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# CCB 3062 Unit Operation Lab II

Lab GA Instructor Experiment Date Group Name : Mr Sina : Tray Dryer : 3rd March 2014 : Group 1 Section A 1) Ahmed Omar Mohammed Basharahil 2) Ilyas Nurhadi 3) Mohd Eshar bin Abdul Halim 4) Norhamizah Hazirah binti Ahmad Junaidi 5) Siti Munirah binti Mhd Yusof 6) Siew Chun Gee 15652 17024 15638 15647 15625 15415

1.0 Introduction
Tray dryer is the batch operation dryer, which the material is put on the small tray. Air is sucked by the fan into the dryer and before it passes the material the air will be in contact with heated coil and thus increase the temperature of the air. Instruments are set up in both inlet and outlet. These instruments are set to determine relative humidity and temperature. A weight scale is also installed connected to the tray so we can observe the change in sand weight at any time. In this experiment we would like to know the effect of the air inlet temperature and inlet flow rate to drying rate. Based on the theory drying rate is proportional with dry bulb and wet bulb temperature difference as well as total heat transfer coefficient. Rc hv ( Tv Ti ) And total heat transfer coefficient is proportional with air mass velocity. hv Gv 0.8 So, air mass velocity is not directly proportional with drying rate. Therefore, it expected when dry bulb temperature increase and air velocity increase will result in higher drying rate. Our results show positive reaction based on our hypothesis which will be further explained in this report.

2.0 Objective
To determine the effect of air temperature to the drying rate. To determine the effect of air velocity to the drying rate

3.0 Procedure
We are using single tray dryer, sand as our material, and water. Below is the procedure for each experiment we have done.

## 3.1 Experiment A : Effect of Air Temperature

1) Sufficient dry sand was filled to the tray to depth of 10 mm each and accurately weight before being saturated with water in a container. The sand was removed from the container and excess free water was drained before being loaded evenly and smoothly into the drying trays, taking care to avoid any spillage. The total weight of the wet sand had been noted before drying commences. 2) The heater power control was set to OFF. 3) The fan was switched to point 1. 4) The heater power control was set to point A. 5) At some arbitrary time, (t=0), when the value of the heater power control stable. The dry bulb and wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air upstream of the sand tray were measured. 6) The total weight of sand was recorded in the tray at regular time intervals until drying is complete.

7) The experiment f was repeated with setting heater power control to point B. it is important to keep the air velocity constant and the same weight and distribution of sand in each of the tests were used.

1)

2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

3.2 Experiment B : Effect of Air Velocity Sufficient dry sand was filled to the tray to depth of 10 mm each and accurately weight before being saturated with water in a container. The sand was removed from the container and excess free water was drained before being loaded evenly and smoothly into the drying trays, taking care to avoid any spillage. The total weight of the wet sand had been noted before drying commences. The heater power control was set to OFF. The fan was switched on till point 2. The heater power control was set to point B. At some arbitrary time, (t=0), when the value of the heater power control was stable. The velocity was measure using the digital anemometer. The total weight of sand in the trays was recorded at regular time intervals until drying is complete.

## 4.0 Result and Calculation

To analyze our experiment, we need relevant data. Therefore, some calculations are necessary to complete our data. Below are the equations and example how to use it.

## 4.1 Experiment A : Effect of Air Temperature

Experiment A i) Heat control: point A Weight of dry sand = 0.5047 kg

Inlet velocity, V1 (m/s) 45.6 35.6 36.2 37.8 36.7 Dry bulb temp, Tv(oC) 27.6 28.0 28.3 28.5 28.5 Relative humidity, H2 (%) 51.7 50.1 49.7 49.1 49.3 o Wet bulb temp, Ti ( C) 27.5 27.8 28.1 28.3 28.4 o Tv - Ti ( C) 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 Time (min) 0 3 6 9 12 Wet sand weight (kg) 0.5076 0.5071 0.5066 0.5062 0.5057 Moiture content, Xe 0.005746 0.004755 0.003765 0.002972 0.001981 Relative humidity, H1 (%) 54.2 52.6 51.9 51.3 51.5 Table 4.1.1 Experiment A i) data and Result

Drying Curve
0.007 Moisture Content, Xe 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time(min) y = -0.0003x + 0.0057 R = 0.9987

## Graph 4.1.1 Experiment A i) Moisture Content vs Time

Experiment A ii) Heat Control: Point B Weight of dry sand = 0.6709 kg Inlet velocity, V1 (m/s) Dry bulb temp, Tv(oC) Relative humidity, H2 (%) Wet bulb temp, Ti (oC) Tv - Ti (oC) Time (min) Wet sand weight (kg) 34.0 27.9 50.8 27.7 0.2 0 0.6746 36.6 29.5 46.1 29.2 0.3 3 0.6740 35.5 30.3 43.4 30.0 0.3 6 0.6734 36.2 30.6 42.7 30.3 0.3 9 0.6728 36.0 30.9 42.3 30.7 0.2 12 0.6724

Moiture content, Xe 0.005515 0.004621 0.003726 0.002832 0.002236 Relative humidity, H1 (%) 53.1 47.2 43.9 43.1 42.7 Table 4.1.2 Experiment A ii) data and Result

Drying Curve
0.006 Moisture Content,Xe 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 time(min) y = -0.0003x + 0.0055 R = 0.9949

## 4.2 Experiment B : Effect of Air Velocity

Experiment B i) Air Velocity: Point 1 Weight of dry sand = 0.6711 kg Inlet velocity, V1 (m/s) 6.3 11.4 12.1 12.9 13.0 o Dry bulb temp, Tv( C) 24.9 32.2 33 33.3 33.7 Relative humidity, H2 (%) 62.7 41.2 39 38.5 37.7 o Wet bulb temp, Ti ( C) 24.6 31.6 32.4 32.8 33.1 o Tv - Ti ( C) 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 Time (min) 0 9 12 15 18 Wet sand weight (kg) 0.6737 0.6721 0.6720 0.6718 0.6716 Moiture content, Xe 0.003874 0.00149 0.001341 0.001043 0.000745 Relative humidity, H1 (%) 69.3 40.2 38.1 37.5 37.0 Table 4.2.1 Experiment B i) data and Result

Drying curve
0.0045 0.004 0.0035 0.003 0.0025 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0 0 5 Moisture content, Xe

y = -0.0002x + 0.0036

10 Time (min)

15

20

Graph 4.2.1 Experiment B i) Moisture Content vs Time Experiment B ii) Air Velocity: Point 2 Weight of dry sand = 0.5054 Inlet velocity, V1 (m/s) Dry bulb temp, Tv(oC) Relative humidity, H2 (%) Wet bulb temp, Ti (oC) Tv - Ti (oC) Time (min) Wet sand weight (kg) Moiture content, Xe Relative humidity, H1 (%) 54.1 35.1 37.0 35 31.9 29.7 28.8 28.5 42.2 46.2 48.4 49.2 31.5 29.4 28.6 28.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0 3 6 9 0.5095 0.5093 0.5087 0.5082 0.008112 0.007717 0.006529 0.00554 41.5 46.9 50.0 51.3 Table 4.2.2 Experiment B ii) data and Result 36 35 28.5 28.4 49.3 49.2 28.3 28.3 0.2 0.1 12 15 0.5077 0.5073 0.004551 0.003759 51.6 51.4

Drying curve
0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0 0 2 4 6 Moisture content, Xe y = -0.0003x + 0.0083

8 Time (min)

10

12

14

16

## Graph 4.2.2 Experiment B ii) Moisture Content vs Time

5.0 Discussion
In Experiment A, the effect of temperature on drying rate is determined by manipulating the temperature of air and the velocity of air is fixed. In Experiment B, the effect of air velocity on drying rate is determined by manipulating the velocity of air and the temperature of air is fixed. Experiment A According to the data obtained, the weight of the tray of sand is decreasing as time proceeds. This is also shown in the Graph of Moisture Content versus Time (part A (i) and part A (ii)). In this case, the graph plotted has a negative gradient. The drying rate can be determined from the gradient of the graph. The steeper the slope (gradient), the higher the drying rate will be. The drying rates are 0.0003kg/min and 0.0003kg/min respectively. However, theoretically, as the temperature of air is increased, the drying rate should become higher. The results obtained behave in such way and it might be due to no significant change in heater power input. We can observe the dry bulb for each part of the experiment. Part A (i) have dry bulb temperature average 28.02 and part B (ii) have average 29.58. The difference in the temperature only 1.56, therefore we may unable to detect significant difference in drying rate. It may also because the size of sand used (different tray of sand is used). It also can be observed that when the difference between the wet bulb temperature and dry bulb temperature is high, the drying rate is higher. This is because, the higher the temperature of air, the faster the water content can be evaporated. When the temperature is higher, the relative humidity will be lower, and that is the driving force.

In short, the drying rate is directly proportional to the temperature of the inlet air provided that the moisture content of the inlet air is maintained. Experiment B According to the data obtained, it can be observed that as the velocity of air is increased, the loss of moisture content is higher. This can be seen from the Graph of Moisture Content versus Time (part B (i) and part B (ii)). As the time proceeds, the moisture content decreases. The drying rate can be determined from the slope of the graph and they are 0.0002kg/min and 0.0003kg/min respectively. It shows that, the drying rate is higher when the velocity of air is faster. This is because; the mass transfer of the moisture content to the moving air will be higher as the velocity of air is increased. Simply more air means more moisture can be carried away. In short, the drying rate is direct proportional to the velocity of hot air (provided that the moisture content of the inlet air is maintained). Errors and Recommendations The reading of flow rate meter fluctuates during the experiment. To get the accurate reading, a software can be used to get the average readings of the velocity of air. By doing so, the error of the experiment can be minimized. The water sprayed onto the sand might not be even. We can spray the water more evenly onto the surface, by adjusting the water sprayer to produce finer water mist and dont spray on the same spots. The size of sand used consists of different sizes and this can affect the drying rate. We can filter the sand, so that the size will be even. The reading of weighing balance fluctuates. This can be solved by make sure that the screws supporting the sand tray are tight so that when blown by the air, it will not shake or swing.

6.0 Conclusion
In experiment A the effect of air temperature to drying rate is determined. Theoretically when the air temperature increases our drying rate also increases. The temperature of inlet gas is considered as dry bulb temperature and the temperature of outlet gas is considered as wet bulb temperature. Larger the difference between these value will result in bigger drying rate. However, in our experiment we found no significant change in drying rate when we try to increase the inlet temperature by changing the heat power input. This may caused by defected instrument and lead us based on our result minimum difference in inlet temperature of both experiment. In experiment B, the effect of air mass velocity is known to be also proportional with drying rate. And in our result of experiment B is backing the existing theory. In conclusion we have confirmed the effect of air velocity to drying rate, but unfortunately we failed to see any significant change in drying rate due to some errors. Redo the experiment A is

recommended in different setting of heat input with higher difference or if instrument failure is detected change the instrument immediately.

7.0 References
1. Geankoplis, C. J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995. 2. McCabe, W. L., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall PTR, 1993.