2. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Select an existing lot from the list. Tekla Structures highlights the parts included in the lot. The total weight of the lot and the number of assemblies it contains are displayed under Applied values. 3. Hold down Shift and select the parts that you want to add to the lot.

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4.

Click Apply selected. The weight and number of the added parts is displayed under Current values. Tekla Structures displays a warning message if the weight limit of the lot is exceeded.

5.

Click OK to close the dialog box. When you re-open the dialog box, the Applied values include the weight and number of the parts you added.

Always use the Shift key when adding parts to an existing lot. If you simply select parts, you will overwrite the contents of the lot. When you hold down Shift, you cannot select parts that already belong to another lot.

Removing parts from a lot


To remove parts from a lot: 1. 2. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Select an existing lot from the list. Tekla Structures highlights the parts included in the lot. 3. Hold down Ctrl and select the parts you want to remove from the lot. Tekla Structures deselects the parts. 4. 5. Click Apply selected. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Deleting a lot
To delete a lot: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Click Properties... Select an existing lot from the list. Click Delete.

7.5 Sketched cross sections


This section explains how to create and modify your own cross sections, and how to use them in a model.
See also

The profile catalog

Cross section sketch editor


Tekla Structures includes a cross section sketch editor, which you can use to create your own profile cross sections and to modify them.

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The cross sections you create using the cross section sketch editor can be parametric or fixed. You can change the dimensions of parametric cross sections each time you use them in a model.

Opening the cross section sketch editor


To open the cross section sketch editor: 1. 2. Open a Tekla Structures model. Click Modeling > Profiles > Define Cross Section in Sketch Editor.... Tekla Structures opens the:

Cross Section Sketch Editor View and the sketching toolbar Variables dialog box Sketch Browser dialog box

Creating sketches
When you have the cross section sketch editor open, you can start creating a cross section. First you need to sketch the outline of the cross section, and the holes in the cross section, using lines, arcs, and circles.

Ensure that you create a closed shape, unless you are creating a cross section of a consistent thickness, such as a cold rolled section.

See also

Sketching a polyline (p. 216) Sketching an arc (p. 216) Sketching a circle (p. 217)

Sketching a polyline
You can create line segments in the cross section editor by picking points. To sketch a polyline: 1. 2. Open the Cross Section Sketch Editor. Click the Sketch polyline icon:

3. 4.

Pick points to create each line segment. Click the middle mouse button to create the polyline.

Sketching an arc
You can create an arc in the cross section editor by picking three points. To sketch an arc: 1. 2. Open the Cross Section Sketch Editor. Click the Sketch arc icon:

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3.

Pick three points to define the arc.

Sketching a circle
You can create a circle in the cross section editor by picking two points. To sketch a circle: 1. 2. Open the Cross Section Sketch Editor. Click the Sketch circle icon:

3. 4.

Pick a point to indicate the center of the circle. Pick a point to indicate the radius of the circle.

Adding constraints to a sketch


After you have sketched the outline of a cross section, use constraints to refine your sketch and lock the shape. For example, you can straighten lines, create 90 degree angles, force lines to meet, close the shape, and add chamfers in corners.
See also

Adding a parallel constraint (p. 217) Adding a perpendicular constraint (p. 217) Adding a coincident constraint (p. 218) Adding a fixed constraint (p. 218) Adding a horizontal constraint (p. 218) Adding a vertical constraint (p. 219)

Adding a parallel constraint


You can force two lines in a sketched parametric cross section to be parallel to each other. Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. To add a parallel constraint: 1. Click the Parallel constraint icon:

2. 3.

Select a line in the sketch. Select another line in the sketch.

Adding a perpendicular constraint


You can force a line in a sketched parametric cross section to be at a 90 degree angle to another line you select. The lines do not have to intersect. Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View.

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To add a perpendicular constraint: 1. Click the Perpendicular constraint icon:

2. 3.

Select a line in the sketch. Select the line to place at a 90 degree angle to the first line selected.

Adding a coincident constraint


You can force two lines in a sketched cross section to start or end at the same point, by extending or shortening one or both lines. The lines do not have to intersect.

Tekla Structures automatically creates coincident constraints:

Where two lines meet. Between line segments when you draw them with the Sketch
polyline tool.

Between the start of the first line segment and the end of the last line segment in a shape, if they are within a certain distance of each other.

Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor
View.

To add a coincident constraint: 1. Click the Coincident constraint icon:

2. 3.

Pick the end of the first line. Pick the end of the second line.

Adding a fixed constraint


You can lock the position and angle of a line in a sketched parametric cross section so that other constraints do not affect it. Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor
View.

To add a fixed constraint: 1. Click the Fixed constraint icon:

2.

Select a line in the sketch.

Adding a horizontal constraint


You can force a line in a sketched parametric cross section to be parallel to the local x axis. Use a horizontal constraint with other constraints to straighten the entire profile. You can still rotate the profile in the model.

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Tekla Structures automatically creates horizontal constraints when you create lines that are nearly horizontal.

Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. To add a horizontal constraint: 1. Click the Horizontal constraint icon:

2.

Select a line in the sketch.

Adding a vertical constraint


You can force a line in a sketched parametric cross section to be parallel to the local y axis. Use a vertical constraint with other constraints to straighten the entire profile. You can still rotate the profile in the model.

Tekla Structures automatically creates vertical constraints when you create lines that are nearly vertical.

Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. To add a vertical constraint: 1. Click the Vertical constraint icon:

2.

Select a line in the sketch.

Deleting a constraint from a sketch


You can delete constraints from sketches using the Sketch Browser or Cross Section Sketch Editor View. When you select a constraint in the Sketch Browser, Tekla Structures highlights the constraint in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View, and vice versa. To delete a constraint from a sketch using the Sketch Browser: 1. 2. 3. Click the Display Sketch Browser icon Select the constraint. Right-click and select Delete from the pop-up menu: to open the Sketch Browser.

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Adding dimensions to a sketch


After you have sketched a cross section, use dimensions to make different distances in the cross section parametric. You can use these dimensions to define the size of the profile cross section when you use it in a model. Tekla Structures also adds the dimensions you create to the list of variables that you can use in calculations.

Do not create too many dimensions in a sketch, or the dimensions will not be able to adjust when the values are changed.

See also

Adding a radial dimension (p. 220) Adding an angle dimension (p. 220) Adding a dimension between two points in a sketch (p. 221) Adding a horizontal dimension to a sketch (p. 221) Adding a vertical dimension to a sketch (p. 221)

Adding a radial dimension


You can create a radial dimension for an arc or a circle in a sketched parametric cross section. Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor
View.

To add a radial dimension: 1. Click the Sketch radial dimension icon:

2.

Select the arc or circle.

Adding an angle dimension


You can create an angle dimension between two lines in a sketched parametric cross section.

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Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. To add an angle dimension: 1. Click the Sketch angle dimension icon:

2. 3.

Select the first line. Select the second line.

Adding a dimension between two points in a sketch


You can add a dimension to a sketched parametric cross section, between two points you pick. Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. To add a dimension between two points in a sketch: 1. Click the Sketch free distance icon:

2. 3. 4.

Pick a point to indicate the starting point of the dimension. Pick a point to indicate the end point of the dimension. Pick a point to indicate the location of the dimension lines and text.

Adding a horizontal dimension to a sketch


You can add a horizontal dimension to a sketched parametric cross section, between two points you pick. Before you start, create a line, arc, or circle in the Cross Section Editor View. To add a horizontal dimension to a sketch: 1. Click the Sketch horizontal distance icon:

2. 3. 4.

Pick a point to indicate the starting point of the dimension. Pick a point to indicate the end point of the dimension. Pick a point to indicate the location of the dimension lines and text.

Adding a vertical dimension to a sketch


You can add a vertical dimension to a sketched parametric cross section, between two points you pick. Before you start, create a line, arc, or circle in the Cross Section Editor View. To add a vertical dimension to a sketch: 1. Click the Sketch vertical distance icon:

2.

Pick a point to indicate the starting point of the dimension.

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3. 4.

Pick a point to indicate the end point of the dimension. Pick a point to indicate the location of the dimension lines and text.

Defining positioning planes of sketched cross sections


When you sketch a cross section, you can define positioning planes for it. This means you can determine the planes Tekla Structures will use when it positions parts. These planes are used also when placing custom components that are bound to boundary planes. By default, the positioning planes are placed according to the bounding box of the part.
See also

Part positioning planes (p. 222) Connection positioning planes (p. 222) Part position (p. 101)

Part positioning planes


With part positioning planes you can determine how Tekla Structures positions parts which have a sketched profile cross section.
Example

You can define part positioning planes that define the Middle option of an asymmetric cross section:

Part positioning planes The Middle option based on the intersection of the part positioning planes, not the part outline
See also

Showing and hiding part positioning planes (p. 223) Moving positioning planes (p. 224)

Connection positioning planes


With connection positioning planes you can determine how Tekla Structures positions components in relation to the component main part that has a sketched profile cross section.
Example

The following image shows the default connection positioning planes of a double tee slab that was created as a sketched cross section. The green line illustrates the default connection positioning planes.

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If you want to place details as in the image below, you need to move the connection positioning planes.

See also

Showing and hiding connection positioning planes (p. 223) Moving positioning planes (p. 224)

Showing and hiding part positioning planes


You can show and hide the part positioning planes of a sketched cross section in the Cross
Section Sketch Editor View.

Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor
View.

To show or hide the part positioning planes of a sketched cross section: 1. Click the Show or hide part positioning planes icon:

Tekla Structures displays the part positioning planes in blue:

See also

Part positioning planes (p. 222) Moving positioning planes (p. 224)

Showing and hiding connection positioning planes


You can show and hide the connection positioning planes of a sketched cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. Before you start, sketch the shape of the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. To show or hide the connection positioning planes of a sketched cross section: 1. Click the Show or hide connection positioning planes icon:

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Tekla Structures displays the part positioning planes in green:

See also

Connection positioning planes (p. 222) Moving positioning planes (p. 224)

Moving positioning planes


To move a positioning plane: 1. Select the type of the positioning plane you want to move.


2. 3. 4. 5.
See also

To move part positioning planes, click the Show or hide part positioning planes icon. To move connection positioning planes, click the Show or hide connection positioning planes icon.

Select a positioning plane. Select one of the positioning plane handles. Right-click and select a Move command from the pop-up menu. Move the plane like any other object in Tekla Structures.

Moving an object (p. 46) Reverting to the default part positioning planes (p. 224) Reverting to the default connection positioning planes (p. 225)

Reverting to the default part positioning planes


You can revert to the default part positioning planes of a sketched cross section if you have moved the planes. To revert to the default part positioning planes of a cross section: 1. With the cross section open in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View, click the Show or hide part positioning planes icon to show the part positioning planes:

2. 3.

Select a part positioning plane. Right-click and select Delete from the pop-up menu.

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4.

Click the Show or hide part positioning planes icon again to check that the planes have reverted back to the default.

Reverting to the default connection positioning planes


You can revert to the default connection positioning planes of a sketched cross section if you have moved the planes. To revert to the default connection positioning planes of a cross section: 1. With the cross section open in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View, click the Show or hide connection positioning planes icon to show the connection positioning planes:

2. 3. 4.

Select a connection positioning plane. Right-click and select Delete from the pop-up menu. Click the Show or hide connection positioning planes icon again to check that the planes have reverted back to the default.

Modifying sketched cross sections


You can modify existing cross section sketches, for example, by modifying chamfers or dimensions. You can also move corners or holes by moving the handles. The chamfers are moved automatically when you move the handles. To modify a sketched cross section: 1. 2. 3. Click Modeling > Profiles > Edit Cross Section in Sketch Editor.... In the Component Catalog, select Sketched profiles from the list box. Double-click the cross section to open it in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. The sketch objects you can modify appear in yellow. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Double-click an object to modify its properties. Modify the object properties. Click Modify in the object properties dialog box. Close the object properties dialog box. Click the Save sketch as icon to save the changes.


See also

You cannot change dimensions that have been calculated using formulas in the Variables dialog box. Constraints may also prevent you from changing dimensions.

Modifying chamfers in a sketch (p. 226) Setting the sketch thickness (p. 226)

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Modifying chamfers in a sketch


When you use the Create polyline command to sketch a profile/cross section, Tekla Structures automatically creates coincident constraints between the line segments and displays a chamfer symbol where line segments meet. You can modify chamfers to create rounded cross section corners, for example. To change the shape or dimensions of a chamfer: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
See also

For each chamfer you want to change, double-click the chamfer symbol
Cross Section Sketch Editor View.

in the

In the Chamfer Properties dialog box, change the shape and dimensions of the chamfer. Click Modify. Close the Chamfer Properties dialog box. Click the Save sketch as icon to save the changes.

Corner chamfer types and dimensions (p. 150)

Sketch Browser
The Sketch Browser shows the objects (lines, arcs, circles, constraints, dimensions, chamfers) of a cross section sketch in a hierarchical, tree-like structure. The Sketch Browser opens when you open the cross section sketch editor and work with the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. You can click an object in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View and Tekla Structures highlights the object in the Sketch Browser. Or click an object in the browser to have Tekla Structures highlight it in the view.
Sketch objects

The Sketch Browser contains the following information about a cross section sketch:


See also

Extrusion type (0, 1, or 2) and thickness of the sketch. Lines, arcs, and circles Constraints Distances and dimensions and their values Chamfers and their type (0=None, 1=Line ... 7=Line and arc) and dimensions.

Cross section extrusion types (p. 227) Corner chamfer types and dimensions (p. 150)

Setting the sketch thickness


You can easily create cross sections of a consistent thickness, for example, cold rolled sections, by defining the extrusion type and thickness of a sketch in the Sketch Browser.

To set the thickness of a sketch:

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1. 2.

In the Cross Section Sketch Editor View, sketch an open polyline. Do one of the following:

To set a fixed thickness: a b In the Sketch Browser, right-click Thickness and select Add Equation from the pop-up menu. Type the value of the thickness after =.

To define a parametric thickness: a b c d In the Variables dialog box, add a new parameter variable for Length (for example, P1). In the Formula column, define the default value for the parameter variable. In the Sketch Browser, right-click Thickness and select Add Equation from the pop-up menu. Type the name of the parameter variable (for example, P1) after =.

3.

To define the extrusion type: a In the Sketch Browser, right-click Extrusion Type and select Add Equation from the pop-up menu. b Type the extrusion type number (0, 1, or 2) after =. to save the changes.

4.
See also

Click the Save sketch as icon

Cross section extrusion types (p. 227)

Cross section extrusion types


The extrusion type defines how a sketched, open polyline is extruded to create a cross section with a consistent thickness. The extrusion types of sketches are:

Type 0

Description The sketch is extruded symmetrically to the outside and inside of the polyline. (Default)

Image

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Type 1

Description The sketch is extruded to the outside of the polyline.

Image

The sketch is extruded to the inside of the polyline.

See also

Setting the sketch thickness (p. 226)

Using variables to define cross section properties


You can use variables to define the properties of a sketched cross section. Variables can define fixed properties, or they can include formulas, so that Tekla Structures calculates the property value each time you use the profile in a model. For example, you can create a variable that calculates a dimension:

The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools that you can use for defining and editing variables:

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Command
Display variables

Icon

Description View, add or change variables in parametric model objects, including sketched cross sections. This command works the same way as the Display variables command in the Custom component editor.

Display sketch browser

Opens the Sketch Browser, which shows the elements in a sketched parametric cross section. This command works the same way as Custom component browser in the Custom component editor.

See also

Defining variables Display variables Custom component browser

Example: Creating a symmetric C-shaped cross section


This example shows how to use the Variables dialog box and Sketch Browser. We create a symmetric C-shaped cross section with b1 = b2 and h2 = h3. When you use the profile in the model, you can change the following dimensions:

Thickness (P1) Total height (h1) Height (h2) Width (b1)

To create a symmetric C-shaped cross section: 1. 2. 3. Open the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. Use the Sketch polyline command to create a C-shaped cross section. Use the Sketch horizontal distance and Sketch vertical distance commands to create the distances.

To change the distance value, enter a new value in the Formula field. To make the profile symmetric, type =h2 in the Formula field of distance h3 and =b1 of distance b2.

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If you want to give variables different values when using the profile in a model, set Visibility to Show.

4.

To enter varying values for profile thickness, add a parameter variable (P1). a In the Variables dialog box, click Add. b c d e f In the Formula field, enter a thickness value. In the Visiblity field, select Show. In the Label in dialog box field, type Thickness. In the Sketch Browser, right-click the Thickness object, select Add equation from the pop-up menu, and then type =P1. In the Sketch Browser, right-click the ExtrusionType object, select Add equation from the pop-up menu, and then type =2.

Saving a sketched cross section


Tekla Structures saves the cross section in the profile catalog in the current model folder. The sketched cross sections are available in the Others section in the profile catalog. To save a sketched cross section: 1. Click the Save sketch as icon on the sketching toolbar:

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2.

In the User Profile Cross Section dialog box:

To save a new cross section, type a name in the Prefix field, and then click OK. To update an existing cross section, click OK. Click Yes when prompted to update the existing cross section.

Tekla Structures does not save sketched, parametric cross sections that do not have dimensions. You cannot include numbers in the cross section name, or use the name of a standard profile.

Sketched cross sections are saved in the xslib.db1 file, which is a library file that contains custom components and sketches. Ordinary profiles are saved in the profdb.bin file.

See also

Adding dimensions to a sketch (p. 220)

Testing a sketched cross section


To check that the constraints and dimensions in a sketched cross section work correctly: 1. 2. 3. Double-click a dimension line to open the Distance Properties dialog box. Change the Value field. Click Modify. Tekla Structures updates the cross section in the Cross Section Sketch Editor View. 4. 5. Check that the shape of the profile does not change and that the dimensions adjust correctly. Click Cancel to close the Distance Properties dialog box.

Using sketched cross sections in a model


Once you have created a cross section and saved it in the profile catalog, you are ready to use it in the model. If you have applied constraints correctly, the shape of the profile will not change if you change its dimensions. To use a sketched cross section for a new part in a model: 1. 2. Double-click a part icon to open the part properties dialog box. For example, doubleclick the Create beam icon to open the Beam Properties dialog box. To select a profile to use:


3. 4. 5. 6.

For steel parts, click the Select... button next to the Profile field. For concrete parts, click the button next to the Profile field.

In the Select Profile dialog box, open the Others branch at the end of the profile tree. Select a profile with the sketched cross section. Optional: If the cross section is parametric, define its dimensions in the Value column on the General tab. Click OK to save the profile properties and close the Select Profile dialog box.

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7. 8.

Click OK to save the part properties and close the part properties dialog box. Pick points in the model to create the part with the sketched cross section.

Creating a picture of a sketched cross section


Profiles in the profile catalog include pictures which illustrate the shape and dimensions of each profile. You can also create pictures of the profile cross sections you have sketched to be shown in the profile catalog. To add a picture of a sketched cross section to be shown in the profile catalog: 1. Create a picture that shows the shape and dimensions of the cross section:


2.

Using any graphics editor (for example, Microsoft Paint). Using the Tools > Screenshot > View without Borders command when you have the cross section open in the active Cross Section Sketch Editor View.

Save the picture in bmp format in the ..\TeklaStructures\*version*\nt\bitmaps folder using the cross section name as the filename, for example, mysketch.bmp.

See also

Creating a screenshot (p. 170) Saving a screenshot in bitmap format (p. 171)

Importing and exporting sketched cross sections


To use a sketched cross section in other Tekla Structures models, you have to export the cross section to a file (*.uel), and then import the file into another Tekla Structures model. Use the Component Catalog to import and export sketched cross sections. They have the following symbols and numbers in the Component Catalog:

See also

Exporting sketched cross sections (p. 232) Importing sketched cross sections (p. 233)

Exporting sketched cross sections


To export sketched cross sections: 1. 2. 3. Open the Tekla Structures model you want to export from. Press Ctrl+F to open the Component Catalog. Select Sketched profiles from the list box. Tekla Structures lists all the sketched cross sections available in the current model. 4. 5. 6. Select the cross sections you want to export. To export several cross sections, hold down the Ctrl key when selecting. Right-click and select Export... from the pop-up menu. In the Export Components dialog box, in the Selection box, do one of the following:


7.

Type a name for a new export file. Select an existing export file.

Optional: To save the export file to a specific location, browse for the folder.

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By default, Tekla Structures saves the export file to the current model folder. 8. Click OK.

Tekla Structures adds the cross sections to the export file (*.uel).

Importing sketched cross sections


After you have exported sketched cross sections to a file, you can import the cross sections to another Tekla Structures model. To import sketched cross sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Open the Tekla Structures model you want to import to. Press Ctrl+F to open the Component Catalog. Optional: To view the sketched cross sections and profiles already available in the current model, select Sketched profiles from the list box. In the component list, right-click and select Import... from the pop-up menu. In the Import Components dialog box, browse for the folder which contains the exported file (*.uel). Select the file to import. Click OK.

If you have created a profile using a sketched cross section and want to use the profile in another model, you need to import both the cross section and profile. To use profiles from a model, you can either export and then import the entire profile catalog or a part of it, or copy the profdb.bin file.

To automatically import all *.uel files from a folder when creating a new model, use the variable XS_UEL_IMPORT_FOLDER.

See also

Exporting the profile catalog Exporting elements from the profile catalog

7.6 Parametric modeling


Tekla Structures models are parametric, which means that each model object, such as a beam or column, has parameters which define various properties, including its geometry, location and relationship to other parts. You can use these parameters to:

Create dependencies, or relationships, between model objects, so the properties of one model object adjust if you change the related model object. Create variables that define the properties of the model object.

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Creating dependencies
Tekla Structures includes several tools that you can use to create dependencies or relationships between model objects. For example, you might create a dependency that offsets a column a fixed distance from a plane on a wall, so that when you move the wall, the column follows. The Modeling menu includes the following parametric modeling tools:

Command
Add Distance > Fixed

Icon

Description Binds a handle on a model object to up to three planes on other model objects, at a fixed distance. Illustrates the distance in the model view. This command works the same way as the Create distance command in the Custom component editor.

Add Distance > Reference

Creates a reference distance between model objects, which you can include in formulas in the Variables dialog box. This command works the same way as the Create reference distance command in the Custom component editor.

See also

Defining variables Custom component browser Creating distance variables Creating reference distances

Creating variables
Use variables to define the properties of a model object, such as a beam or column. Variables can define fixed properties, such as the name of a column. They can also include formulas, so that Tekla Structures calculates the property value each time you use the model object. The Model Editor includes the following tools for defining and editing variables:

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Command
Display Variables...

Icon

Description View, add or change variables in model objects. You can use these variables to calculate the properties of related model objects. This command works the same way as the Display variables command in the Custom component editor.

Model Browser...

Opens the model browser, which shows the elements in a model object. Use to copy absolute values or references and use them as variables in parametric calculations. This command works the same way as Custom component browser in the Custom component editor.

See also

Defining variables Display variables Custom component browser

Parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures


These are the parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures:

HIh-s-t*b (symmetric) HIh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2

PHIh1-h2-s-t*b (symmetric) PHIh1-h2-s-t1*b1-t2*b2

BLLh*b*t

BLZh*b*t

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BLUh*b*t

PLh*b h=height b=thickness (smaller=b) Dd

ELDd1*r1*d2*r2

PDd*t

EPDd1*r1*d2*r2*t

Ph*t Ph*b*t

Ph1*b-h2*b*t

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HKh-s-t*b-c (symmetric) HKh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2-c

HQh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2 (centered) HQh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2-c

ZZh-t-e-b (symmetric) ZZh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2

CCh-t-e-b (symmetric) CCh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2

CWh-t-e-b-f-h1

CUh-t-h1-b-e (symmetric) CUh-t-h1-b1-h2-b2/e

EBh-t-e-b-a (symmetric) EBh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2-a Reference points:1=right 2=left 3=top

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BFh-s-b-h1

SPDd*t SPDd1-d2*t

ECh-t-e-b-a (symmetric) ECh-t-e1-b1-e1-b1-a

EDh-t-b-e-h1-h2-f1-f2-a

EEh-t-e-b-f1-f3-h1-f2-a

EFh-t-e-b1-b2-f1-f2/h1-a

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EZh-t-e-b-f1-f3-h1-f2-a

EWh-t-e-b-b-f1-f2-h2-h1-a

RCDLs*h-d*t (symmetric) RCDLs*h-d*t1*t2

RCXXs*h-b*t*h1-h2-ex

RCLs*h-b*t

RCDXs*h-b*h2*h1 (symmetric) RCDXs*h-b*h4*h3*h2*h1 RCDXs*h-b*h4*h3*h2*h1-ex

RCXs*h-b*h2*h1

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Modeling Settings

This section provides more information about the various settings you can modify in Tekla Structures.
Contents

General settings (p. 241) View settings (p. 244) Part properties (p. 247) Detail properties (p. 255) Numbering settings (p. 259)

8.1 General settings


This section provides more information about some general modeling settings.

Grid properties
Use the Grid dialog box to view and modify the grid properties.

Field
Coordinates Labels Line extensions Origin Magnetic grid plane User-defined attributes...

Description The coordinates of the grid in the global x, y, and z directions (x and y are relative, z is absolute). The names of the grid lines. Define how far the grid lines extend in the directions Left/Below and Right/Above. The coordinates of the grid origin in the global x, y, and z directions. Select to bind objects to grid lines. Click to access the user-defined properties of the grid.

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See also

Grids (p. 72)

Grid line properties


Use the Grid Line Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a single grid line.

Field
Label Depth in view plane Extension Left/Below Extension Right/Above Magnetic grid plane User-defined attributes... Visible in drawings Grid line automatic dimensioning See also

Description The name of the grid line. The height of the grid plane perpendicular to the view plane. Define how far the grid lines extend in the directions Left/ Below and Right/Above. Select to bind objects to the grid line. Click to access the user-defined properties of the grid line. Select to make the grid line visible in drawings. Select to use single grid lines in grid dimensioning.

Grid lines (p. 74)

Rotation settings
Use the Copy - Rotate and Move - Rotate dialog boxes to view and modify the settings that are used when you rotate objects in Tekla Structures.

Field
X0 Y0 Origin angle Number of copies dZ Rotation angle Around

Description The x and y coordinates of the starting point of the rotation axis. The angle of the rotation axis when rotating around a line on the work plane. Defines the number of copies created. The difference in position between the original and copied object in the z direction. The rotation angle between the original and new position. Defines whether the rotation axis is a line on the work plane or in the z direction.

See also

Rotating objects (p. 49)

Color settings
Use the Object Representation dialog box to define the color of object groups.

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Option
As is

Description The current color is used. If the object belongs to one of the object groups defined in the following rows, its color is defined by the settings that the object group in question has on that row.

Colors
Color by class Color by lot Color by phase Color by analysis type Color by analysis utility check Color by attribute

Select color from the list. All parts are colored according to their Class property. Parts belonging to different lots get different colors. Parts belonging to different phases get different colors. Displays parts according to the member analysis type. Displays parts according to the utilization ratio in analysis. Displays parts in different colors according to the values of a user-defined attribute.

See also

Object representation settings (p. 182)

Transparency settings
Use the Object Representation dialog box to define the transparency of object groups.

Option
As is

Description The current visibility. If the object belongs to any object group whose visibility and color settings have been defined, the settings will be read from that object group.

Visible 50% transparent 70% transparent 90% transparent Hidden See also

Object is shown in the views. Object is transparent in rendered views.

Object is not shown in the views.

Object representation settings (p. 182)

Screenshot settings
Use the Screenshot dialog box to view and modify the screenshot settings.

Field
View name View View without borders

Description Shows the selected view name. Includes the view content and window borders in the screenshot. Includes only the view content in the screenshot.

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Field
Rendered view Place on clipboard Print to file

Description For high resolution screenshots from rendered views. The Options... button displays the Screenshot Options dialog box. Places the screenshot on the clipboard. Saves the screenshot to a file.

The following screenshot options are only available in rendered views:

Field
Final width

Description The width of the screenshot. Uses the same unit as other dimensions in modeling.

Final height

The height of the screenshot. Uses the same unit as other dimensions in modeling.

DPI

The pixel density (DPI) of the screenshot. There are limitations to pixel density. You can change the DPI using a graphics editor.

White background Smooth lines Line width See also

Uses white background. Uses smooth lines to decrease jagged edges. Sets the line width.

Creating a screenshot (p. 170)

8.2 View settings


This section provides more information about specific view settings.

View properties
Use the View Properties dialog box to view and modify the view properties.

Field or button
Name Angle Projection Rotation View type Color and transparency in all views Representation... View depth

Description The name of the view. Whether the view angle is Plane or 3D. The projection type of rendered views. How the view is rotated around the z and x axes. The appearance of the model in the view. The color and transparency setting that is used in all views (according to the status of the objects in the model). Opens the Object Representation dialog box for defining color and transparency settings. How far Up and Down from the view plane Tekla Structures displays the objects.

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Field or button
Display... Visible object group Object group...

Description Opens the Display dialog box for defining which objects are displayed in the view and how. Which object group is displayed in the view. Opens the Object Group - View Filter dialog box for creating and modifying object groups.

See also

Views (p. 76)

Grid view properties


Use the Creation of Views Along Grid Lines dialog box to view and modify the properties of grid views.

Field
View plane Number of views

Description The plane of the view defined by two axes similarly to the basic view. Defines which grid lines the views will be created of.
None does not create any views. One (First) only creates the view closest to the grid origin. One (Last) only creates the view furthest from the grid origin. All creates all views in grid planes in the relevant direction.

View name prefix

The prefix to be used with the grid label in the view name. This name overrides the name in the view properties. View names consist of a prefix and a grid label, e.g. PLAN +3000. If the View name prefix field is left empty, no prefix is used. Tekla Structures adds a dash and a running number to the view name if view names are otherwise identical.

View properties

Defines which view properties (applied or saved) will be used. Each view plane has its own view properties. You can load the properties from the current view properties with the option <applied values> or from saved view properties. The Show... button displays the current view properties.

See also

Creating grid views (p. 81)

Display settings
Use the Display dialog box to define which object types Tekla Structures displays and how they appear in the model. Some of these settings may affect system performance.

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Field
Parts

Description Defines how parts are displayed.


Fast uses a rapid drawing technique that displays internal hidden

edges, but skips cuts.


Exact displays the cuts, but hides the internal hidden lines of

parts.
Reference line shows parts as sticks. This option increases display speed significantly, when viewing the entire model, or large parts of it. Bolts

Defines how bolts are displayed.


Fast displays the axis and a cross to represent the bolt head. This

is the recommended representation mode for bolts, because it increases display speed significantly and consumes less system memory.
Exact shows bolts, washers, and nuts as solids. Holes

Defines how holes are displayed.


Fast only displays the circle in the first plane. When using this

option, Tekla Structures always displays fast holes on the first part (counting from the head of the bolt). If there are slotted holes in any of the parts, a slotted hole is displayed on the first part, even if the hole in that part is not slotted. The new slotted hole has the same size and rotation as the first slotted hole (counting from the head of the bolt). Holes that are outside a part are always displayed as fast holes in rendered views.
Exact shows holes as solids. Exact long holes only displays slotted holes in exact mode and ordinary holes in fast mode. Point size

Defines the size of points in views. You can also change the size of the part handle using this field.
In model increases the point size on the screen when you zoom

in.
In view does not increase the point size. AutoStick

Defines whether the objects are shown as sticks or as objects. This option is only available in wire frame views. By dragging the sliders you can adjust the zoom distance where objects should be shown as reference lines. This option increases performance significantly when viewing large models. It still lets you zoom in on a small area and display it exactly.

See also

Defining which objects are displayed (p. 179)

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8.3 Part properties


This section provides more information about the properties of specific steel and concrete parts.
See also

Setting object properties (p. 35)

Steel column properties


Use the Column Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a steel column. The file name extension of a column properties file is *.clm.

Field
Part prefix and start number Assembly prefix and start number Name Profile Material Finish Class User-defined attributes Vertical Rotation Horizontal Top Bottom Analysis tab Composite tab Start releases tab End releases tab Design tab Deforming tab See also

Description The part mark series of the column. The assembly mark series of the column. The user-definable name of the column. The profile of the column. The material of the column. The type of finish. Used to group columns. User-defined properties of the column. The position of the column, relative to its reference point. How the column is rotated around its axis. The horizontal position of the column, relative to its reference point. The position of the second end of the column in the global z direction. The position of the first end of the column in the global z direction. The analysis properties of the column. The analysis properties of the slabs in composite constructions. The support conditions of the column ends. The design information of the column. Warping, cambering, and shortening of the column.

Creating a steel column (p. 111)

Steel beam properties


Use the Beam Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a steel beam, steel polybeam, or curved beam. The file name extension of a beam properties file is *.prt.

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Field
Part prefix and start number Assembly prefix and start number Name Profile Material Finish Class User-defined attributes On plane Rotation At depth End offset Radius Number of segments Analysis tab Loading tab Composite tab Start releases tab End releases tab Design tab Deforming tab See also

Description The part mark series of a beam. The assembly mark series of the beam. The user-definable name of a beam. The profile of a beam. The material of a beam. The finish type. Used to group beams. User-defined properties of a beam. The position of a beam on the work plane. How much a beam is rotated around its axis on the work plane. The position of a beam, in terms of depth perpendicular to the work plane. The offsets of beam ends relative to a beams reference line. The plane of curvature and radius of a curved beam. The number of segments Tekla Structures uses when drawing a curved beam. The analysis properties of the beam. The loading properties of the beam. The analysis properties of the slabs in composite constructions. The support conditions of the beam ends. The design information of the beam. Warping, cambering, and shortening of the beam.

Creating a steel beam (p. 109)

Contour plate properties


Use the Contour Plate Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a contour plate. The file name extension of a contour plate properties file is *.cpl.

Field
Part prefix and start number Assembly prefix and start number Name Profile

Description The part mark series of the contour plate. The assembly mark series of the contour plate. The user-definable name of the contour plate. The profile of the contour plate. The format is PL+ thickness, for example PL20.

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Field
Material Finish Class User-defined attributes At depth Analysis tab Loading tab Spanning tab Design tab See also

Description The material of the contour plate. The finish type. Used to group contour plates. User-defined properties of the contour plate. The position of the contour plate, in terms of depth, perpendicular to the work plane. The analysis properties of the contour plate. The loading properties of the plate. The spanning properties of the plate. The design information of the contour plate.

Creating a contour plate (p. 112)

Orthogonal beam properties


Use the Orthogonal Beam Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of an orthogonal steel beam. The file name extension of an orthogonal beam properties file is *.crs.

Field
Part prefix and start number Assembly prefix and start number Name Profile Material Finish Class User-defined attributes Vertical Rotation Horizontal Top Bottom Analysis tab Composite tab Start releases tab End releases tab Design tab

Description The part mark series of the beam. The assembly mark series of the beam. The user-definable name of the beam. The profile of the beam. The material of the beam. The finish type. Used to group beams. User-defined properties of the beam. The position of the beam, relative to its reference point. How much the beam is rotated around its axis. The horizontal position of the beam, relative to its reference point. The position of the second end of the beam in the z direction of the work plane. The position of the first end of the beam in the z direction of the work plane. The analysis properties of the beam. The analysis properties of the slabs in composite constructions. The support conditions of the beam ends. The design information of the beam.

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See also

Creating an orthogonal beam (p. 110)

Twin profile properties


Use the Twin Profile Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a twin steel profile. The file name extension of a twin profile properties file is *.dia.

Field
Part prefix and start number Assembly prefix and start number Name Profile Material Finish Class User-defined attributes On plane Rotation At depth End offset Twin profile type Horizontal Vertical Analysis tab Composite tab Start releases tab End releases tab Design tab See also

Description The part mark series of the twin profile. The assembly mark series of the twin profile. The user-definable name of the twin profile. The profile of both the beams in the twin profile. The material of the beams. The type of finish. Used to group twin profiles. User-defined properties of the twin profile. The position of the twin profile on the work plane. Defines how the twin profile is rotated around its axis on the work plane. The beam position, in terms of depth, perpendicular to the work plane. The offsets of the ends of the beam, relative to the beams reference line. Defines how the profiles are combined. The horizontal clearance between the profiles. The vertical clearance between the profiles. The analysis properties of the twin profile. The analysis properties of the slabs in composite constructions. The support conditions of the twin profile ends. The design information of the twin profile.

Creating a twin profile (p. 112)

Pad footing properties


Use the Pad Footing Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a pad footing. The file name extension of a pad footing properties file is *.cpf.

Field
Name Profile Material

Description The user-definable name of the pad footing. The profile of the pad footing. The material of the pad footing.

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Field
Finish Class User-defined attributes Vertical Rotation Horizontal Top Bottom Cast unit prefix and start number Cast unit type See also

Description The type of finish. Used to group pad footings. User-defined properties of the pad footing. The vertical position of the pad footing, relative to its reference point. How much the pad footing is rotated around its axis. The horizontal position of the pad footing, relative to its reference point. The position of the top surface of the pad footing in the global z direction. The position of the bottom surface of the pad footing in the global z direction. Define the cast unit series of the pad footing. Indicates whether the footing is precast or cast in place.

Creating a pad footing (p. 118)

Strip footing properties


Use the Strip Footing Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a strip footing. The file name extension of a strip footing properties file is *.csf.

Field
Name Shape Material Finish Class User-defined attributes On plane Rotation At depth End offset Cast unit prefix and start number Cast unit type Radius Number of segments Analysis tab

Description The user-definable name of the strip footing. The profile of the strip footing. The material of the strip footing. The type of finish. Used to group strip footings. User-defined properties of the strip footing. The position of the strip footing on the work plane. How much the strip footing is rotated around its axis on the work plane. The position of the strip footing in terms of depth perpendicular to the work plane. The offsets of the ends of the strip footing relative to its reference line. Define the cast unit series of the strip footing. Indicates whether the footing is precast or cast in place. The plane of curvature and radius of the curved strip footing. The number of segments required to draw a curved strip footing. The analysis properties of the strip footing.

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Field
Start releases tab End releases tab Design tab See also

Description The support conditions of the footing ends. The design information of the footing.

Creating a strip footing (p. 119)

Concrete column properties


Use the Concrete Column Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a concrete column. The file name extension of a concrete column properties file is *.ccl.

Field
Name Profile Material Finish Class User-defined attributes Vertical Rotation Horizontal Top Bottom Cast unit prefix and start number Cast unit type Analysis tab Start releases tab End releases tab Design tab Deforming tab See also

Description The user-definable name of the column. The profile of the column. The material of the column. The type of finish. Used to group columns. User-defined properties of the column. The vertical position of the column relative to its reference point. How much the column is rotated around its axis. The horizontal position of the column relative to its reference point. The position of the second end of the column in the global z direction. The position of the first end of the column in the global z direction. Define the cast unit series of the column. Indicates whether the column is precast or cast in place. The analysis properties of the column. The support conditions of the column ends. The design information of the column. Warping, cambering and shortening of the column.

Creating a concrete column (p. 119)

Concrete beam properties


Use the Concrete Beam Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a concrete beam or polybeam. The file name extension of a concrete beam properties file is *.cbm.

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Field
Name Shape Material Finish Class User-defined attributes On plane Rotation At depth End offset Radius Number of segments Cast unit prefix and start number Cast unit type Analysis tab Start releases tab End releases tab Loading tab Design tab Deforming tab See also

Description The user-definable name of the beam. The profile of the beam. The material of the beam. The type of finish. Used to group beams. User-defined properties of the beam. The beam position on the work plane. How much the beam is rotated around its axis on the work plane. The position of the beam in terms of depth perpendicular to the work plane. The offsets of the ends of the beam, relative to its reference line. The plane of curvature and radius of the curved beam. The number of segments required to draw a curved beam. Define the cast unit series of the beam. Indicates whether the beam is precast or cast in place. The analysis properties of the beam. The support conditions of the beam ends. The loading properties of the beam. The design information of the beam. Warping, cambering and shortening of the beam.

Creating a concrete beam (p. 120)

Concrete slab properties


Use the Concrete Slab Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a concrete slab. The file name extension of a concrete slab properties file is *.csl.

Field
Name Thickness Material Finish Class User-defined attributes At depth Analysis tab

Description The user-definable name of the slab. The thickness of the slab. The material of the slab. The type of finish. Used to group slabs. User-defined properties of the slab. The position of the slab, in terms of depth, perpendicular to the work plane. The analysis properties of the slab.

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Field
Spanning tab Loading tab Design tab Cast unit prefix and start number Cast unit type See also

Description The spanning properties of the slab. The loading properties of the slab. The design information of the slab. Define the cast unit series of the slab. Indicates whether the slab is precast or cast in place.

Creating a concrete slab (p. 120)

Concrete panel properties


Use the Concrete Panel Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a concrete panel. The file name extension of a concrete panel properties file is *.cpn.

Field
Name Shape Material Finish Class User-defined attributes On plane Rotation At depth End offset Analysis tab Spanning tab Loading tab Design tab Cast unit prefix and start number Cast unit type Radius Number of segments See also

Description The user-definable name of the panel. The profile of the panel (thickness height of the wall). The material of the panel. The type of finish. Used to group panels. User-defined properties of the panel. The position of the panel on the work plane. How much the panel is rotated around its axis on the work plane. The position of the panel, in terms of depth perpendicular to the work plane. The offsets of the ends of the panel, relative to its reference line. The analysis properties of the panel. The spanning properties of the panel. The loading properties of the panel. The design information of the panel. Define the cast unit series of the panel. Indicates whether the panel is precast or cast in place. The plane of curvature and radius of the curved panel. The number of segments required to draw a curved panel.

Creating a concrete panel (p. 121)

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8.4 Detail properties


This section provides more information about the properties of specific modeling details.

Bolt properties
Use the Bolt Properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a bolt group.

Field
Bolt size Bolt standard Bolt type Connect part/ assembly Thread in material Cut length

Description Bolt diameter. Bolt assembly standard/grade. Defines whether the bolts are assembled on-site or in the shop. Indicates whether you are bolting a secondary part or a subassembly. Indicates whether threads can be inside the material. Indicates which parts the bolt connects. The value defines how far along the bolt axis the parts must be in order to hit the bolt group. Tekla Structures searches for parts using half the cut length value, in both directions from the bolt group plane.

Extra length Shape Bolt dist X Bolt dist Y Tolerance Hole type Slotted hole X Slotted hole Y Rotate Slots

Additional bolt length. Bolt group shape. Bolt spacing, number, or co-ordinate, depending on the bolt group shape. Bolt spacing, group diameter, or coordinate, depending on the bolt group shape. Tolerance = Hole diameter - Bolt diameter Oversized or slotted. Field activates after you select the Parts with slotted holes check boxes. x allowance of a slotted hole. Zero for a round hole. y allowance of a slotted hole. Zero for a round hole. If the bolt connects several parts, you may want to rotate alternate holes by 90 degrees. This allows the bolt to move in different directions. Moves the bolt group perpendicular to the bolt group x axis. Defines how far the bolt group is rotated around the x axis, relative to the current work plane. For example, you can use this field to indicate on which side of the connected parts you want the bolt head to be.

On plane Rotation

At depth Dx, Dy, Dz See also

Moves the bolt group perpendicular to the current work plane. Offsets that move the bolt group by moving the bolt group x axis.

Bolts (p. 127)

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Weld properties
Use the Weld Properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a weld.

Field
Size

Description The size of the weld. If you enter a zero or negative weld size, Tekla Structures creates the weld, but does not display it drawings.

Type Angle

See Weld types (p. 257). The angle of weld preparation, bevels, or groove. Tekla Structures displays the angle between the weld type symbol and the fill type contour symbol.

Contour

The fill type contour of a weld can be:


Finish

None Flush Convex Concave

Tekla Structures displays the finish symbol above the weld type symbol in drawings. The options are:


Length

G (Grind) M (Machine) C (Chip)

The length of a regular weld depends on the length of the connection between the welded parts. You can set the exact length of a polygon weld by, for example, defining the start and end points of the weld. The center-to-center spacing of welds for non-continuous welds. To create a non-continuous weld, define the center-to-center spacing and the pitch of the welds. Tekla Structures calculates the distance between the welds as the pitch minus the length of the weld. By default, Tekla Structures uses the character to separate weld length and pitch, e.g. 50100. To change the separator to @, for example, set the variable XS_WELD_LENGTH_CC_SEPARATOR_CHAR to @.

Pitch

Prefix Reference text Root face

See Weld size prefixes (p. 137). Additional information to appear in the weld symbol. For example, information about the weld specification or process. Root face thickness is the height of the narrowest part inside the root opening. The RFT fields in the connection dialog boxes also refer to the root face thickness. Neither root face nor RFT values appear in drawings, but you can use the WELD_ROOT_FACE_THICKNESS field in reports to show the root face dimension in the weld list.

Effective throat

The weld size used in weld strength calculation.

256

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Modeling Settings

Field
Edge/Around

Description Indicates whether only one edge or the entire perimeter of a face should be welded. A circle in the weld symbol in drawings indicates the Around option has been used.

Workshop/Site

Indicates where the weld should be made. This setting affects assemblies and drawings. Tekla Structures indicates site welds in the weld symbol using a flag.

Connect part/ assembly Position Root opening Stitch weld

See Using welds to create assemblies (p. 140). See Weld position (p. 136). The space between the welded parts. Indicates whether the weld is a stitch weld. Stitch welds are staggered on both sides of the part being welded. Tekla Structures shows the weld type symbols as staggered in weld symbols.

See also

Welds (p. 135)

Weld types
Use the Weld Properties dialog box to define the weld type. Some weld types also automatically prepare the parts to be welded. The following table shows the available weld types:

Weld type

Name None Fillet weld Bevel-groove (single-V butt weld) Bevel-groove (single-bevel butt weld) Square-groove (square butt weld) Single-V butt weld with broad root face Single-bevel butt weld with broad root face U-groove weld (single Ubutt weld) J-groove weld (single J-butt weld) Flare V-groove weld

Number 0 10 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 16

Preparation No No Both parts Secondary part No Both edges Secondary part Both parts Secondary part Both parts

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257

Weld type

Name Flare-bevel-groove weld Edge-flange weld Corner-flange weld Plug weld Bevel backing weld Spot weld Seam weld Slot weld Partial penetration weld (single-bevel butt + fillet) Partial penetration weld (square groove + fillet) Melt-through weld Material removal by machining is required (supplementary symbol) Smooth weld

Number 15 1 17 11 9 12 13 14 18 19 20 21

Preparation Secondary part No No No No No No No Secondary part No

22

Corner chamfer properties


Use the Chamfer Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of a corner chamfer.

Field
Type x y dz1 dz2

Description The shape of the chamfer. The dimensions of the chamfer. The dimension depends on the chamfer type. Only used for contour plates and concrete slabs. Moves the top or bottom surface of the part corner in the parts local z direction. Use these fields, for example, to give plates varying thicknesses.

See also

Chamfering part corners (p. 150)

258

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Modeling Settings

Edge chamfer properties


Use the Edge Chamfer Properties dialog box to view and modify the properties of an edge chamfer.

Field
Type Name Cutting distance in X direction Cutting distance in Y direction First end type Second end type

Description The shape of the chamfer. The name of the chamfer. Defines how far away from the chamfered edge the chamfer will end in the x direction. Defines how far away from the chamfered edge the chamfer will end in the y direction. The shape and position of the first end point. The shape and position of the second end point.

More information

The options are:

Full: The end point is

positioned at the end of the part (moving along the nearest edge), and the shape is straight.

Straight: The end point is

positioned at the point you pick, and the shape is straight.

Bevelled: The end point is

positioned at the point you pick, and the shape is angled.


Dimension

The distance between the (picked) end point and the bevelled points.

See also

Chamfering part edges (p. 151)

8.5 Numbering settings


This section provides more information about specific numbering settings.

General numbering settings


Use the Numbering Setup dialog box to view and modify some general numbering settings.

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259

Option
Renumber all Re-use old numbers

Description All parts get a new number. All information on previous numbers is lost. Tekla Structures reuses the numbers of parts that have been deleted. These numbers may be used to number new or modified parts. If a separate standard part model has been set up, Tekla Structures compares the parts in the current model to those in the standard part model. If the part to be numbered is identical to a part in the standard model, Tekla Structures assigns it the number of the part in the standard model.

Check for standard parts

Compare to old Take new number Keep number if possible Synchronize with master model

The part gets the same number as a previously numbered similar part. The part gets a new number even if a similar numbered part already exists. Modified parts maintain their previous numbers if possible. Use this setting when working in multi-user mode. Tekla Structures locks the master model and performs a save, numbering, and save sequence, so that all other users can continue working during the operation. If the main part of a drawing is modified and therefore gets a new assembly position, the existing drawing is automatically assigned to another part of the position. If the modified part moves to an assembly position that does not have a drawing, the original drawing is automatically cloned to reflect the changes in the modified part.

Automatic cloning

Holes Part name Beam orientation Column orientation Reinforcing bars Embedded objects Surface treatment Tolerance Assembly position sort order See also

The location, size, and number of holes affects numbering. The part name affects numbering. The orientation of beams affects numbering. The orientation of columns affects numbering. The orientation of reinforcing bars affects numbering. The orientation of equal embedded objects affects numbering. Surface treatments affect the numbering of assemblies. Parts can get the same number if they do not differ more than as set in this input field. See Assembly position numbers (p. 198).

Numbering objects (p. 197)

Weld numbering settings


Use the Weld Numbering dialog box to view and modify the weld numbering settings. The weld number is displayed in drawings and weld reports.

260

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Modeling Settings

Field
Start number

Description The number from which the numbering starts. Tekla Structures automatically suggests the following free number as the start number. Defines which objects are affected by the change.
All welds changes the number of all welds in

Apply for

the model.
Selected welds changes the number of the selected welds without affecting others. Renumber also welds that have a number Re-use numbers of deleted welds

Tekla Structures replaces existing weld numbers. If some welds have been removed, Tekla Structures uses their numbers when numbering other welds.

See also

Numbering objects (p. 197)

Control number settings


Use the Create control numbers (S9) dialog box to view and modify the control number settings.

Field
Numbering

Description Defines which parts get control numbers.


All creates consecutive numbers for all parts. By numbering series creates control

numbers for parts in a specific numbering series.


Assembly/Cast unit numbering series

Defines the prefix and start number of the numbering series for which to create control numbers. Needed only with the By numbering series option.

Start number of control numbers Step value Renumber

The number from which the numbering starts. Defines the interval between two control numbers. Defines how to treat parts that already have control numbers.
Yes replaces the existing control numbers. No keeps the existing control numbers.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Modeling Settings

261

Field
First direction Second direction Third direction See also

Description Defines in what order to assign control numbers.

Control numbers (p. 199)

262

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Modeling Settings

Modeling Tips

This section provides useful hints and tips that help you to model structures more quickly and accurately, and avoid potential problems with templates and drawings.
Contents

General modeling tips (p. 263) Part positioning tips (p. 264)

9.1 General modeling tips


These tips will help you to use some basic modeling functionalities more efficiently.

Copying and moving efficiently


You can keep the Move and Copy dialog boxes open if you are going to use them often, for example, when creating grids and levels in a new model. To keep a dialog box open while modeling: 1. 2. Start the Move or Copy command. To stop copying or moving objects, right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu. The dialog box remains open on the screen. 3. To continue copying or moving objects: a Click the dialog box to activate it. b c Select an object. Enter the values you want to use, and then click the Move or Copy button in the dialog box.

Activating an overlapping view


When you want to pick positions from two views that partly overlap, you can use the Xmouse option. With Xmouse active, simply moving the mouse pointer over a view activates the view.

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263

To activate a view using Xmouse: 1. Click Tools > Options > Xmouse to switch on Xmouse. A check mark appears next to the menu option if Xmouse is already switched on. 2. To activate a view, do one of the following:

Move the mouse pointer over the view. Use the Page Up, Page Down and arrow keys.

Finding RGB values for colors


To find RGB values for colors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Log in to the Tekla Extranet. Click Tekla Structures > Hints & Tips > General. Go to the How to find perfect background color for your needs page. Download and install the application.

9.2 Part positioning tips


These tips will help you to efficiently create and position parts in a view.

Modifying part length


To modify the length of a part, do one of the following: To shorten a part, move the part handles, or use the Fit Part End command. To lengthen a part, move the part handles.

Do not cut the end of a part to shorten it. This can cause shop errors, because cuts do not always affect part length when you export information to NC files.

Do not use fittings to lengthen parts. It can cause problems with connections and details.

Creating horizontal parts


When creating horizontal parts, always pick points from left to right, and from bottom to top (in positive x, y directions). This ensures that Tekla Structures places and dimensions the parts in the same way in drawings, and that part marks automatically appear at the same part end.

264

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Modeling Tips

Optional ways of placing objects in a model


When you want to place an object to a position where no lines or objects intersect, you have the following options:


See also

Use the snapping commands. Use construction planes, lines and circles. Create points.

Snapping to positions (p. 50) Construction objects (p. 84) Points (p. 85)

Positioning objects in a radial or circular pattern


To position objects in a radial or circular pattern, do one of the following:
See also

Create a grid line and use the Copy Special > Rotate command to copy it. Use construction lines and circles to position the objects.

Creating a single grid line (p. 75) Rotating objects (p. 49) Construction objects (p. 84)

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265

Index
#
3D models................................................................... 59 views ..................................................................... 83 4D tool, see visualizing project status ........................ 184

b
background color changing................................................................66 examples ...............................................................66 beams cambering............................................................161 concrete beams.......................................... 120, 252 concrete polybeams ............................................120 curved beams......................................................110 orthogonal beams................................................110 steel beams ................................................ 109, 247 steel polybeams ..................................................111 warping................................................................159 bending.......................................................................108 bolts ........................................................... 127, 132, 255 bolt catalog ..........................................................131 bolt group position ...............................................128 bolt group shape..................................................128 bolt length............................................................129 bolt offsets ...........................................................130 bolt spacing .........................................................191 bolting sub-assemblies........................................133 clash checking.....................................................193 creating....................................................... 131, 132 filtering.................................................................178 modifying .............................................................132 buttons common buttons....................................................30 Load ......................................................................31 Save ......................................................................31 Save as .................................................................31

a
absolute coordinates .................................................... 73 angle dimensions ....................................................... 220 angles......................................................................... 191 arcs............................................................................. 216 area selection ............................................................... 38 assemblies ................................................................. 113 adding objects ..................................................... 116 assembly types in filtering ................................... 178 changing the main assembly............................... 118 changing the main part........................................ 118 comparing ........................................................... 194 creating ............................................................... 115 examples............................................................. 113 exploding............................................................. 117 highlighting .......................................................... 117 joining.................................................................. 116 lotting................................................................... 214 nested assemblies ............................... 40, 114, 116 numbering ........................................................... 198 removing objects ................................................. 117 selecting ................................................................ 40 showing and hiding ............................................. 180 sub-assemblies ................................................... 115 using bolts to create assemblies ......................... 132 using welds to create assemblies ....................... 140 attaching parts............................................................ 158

c
cambering parts................................................. 161, 162 cast in place................................................................124

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

266

cast units .................................................................... 122 adding non-concrete objects ............................... 122 adding objects ..................................................... 122 cast unit type ....................................................... 124 casting direction .................................................. 124 changing the main part........................................ 125 copying................................................................ 123 creating ............................................................... 122 exploding............................................................. 123 highlighting .......................................................... 123 lotting................................................................... 214 numbering ........................................................... 198 removing objects ................................................. 123 selecting ................................................................ 40 top-in-form face ................................................... 124 chamfering.................................................................. 149 corner chamfer dimensions................................. 150 corner chamfer types .......................................... 150 corner chamfers .................................................. 150 edge chamfers .................................................... 151 in sketches .......................................................... 226 checking the model .................................................... 190 circles ......................................................................... 217 clash checking............................................................ 192 bolts..................................................................... 193 reference models ................................................ 193 without reference models .................................... 194 class .......................................................................95, 99 classifying information ................................................ 207 clip planes .................................................................. 169 coincident contraints................................................... 218 colliding objects .......................................................... 192 colors............................................................................ 99 background color................................................... 66 background color examples .................................. 66 color settings ....................................................... 242 finding RGB values ............................................. 264 grid color .........................................................71, 74 columns concrete columns ........................................119, 252 steel columns ..............................................111, 247 combining parts ..................................................157, 158 commands.................................................................... 34 ending ................................................................... 35 repeating ............................................................... 34 running .................................................................. 34 comparing parts or assemblies .................................. 194 components selecting ................................................................ 40 showing and hiding ............................................. 181

concrete parts.............................................................118 beams......................................................... 120, 252 cast units .............................................................122 casting direction ..................................................124 columns ...................................................... 119, 252 pad footings................................................ 118, 250 panels......................................................... 121, 254 polybeams ...........................................................120 slabs ................................................... 120, 121, 253 strip footings ............................................... 119, 251 warping................................................................159 configurations ...............................................................22 constraints ..................................................................217 coincident ............................................................218 deleting................................................................219 fixed.....................................................................218 horizontal.............................................................218 parallel.................................................................217 perpendicular.......................................................217 vertical .................................................................219 construction objects......................................................84 construction circles................................................85 construction lines...................................................85 construction planes ...............................................84 contour plates ............................................ 112, 113, 248 control numbers................................................. 199, 200 settings ................................................................261 coordinates absolute.................................................................57 coordinate system .................................................71 input options ..........................................................57 locking ...................................................................55 relative...................................................................57 copying cast units .............................................................123 filters....................................................................178 from another model ...............................................46 hints and tips .......................................................263 linearly to new position ..........................................45 object groups.......................................................182 object representation settings .............................184 objects ...................................................................43 project status visualizations.................................185 to another object....................................................46 to another plane ....................................................45 using coordinates ..................................................44 using drag-and-drop ..............................................45 corner chamfers......................................... 149, 150, 258 types and dimensions..........................................150

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

267

creating assemblies.................................................. 113, 115 bolts ............................................................ 131, 132 cast units .............................................................122 clip planes............................................................169 concrete beams ...................................................120 concrete columns ................................................119 concrete panels ...................................................121 concrete polybeams ............................................120 concrete slabs .....................................................120 construction circles ................................................85 construction lines...................................................85 construction planes................................................84 contour plates ............................................. 112, 113 curved beams ......................................................110 dependencies ......................................................234 fittings ..................................................................153 grid lines ................................................................75 grid views...............................................................81 grids.......................................................................73 holes ........................................................... 134, 135 logical areas ........................................................208 lots .......................................................................214 models ...................................................................60 nested assemblies...............................................116 object groups .......................................................181 object representation settings..............................183 object type categories..........................................209 objects ...................................................................35 orthogonal beams................................................110 pad footings .........................................................118 project status visualizations.................................184 screenshots .........................................................170 sections ...............................................................208 selection filters.....................................................175 sequences ...........................................................212 single bolts...........................................................132 sketched cross sections ......................................216 slabs ....................................................................121 standard part models...........................................205 steel beams .........................................................109 steel columns.......................................................111 steel polybeams...................................................111 storys ...................................................................208 strip footings ........................................................119 sub-assemblies....................................................115 tile patterns ..........................................................149 twin profiles..........................................................112 view filters............................................................174 views......................................................................81 welds .......................................................... 138, 139 cross section sketch editor .........................................216

cross sections cross section sketch editor ..................................215 sketching cross sections......................................215 crossing selection .........................................................38 curved parts ....................................................... 108, 110 Custom Component Editor............................................25 Custom Inquiry............................................................172 adding attributes ..................................................173 modifying contents...............................................172 customizing toolbars ..................................................................27 cuts .............................................................................154 line cuts................................................................154 part cuts ...............................................................156 polygon cuts.........................................................155

d
deleting logical areas.........................................................210 object types..........................................................210 dependencies..............................................................234 DGN supported objects ..................................................92 dialog boxes..................................................................28 common buttons ....................................................30 common elements .................................................29 loading saved properties........................................32 saving properties ...................................................31 tabs ........................................................................30 dimensions angle ....................................................................220 in sketching..........................................................220 radial ....................................................................220 display settings ...........................................................245 distances in parametric modeling ........................................234 measuring ............................................................191 dividing models ...........................................................211 drag-and-drop ........................................................ 45, 48 Drawing Editor ..............................................................25 duplicate objects ...........................................................43

e
edge chamfers ...........................................149, 151, 259 editors in Tekla Structures ............................................25 end offsets ..................................................................106 enhanced tooltips..........................................................32 environments ................................................................23

268

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

erection schedules .............................................185, 187 erection sequences .................................................... 211 exact lines .................................................................. 180 examining the model .................................................. 165 examples assemblies .......................................................... 113 assigning family numbers.................................... 202 background colors................................................. 66 creating object groups......................................... 186 creating object representation settings ............... 186 creating project status visualization settings ....... 187 creating symmetric C-shaped cross section ....... 229 defining erection schedules................................. 185 filtering beams and columns ............................... 175 filtering out reference models.............................. 176 filtering parts in specific phases .......................... 175 filtering parts with certain profile.......................... 176 numbering identical beams ................................. 200 tile pattern definition ............................................ 146 visualizing erection schedules............................. 187 visualizing project status ..................................... 185 exiting Tekla Structures................................................ 25 exploding assemblies .......................................................... 117 cast units ............................................................. 123 exporting sketched cross sections ...................................... 232 extension lines.............................................................. 54 extrusion types ........................................................... 227

fixed constraints..........................................................218 flying through model ...................................................168 footings ..............................................118, 119, 250, 251

g
global coordinate system..............................................71 grid lines .......................................................................74 creating..................................................................75 deleting..................................................................75 modifying ...............................................................75 properties ............................................................242 grid views creating..................................................................81 properties ............................................................245 grids coordinates............................................................73 creating..................................................................73 deleting..................................................................74 grid color......................................................... 71, 74 labels .............................................................. 72, 73 line extensions.......................................................72 modifying ...............................................................74 origin......................................................................72 properties ............................................................241 work plane grid ......................................................70

f
family numbers ........................................................... 201 example............................................................... 202 modifying............................................................. 202 features ........................................................................ 21 filtering assembly types ................................................... 178 bolts and welds ................................................... 178 copying filters ...................................................... 178 deleting filters ...................................................... 179 examples.....................................................175, 176 objects................................................................. 173 possible values.................................................... 177 selection filters ............................................174, 175 using template attributes ..................................... 177 view filters ........................................................... 174 wildcards ............................................................. 176 finding distant objects................................................. 194 fittings ......................................................................... 153

h
handles .......................................................................101 moving.................................................................101 selecting ................................................................39 hiding assemblies ..........................................................180 components.........................................................181 dimensions ............................................................36 grid labels ..............................................................73 part labels............................................................101 parts ....................................................................179 positioning planes................................................223 reference lines.....................................................102 reference models.......................................... 88, 176 selected parts ......................................................180 toolbars..................................................................26 tooltips ...................................................................32 top-in-form face ...................................................124 unselected parts ..................................................180 work area...............................................................69

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

269

highlighting assemblies...........................................................117 cast units .............................................................123 reference models...................................................89 selectable objects ..................................................37 hints and tips, see tips ................................................263 holes ..........................................................133, 134, 135 horizontal constraints..................................................218 horizontal position.......................................................105

logical areas....................................................... 207, 208 lotting ..........................................................................214 adding parts .........................................................214 creating ................................................................214 deleting ................................................................215 removing ..............................................................215

m
Magnifier .....................................................................166 materials .......................................................................98 measuring objects.......................................................190 angles ..................................................................191 bolt spacing..........................................................191 distances..............................................................191 menu tooltips.................................................................32 Mini Toolbar customizing............................................................27 toolbars in Model Editor .........................................27 mirroring objects ...................................................................50 Model Browser ............................................................234 Model Editor..................................................................25 screen layout .........................................................65 Model Organizer .........................................................207 modeling hints and tips........................................................263 parametric modeling ............................................233 Modeling of floor bay (66) ...........................................160 models about 3D models....................................................59 checking for errors ...............................................190 creating ..................................................................60 dividing into phases .............................................211 examining ............................................................165 flying through model ............................................168 inquiring ...............................................................171 moving .................................................................168 numbering............................................................195 organizing ............................................................207 rotating.................................................................167 saving ....................................................................63 viewing.................................................................165 zooming ...............................................................165 modify filter check boxes...............................................29 modifying logical areas.........................................................209 object types..........................................................209

i
identical parts.....................................................................196 reinforcements.....................................................196 importing points .....................................................................86 sketched cross sections ......................................233 inquiring models .................................................................171 object properties ......................................... 171, 172 interrupting commands .............................................................35 object selection......................................................42 introduction to Tekla Structures ....................................21

j
joining assemblies ......................................................116

l
languages available languages...............................................23 changing the language of user interface ...............25 lengthening parts ........................................................163 levels...........................................................................107 licences.........................................................................22 line cuts.......................................................................154 linear copying ..................................................................45 moving ...................................................................48 lines exact ....................................................................180 loading dialog box properties........................................32 local coordinate system ................................................71 locking the pointer in a direction ...................................55

270

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

moving hints and tips ....................................................... 263 linearly to new position.......................................... 48 models in a view.................................................. 168 objects.............................................................43, 46 positioning planes ............................................... 224 to another object ................................................... 49 to another plane .................................................... 48 toolbars ................................................................. 26 using coordinates .................................................. 47 using drag-and-drop.............................................. 48 using handles ...................................................... 101 multi-user vs single-user .............................................. 24

n
nested assemblies....................................... 40, 114, 116 numbering ..........................................................195, 197 about numbering ................................................. 195 assemblies .......................................................... 198 cast units ............................................................. 198 clearing................................................................ 204 control numbers ..........................................199, 200 family numbers............................................201, 202 history.................................................................. 204 identical parts ..............................................196, 200 identical reinforcements ...................................... 196 modifying............................................................. 204 numbering series................................................. 201 preliminary numbers............................................ 198 reinforcements .................................................... 198 sequences........................................................... 211 series...........................................................201, 203 settings............................................... 259, 260, 261 standard part model ............................................ 205 user-defined attributes ........................................ 197 what affects ......................................................... 195

object representation settings.....................................182 copying ................................................................184 creating................................................................183 deleting................................................................184 example...............................................................186 object types ................................................................207 objects clash checking.....................................................192 copying ..................................................................43 creating..................................................................35 defining visibility ..................................................179 deleting..................................................................36 duplicates ..............................................................43 filtering.................................................................173 finding distant objects..........................................194 inquiring properties..................................... 171, 172 measuring............................................................190 mirroring ................................................................50 modifying ........................................................ 35, 36 moving............................................................ 43, 46 numbering ...........................................................197 placing objects in model ......................................265 positioning ...........................................................265 properties ..............................................................35 rotating ..................................................................49 selecting ......................................................... 36, 38 showing and hiding..............................................179 offsets .........................................................................106 opening models...................................................................62 organizing the model ..................................................207 orthogonal beams.......................................................249 orthogonal directions ....................................................53 overlapping numbering series.................................................203 views ...................................................................263 overriding snap switches ..............................................53 oversized holes...........................................................135

o
object groups.............................................................. 181 color settings ....................................................... 242 copying to another model.................................... 182 creating ............................................................... 181 deleting................................................................ 182 example............................................................... 186 transparency settings .......................................... 243 object property report templates................................. 172

p
pad footings ....................................................... 118, 250 panels .........................................................................121 panning.......................................................................168 parallel constraints......................................................217 parametric modeling ...................................................233 dependencies ......................................................234 profiles.................................................................235 variables ..............................................................234 parametric profiles ........................................................97

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

271

part labels ...................................................................100 showing and hiding..............................................101 parts adding to assembly..............................................116 assemblies...........................................................113 bending................................................................108 cambering................................................... 161, 162 changing the material ............................................98 changing the profile ...............................................97 combining ............................................................157 comparing............................................................194 concrete parts......................................................118 cutting with another part ......................................156 extension lines.......................................................54 filtering .................................................................175 hiding .......................................................... 179, 180 horizontal parts ....................................................264 identical parts ......................................................196 labels .......................................................... 100, 101 lengthening in drawings.......................................163 lotting ...................................................................214 material..................................................................98 modifying part length ...........................................264 numbering................................................... 197, 201 part types...............................................................96 position ....................................................... 101, 102 profiles ...................................................................96 properties........................................................ 35, 95 sequences .................................................. 211, 212 shortening in drawings.........................................162 showing only selected parts ................................180 showing with exact lines ......................................180 splitting ................................................................158 steel parts ............................................................109 user-defined attributes...........................................99 warping ................................................................159 perpendicular constraints............................................217 phases ........................................................................211 filtering .................................................................175 picking points, see snapping.........................................50 plane views ...................................................................83 points ............................................................................85 coordinates ............................................................86 importing................................................................86 phase and ID .........................................................86 picking, see snapping ............................................50 properties...............................................................86 polybeams ......................................................... 111, 120 polygon cuts................................................................155

polygon shapes...........................................................157 polylines ......................................................................216 position bending ................................................................108 depth....................................................................104 end offsets ...........................................................106 horizontal .............................................................105 levels....................................................................107 on the work plane ................................................102 rotation.................................................................103 vertical .................................................................105 positioning planes .......................................................222 moving .................................................................224 reverting to default ...................................... 224, 225 prefixes profile name prefixes .............................................97 weld size prefix ....................................................137 preliminary numbers ...................................................198 preparing parts for welding ................................ 139, 140 printing screenshots .........................................................171 profiles ................................................................... 96, 97 filtering .................................................................176 parametric..................................................... 97, 235 prefixes ..................................................................97 separators..............................................................97 sketched profiles..................................................232 standard.................................................................97 twin profiles..........................................................112 user-defined...........................................................97 project properties ..........................................................61 project status visualizations ........................................184 copying ................................................................185 creating ................................................................184 deleting ................................................................185 example ...................................................... 185, 187 prompts .........................................................................33

r
radial dimensions ........................................................220 radius ..........................................................................108 redrawing views ............................................................83 reference lines ................................................... 101, 102 reference model objects................................................91 selecting.................................................................92

272

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

reference models.......................................................... 87 clash checking..................................................... 193 filtering................................................................. 176 hiding..................................................................... 88 highlighting ............................................................ 89 inserting................................................................. 87 modifying properties.............................................. 88 selecting ................................................................ 88 splitting into reference objects............................... 90 supported DGN objects......................................... 92 updating ................................................................ 89 viewing changes.................................................... 89 reference points....................................................55, 101 refreshing views ........................................................... 83 reinforcements identical ............................................................... 196 numbering ........................................................... 198 relative coordinates ...................................................... 73 rendered views ............................................................. 77 representation options........................................... 77 repeating commands.................................................... 34 report templates for inquiring object properties.............................. 172 representation options.................................................. 77 restoring default work plane ......................................... 71 reverting to default positioning planes........................224, 225 to old clash checking functionality....................... 194 RGB values ................................................................ 264 roles.............................................................................. 22 rollover highlight ........................................................... 37 rotating around a line ......................................................... 49 models................................................................. 167 objects................................................................... 49 parts .................................................................... 103 rotation settings................................................... 242 round holes.................................................................... 134 plates................................................................... 113 slabs.................................................................... 121 running commands....................................................... 34

s
saving dialog box properties .............................................31 models...................................................................63 sketched cross sections ......................................230 screen layout in Model Editor ......................................................65 screenshots creating................................................................170 in Windows Vista .................................................170 printing.................................................................171 saving in bitmap format .......................................171 settings ................................................................243 sections ......................................................................208 selecting adding objects to selection ....................................42 assemblies ............................................................40 cast units ...............................................................40 crossing window selection.....................................38 handles..................................................................39 interrupting object selection...................................42 modifying selection................................................42 multiple objects......................................................38 nested assemblies.................................................40 objects ............................................................ 36, 37 objects in components...........................................40 reference model objects ........................................92 reference models...................................................88 single objects.........................................................38 window selection ...................................................38 selection filters................................................... 174, 175 selection switches.........................................................37 in Drawing Editor ...................................................38 in Model Editor ......................................................38 sequences ..................................................................211 adding parts.........................................................212 creating................................................................212 deleting................................................................213 inquiring...............................................................213 modifying .............................................................213

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

273

settings bolt properties......................................................255 concrete beam properties....................................252 concrete column properties .................................252 concrete panel properties ....................................254 concrete slab properties ......................................253 contour plate properties.......................................248 corner chamfer properties ...................................258 display settings ....................................................245 edge chamfer properties......................................259 general modeling settings....................................241 grid line properties ...............................................242 grid properties......................................................241 grid view properties .............................................245 numbering settings .............................259, 260, 261 orthogonal beam properties.................................249 pad footing properties..........................................250 rotation settings ...................................................242 screenshot settings..............................................243 steel beam properties ..........................................247 steel column properties .......................................247 strip footing properties .........................................251 twin profile properties ..........................................250 view properties ....................................................244 weld properties ....................................................256 shifting the work plane ..................................................70 shortening parts in drawings.......................................162 showing assemblies...........................................................180 components .........................................................181 dimensions ............................................................36 parts labels ..........................................................101 parts with exact lines ...........................................180 positioning planes................................................223 reference lines .....................................................102 toolbars........................................................... 26, 53 tooltips ...................................................................32 top-in-form face ...................................................124 views......................................................................82 warning messages.................................................34 work area...............................................................69 single bolts..................................................................132 single grid lines .............................................................74 single-user vs multi-user...............................................24 Sketch Browser...........................................................226 sketch editor ...............................................................215

sketched cross sections..............................................215 adding constraints................................................217 adding dimensions...............................................220 arcs ......................................................................216 chamfers ..............................................................226 circles...................................................................217 creating ................................................................216 creating pictures ..................................................232 example ...............................................................229 exporting ..............................................................232 extrusion types.....................................................227 importing ..................................................... 232, 233 modifying .............................................................225 polylines...............................................................216 positioning planes ................................................222 profiles .................................................................232 saving ..................................................................230 sketch thickness ..................................................226 testing ..................................................................231 using in models....................................................231 variables ..............................................................228 slabs................................................................... 120, 121 warping ................................................................160 slotted holes................................................................134 snap switches ...............................................................51 main snap switches ...............................................51 other snap switches ...............................................52 overriding ...............................................................53 snapping dimensions.............................................................50 in orthogonal directions..........................................53 snap depth .............................................................51 snap grids ..............................................................58 snap override .........................................................53 snap priority ...........................................................51 snap symbol...........................................................50 snap zone ..............................................................50 snapping toolbar ....................................................51 to middle points....................................................101 to part extension lines............................................54 to positions at even distances......................... 53, 54 using coordinates...................................................56 using temporary reference points ..........................55 using tracking.........................................................56 Xsnap.....................................................................53 snapshots, see screenshots .......................................170 splitting parts............................................................ 158, 159 plates and slabs...................................................159 standard part models ..................................................205 standard profiles ...........................................................97 starting Tekla Structures ...............................................25 status bar ......................................................................33

274

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

steel parts................................................................... 109 assemblies .......................................................... 113 beams .........................................................109, 247 columns.......................................................111, 247 contour plates..................................... 112, 113, 248 curved beams...................................................... 110 orthogonal beams .......................................110, 249 polybeams........................................................... 111 twin profiles .................................................112, 250 storys.......................................................................... 208 strip footings .......................................................119, 251 sub-assemblies .......................................................... 115 bolting to existing assembly ................................ 133 welding to existing assembly............................... 140 surface treatment ....................................................... 141 creating new surface treatments ......................... 144 modifying............................................................. 141 on all faces of part............................................... 142 on chamfered parts ............................................. 143 on cut faces......................................................... 142 on part face ......................................................... 142 on parts with openings and recesses.................. 143 on selected areas................................................ 142 tiled surface treatment.................................141, 145 switches selection switches ................................................. 38 switching between tabs ....................................................................... 30 views ..................................................................... 83 Symbol Editor ............................................................... 25

tips activating overlapping views................................263 copying and moving efficiently ............................263 creating horizontal parts ......................................264 finding RGB values for colors..............................264 modifying part length ...........................................264 placing objects.....................................................265 positioning objects in radial or circular pattern ....265 toolbars.........................................................................26 Mini Toolbar...........................................................27 moving...................................................................26 tooltips ..........................................................................32 top-in-form face ..........................................................124 tracking .........................................................................56 transparency settings .................................................243 twin profiles........................................................ 112, 250

u
user interface in Model Editor ......................................................65 languages....................................................... 23, 25 overview ................................................................24 user-defined attributes..................................................99 in numbering........................................................197 user-defined profiles .....................................................97

v
variables in parametric modeling ........................................234 in sketching .........................................................228 vertical constraints......................................................219 vertical position...........................................................105 view depth ..................................................................179 view filters...................................................................174 view planes...................................................................79 moving...................................................................80 viewing logical areas ........................................................210 models........................................................ 165, 169 numbering history................................................204 object types .........................................................210 sequence numbers..............................................213

t
tabs............................................................................... 30 template attributes in filtering............................................................. 177 Template Editor ............................................................ 25 temporary reference points .......................................... 55 testing sketched cross sections.................................. 231 tiled surface treatment................................................ 145 creating new tile patterns .................................... 149 pattern definition example ................................... 146 pattern definitions................................................ 145 pattern elements ................................................. 146

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15

275

views.............................................................................76 arranging ...............................................................83 closing ...................................................................83 creating..................................................................81 deleting ..................................................................82 modifying ...............................................................82 naming...................................................................81 opening..................................................................82 overlapping ..........................................................263 properties.............................................................244 refreshing...............................................................83 switching between views .......................................83 temporary ..............................................................81 view planes............................................................79 view types..............................................................77 visibility of objects .......................................................179 visualizing project status.............................................184

wildcards .....................................................................176 window selection...........................................................38 wire frame views ...........................................................77 work area ............................................................. 68, 179 defining ..................................................................69 hiding .....................................................................69 work plane.....................................................................70 restoring.................................................................71 shifting ...................................................................70 workspace in Model Editor.......................................................59

x
Xsnap............................................................................53

w
warning messages........................................................34 warping beams..................................................................159 concrete parts......................................................159 concrete slabs .....................................................160 welds.................................................................. 135, 256 creating....................................................... 138, 139 filtering .................................................................178 numbering............................................................260 weld position........................................................136 weld preparation ......................................... 139, 140 weld size prefixes ................................................137 weld types............................................................257 welding sub-assemblies ......................................140

z
zooming using Magnifier ....................................................166 with keyboard shortcuts .......................................166 zoom settings.......................................................166 zoom window .......................................................166 zooming in or out ........................................................165

276

TEKLA STRUCTURES 15